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A survey of the teaching of reasoned criticism in British Columbia secondary schools Frost, Marcia Brenda Davis 1988

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A SURVEY OF THE TEACHING OF REASONED CRITICISM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY MARCIA B.D. FROST B.H.Ec, The University of Manitoba, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1988 © MARCIA BRENDA DAVIS FROST, 198 8 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) Abstract The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether B r i t i s h Columbia teachers were achieving the goal of teaching an integrated art program. The component of the curriculum which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y studied i s reasoned c r i t i c i s m , t r a d i t i o n a l l y a neglected component in art education. Through a survey of art teachers i n selected B.C. high schools, information was gathered to assess the impact of the new B.C. Secondary. Art Curriculum grade  8-12 upon teaching practice i n c r i t i c i s m . The results of the study show that the new curriculum has had l i t t l e impact on the teaching of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . The results indicate that art production remains the focus of- art programs while reasoned c r i t i c i s m occurs most frequently as a process of informal discussion between the student and teacher while attention i s focused on the student's work. A summary of the findings i s provided and implications of the study for classroom practice are discussed. i i Table of Contents Abstract i i Acknowledgements v i CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 9 Statement of the Research Questions . . . . 9 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of Study 10 Purpose of the Study 11 Design of the Study 12 Population and Setting 13 Limitations and Delimitations 13 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 16 Recent Indications of Interest i n Reasoned C r i t i c i s m 16 Meaning of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m 20 H i s t o r i c a l Perspective 22 D-BAE: A Recent Program for Teaching Art C r i t i c i s m 37 Summary 43 III . CONDUCT OF THE STUDY 45 Research Questions 45 Statement of the Research Question . . . . 46 The P i l o t Study 4 6 1. Sample 4 6 2. Instrumentation 47 3. Data C o l l e c t i o n 48 4. Analysis 48 The F i n a l Study 48 1.. Population 48 2. Sample Description and Size . . . 50 3. Instrumentation 51 4. Data C o l l e c t i o n 53 5. Data Analysis 54 IV. DATA ANALYSIS 55 V. INTERPRETATION AND CROSS-QUESTION REFERENCE 95 i i i VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 123 Restatement of the problem and research questions 123 Summary of the Findings 125 Conclusions 132 Implications for Classroom Practice . . . . 133 REFERENCES 139 APPENDICES I. P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 144 II. Covering Letter for P r a c t i s i n g Teaching Survey 155 II I . Follow up Postcard 157 IV. Workshops i n which Respondents Part i c i p a t e d 158 V. Respondents Suggestions for Workshops . . . 160 VI. S t a t i s t i c s on the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Art Classes i n 1987 162 i v L i s t of Tables T a b l e s Page 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f A r t C u r r i c u l u m Guide . . . 55 2. Frequency o f Use o f A r t C u r r i c u l u m Guide . 56 3. Frequency o f Use o f S p e c i f i c Components o f t h e A r t C u r r i c u l u m Guide 57 4. Teacher E s t i m a t e o f Amount o f Time Spent on Reasoned C r i t i c i s m 60 5. Frequency o f Types o f Statements Made by St u d e n t s 63 6. Occurrence i n t h e C l a s s r o o m o f D i f f e r e n t Forms o f C r i t i c i s m 67 7. Frequency o f A r t C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s . . . 72 8. I n d i c a t i o n o f a Change i n Time A l l o t t e d t o A r t C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s Due t o Requirement o f an A r t Course f o r G r a d u a t i o n 75 9. Time A l l o t m e n t s f o r A r t C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s i f an A r t Course was Made a G r a d u a t i o n Requirement 7 6 10. Degree o f Importance o f A r t A c t i v i t i e s t o Teachers 80 11. Frequency o f Use o f T e a c h i n g A i d s 85 12. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f T e a c h i n g A i d s 87 13. Length o f T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e 89 14. L a s t O p p o r t u n i t y t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n a Non-s t u d i o Workshop 90 15. A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o A r t E d u c a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e . 92 16. L i s t o f L i t e r a t u r e R e f e r r e d t o by Respondents 93 v Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Ron MacGregor, and committee members, Dr. James Gray and K i t Grauer for t h e i r guidance and patience i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to express my thanks to those Art teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n made t h i s project possible. Special thanks are extended to my families and friends for without t h e i r support and understanding I would not have been able to complete t h i s work. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to express my warm thanks to David Frost and Ke r r i Davis for t h e i r constant good humour, encouragement and unending support throughout t h i s project. v i 1 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n In 1981, the Ministry of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia recognized the need to broaden art programs by implementing an integrated art curriculum for grades 8-12. This new art curriculum was the work of teachers, art educators, and Education Ministry co-ordinators who were aware of current t h e o r e t i c a l developments which had taken place i n art education over the past 10 years and who were dedicated to the task of improving the quality of art education for secondary students i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The new art curriculum has as goals: to stimulate and extend students' v i s u a l c u r i o s i t y ; to a s s i s t students i n developing appreciation for t h e i r own a r t i s t i c endeavours and those of others; to develop students 1 potential to respond c r i t i c a l l y to v i s u a l and aesthetic phenomena; to enable students to gain expertise i n art processes and s k i l l s ; to foster i n students an understanding of the r e l a t i o n between art and history (Curriculum 2 Development Branch, 1983, p.10). The c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s thought t h a t by a c h i e v i n g t h e c e r t a i n l e a r n i n g outcomes t h e s e g o a l s might be met. L e a r n i n g outcomes f o r s t u d e n t s as s t a t e d were t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d have de m o n s t r a t e d knowledge o f t h e a b i l i t y t o use: imagery, th e elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary development and reasoned c r i t i c i s m . These a r e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b i l i t y t o a p p l y m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s and equipment and p r o c e s s e s o f a r t and t o use t h e v o c a b u l a r y a p p r o p r i a t e t o a r t ( C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, 1983, p.10). Three main d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e new c u r r i c u l u m and i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . The new c u r r i c u l u m "emphasizes imagery as a c e n t r a l f o c u s o f a r t " ( C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, 1983, p . 4 ) , as w e l l as i n c l u d i n g a G r a p h i c s program w h i c h c o m p r i s e s p r i n t m a k i n g , f i l m and photography. The t h i r d d i f f e r e n c e , which i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s s t u d y , i s t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e s a r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m component. The p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m f o c u s s e d on t h e use o f media and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s i n a r t f i e l d s . 3 Current interest i n c r i t i c i s m as a content area for an art curriculum was stimulated by Barkan (1966) . He believed that c r i t i c i s m as well as art history were important aspects of art. With art studio, c r i t i c i s m and history should make up the content areas of art programs i n schools. Eisner (1984) posited that the function of art c r i t i c i s m i s to "sharpen v i s u a l s k i l l s to help students become more a r t i c u l a t e about the forms that constitute v i s u a l arts and be able to j u s t i f y the judgments they make about art" (p.261). One can assume with some certainty that p r a c t i s i n g art teachers generally agree that there i s a place for art c r i t i c i s m i n t h e i r art programs. Agreement, however, does not guarantee implementation. With various implementation workshops i n s t i t u t e d by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia as well as by school d i s t r i c t s i n the province, and with knowledge teachers had gained i n preparation for t h e i r teaching careers, i t seemed possible for teachers to adjust t h e i r art programs to achieve the desired learning outcomes. In many cases, the curriculum appeared to come into l i n e with art programs which many art teachers had developed for themselves over the years. 4 To f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of the new curriculum and to act as an ongoing source of reference a curriculum content resource guide was developed. This guide was developed "to encourage students to partake of experiences that increase t h e i r knowledge of art, extend t h e i r s k i l l s i n s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , and refine t h e i r attitudes toward a r t " (Curriculum Development Branch, 1983, p.3). The guide provided a framework under which i t i s possible to organize the information to be taught at s p e c i f i c grade leve l s i n order to achieve learning outcomes. In an e f f o r t to standardize the learning outcomes of art programs, each high school i n the province received copies of the curriculum guide. The importance of a usable curriculum guide should not be underestimated, for i n some teaching situations i t i s the only ready teaching reference for the art teacher. It i s common knowledge that schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been experiencing declining enrolment i n ele c t i v e courses such as Art due to increased pressure placed on students for required courses for graduation. This, with the eff e c t of reduced budgets, has dictated that only one art teacher may be required i n some 5 schools. The art teacher i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n does not have the luxury of exchanging ideas, materials, and acquired knowledge with a colleague who i s conveniently available for discussion. One can speculate that teachers i n remote areas of the province might experience t h i s s i t u a t i o n more acutely because smaller school populations would not demand more than one art teacher and because the distance between schools would reduce communication among art teachers. This i s most unfortunate for teachers, i n r u r a l situations who might also be recent graduates who could benefit from the professional advice and moral support of a more experienced art teacher. In situations such as described above, the curriculum guide can be an invaluable resource for lone art teachers. Due to declining enrolment, some schools may not be able to provide a teaching assignment for a f u l l -time art s p e c i a l i s t and must c a l l upon co-operative teachers i n other d i s c i p l i n e s to "pick up" the art classes. The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of the art curriculum guide i s c r u c i a l i n t h i s case for the s u r v i v a l of the art program i n the school and for the success of the teacher assuming the art classes. Teachers who have a studio based education may use the curriculum guide to 6 augment t h e i r knowledge o f h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l c o n t e n t a r e a s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e g u i d e as a r e s o u r c e o f t e a c h i n g i d e a s i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t . An o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y o f t h e new g u i d e i s t h a t i t i s d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e : t h a t i s , r a t h e r t h a n p r e s c r i b i n g how a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n a l o c k s t e p f a s h i o n , i t a l l o w s t e a c h e r s t h e freedom t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g outcomes i n t h e way t h e y see b e s t s u i t s t h e i r c l a s s e s . The d e s c r i p t i v e q u a l i t y seems t o s e r v e t e a c h e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l when t e a c h i n g s t u d i o r e l a t e d components o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , perhaps because t h i s component most c l o s e l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h what i s a l r e a d y happening i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Gray and MacGregor (1986) have quoted a r e s p o n d e n t ' s comment about c u r r i c u l u m change w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f a r t t e a c h e r s , "When you've been t e a c h i n g a r t f o r 10 y e a r s you don't need a c u r r i c u l u m ... i t ' s a l l i n your head. I can f i t my a c t i v i t i e s t o any program e v a l u a t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s " (p.32). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a r t h i s t o r y and reas o n e d c r i t i c i s m have been a p a r t o f a r t programs, b u t not i n a f o r m a l way. The 1981 c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e does not s p e c i f i c a l l y suggest t h a t f o r m a l l e s s o n s i n a r t h i s t o r y and reas o n e d c r i t i c i s m must be h e l d , but i t does g i v e a t e a c h i n g 7 strategy to use and "stresses the development of reasoned c r i t i c i s m and sees the history and heritage of art as i n t e g r a l to a l l art courses" (Curriculum Development Branch, 1983, p.4). Reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s the process of describing, evaluating, judging and explaining a r t . The use of formal lessons for the teaching of reasoned c r i t i c i s m does not seem to be common teaching strategy. Gray and MacGregor (198 6) found that while most teachers praised the curriculum guide for i t s p r a c t i c a l nature, on only one occasion did they encounter a class i n which the teacher was conducting a formal lesson i n c r i t i c i s m . There are two ways of int e r p r e t i n g t h i s finding: either teachers are using teaching strategies other than those suggested by the curriculum guide, which leads one to ask what are the strategies employed, or teachers are simply not including reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n t h e i r art programs. The thrust of t h i s study i s to determine the v a l i d i t y of the f i r s t i n t erpretation. TO better understand why the l a t t e r i n terpretation may be the case, i t i s important to consider the teaching circumstances which could possibly contribute to a decision to exclude the teaching of c r i t i c i s m . 8 It i s generally acknowledged that school art programs are s t i l l studio based i n spite of the development of c u r r i c u l a with h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l content areas. Both students and teachers expect a studio emphasis, students because t h i s i s what they have come to expect through t h e i r previous experiences of art courses and teachers because the majority received a studio based education. This provides an i n f l u e n t i a l model which many art teachers follow, i n spite of the number of years of experience they may have gained and i n spite of the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge they may have "acquired. It i s only very recently that h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l references have been included i n university methods courses. Because of the studio stress i n school art programs there remains a strong impression among students that art courses are for " a r t i s t i c " people only. There i s l i t t l e r e a l i z a t i o n that the c r i t i c i s m of a work of art i s as a r t i s t i c a l l y challenging and creative as the making of the object. This leads to another factor which has several ramifications for art teachers. Since students expect to be involved with the art making process they can become intolerant of any extended time away from studio work. Teachers are then faced with d i s c i p l i n e problems 9 w h i c h c a n a r i s e f r o m l a c k o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d s t u d e n t a p a t h y . E x p e c t a t i o n s o n t h e p a r t o f s t u d e n t s t o b e a c t i v e i n s t u d i o w o r k m u s t b e m e t t o s o m e d e g r e e a s i t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t e n r o l m e n t w i t h i n o f a n e l e c t i v e p r o g r a m w i l l d e t e r m i n e i f a p r o g r a m w i l l r e m a i n i n t a c t f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s i s h i g h a m o n g e l e c t i v e c o u r s e . T h e s e a r e o n l y s o m e o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t h a t c a n a f f e c t t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m a t a l l o r t o d e c i d e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t w i l l b e a p a r t o f a n a r t p r o g r a m . Statement of the Problem A s a g r o u p , a r t t e a c h e r s b y t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e B . C . s e c o n d a r y a r t c u r r i c u l u m h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o i m p l e m e n t a n i n t e g r a t e d a r t p r o g r a m . T h e p r o b l e m i s t h a t w e d o n o t k n o w t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m a s p a r t o f t h e i r p r o g r a m s , n o t d o w e k n o w h o w r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m i s t a u g h t , i f i t i s t a u g h t a t a l l , i n a r t c l a s s r o o m s . Statement of the Research Questions 1. T o w h a t e x t e n t i s r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m c l a i m e d t o b e p a r t o f a r t p r o g r a m s i n s e l e c t e d h i g h s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? 10 2. How do s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m as p a r t o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? 3. To what e x t e n t do . s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s use t h e reasoned c r i t i c i s m component o f t h e B.C. secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ? J u s t i f i c a t i o n of Study An i n t e g r a t e d a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s mandated f o r B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h s c h o o l s based on sound t h e o r y w i t h much t h e o r e t i c a l s u p p o r t . In 1965, Barkan p r o p o s e d t h a t B r u n e r ' s concept t h a t each d i s c i p l i n e has a s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f a body o f d i s t i n c t i v e c o n c e p t s and methods c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a r t . A r t c u r r i c u l a , a c c o r d i n g t o Barkan, would i n c l u d e a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c r i t i c i s m , and a r t s t u d i o ( E i s n e r , 1984) . There i s much s u p p o r t from a r t e d u c a t o r s f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . E i s n e r (1966, 1984), Smith (1987), Madeja (1971, 1976, 1977, 1986), and more r e c e n t l y G r e e r (198 6 ) . R e c e n t l y t h e g r e a t e s t impetus f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d a r t program has come from t h e G e t t y C e n t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n i n t h e A r t s , which i s a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . 11 Although there i s much support for those t h e o r e t i c a l positions that advocate integrated art programs the implementation of the concept can be fraught with problems. The work of Fullan (1982) provides examples of the d i f f i c u l t i e s attending implementation. Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to determine the extent to which selected art teachers include reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of t h e i r art programs and also to determine how t h i s implementation seems to take place. Knowledge gained from t h i s study w i l l make i t possible to determine to some extent how far teachers have moved toward the goal of an integrated art program for high schools. The intent of the study i s not to raise the issue that teachers may not be following a curriculum of studies set out by the Ministry of Education or that teachers are not f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r commitment to t h e i r students. In no way i s the study intended to be judgmental. Moreover, the researcher recognizes the that teachers do what they determine i s best for t h e i r classes. The aim of t h i s research i s to better understand the position taken by teachers on teaching 12 reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n the hope that a more accurate assessment of i t s place i n school art programs may be provided to curriculum developers and p o l i c y makers. Design of the Study This study employed survey research procedures. The survey was conducted by mailed questionnaire. An advantage to a mailed questionnaire research method i s that a wide sampling d i s t r i b u t i o n i s permitted. In t h i s study a truer picture of the extent to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s taught was obtained by sending questionnaires to teachers throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, rather than r e l y i n g on data from a l o c a l sample to form a generalization. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions which requested 74 scale-rated responses. Descriptive questions requested factual answers, and i n t u i t i v e questions requesting the teacher to estimate an occurrence or to provide an opinion as an answer comprised the questionnaire. Questions requiring i n t u i t i v e responses were designed to f i n d out teachers' attitudes toward reasoned c r i t i c i s m and to determine the extent of t h e i r understanding of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . The aim of descriptive questions was to obtain a better understanding of the extent to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m was part of the teachers' art 13 programs. A copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix I . The respond e n t s were c o n t a c t e d i n January 1988, w i t h a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e accompanied by a stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope and a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . W i t h i n t h r e e weeks a f o l l o w up p o s t c a r d was sen t t o t h e sample. T h i s was done t o t r y t o m i n i m i z e one d i s a d v a n t a g e o f m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , which i s a low response r a t e . C o p i e s o f t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and t h e f o l l o w up p o s t c a r d appear as Appendices I I , and I I I . The p o s t c a r d used a dr a w i n g from The New Y o r k e r  Magazine. P e r m i s s i o n t o use t h e drawing was g r a n t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Population and Setting The s u r v e y was m a i l e d t o 260 s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C olumbia. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e sample i s not e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n t h a t t h i s group r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y members o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . Limitations and Delimitations 1. In s u r v e y r e s e a r c h i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o v a l i d a t e r e s p o n s e s because t h e r e s e a r c h e r has no way o f knowing i f t h e responses a re a f u n c t i o n o f what t h e resp o n d e n t s t h i n k , o r a f u n c t i o n o f what t h e y f e e l t h e y s h o u l d t h i n k . I n an attempt t o l i m i t t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e response t o one q u e s t i o n would a c t t o v a l i d a t e a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e responde n t s were not p o s s i b l e because o f t h e p r o v i n c e - w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e sample. 2. The sample was d e r i v e d from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n membership l i s t . The e x a c t number o f members who a r e a r t t e a c h e r s a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l was not a v a i l a b l e , a l t h o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t 105 members had h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l a r t as t h e i r main i n t e r e s t . 3. Because not a l l a r t t e a c h e r s b e l o n g t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s must be r e g a r d e d as a g e n e r a l tendency r a t h e r t h a n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1.. The term s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r r e f e r s t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s who b e l o n g t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n and who a r e a l s o t e a c h i n g a r t a t grades 8-12 l e v e l a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . 2. The term reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s d e f i n e d i n t h e B.C. Secondary A r t C u r r i c u l u m Guide a s : i n v o l v i n g not only selecting and recording information but also r e f l e c t i n g upon i t , making judgments about i t , and o f f e r i n g explanations for those judgments. C r i t i c i s m does not imply finding f a u l t but i s more concerned with judging the worth or merit of art work. C r i t i c i s m involves description, evaluation, judgement and explanation. It i s necessary to be able to describe the p a r t i c u l a r thing being studied, to compare i t with other things, to consider alternative solutions, to determine i t s worth, to form an opinion about i t , and f i n a l l y to o f f e r an explanation or j u s t i f i c a t i o n for one's judgments. (1983, p.45) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The f o c u s o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e concept o f reaso n e d c r i t i c i s m by sa m p l i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n c o n c e r n i n g t h i s t o p i c . Reasoned c r i t i c i s m w i l l be r e v i e w e d from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and a d i s c u s s i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d a r t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n as an example o f an i n t e g r a t e d a r t program. Recent Indications of Interest in Reasoned Criticism B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h i s c h a p t e r i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o d i s c u s s t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y and a l s o t o r e v i e w p a s t s t u d i e s which a c t e d as a gu i d e f o r t h e development o f t h e P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey. F o r f i v e y e a r s t h e new A r t C u r r i c u l u m f o r grades 8-12 has been i n p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l . T h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d as a su r v e y o f t h e degree t o whi c h we a r e a t t a i n i n g i t s s t a t e d g o a l o f i n t e g r a t e d a r t programs. The su r v e y i s based on t h e resp o n s e s p r o v i d e d by a r t t e a c h e r s about t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s when d e a l i n g w i t h reasoned c r i t i c i s m . S t u d i e s by L a u r a Chapman (1982), M i c h a e l Day (1984), B r e n t W i l s o n (1984), and J e n n i f e r McKnight (1986) p r o v i d e d examples o f s t u d i e s w h i c h f o c u s s e d on teaching practices, descriptions of art programs and the use of art c u r r i c u l a . The design of the studies provided insight as to the form the researcher's questionnaire would take and also the types of questions which would be asked. In 197 9 Laura Chapman conducted a study of 187 art teachers who were also subscribers to School Arts  Magazine. The aspects of the Chapman study that most closely related to the present study asked teachers to r e f l e c t on t h e i r teaching practices by answering s p e c i f i c questions about what was included i n t h e i r art programs, and the frequency with which a c t i v i t i e s took place i n t h e i r classrooms. Chapman (1982) did not inquire s p e c i f i c a l l y about art c r i t i c i s m i n the classroom but found that studio a c t i v i t i e s were the central concern of the respondents teaching at the middle/senior l e v e l . Art history was introduced most frequently i n connection with creative art a c t i v i t i e s and focussed on how h i s t o r i c a l designs and techniques related to art a c t i v i t i e s . Michael Day and Brent Wilson prepared studies for the Getty Center for the Education i n the Arts, published by the Rand Corporation. Both studies dealt with an investigation into the character of certain 18 school d i s t r i c t s i n the United States. The function of the Rand Corporation was to " a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of school art programs that r e f l e c t e d a d i s c i p l i n e based approach" (Day, 1984, p . i v ) . The purposes of the studies were as follows: "to determine whether the approach to v i s u a l arts education adopted by the Getty was being practiced i n school d i s t r i c t s from kindergarten through twelfth grade. The second was to learn more about the character of these programs from an in-depth study of each" (Day, 1984, p.v). Both Day and Wilson used information gathered by questionnaires as part of t h e i r studies. Again i n each case, teachers' perceptions of t h e i r teaching practices and t h e i r b e l i e f s about t h e i r programs helped to form an o v e r - a l l picture of the character of t h e i r art programs. Day found that the studio component dominated the c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l aspects of art i n s t r u c t i o n i n his Milwaukee study. He found that although the students seemed interested and w i l l i n g to learn about these areas of art, the art teachers did not present these components as part of the art classes. The reason for t h i s seemed to be that most art teachers had studio based educational backgrounds and lacked an 19 understanding of how to teach h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l components (Day, 1984). Brent Wilson found that the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l components of the curriculum were not well developed, but he found that the students displayed knowledge which seemed to indicate some a b i l i t y i n these areas. He speculated that t h i s was caused by the e f f o r t and interest of the i n d i v i d u a l teachers i n the d i s t r i c t and therefore the choice of art program contents was i d i o s y n c r a t i c . In 198 6 Jennifer McKnight conducted a study to gain information "to determine how the D i s t r i c t Resource Center can a s s i s t i n the e f f e c t i v e implementation of the v i s u a l arts component of the B.C.  Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum/Resource Guide Book" (1986, p . i i ) . This study required the use of both questionnaires and interviews. Teachers were asked to respond to questions which dealt with t h e i r use of the curriculum guide and t h e i r use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l media. This aspect of the study was most applicable to the present study. McKnight found that most teachers said they were aware of the contents of the curriculum guide but most teachers said they were not implementing the 20 curriculum. The study conducted by Gray and MacGregor i n 1985 also provided s i m i l a r insight into the extent to which art c r i t i c i s m i s part of art programs and how teachers interpreted t h i s as part of t h e i r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . Meaning of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m Before proceeding with the chapter as proposed i t i s important to explore the meaning of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Beardsley (1968) provided an explanation of the concept by stating: when a c r i t i c makes a value-judgment about a work of art, he i s generally expected to give reasons for i t — not necessarily a conclusive argument, but a least an indicatio n of the main grounds on which his judgment rests. Without reasons, the judgment i s dogmatic, and also uninformative: i t i s hard to t e l l how much i s being asserted in "This i s a good painting," unless we understand why i t i s being asserted. These reasons offered by c r i t i c s (or c r i t i c a l reasons) are extremely varied, (p.55) Dewey regarded c r i t i c i s m as judgment which should be based on an informed and discriminating survey of the work. He posited that the function of c r i t i c i s m i s the "reeducation of perception of works of art; i t i s an a u x i l i a r y i n the process, a d i f f i c u l t process, of learning to see and hear" (1934, p.324). E l l i o t Eisner, an advocate of the incl u s i o n of art history and c r i t i c i s m with studio art to form the basis of art c u r r i c u l a , states that "art c r i t i c i s m i s designed to sharpen v i s u a l s k i l l s , to help students become more a r t i c u l a t e about the forms that constitute v i s u a l art and able to j u s t i f y the judgments they make about a r t " (1984, p.261). Reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s referred to by educators by various terms such as art c r i t i c i s m , responding to art, and t a l k i n g about art. The process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m implies that the viewer, i n order to make an informed decision about a work of art, should undergo a series of steps to reach that decision. The B r i t i s h Columbia Art Curriculum describes the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m as follows: c r i t i c i s m involves description, evaluation, judgment and explanation. It i s necessary to be able to describe the p a r t i c u l a r thing 22 b e i n g s t u d i e d , t o compare i t wit h other t h i n g s , t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , t o determine i t s worth, t o form an o p i n i o n about i t , and t o f i n a l l y o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r one's judgments, (p.45) H i s t o r i c a l Perspective of C r i t i c i s m as a Component of Art Cu r r i c u l a T h i s s e c t i o n o f the Review of the L i t e r a t u r e w i l l p l a c e the development of reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The purpose of t h i s i s to g a i n an understanding o f the e v o l u t i o n o f a r t educa t i o n as a su b j e c t matter t h a t i n c l u d e s both m a n i p u l a t i v e and non-ma n i p u l a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y , the i n c l u s i o n o f a r t c r i t i c i s m i n a r t programs i s thought t o be a f a i r l y recent development i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , but t h e r e i s evidence t o show t h a t t h i s i d e a was an important aspect of at l e a s t one a r t c u r r i c u l u m over 90 years ago. In a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t undertaken by Evan Kern i n which the goal was to f i n d antecedents f o r d i s c i p l i n e — based a r t e d u c a t i o n , he was able t o uncover an 1895 elementary A r t c u r r i c u l u m from the State of Maine which s t a t e d " I f p o s s i b l e , have one or more r e a l l y good p i c t u r e s on the schoolroom w a l l s . Encourage c h i l d r e n t o study good p i c t u r e s t o 23 d i s c o v e r what t h e y r e p r e s e n t , and t o e x p r e s s r e a s o n s f o r l i k i n g them." (1987, p . 3 8 ) . T h i s statement remains a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l aim o f reaso n e d c r i t i c i s m i n a r t programs t o d a y . At t h i s t i m e , a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y f o r young women as i t p r e p a r e d them t o become p a r t o f a s o c i a l e l i t e . I n s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s r e a d t e x t b o o k s and s t u d i e d s m a l l c a r d s which were i l l u s t r a t e d by examples o f master works. T h i s became known as t h e P i c t u r e Study Program. The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e " p i c t u r e s t u d y " program was t h a t t h r o u g h exposure t o master works o f Western a r t s t u d e n t s would become ed u c a t e d i n t h e f i n e a r t s : o b s e r v a t i o n and s t u d y o f t h e p i c t u r e s , l o o k i n g a t t h e p i c t u r e s and l e a r n i n g t h e s t o r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each and becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p a i n t e r and h i s work.... The stu d y was a l s o concerned w i t h " a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f b a l a n c e , rhythm and c o l o r . Name o f t h e p i c t u r e , name of t h e a r t i s t , C o m p o s i t i o n . Where i s i t now?". (Kern, 1987, p.40) Chapman e x p l a i n s t h e n o t i o n o f " p i c t u r e s t u d y " i n t h i s way, " ' p i c t u r e s t u d y ' ... t e x t s emphasized t h e 24 virtues of hard work, piety, and l o y a l t y as portrayed i n the subject matter of 1 famous1 paintings or i n the a r t i s t s ' l i v e s . A r t i s t s were often viewed i n terms of two stereotypes: the inspired genius or the s u f f e r i n g hero" (1978, p.8). Chapman suggests that there was a hidden agenda for "picture study" i n that she states "through an ingenious blend of Puritan and a r i s t o c r a t i c values children received lessons i n "moral character" and became fam i l i a r with "masterpieces" of art, p r i n c i p a l l y from the Renaissance and the nineteenth century romantic period of Europe" (1978, p.8). Kern (1987) found through reviewing courses of study for art that the "essential aim of picture study was the development of taste and the appreciation of good design" (p.40). Although Kern's research centered on the United States, i t appears evident that picture study became part of art programs i n some Canadian provinces. The picture study movement was important because i t provided a precedent for non-manipulative a c t i v i t i e s i n art programs, and although i t i s clo s e l y associated with art history study of today, there were elements of art c r i t i c i s m as goals for the picture study program. 25 The picture study program continued i n some form and to some degree i n most c u r r i c u l a u n t i l a f t e r World War I I . At t h i s time the development of the c h i l d through creative self-expression became the focus of art programs. Chapman stated that "Art educators believed that the i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, physical, and creative processes involved i n producing art would help the c h i l d achieve an integrated well-rounded personality" (1978, p.16). In the 1950s, the writing of Viktor Lowenfeld and W. Lambert B r i t t a i n centering on the creative development of the c h i l d through s e l f expression but with the guidance of a teacher, and intere s t i n the "space race" became i n f l u e n t i a l factors i n determining the d i r e c t i o n art education would follow. The need to compete with the e f f o r t s of the Soviet Union i n space research tended to strengthen the pos i t i o n of art education as i t was thought i t was "important to relate a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y to the development of general c r e a t i v i t y i n l i f e , e s p ecially i n mathematics and science" (Chapman, 1978, p.16). This need supports Chapman's explanation of why educational change occurs, "It i s important to recognize that schools are s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , that 26 they are influenced by national p r i o r i t i e s and s o c i a l problems." (1978, p.15). In the 1960s, there were many s o c i a l changes taking place and reverberations from these changes could be f e l t i n education. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n art education a milestone conference known as the Penn State Seminar took place which would change the d i r e c t i o n of art education and whose influence can be f e l t over twenty years l a t e r . June King McFee (1984) described the socio-p o l i t i c a l context of the Penn State Seminar as one of " s o c i a l optimism, which grew from the Kennedy reforms and the peak of the c i v i l rights momentum of Martin Luther King, J r . It took place during the early years of the Johnson era and the dream of a Great Society before the Vietnam escalation" (p.278). McFee continued: the goal of eliminating the s o c i a l problems of hunger, lack of opportunity, and decaying c i t i e s and towns was held up as a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y . . . . Improvements both i n education and i n opportunities to be educated were stressed as important p i l l a r s of an improved society ... T r a d i t i o n a l structures of education were being questioned and a search for more integrated learning was underway, (p.278-279) The conference was chaired by Edward M a t t i l . Many of the objectives of the conference dealt with the notion of legitimate research i n art education. M a t t i l expressed the need for research: Research must be the legitimate concern of art education. Theoretical thinking i n art education w i l l produce l i t t l e without the accompanying rigorous investigation which produces the data necessary to validate theories. Uncontrolled observation i s unreliable and experience alone can be both fragmentary and subjective. There i s no universal road toward a research foundation for art education but important paths seem evident i n the empirical, h i s t o r i c a l , and philosophical d i r e c t i o n s . (1966, p.2) In terms of reasoned c r i t i c i s m as a component of art programs, the Penn State Seminar was important because Manuel Barkan and other art educators a r t i c u l a t e d the concept of art c u r r i c u l a including more than studio work. Barkan explained that as curriculum 28 developers "the art educator cannot avoid theory, because he must be guided by i t ; hence, he must synthesize the knowledge i n the art of the a r t i s t , the knowledge about art of the aesthetician, the c r i t i c , and the h i s t o r i a n " (1966, p.243). He further stated that "to the detriment of art education, we have anchored curriculum almost e n t i r e l y i n r e l a t i o n to the a r t i s t , only s l i g h t l y i n r e l a t i o n to the art h i s t o r i a n ; we have ignored the aesthetician and c r i t i c " (1966, p.243). With t h i s statement he r e f l e c t e d the theory of Jerome Bruner, who at the Woods Hole Conference a few years e a r l i e r theorized that c u r r i c u l a should be structured on the body of knowledge p a r t i c u l a r to the subject under study. According to Eisner (1984) Bruner's argument for a d i s c i p l i n e based curriculum was that "each d i s c i p l i n e has a structure consisting of a body of d i s t i n c t i v e concepts and methods. This structure organizes and makes coherent the knowledge i n that d i s c i p l i n e . " (p.261). Barkan and others took t h i s idea and applied i t to art education. Eisner wrote that: Barkan proposed that the curriculum i n art education attend to art history and art c r i t i c i s m , as well as to art studio. ... 29 these content areas were important aspects o f work w i t h i n the a r t ; the a r t i s t who makes a r t , the c r i t i c who a p p r e c i a t e s and t a l k s about i t i n t e l l i g e n t l y , and the a r t h i s t o r i a n who understands i t s h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n and s o c i a l meaning. C u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , Barkan b e l i e v e d , should devote a t t e n t i o n not simply to the development of s t u d i o s k i l l s , but to each of these t h r e e domains. (1984, p.261) Smith (1987) c r e d i t s Barkan, Kaufman and Logan as a r t educators i n the 1960s who were be g i n n i n g t o " t h i n k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y about a r t e d u c a t i o n as a unique d i s c i p l i n e and to r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e i t s b a s i c purposes and e n t e r p r i s e " (p.3). As a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s seminar at the Penn State Conference, Barkan suggested an " e s s e n t i a l course of a c t i o n " (1966, p.255), f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n which supported t h a t of E i s n e r . During t h i s conference E i s n e r had recommended the establishment of r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m development. E i s n e r saw the f u n c t i o n of the c e n t e r s t o be: to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l schools i n the a r e a . They would d i s c u s s w i t h the f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s formulated f o r the school at l a r g e and f o r the s e v e r a l s u b j e c t matter c u r r i c u l a . Center personnel would o b t a i n or c o n s t r u c t instruments a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s s e s s i n g , not only l e a r n i n g r e l e v a n t t o o b j e c t i v e s , but a host of other e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes as w e l l . (1966, p.233) Barkan f u r t h e r e d E i s n e r ' s suggestion by adding t h r e e more purposes f o r the r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s : 1. Development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s , programmed t e a c h i n g instruments and c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . 2. Demonstration of the e f f i c a c y of the t e s t e d m a t e r i a l s by members o f the cen t e r s t a f f i n the c o o p e r a t i n g schools and i n the extended r e g i o n . 3. D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g f i e l d t r a i n i n g t o infor m t e a c h e r s about m a t e r i a l s and to ad v i s e i n t h e i r use. (1966, p.255) T h i s was an important development i n the h i s t o r y of an i n t e g r a t e d a r t program because E i s n e r , Barkan and packaged r e p r o d u c t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s , 31 o t h e r s a t t h e Penn S t a t e Seminar, were p r o m o t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e development o f c u r r i c u l a w h i c h would be based on t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f a r t , t h a t i s , a r t p r o d u c t i o n , a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c r i t i c i s m and a e s t h e t i c s . A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s i n S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e Seminar. D u r i n g t h e l a t e 1960s t h e main t h r u s t o f r e s e a r c h seemed t o be i n d e v e l o p i n g a s t r u c t u r e f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . A r t e d u c a t o r s were eager t o have a r t e d u c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d as a body o f c o n c e p t s s e p a r a t e from o t h e r a r e a s o f s t u d y . T h i s r e q u i r e d a s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m o r s t r u c t u r e f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . A t t h i s t i m e t h e r e was an emphasis upon a t t a i n i n g academic e x c e l l e n c e , w h i c h had been m o t i v a t e d by t h e space r a c e a decade b e f o r e . Academic e x c e l l e n c e was b e s t a c h i e v e d by t h e s t u d y o f a body o f knowledge r a t h e r t h a n by d e v e l o p m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . A r t i c l e s such as " A r t E d u c a t i o n : The l e a r n i n g P r o c e s s and t h e S e a r c h f o r S t r u c t u r e , " by Bingham (1968), "Three Bases f o r R e s e a r c h and T e a c h i n g i n t h e A r t s : S u b j e c t i v e , O b j e c t i v e and P r o j e c t i v e , " by Stumbo (1968) , "Some Problems o f S t r u c t u r e i n A r t and t h e i r C u r r i c u l u m Consequences," by E f l a n d and " C u r r i c u l u m Making f o r t h e Wee F o l k : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t , " by E i s n e r (1968) a r e 32 examples of r e s e a r c h concerned with d e v e l o p i n g s t r u c t u r e i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . The content o f the c u r r i c u l u m was a l s o important and the t r e n d towards the i n c l u s i o n o f a e s t h e t i c s and c r i t i c i s m i n the c u r r i c u l u m became a f a c t o r . Ralph Smith (1968) expressed h i s o p i n i o n s on a e s t h e t i c education as a p a r t o f a r t c u r r i c u l a . Smith continues today t o be an advocate o f a r t programs wi t h l e s s emphasis on s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s . The formation o f a r e s e a r c h center t o develop c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s i n a e s t h e t i c education came about s h o r t l y a f t e r the Penn St a t e Seminar. T h i s c e n t e r was formed by b r i n g i n g the C e n t r a l Midwestern Regional E d u c a t i o n a l Laboratory (CEMREL), Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , and the ARTS Humanities Program of the U.S. O f f i c e o f Ed u c a t i o n t o g e t h e r . S t a n l e y Madeja gave a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e v o l u t i o n and h i s t o r y o f the CEMREL A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n Program by w r i t i n g : Barkan submitted the p r o p o s a l , and i t was funded and the p r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d i n 1968. The p r o j e c t l a s t e d u n t i l 1976, although work contin u e d i n the a r t s and a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n at the l a b o r a t o r y u n t i l as l a t e as 1980. Consequently, the p r o j e c t gained i t s momentum 33 and conducted i t s major research and development a c t i v i t i e s i n that eight year period.... (Madeja, 1986, p.87) The rationale for the establishment of the program was that there was a "need for a broader approach to arts education i n the public schools, one that would not only have i n t e g r i t y i n i t s e l f as a curriculum but also have connectors to other d i s c i p l i n e s " (Madeja, 1976, p.209) The CEMREL Aesthetic Education project was divided into two phases. The f i r s t phase was directed by Barkan and "focused on the development of guidelines for aesthetic education to provide a t h e o r e t i c a l base for the curriculum" (MacGregor, 1986, p.83). Phase 2 designed curriculum materials for the classroom. It was directed by Stanley Madeja. The relationship of reasoned c r i t i c i s m to aesthetic education i s apparent when considering Madeja 1s description of aesthetic education. In 1971, he described aesthetic education as learning how to "perceive, judge and value a e s t h e t i c a l l y what we come to know through our senses" (p.18). He continued to expand the d e f i n i t i o n by saying, "aesthetic education i s used to designate the area of the curriculum that 34 supplies . . . children with the chance to learn how' to experience, judge and value the aesthetic i n t h e i r l i v e s " (1977, p.3). In his d e f i n i t i o n s he i s generally describing the process one undergoes when one i s acting l i k e a c r i t i c . During the ten year when the CEMREL Aesthetic Education program was i n place many valuable educational materials based on aesthetic education were produced. Another important contribution was the production of a curriculum guide for grades K-6 which was intended to expand e x i s t i n g art c u r r i c u l a nationwide. This curriculum included art history and art c r i t i c i s m as well as studio and aesthetic components. Many aspects of the CEMREL project are s t i l l apparent today, however, the ultimate goal of the aesthetic education program did not come to f r u i t i o n . Although an advocate of aesthetic education, Ralph Smith was a major c r i t i c of the CEMREL Aesthetic Education program. His main concern was the expense involved i n developing and implementing the Aesthetic Education curriculum. Smith thought the expense of tr a i n i n g teachers to use the curriculum and of purchasing the materials to be used with the curriculum 35 would make t h e program u n a v a i l a b l e t o many s c h o o l systems. G i l b e r t C l a r k (1984) e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r c o n c erns about t h e m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d by CEMREL. A r t h u r E f l a n d e x p r e s s e d h i s v i e w f o r t h e l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f t h e CEMREL p r o j e c t and o t h e r s i m i l a r c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s i n an a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n t e c e d e n t s o f d i s c i p l i n e d b a sed a r t e d u c a t i o n . E f l a n d t h o u g h t t h e attempt t o o b t a i n a s t r u c t u r e f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r c e d a consensus between t h e " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e s " t o d e t e r m i n e what s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s , he p o s t u l a t e d , r e s u l t s i n a compromise s i t u a t i o n w h i c h o n l y l e a d s t o " s t a r t i n g a t a s a f e p o i n t - w i t h t h e elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n f o r example" (1987, p. 90). The r e s u l t i s " p r i m a r i l y an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o d e s i g n elements as t h e o b j e c t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s work, l o s i n g s i g h t o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l meanings t h a t such works i m p a r t . The f o c u s i s on t h e means used by t h e a r t i s t , not upon t h e i r ends" (1987, p.89). A l s o , E f l a n d r e i t e r a t e d Chapman's c a u t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s t o remember t h a t e x p e r t s i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y a b l e t o judge what i s p e d a g o g i c a l l y sound. 36 Other curriculum development projects occurred during the late 1960s and through the 1970s. Some were related to the work of CEMREL while others were i n conjunction with SWRL (Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory). Laura Chapman has made a substantial contribution to the development of an integrated art program. Modifications to her work on the CEMREL Guidelines i n 1970 i n T.V. Guidelines i n 1967 resulted i n the development of a curriculum planning model which Efland used as a structure for the Ohio elementary guide and also the Ohio secondary guide. The document Planning  Art Education i n the Middle/Secondary Schools of Ohio 1977, was a model of an integrated art program and, i t can be surmised, influenced the development of the present B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Art Guide. Eisner's Kettering project was concerned with developing elementary art curriculum "that could be used to teach s i g n i f i c a n t art content to young children by elementary school teachers" (Eisner, 1969, i n Efland, 1987, p.77). Guy Hubbard and Mary Rouse developed a textbook series which focussed on studio work but provided art lessons for grades 1 - 6 and examples of master works. C r i t i c i s m was not stressed i n t h i s series but art 37 history was an important element. The Aesthetic Eye was a project developed i n conjunction with the State of C a l i f o r n i a and SWRL. Efland (1987) explained t h i s project as being almost e n t i r e l y based on the aesthetic education theories of Broudy. The curriculum was adapted by the teacher to su i t a s p e c i f i c teaching s i t u a t i o n rather than by a curriculum developer who was unaware of the r e a l i t y of the classroom. The focus of Aesthetic Eye was on the c r i t i c a l element and therefore was unique among the major curriculum development projects of the time. At that time, not a l l research i n art education was concerned with the structure of art education or the development of c u r r i c u l a . Social issues such as, the disadvantaged c h i l d , multiculturalism, and the protection of the environment, were viewed i n t h e i r relationship to art education. This r e f l e c t s Chapman's notion stated e a r l i e r that s o c i a l issues and national p r i o r i t i e s determine the d i r e c t i o n of i n education but i n terms of research i t i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c and may seem scattered. D-BAE: A Recent Program f o r Teaching A r t C r i t i c i s m In 1982 the J. Paul Getty Trust established the Getty Center for Education and with t h i s marked the 38 beginning of a concerted e f f o r t to include an integrated art curriculum as part of general education. L e i l a n i L a t t i n Duke, di r e c t o r of the Getty Center, stated that the "cornerstone" of the foundation was the assumption that "the arts are the repository of the highest achievements of culture, study of the arts i s a p r i n c i p a l means of understanding human experience and transmitting c u l t u r a l values. No human being i s t r u l y educated without a comprehensive education i n the a r t s " (1987, p.7). Duke further describes the goal of "the Getty i s to improve the quality and status of arts education i n America's schools. To bring about any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the way the public perceives art and i n the way teachers teach i t . . . " (1987, p.7). To achieve t h i s goal the Getty endorsed the notion that art i s disciplined-based (the parent d i s c i p l i n e s being studio art, art c r i t i c i s m , aesthetics, and art history) and therefore i s made up of a body of knowledge that can be transmitted. Dwaine Greer coined the term discipline-based art education (D-BAE) i n 1984 and described the source of the body of knowledge i n the following way "the content and the processes of inquiry within each d i s c i p l i n e are presented . . . for inter a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and curriculum va r i e t y " (1987, p. 227). This would require a formal, written curriculum with lessons presented i n a sequential fashion. Greer (1984) described seven features of disciplined-based art education. B r i e f l y , the features are: 1. the focus i s on developing an understanding of the i n t r i n s i c value of art 2. art education i s presented i n the context of aesthetic education 3. "developing a b i l i t i e s to make expressive forms, to attend to works of art i n recognized and shared ways and to place them i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l contexts" (p.215) 4. a written curriculum i s the basis for systematic i n s t r u c t i o n across grade leve l s 5. there i s a comprehensive view of art due to i n t e r r e l a t i n g the d i s c i p l i n e s that make up the curriculum 6. i n elementary school, art should be taught a minimum of one hour every week; at the secondary l e v e l , there should be one required course with electives available 7. there should be systematic i n s t r u c t i o n 40 The notion of a d i s c i p l i n e of art with art c r i t i c i s m as an i n t e g r a l component, i s not new. A review of the research l i t e r a t u r e shows that art educators have addressed the notion for the past twenty years. The work of CEMREL, SWRL and other projects form the basis of the current movement. The Getty Trust was not setting a precedent as a private foundation supporting research i n the public school system, but the f i n a n c i a l resources that seem to be available through the Trust tends to indicate that the support w i l l be long-lasting. The advantage to t h i s i s that a thorough assessment of the state of art i n the schools may be made before proceeding with e f f o r t s to at t a i n the goal, and the prospect of being able to achieve the f i n a l goal i s r e a l . In 1983, the Getty Center for Education i n the Arts opened the Getty Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts (commonly c a l l e d the Getty I n s t i t u t e ) . Greer described the i n s t i t u t e as "a multiyear e f f o r t to investigate the f u l l scope of v i s u a l arts education, from theory into p r a c t i c e " (1986, p.85). It i s made up of a "series of summer staff-development and year-long curriculum implementation a c t i v i t i e s to explore ways of introducing discipline-based art programs into 41 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s " (1986, p . 8 5 ) . To g a i n an i n d i c a t i o n o f how t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k , a r e s e a r c h program was begun t o st u d y t h o s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h seemed t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t i n g c u r r i c u l a s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f D-BAE. The r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r t programs a re l a r g e l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c , depending on t h e v a r i a b l e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s and t h e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s (Duke, 1988, p . 9 ) . S u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e I n s t i t u t e found from t h e s t u d y , r e q u i r e s t h e ac c e p t a n c e and endorsement o f t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s c h o o l boards and t h e p u b l i c , and f r e q u e n t i n - s e r v i c e f o r t h e t e a c h e r . W i t h a v i e w t o i n f o r m , E i s n e r wrote t h e r e p o r t Beyond C r e a t i n g : The P l a c e f o r A r t i n America's S c h o o l s (1985) . Duke (1988) i n d i c a t e d t h a t 65,000 c o p i e s o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n had been " d i s s e m i n a t e d " s i n c e 1985. Res e a r c h i n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n o f a r t t e a c h e r s , t h e development o f model c l a s s r o o m s t o demonstrate how a D-BAE a r t c u r r i c u l u m may be implemented, development o f t h e t h e o r i e s on whi c h D-BAE i s based, a re ar e a s i n whi c h t h e G e t t y C e n t e r c o n t i n u e s t o be i n v o l v e d . 42 Art educators and art teachers are.kept up to date on the work of the Getty Center by frequent writings which appear i n art education l i t e r a t u r e . Maintaining an informed audience through frequent exposure seems to be a strategy employed by advocates of D-BAE. Although much of the research i n art education has occurred i n the United States, B r i t i s h Columbia has responded to recent art educational changes by developing the present Secondary Art Curriculum. The incl u s i o n of a h i s t o r i c a l component along with the reasoned c r i t i c i s m component i n the curriculum indicated a move away from a so l e l y studio based curriculum. During the development of the new B.C. curriculum, the Ohio Middle and Secondary School Art curriculum written by Efland and mentioned e a r l i e r was probably used as a model, as there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between the guides. Also, at the time the Ohio curriculum was considered to be innovative and progressive and as such, would have been a useful resource i n the developing of an integrated art program. Although art c r i t i c i s m occurs i n an unstructured manner as a natural part of the making of art objects the new art curriculum provided B.C. teachers with an 43 opportunity to introduce a process of t a l k i n g about art . As stated i n Chapter 1, the process involves the description, evaluation, judgement and explanation of the object under study. This i s . s i m i l a r to the strategy developed by Edmund Feldman, which i s to describe the object, analyze the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the features described, interpret the object by expressing the meaning of the content and then evaluate or judge the object i n r e l a t i o n to other works (Feldman, 1981). The process outlined i n the B.C. curriculum includes the step of explaining or j u s t i f y i n g one's judgment. This step suggests a stage i n the process of c r i t i c a l inquiry developed by David Ecker, that of, the m e t a c r i t i c a l stage of challenging or supporting judgments made (Ecker, 197 6). It seems that i n an e f f o r t to maintain a descriptive rather than p r e s c r i p t i v e quality to the B.C. curriculum, l i m i t e d suggestions as to how the process should be implemented, and the degree to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m should be a part of the course, are indicated. Summary Although there seem to be several issues related to the c r i t i c i s m domain i n art education which remain to be resolved, one generalization that can be made i s that most art educators recognize the v a l i d i t y of including reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of art c u r r i c u l a . However the way i n which reasoned c r i t i c i s m should be implemented, the time that should be a l l o t t e d to the teaching of reasoned c r i t i c i s m , the best methods to use, and how i t should be evaluated, and the most e f f e c t i v e ways of preparing teachers to teach t h i s important element a l l remain as unanswered questions. It i s evident that art education i s continually i n t r a n s i t i o n . To f a c i l i t a t e proposed changes i n art i n s t r u c t i o n i t i s important to have an understanding of what i s taking place i n the schools today. This study intends to give insight into t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools. 45 CHAPTER I I I CONDUCT OF THE STUDY This chapter restates the research questions and describes the p i l o t study, selection of the sample, the instrument and the data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. Research Questions The intent of the research questions was threefold: to determine the extent to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s part of art programs i n selected B r i t i s h Columbia high schools, to gain insight into how reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s implemented as part of art programs and to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of the curriculum guide component on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . With t h i s information i t may be possible to assess the degree to which teachers are meeting the Ministry goal of teaching an integrated art program. Direction as to the approximate amount of classroom time which should be dedicated to reasoned c r i t i c i s m at each grade l e v e l was not given by the curriculum guide, however, the guide does indicate reasoned c r i t i c i s m should be an i n t e g r a l part of an art program. If the present study indicates reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s less than an i n t e g r a l part of art programs 46 then i t may be necessary to f i n d ways of implementing t h i s aspect o f the c u r r i c u l u m more e f f e c t i v e l y . Statement o f the Research Question: 1. To what extent i s . reasoned c r i t i c i s m claimed t o be a p a r t of a r t programs i n s e l e c t e d h i g h schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia? 2. How do s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t reasoned c r i t i c i s m as p a r t of t h e i r t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? 3. To what extent do s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s use the reasoned c r i t i c i s m component of the c u r r i c u l u m guide? The P i l o t Study A p i l o t study was undertaken to determine the c l a r i t y o f the q u e s t i o n s and the i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be sent t o h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In a d d i t i o n , the p i l o t study p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to determine the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a l s o gave the r e s e a r c h e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e a c t i o n s to the survey. 1. Sample Two p r a c t i s i n g secondary h i g h s c h o o l a r t t e a c h e r s comprised the sample f o r the p i l o t study. The t e a c h e r s 47 were from an urban school d i s t r i c t and both had long experience i n teaching art i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The two teachers were asked to complete the questionnaire and to place question marks alongside those items they had d i f f i c u l t y i n completing, by reason of ambiguous language and the l i k e . 2. Instrumentation The questionnaire was developed by the researcher who adapted material discussed i n the Review of the Literature (Chapman, 1982; Day, 1984; McKnight, 1986; Wilson, 1984) and related i t s p e c i f i c a l l y to the research questions. It consisted of 15 questions. F i f t y - e i g h t scale-rated responses, 3 open-ended answers and 5 " f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k " answers were requested from each respondent. The questions requested information to determine how teachers understood the notion of reasoned c r i t i c i s m , to determine how teachers interpreted reasoned c r i t i c i s m as a part of t h e i r teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and how they implemented reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n classroom art programs. Other questions dealt with factual information such as, years of experience teaching art, workshops attended recently and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of journals and p e r i o d i c a l s . 48 These were designed to give an in d i c a t i o n of the ind i v i d u a l teacher's possible exposure to reasoned c r i t i c i s m theory. 3.. Data C o l l e c t i o n The p i l o t t e s t was given i n August 1987. The researcher met with the two teachers who comprised the sample, and a f t e r the questionnaire were completed a discussion of the content and format of the questions took place. 4. Analysis Response to the questionnaire was p o s i t i v e . Both respondents found the questionnaire to be generally clear and the format easy to follow. One question which required c l a r i f i c a t i o n dealt with estimating the amount of time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m per art course per school year. The sample expressed concern over t h i s question. They found i t d i f f i c u l t to answer, as so many varied a c t i v i t i e s take place during each c l a s s . The researcher re-wrote t h i s question to c l a r i f y the information requested. The F i n a l Study 1. Population The population consisted of B r i t i s h Columbia art teachers. I n i t i a l l y , an attempt was made to l i m i t the 49 population to high school art teachers, but that r e s t r i c t i o n proved impossible to control since a number of these teachers operated i n complex i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e s . To obtain the information required to answer the research questions i t was necessary to place two r e s t r i c t i o n s on the e l i g i b i l i t y of teachers as respondents. One r e s t r i c t i o n was that teachers on leave of absence, and d i s t r i c t co-ordinators were not e l i g i b l e . The other r e s t r i c t i o n was that the art teacher must be teaching art at the secondary l e v e l . A further l i m i t a t i o n on the target population occurred as a res u l t of the necessity to use teachers who were also members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Teacher's Association. An explanation of the need for the l i m i t a t i o n follows. In June 1987, the researcher contacted the S t a t i s t i c s Department of the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education i n an e f f o r t to obtain the names of p r a c t i s i n g high school art teachers. The Ministry of Education did not compile t h i s information but provided relevant information regarding the number of art classes held i n 1987 and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of classes according to grades (Appendix VI). C o n t a c t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s 1 F e d e r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a r e f e r r a l t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . The B.C.A.T.A. made a v a i l a b l e t h e i r membership m a i l i n g l i s t f o r t h e s t u d y . 'The l i s t c o n s i s t e d a t t h a t t i m e , o f 352 names and i n c l u d e d a d d r e s s e s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a f f i l i a t i o n . 2. Sample D e s c r i p t i o n and S i z e The membership l i s t was examined and t h o s e members not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t were e l i m i n a t e d as c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e s t u d y , on t h e assumption t h a t t h e y were not p r a c t i s i n g a r t t e a c h e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r was u n a b l e t o v e r i f y whether t h i s was i n d e e d t h e case, g i v e n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e , and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f communicating w i t h t h e s e p e r s o n s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e a n a l y s i s 2 60 names remained as p o s s i b l e r e s p o n d e n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g l e v e l o f t h e member, whether e l e m e n t a r y , secondary o r n o n - t e a c h i n g was not a v a i l a b l e from t h e membership l i s t , a l t h o u g h 105 members d i d i n d i c a t e a r t a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l was t h e i r main a r e a o f i n t e r e s t . I t was d e c i d e d , r a t h e r t h a n l i m i t t h e re s p o n d e n t s o n l y t o t h o s e who i n d i c a t e d h i g h s c h o o l a r t as a main i n t e r e s t , t o s u r v e y a l l 260 members o f t h e B.C.A.T.A. so f a r i d e n t i f i e d , t o ensure e v e r y e l i g i b l e respondent 51 was contacted. The exact nature of the sample i s not known therefore, although i t i s known that at least 105 respondents have art at the high school l e v e l as a main concern. 3. Instrumentation The f i n a l questionnaire remained the same as the p i l o t questionnaire i n format. One change i n the wording of a question resulted from the p i l o t study. The questions can be categorized into three types. Each type i s designed to answer one or more of the research questions. Questions which asked about the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the curriculum guide and the frequency of use of the curriculum guide components were intended to determine the usefulness of the guide and to gain a sense of the exposure that a class might have to the reasoned c r i t i c i s m teaching strategies outlined i n the guide. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of art education l i t e r a t u r e which would contain references to reasoned c r i t i c i s m theory, types of workshops attended and the number of years experience i n teaching art a l l could indicate the degree of exposure to the theory of reasoned c r i t i c i s m encountered by the teacher, even i f t h i s exposure was not i n the form taken by the Curriculum Guide component 52 on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Questions which were designed to show the extent that reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s part of the art program asked for the frequency with which teachers heard t h e i r pupils make remarks that might indicate c r i t i c a l analysis was occurring. Questions also asked for the number of occasions teachers estimated reasoned c r i t i c i s m was taught i n an art course, formally or informally, and also the degree of importance placed on certain classroom a c t i v i t i e s . A question asking about the way c r i t i c i s m i s used i n the classroom (such as a method of evaluating students work) and a question asking about the importance of various classroom a c t i v i t i e s to the teacher (such as describing art, interpreting art, demonstrating art techniques) were intended to show how reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s implemented. Respondents who were able to complete the survey were asked to respond anonymously and those who were not e l i g i b l e were asked to include t h e i r names so they could be struck from the o r i g i n a l l i s t of possible respondents. This was done to avoid sending follow-up notices to i n e l i g i b l e respondents. 53 4. Data C o l l e c t i o n A mail s t r i k e during the f a l l of 1987, and a desire to avoid the interference of the heavy Christmas mail period, resulted i n the mailing of the questionnaires i n January 1988. A covering l e t t e r , a copy of the questionnaire and a stamped addressed envelope were sent to 260 pr a c t i s i n g art teachers who were also members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Association. Research i n the use of surveys indicated a l i m i t e d amount of personalization of the questionnaire tends to improve response rates (Charach, 1975; Berdie, Anderson, & Niebuhr, 198 6). On the basis of t h i s research, the questionnaire was sent d i r e c t l y to the art teacher. During the f i r s t week of mailing 10 questionnaires were returned, having been i n c o r r e c t l y addressed. Within the f i r s t four weeks 119 responses were received. Thirty-two of the questionnaires were returned completed. The remaining questionnaires had been received by elementary teachers, teachers on leave and r e t i r e d teachers. At the end of the fourth week 131 follow-up postcards were sent. 54 By the eighth week of the survey, a t o t a l of 147 questionnaires had been returned. F i f t y - f o u r of the returned questionnaires had been completed by high school art teachers. The remaining questionnaires were returned by teachers who indicated t h e i r teaching areas were elementary grades or by respondents who did not quali f y as p r a c t i s i n g art teachers. One hundred and forty-seven of the 250 questionnaires received by respondents had been returned, for a response rate of 58.8%. Because the exact size of the target sample, that i s , p r a c t i s i n g high school art teachers, could not be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d , a percentage i n d i c a t i o n of the response rate from p r a c t i s i n g high school art teachers i s not available. 5. Data Analysis The results of the questionnaire were compiled i n the following manner: 1. The number of teachers' responses to each choice was t o t a l l e d and then l i s t e d beside each question. 2. Anecdotal responses and. teacher comments were l i s t e d . 3. The number of teachers' responses was calculated to form a percentage of the t o t a l number of responses received. 55 CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS The results of the questionnaire are presented i n t h i s chapter i n the order of the appearance of the question on the questionnaire. The question i s stated, the findings are then presented i n table form with a summary and a description following. 1. F i n d i n g s 1. Is there a copy of the B.C. Art Curriculum guide available for your use during the school year? Table 1 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Art Curriculum Guide f 54 o o 54 C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e a v a i l a b l e C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e n o t a v a i l a b l e N o r e s p o n s e T o t a l Of the 54 respondents, a l l had a copy of the B.C. Art Curriculum guide available for t h e i r use during the school year. 56 2. Within how many months approximately, did you l a s t refer to the B.C. Art Curriculum Guide? Table 2 Frequency of Use of Art Curriculum Guide f Curriculum Guide used within 1 month 22 Curriculum Guide used within 2 months 14 Curriculum Guide used within 6 months 10 Curriculum Guide used within more than 12 months 5 Curriculum Guide used within 12 months 3 No response 0 Total 54 Of the 54 respondents, 22 (40.7%) used the curriculum guide l a s t within 1 month of completing the questionnaire, 14 (25.9%) respondents used the guide within the l a s t 3 months, 10 (18.5%) respondents used the guide within 6 months, 3 (5.5%) respondents used the guide within 12 months while 5 (9.5%) respondents used the guide more than 12 months ago. 3. L i s t e d below are the components of the B.C. Art Curriculum Guide. Please estimate the frequency of use of each component. Table 3 Frequency of Use of S p e c i f i c Components of the Art Curriculum Guide Component no Never Seldom sometimes Often Always response f f f f f Applications 1 0 4 22 14 13 Imagery 0 0 5 11 16 22 Design 2 2 4 12 19 15 His t . Developments 3 1 9 21 11 9 Vocabulary 2 1 10 17 12 12 C r i t i c i s m 2 2 14 24 9 3 Total Responses - 54 Respondents were asked to indicate the frequency of use of the components of the Curriculum Guide with ratings from "never" to "always". The rating of "sometimes" was used to indicate an average amount of use. The component e n t i t l e d Applications was rated "always" used by 13 (24.5%) of the respondents. Fourteen (26.4%) respondents rated the component as "often" used, while 22 (41.5%) respondents rated t h e i r use of Applications as "sometimes". Four (7.5%) respondents indicated they "seldom" used the section of 58 th e C u r r i c u l u m Guide w h i l e no r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y "never" used A p p l i c a t i o n s . There was one (1.8%) non-response t o t h e q u e s t i o n . When t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e degree o f use o f t h e C r i t i c i s m component were summarized, 3 (5.7%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y "always" used t h e component and 9 (17.3%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y used t h e component " o f t e n " . The l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , 24 (46.1%), s a i d t h e y used t h e C r i t i c i s m component "sometimes". F o u r t e e n (26.9%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y used t h e component "seldom" w h i l e 2 (3.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s showed t h a t t h e y "never" used t h e components a t a l l . Two (3.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n . The D e s i g n component was "always" used by 15 (28.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s . N i n e t e e n (36.5%) r e s p o n d e n t s used t h e D e s i g n component " o f t e n " . Of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who answered t h i s q u e s t i o n , 12 (33%) i n d i c a t e d t h e y used t h e D e s i g n component sometimes. Four (7.6%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y "seldom" used t h e D e s i g n component and 2 (3.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y "never" used t h i s component. Two r e s p o n d e n t s (3.8%) d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . 59 Use of the H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Developments component was rated by the respondents i n the following way. Nine (17.6%) respondents used the component "always", 11 (21.5%) respondents used i t "often", and 21 (41.1%) respondents used the component "sometimes". The component was used by 9 (17.6%) respondents "seldom" and 1 (1.8%) respondent "never" used the component. Three (5.7%) responses were not given to the question. Twenty-two (40.7%) respondents indicated that they "always" used the Imagery component of the curriculum guide. Sixteen (29.6%) respondents indicated that they "often" used the Imagery component while 11 (20.3%) respondents indicated they "sometimes" used the component. Five (9.2%) respondents claimed they "seldom" used t h i s component. A l l respondents indicated they used the Imagery component to some degree. There was 100% response to t h i s question. The Vocabulary component was used by 12 (23%) respondents "always". Twelve (23%) respondents said they used t h i s component "often" while 17 (32.6%) respondents indicated they used the component "sometimes". Ten (19.2%) respondents used the Imagery component only "seldom" and 1 (1.9%) respondents 60 "never" used the component. Two (3.8%) respondents d i d not provide a response. 4. The B.C. Art Curriculum Guide describes reasoned c r i t i c i s m , as "selecting and recording information but also r e f l e c t i n g upon i t , making judgments about i t , and o f f e r i n g explanation for those judgments". What percentage of time, on an average, over a semester or 10 month term, would be spent, formally or informally, per class on reasoned c r i t i c i s m ? Table 4 Teacher Estimate of Amount of Time Spent on Reasoned C r i t i c i s m PERCENTAGE OF TIME Classes Not Applicable 5% 10% 15% 20% more f f f f Grade 8 19 16 12 3 2 2 Grade 9 12 14 18 4 3 3 Grade 10 11 9 19 9 3 3 Grade 11 18 4 10 10 8 4 Grade 12 18 3 11 5 12 5 f Total Response - 54 This question reveals the amount of time per class teachers estimate they spend on an average on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Some teachers do not teach both junior and 61 s e n i o r g r a d e s ; t h e "not a p p l i c a b l e " c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o t h o s e grades t h e respondent does not t e a c h . Of t h e re s p o n d e n t s who t e a c h Grade 8 A r t , 2 (5.7%) e s t i m a t e d t h e y spend more t h a n 20% o f t h e i r c l a s s t i m e on r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m . Two (5.7%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d 20% o f t h e t i m e i s spent on t h i s a r e a , w h i l e 3 (8.5%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h i s was so f o r 15% o f t h e t i m e . Twelve (34.2%) t e a c h e r s s u g g e s t e d 10% o f t h e i r c l a s s t i m e was spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m , and 16 (45.7%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h i s q u e s t i o n was not a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e l e v e l s t h e y t a u g h t . Three (7%) Grade 9 a r t t e a c h e r s e s t i m a t e d t h e y spend more t h a n 20% o f t h e i r t i m e on reas o n e d c r i t i c i s m . Three (7%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y spent 20% o f t h e i r t i m e on t h i s a r e a w h i l e 4 (9.5%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y spend 15% o f t h e i r c l a s s t i m e on reas o n e d c r i t i c i s m . E i g h t e e n (42.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s spend 10% o f c l a s s t i m e on reas o n e d c r i t i c i s m on an average, and 14 (33.3%) e s t i m a t e 5% o f c l a s s t i m e i s spent t h i s way. Twelve (22.2%) t e a c h e r s found t h i s grade l e v e l not a p p l i c a b l e . E s t i m a t e s by 3 (6.9%) Grade 10 t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y spent more t h a n 20% o f t h e i r t i m e on r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m . Three (6.9%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 20% 62 of t h e i r time was spent i n t h i s way, while 9 (20.9%) respondents suggested they spend 15% of t h e i r time t e a c h i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Nineteen (44%) respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t on an average they spend approximately 10% of the c l a s s time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Nine respondents (20.9%) i n d i c a t e d t h i s was so f o r 5% of the t i m e . T h i s q u e s t i o n was not a p p l i c a b l e t o 11 (20%) respondents. Of the respondents who taught s e n i o r secondary (Grades 11-12) a r t cou r s e s , 4 (11%) respondents estimated they spent more then 20% of t h e i r Grade 11 a r t c l a s s t e a c h i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m w h ile f o r Grade 12 A r t , 5 (12.8%) respondents e s t i m a t e d they spend a s i m i l a r amount of time t e a c h i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m . E i g h t (22.2%) respondents estimate they spend 20% of c l a s s time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m at the Grade 11 l e v e l and 12 (33.3%) respondents i n d i c a t e d t h i s was so f o r Grade 12 l e v e l A r t c o u r s e s . F i f t e e n percent o f c l a s s time was spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m f o r 10 (27.7%) respondents who t e a c h Grade 11 A r t and f o r 5 (13.8%) respondents who t e a c h A r t at the Grade 12 l e v e l . For 10 (27.7%) respondents, 10% of c l a s s time was spent i n t h i s area i n Grade 11 A r t , while f o r 11 (30.5%) respondents t h i s estimate a p p l i e d t o Grade 12 A r t . In 63 Grade 11 Art courses, 4 (11%) respondents estimated 5% of class time was spent on t h i s component while i n Grade 12, 3 (8.3%) respondents indicated t h i s was so. Eighteen (33%) respondents indicated senior grade levels were not included i n t h e i r teaching sit u a t i o n s . 5. How frequently do you hear the following types of statements made by the students i n your classroom? Table 5 Frequency of Types of Statements Made by Students Statement no never seldom sometimes often always response f. f f f f I l i k e i t 2 0 1 12 35 4 I l i k e i t because ... 2 0 3 25 21 3 I think the a r t i s t used dark blue because ... 2 6 10 26 9 1 That looks l i k e a ... 2 1 20 22 9 0 Total Responses - 54 This question was designed to indicate the frequency with which students use reasoned c r i t i c i s m when t a l k i n g about art. This may i l l u s t r a t e students' awareness of the process of reasoning c r i t i c a l l y , which may i n turn give an ind i c a t i o n of the degree of exposure to reasoned c r i t i c i s m they encounter i n the classroom. Respondents used a fi v e point scale to indicate 64 frequency, from "always" to indicate the highest occurrence, to "never", the lowest occurrence of the comment. Four (7.6%) respondents indicated they "always" heard t h e i r students make comments such as "I l i k e i t " while 35 (67%) respondents indicated they "often" heard t h i s type of comment. Twelve (23%) respondents heard the comment "sometime" and 1 (1.8%) respondent heard t h i s type of statement only "seldom". There were no respondents who had "never" heard t h e i r students make t h i s type of comment. Two (3.7%) respondents did not answer the question. A statement i n which the student provides a reason for an evaluation, (such as "I l i k e i t because ...") may indicate the student has had some exposure to reasoned c r i t i c i s m and i s beginning to use the reasoning process. Three (5.7%) respondents indicated they "always" hear students make t h i s type of comment. Twenty-one (40%) respondents said they "sometimes" overhear t h i s type of comment. Three (5.7%) respondents stated they "seldom" heard such a statement while no respondents reported they had "never" heard students make t h i s type of statement. Two (3.7%) non-responses were received for t h i s item. 65 As a student becomes more aware o f the work of w e l l known a r t i s t s the student may be able t o make comparisons as a way of d e s c r i b i n g a r t work. A statement such as "that looks l i k e a P i c a s s o ..." i n d i c a t e s a comparison and an awareness of a r t h i s t o r y . No respondents i n d i c a t e d they always hear such statements made by the s t u d e n t s . Nine (17.3%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they heard t h i s type of statement " o f t e n " , 22 (42%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they "sometimes" hear t h i s statement and 20 (38.4%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they heard t h i s type of comment "seldom". One (1.9%) respondent had "never" heard of a student make t h i s type of comment. Two (3.7%) respondents d i d not p r o v i d e an answer to t h i s i t e m . A statement such as "I t h i n k the a r t i s t used dark blu e c o l o u r s t o show he f e l t sad . . . about the s u b j e c t " i s an example of a statement which r e f l e c t s the use of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . The student i s making a judgment about a work and i s s u p p o r t i n g the judgment wi t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the work. One (1.9) respondent showed t h i s was a comment t h a t was "always" heard, while 9 (17.3%) respondents i n d i c a t e d t h i s was heard " o f t e n " . Twenty-six (50%) respondents answered t h a t they have "sometimes" heard such a statement. Ten (19.2%) respondents have "seldom" heard t h i s type of statement and 6 (11.5%) respondents indicated they have "never" heard such a statement. Two respondents did not reply to t h i s item. 67 6. Stated below are some ways c r i t i c i s m may occur i n a classroom. Please estimate the frequency each would occur i n your Art classes. Table 6 Occurrence i n the Classroom of Different Forms of C r i t i c i s m Form of C r i t i c i s m no never seldom sometimes often always response f f f f f class discussion of a student's work led by the teacher to determine a mark cla s s discussion of an art reproduction led by the teacher using reasoned c r i t i c i s m process class discussion of an art reproduction led by a student using reasoned c r i t i c i s m process discussion of student's work between student and teacher to determine a mark discussion of an art reproduction among students using reasoned c r i t i c i s m process discussion of a student's work among students using reasoned c r i t i c i s m process discussion of a student's work between teacher and student using reasoned c r i t i c i s m process 1 16 9 20 8 0 1 7 29 15 1 13 16 19 4 13 27 5 15 21 11 5 23 15 5 12 25 11 Total responses - 54 68 C r i t i c i s m can take d i f f e r e n t forms and may be used i n various ways i n the classroom. This question was designed to i d e n t i f y forms that c r i t i c i s m most frequently takes among the sample classrooms and to determine how reasoned c r i t i c i s m seems to be implemented as a classroom a c t i v i t y . The sample re p l i e d to the question by using a scale of "never" to "always" to indicate the frequency of which each described form of c r i t i c i s m . . C r i t i c i s m can be used as a form of evaluation. The f i r s t form described i s one i n which the teacher leads a class discussion of a student's work as a method of determining a mark for the work. No respondents indicated t h i s was a method that was "always" used, while 8 (15%) respondents indicated they "often" used t h i s form of c r i t i c i s m . Twenty (37.7%) respondents "sometimes" used t h i s form and 9 (16.9%) respondents indicated they "seldom" used t h i s method to determine a mark. Sixteen (30.1%) respondents indicated they "never" use such a discussion to determine a mark. One (1.9%) respondent d i d not reply to t h i s item. The teacher using a reasoned c r i t i c i s m process to discuss an art reproduction with a class i s a more 69 formal way of presenting c r i t i c i s m . One (1.9%) respondent indicated "always" using t h i s approach while 15 (28.3%) respondents "often" use c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s way. Twenty-nine (54.7%) respondents stated t h i s form of c r i t i c i s m i s "sometimes" used and 7 (13.2%) respondents indicated they "seldom" use i t . One (1.9%) respondent indicated "never" using c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s way. There was 1 (1.9%) non-response. A class discussion led by a student using reasoned c r i t i c i s m techniques to analyze an art reproduction i s one method described i n the question. No respondents indicated they "always" use t h i s form of c r i t i c i s m , 4 (7.5%) . respondents stated they "often" used t h i s technique, while 19 (35.8%) respondents indicated they "sometimes" use t h i s form. Sixteen (30.1%) respondents r e p l i e d they "seldom" use reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s way. Thirteen (24.5%) respondents "never" use t h i s format. One (1.9%) respondent did not reply to t h i s item. C r i t i c i s m can be used i n a less formal way as a discussion between the teacher and the student to determine a mark for the student's work. Eight (15%) respondents indicated they "always" use t h i s method while 27 (50.9%) respondents stated they "often" used 70 t h i s type of discussion to determine a mark. Thirteen (24.5%) respondents "sometimes" use c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s way, and 4 (7.5%) respondents said they "seldom" did so. One (1.9%) respondent indicated that t h i s was "never" done. There was one (1.9%) non-response to t h i s question. A group discussion among student using the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process to analyze an art reproduction i s yet another c r i t i c a l method; however, no respondents indicated they "always" use t h i s format. Eleven (21%) respondents r e p l i e d they "often" use t h i s type of discussion, while twenty-one (40.3%) respondents indicated they do use t h i s "sometimes". Fi f t e e n (28.8%) respondents indicated they use t h i s technique only "seldom" and 5 (9.6%) respondents indicated they "never" use t h i s type of discussion at a l l . Two (3.7%) respondents did not reply to t h i s question. Rather than using an art reproduction as a focus for a student discussion using the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process, an example of a student's work can be used. One (1.9%) respondent indicated t h i s was a method that was "always" used. Nine (16.9%) respondents indicated they do t h i s "often" while 15 (28.3%) respondents use t h i s format "sometimes". Twenty-three (43.3%) respondents "seldom" use t h i s form of discussion and 5 (9.4%) respondents "never" use t h i s technique. One (1.9%) respondent did not reply. A teacher and student may use reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n a discussion of the student's work. Eleven (20.7%) respondents r e p l i e d they "always" use t h i s form of discussion and 25 (47.1%) respondents indicated they follow t h i s format "often". Twelve (22.6%) respondents "sometimes" use a discussion such as t h i s however 5 (9.4%) respondents stated t h i s was "seldom" done. No respondents never use t h i s technique.. There was one (1.9%) response lacking to t h i s question. 7. L i s t e d below are Art classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Please estimate the percentage of time, averaged over a semester or 10 month term, that you would spend on each a c t i v i t y . Table 7 Frequency of Art Classroom A c t i v i t i e s A c t i v i t y 5% 10% 15% 20% more no response f f f f f f A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d 0 1 0 2 50 to teaching studio work A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d 10 18 13 10 3 to studio preparation A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to H i s t o r i c a l and 14 13 17 8 1 Contemporary developments A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d 37 10 2 4 1 to administration A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m 23 12 12 5 1 Total Responses - 54 This question was designed to i d e n t i f y the amount of time assigned to classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Administrative business such as attendance recording and reading school announcements occurs i n every c l a s s . To the question of how much time i s spent on these a c t i v i t i e s , 37 (68.5%) respondents indicated they spend 5% of class time on administrative business, 10 (18.5%) respondents stated they spend 10% of class 73 time on t h i s , w h ile 2 (3.7%) respondents c l a i m they spend 15% t of c l a s s time on these a c t i v i t i e s . Four (7.4%) respondents say they spend 20% of c l a s s time on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u s i n e s s . One (1.8%) respondent i n d i c a t e d more than 20% of c l a s s time i s spent on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . Teaching and a s s i s t i n g students w i t h s t u d i o work i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the focus of A r t classrooms. No respondents i n d i c a t e d they spend l e s s than 5% of c l a s s time on s t u d i o work. One (1.8%) respondent s t a t e d 10% of c l a s s time i s spent on t h i s a c t i v i t y , w h ile no respondents i n d i c a t e d they spend 15% of c l a s s time on s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s . Two (3.7%) respondents r e p l i e d they spend 20% of t h e i r c l a s s time on s t u d i o work and 50 (94.3%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they spend more than 20%-of t h e i r time i n t h i s a r e a . One (1.8%) respondents d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . P r e p a r a t i o n f o r s t u d i o work and maintenance of s u p p l i e s and equipment a l s o r e q u i r e c l a s s t i m e . Ten (18.5%) respondents estimate they spend 5% of t h e i r c l a s s time on these a c t i v i t i e s and 18 (33.3%) respondents estimate they spend 10% of t h e i r time on t h i s . T h i r t e e n respondents estimate they use 15% of t h e i r c l a s s time on these s t u d i o r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s while 10 (18.5%) respondents indicated they spend 20% of class time on t h i s . Three (5.5%) respondents said they spend more than 20% of t h e i r time on studio preparation work. One (1.8%) respondent d i d not reply to t h i s question. The H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Developments component of the curriculum i s an important aspect of art programs. Fourteen (26.4%) respondents estimated they spend 5% of class time i n t h i s areas. Thirteen (24-5%) respondents estimate they spend 10% while 17 (32%) respondents suggest they spend 15% of class time on h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary aspects. Eight (15%) respondents spend 20% of t h e i r time on t h i s component and 1 (1.8%) respondent indicated that more than 20% of class time i s spent on teaching a c t i v i t i e s related to t h i s area. There was one (1.8%) non-response to t h i s question. The addition of a reasoned c r i t i c i s m component to the curriculum i s a move away from more t r a d i t i o n a l art c u r r i c u l a . Twenty-three (43.3%) respondents estimated they spend 5% of class time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m and 12 (22.2%) respondents estimated 10% of t h e i r time i s spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Twelve (22.2%) respondents indicated 15% of class time i s spent i n t h i s area while 5 (9.4%) respondents e s t i m a t e d 20% of the time i s spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . One (1.8%) respondent suggested more than 20% of the c l a s s time i s spent on t h i s component. One (1.8%) respondent d i d not complete t h i s i t e m . 8. I f the requirements f o r g r a d u a t i o n changed to i n c l u d e at l e a s t one A r t c o u r s e , t o be taken between grades 8-12, would the time spent on the classroom a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n q u e s t i o n 7 change? Table 8 I n d i c a t i o n of a Change i n Time A l l o t t e d t o A r t Classroom A c t i v i t i e s Due to Requirement of an A r t Course f o r Graduation f n o c h a n g e i n t i m e a l l o t m e n t 33 c h a n g e i n t i m e a l l o t m e n t w o u l d o c c u r 21 n o r e s p o n s e 0 T o t a l R e s p o n s e s 54 T h i r t y - t h r e e (61.1%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they would not change the amount of time g i v e n to a r t classroom a c t i v i t i e s i f an A r t course became a requirement f o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . Twenty-one (38.8%) respondents i n d i c a t e d t h e r e would be an a l t e r a t i o n i n the amount of time a l l o t t e d t o each A r t 76 a c t i v i t y . T a b l e 9 i n d i c a t e s how t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t i m e a l l o t t e d - f o r each a c t i v i t y would change. The t o t a l number o f responde n t s t o t h i s p a r t o f q u e s t i o n 8 i s 21. Tabl e 9 Time A l l o t m e n t s f o r A r t Cl a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s i f an A r t Course was Made a G r a d u a t i o n Requirement. A c t i v i t y 5% f 10% f 15% f 20% more f no response f f A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to 0 teaching studio work A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to 0 H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary developments A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to 1 teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to 1 studio preparation A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to administration 11 12 Total Responses - 54 The f o l l o w i n g changes would t a k e p l a c e i n t h e amount o f ti m e a l l o t t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u s i n e s s . E l e v e n (52.3%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y would spend 5% o f t h e t i m e on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . F i v e (23.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y would spend 10% o f c l a s s r o o m t i m e on t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . No re s p o n d e n t s 77 e s t i m a t e d t h e y would spend more t h a n 10% on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . F i v e (23.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not complete t h i s i t e m . E s t i m a t e s as t o t h e amount o f t i m e spent on s t u d i o e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y would spend l e s s t h a n 20% o f t h e i r t i m e on s t u d i o work, w h i l e 3 (14.2%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y would spend 20% o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t i m e on t h i s a r e a . Twelve (57.1%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e y would spend more t h a n 20% o f t h e i r t i m e on s t u d i o work. S i x (28.5%) r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not complete t h i s q u e s t i o n . The t e a c h i n g o f H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary development r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s would change i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. No r e s p o n d e n t s would t e a c h t h i s a r e a 5% o f t h e t i m e . One (4.7%) respondent e s t i m a t e d 10% o f t h e t i m e would be spent w h i l e 3 (14.2%) r e s p o n d e n t s e s t i m a t e d 15% o f t h e t i m e would be spent on h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments. Seven (33.3%) r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% o f t h e t i m e would be spent on t h i s component and 5 (23.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s would spend more t h a n 20% o f t h e t i m e on h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments. F i v e (23.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not respond t o t h i s i t e m . The amount o f t i m e spent on r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m would a l t e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g degree. One (4.7%) 78 respondent estimated 5% of the time would be spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Three (14.2%) respondents estimated t h i s would be done 10% of the time while 3 (14.2%) respondents would teach reasoned c r i t i c i s m 15% of the time. Seven (33.3%) respondents suggested they would teach reasoned c r i t i c i s m 20%. of the time and 4 (19%) respondents estimated they would do t h i s more than 20% of the time. Three (14.2%) respondents did not reply to t h i s part of the question. This question also consisted of an open-ended question regarding the reasons why a change i n time a l l o t t e d to each area might change i f an Art course became a requirement for high school graduation. Comments were varied, but dealt most frequently with the notion that a "captive" audience allowed for more academic a c t i v i t i e s . Several respondents remarked that the increase i n academically i n c l i n e d students would probably result i n a move to the study of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments and reasoned c r i t i c i s m rather than studio work. One respondent commented that the course would become a preparation for formal examinations and one respondent noted that a required course would also require conformity i n evaluation among teachers. Many respondents saw a required course 79 a s a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s w h o w o u l d n o t i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d e n c o u n t e r a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y a r t . 80 9 . Please indicate the importance of the following Art course a c t i v i t y to you. Table 10 Degree of Importance of Art A c t i v i t i e s to Teachers not f a i r l y of some f a i r l y very no important unimportant importance important important response f f f f f f A c t i v i t y student 0 participation in studio work students showing 0 an awareness of imagery students showing 0 an abi l i ty to use the elements and principles of design students showing 0 an awareness of the use of different materials and techniques teacher 1 demonstrating studio techniques students showing 0 an abi l i ty to use and understand art vocabulary students showing 1 an awareness of his torical and contemporary developments in art students 0 describing art work students 0 explaining art work students 0 evaluating art work students 2 judging art work 15 15 19 14 20 11 24 16 26 31 30 22 25 17 45 44 39 29 32 18 12 Total Responses - 54 81 Using a s c a l e o f "not important" t o "very-important", respondents were asked t o r a t e the degree of importance t o them of v a r i o u s a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t four a c t i v i t i e s t e a c h e r s were asked t o r a t e d e a l t w i t h steps i n the reasoned c r i t i c i s m p rocess as i t i s o u t l i n e d i n the B.C. A r t Cu r r i c u l u m Guide. F i v e (9.4%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they thought t h i s was a " f a i r l y important" s t e p . F i f t e e n (28.3%) respondents i n d i c a t e d d e s c r i b i n g a r t as "of some importance" t o student development and 3 (5.6%) regarded t h i s step as f a i r l y unimportant. No respondents regarded d e s c r i b i n g a r t by students as "not important". There was one (1.8%) "no response" t o t h i s i tem. Students' e v a l u a t i n g a r t work was regarded as 8 (15.3%) respondents t o be "very important". Twenty-f i v e (48%) respondents thought t h i s step was " f a i r l y important" and 14 (26.9%) i n d i c a t e d t h i s step was "of some importance" t o them. F i v e (9.6%) respondents thought e v a l u a t i n g a r t by students was " f a i r l y unimportant" and no respondents regarded t h i s step as "not important". Two (3.7%) respondents d i d not respond t o t h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n . Six (12%) respondents s t a t e d they regarded the judging o f a r t as students t o be "very important". 82 Seventeen (34%) saw t h i s step as " f a i r l y important" and 20 (40%) respondents thought t h i s was of "some importance". Five (10%) teachers indicated t h i s step was " f a i r l y important" and 2 (3.7%) respondents regarded t h i s step as "not important". Four (7.4%) respondents did not answer t h i s item. The l a s t step i n reasoned c r i t i c i s m process as outlined i n the curriculum i s to explain the art work. Twelve (22%) respondents indicated they thought t h i s was "very important" for students. Twenty-two (40.7%) thought t h i s was " f a i r l y important" and 19 (35.1%) thought i t was "of some importance". One (1.8%) respondent though i t was " f a i r l y unimportant" and no teachers regarded t h i s step as of no importance at a l l . The non-response rate was zero. Teacher demonstration of studio techniques was regarded by 32 (59.2%) respondents to be "very important" while 16 (29.6%) respondents indicated t h i s a c t i v i t y was "of some importance" to them and no respondent regarded i t as f a i r l y unimportant". One (1.8%) respondent did not regard demonstrating studio techniques as at a l l important. There was f u l l response to t h i s item. 83 Student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t u d i o work was regarded by 45 (83.3%) respondents t o be "very important" and 9 (16.6%) thought i t was " f a i r l y i m p ortant". No respondents r a t e d t h i s a c t i v i t y with l e s s importance. A l l respondents r e p l i e d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Students' showing an awareness of imagery was regarded by 44 (81%) respondents t o be "very important" and 8 (14.8%) respondents i n d i c a t e d , t o them, t h i s a c t i v i t y was f a i r l y i m p ortant". One (1.8%) respondent s t a t e d t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y was "of some importance" while one (1.8%) thought i t to be " f a i r l y unimportant". No respondent s t a t e d i t was "not important". There was f u l l response t o t h i s i t e m . The use of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f design by students was regarded by 39 (72%) respondents as "very important" while 11 (20.3%) thought t h i s was " f a i r l y i m p ortant". Four (7.4%) respondents c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t o be "of some importance". No respondents r a t e d the use of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f design as l e s s important than t h i s c a t e g o r y . A l l respondents answered t h i s q u e s t i o n . Seven (12.9%) respondents regarded s t u d e n t s ' showing an awareness of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments i n a r t as very important. T h i r t y - o n e 84 (57.4%) thought t h i s was a " f a i r l y important" a c t i v i t y and 15 (27.7%) respondents considered t h i s to be "of some importance". One (1.8%) respondent rated- t h i s a c t i v i t y as " f a i r l y unimportant" and 1 (1.8%) regarded t h i s a c t i v i t y as "not important" at a l l . There was f u l l response to t h i s question. Student use of materials and techniques was considered by 29 (53.7%) respondents to be "very important" while 24 (44.4%) respondents rated t h i s as " f a i r l y important". One (1.8%) respondent indicated t h i s a c t i v i t y was "of some importance". No respondents considered t h i s a c t i v i t y to be less than "of some importance". A l l respondents answered t h i s question. The a b i l i t y to use and understand art vocabulary was a "very important" a c t i v i t y to 18 (33%) respondents. Twenty-six (48.1%) respondents considered t h i s to be a " f a i r l y important" a c t i v i t y . Eight (14.8%) respondents regarded the use and understanding of art vocabulary to be "of some importance" while 2 (3.7%) respondents thought t h i s was " f a i r l y unimportant". No respondents regarded t h i s as a "not important" a c t i v i t y . There was f u l l response to t h i s question. 85 10. Please estimate how frequently you use the following teaching aids when preparing and presenting Art classes. Table 11 Frequency of Use of Teaching Aids never seldom Teaching aids f £ sometimes f often always f f no response personal lesson 1 1 plans based on the curriculum guide 7 22 23 0 f i l m s t r i p s , video 0 3 tapes and films 30 18 3 0 s l i d e s of students' 3 10 work and art reproductions 21 17 3 0 p r i n t e d materials 1 11 such as textbooks, commercial lesson plans 23 13 6 0 computer software 29 10 . 12 2 0 1 Total response - 54 Respondents were asked to indicate the frequency with which they used various teaching aids. They rated the use of the aids from "always" to "never". Three (5.5%) respondents indicated they used f i l m s t r i p s , video tapes, and films " always" while 19 (33.3%) indicated they use them "often". Thirty (55.5%) respondents used these items "sometimes" and 3 (5.5%) respondents used them "seldom". No respondents indicated they "never" use these. teaching aids. A l l 86 respondents answered t h i s item. Slides of student work and of art reproductions were said to be "always" used by 3 (5.5%) respondents and 17 (31.4%) respondents said they used them "often". Twenty-two (38.8%) respondents said they "sometimes" use these aids while 10 (18.5%) said they use them "seldom". Three (5.5%) respondents said they "never" use s l i d e s as a teaching aid. There was f u l l response to t h i s item. Printed materials such as textbooks and commercial lesson plans were said to be "always" used by 6 (11.1%) respondents. Thirteen (24%) respondents said they used the materials "often" while 23 (42.5%) respondents said they used them "sometimes". Eleven (20.3%) respondents rated t h e i r use of these materials as "seldom" and 1 (1.8%) respondent indicated these materials were never used. A l l . respondents provided an answer to t h i s question. No respondents indicated they "always" use computer software as a teaching aid. Two (3.7%) respondents indicated they use a computer "often" and 12 (22.6%) respondents rated t h e i r use to be "sometimes". Ten (18.%) respondents said they "seldom" use a computer while 29 (54.7%) said they "never" use a 87 computer. There was 1 (1.8%) no response to t h i s question. Personal lesson plans based on the curriculum guide were said to be "always" used by 23 (42.5%) respondents and 22 (40.7%) respondents sai d they use them "often". Seven (12.9%) respondents said they "sometimes" use t h i s type of teaching aid and 1 (1.8%) respondent said i t was "seldom" used. One (1.8%) respondent said he "never" uses personal lesson plans. There was f u l l response to t h i s question. 11. Of the teaching aids l i s t e d above, please indicate those not available for your use. Table 12 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Teaching Aids Available to the teacher personal lesson plans based on curriculum guide film strips, video tapes, films textbooks and commercial lesson plans student and art reproduction slides computer software Total response - 54 Yes f 54 54 50 44 22 No no response f f 0 0 0 0 4 0 10 0 32 0 88 The respondents were asked to indicate the a v a i l a b i l i t y of various teaching aids for t h e i r use. Teachers responded with a yes or no answer. A l l respondents said they had f i l m s t r i p s , video tapes and films available for t h e i r use. Forty-four (81.4%) respondents said they had s l i d e s available for t h e i r use while 10 (18.5%) respondents said they did not. Printed materials such as textbooks and commercial lesson plans were available to 50 (92.5%) respondents. Four (7.4%) respondents said they d i d not have these items available. Computer software was said to be available to 22 (40.7%) respondents while 32 (59.2%) respondents said they did not have access to t h i s material. Personal lesson plans based on the curriculum guide were said to be available to a l l respondents. There was f u l l response to t h i s question. 89 12. How long have you been teaching Art courses at the Grade 8-12 level? Table 13 Length of Teaching Experience Years teaching Art f 10 years - 15 years 18 5 years - 10 years 14 more than 15 years 12 less than 3 years 5 3 years - 5 years 5 no response 0 Total response 54 F i v e (9.2%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y have t a u g h t A r t c o u r s e s f o r l e s s t h a n 3 y e a r s w h i l e 5 (9.2%) re s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r A r t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was between 3 t o 5 y e a r s . F o u r t e e n (25.9%) r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h e y had between 5 t o 10 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e and 18 (33.3%) i n d i c a t e d t h e y have 10 t o 15 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . Twelve (22.2%) respond e n t s s a i d t h e y have more t h a n i 5 ye a r s e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g A r t c o u r s e s a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . 90 13. When, d i d you l a s t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n o n - s t u d i o A r t c o u r s e o r workshop? Ta b l e 14 L a s t O p p o r t u n i t y t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n a N o n - s t u d i o Workshop Within the past: f 12 months 34 2 years 6 more than 5 years 6 3 years 3 5 years 3 18 months 1 no response 1 Total response 54 T h i r t y - f o u r (62.9%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y had th e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n o n - s t u d i o c o u r s e o r workshop w i t h i n 12 months o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One (1.8%) respondent s a i d he had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n 18 months w h i l e , 6 (11.1%) respond e n t s s a i d t h e y had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y 2 y e a r s ago. Three (5.5%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d i t had been 5 y e a r s s i n c e t h e y had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and 6 (11.1%) respond e n t s s t a t e d i t had been over 5 y e a r s . 91 14. In reference to question 13: (a) I f you were able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the course or workshop, please describe the. general nature of i t , (b) What courses or workshops would be most useful to you i n teaching your Art course? Forty-one respondents r e p l i e d to part (a) of question 13. The question asked for the general nature of the workshop or course attended and as a r e s u l t there were varied answers. Further t r a i n i n g at the unive r s i t y l e v e l , attending the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Teachers' Association conference, workshops dealing with art history, developing imagery, c r i t i c i s m and t a l k i n g about art were a l l l i s t e d as courses and workshops attended. Respondents also took part i n a c t i v i t i e s dealing with m u l t i c u l t u r a l concerns, art therapy, alternative school art, as well as art and writing. Nineteen respondents indicated non-studio workshops and courses. Twenty-two respondents indicated they took studio type courses varying form watercolour techniques, ceramics, and sketching to computer a r t . Appendix i v 92 gives a complete l i s t of the responses to question 13 (a) . Part (b) of question 13 asked for an in d i c a t i o n of the type of workshop respondents would f i n d most valuable. Thirty-nine respondents r e p l i e d to t h i s question. Suggestions as to the type of workshop which would be considered valuable ranged from an exchange of new techniques and materials for the classroom and new ideas for lesson plans to studio a c t i v i t i e s such as sculpture and computer use i n the classroom. Appendix V gives a complete l i s t of the suggestions for workshops made by the respondents. 15. Do you have access to Art Education p e r i o d i c a l s or journals? Table 15 A c c e s s i b i l i t y to Art Education Literature f art education literature is available 50 art education literature is not available 3 no response 1 Total response 54 93 F i f t y (94.3%) respondents indicated that l i t e r a t u r e on art education i s available for t h e i r use. Three (5.5%) respondents said they d i d not have t h i s material available to them. One (1.8%) respondent did not reply. 15 (a) . I f yes to question 15, what Art Education p e r i o d i c a l or journals have you referred to during the l a s t 12 months? Table 16 L i s t of Literature Referred to by Respondents . F r e q u e n c y o f O s e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 2 7 C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y F o r E d u c a t i o n T h r o u g h A r t J o u r n a l 1 1 A r t E d u c a t i o n 1 0 S c h o o l A r t s 1 0 A r t s a n d A c t i v i t i e s 7 C e r a m i c s M o n t h l y 7 A r t a n d M a n 7 P e n a n d I n k % 6 C a n a d i a n A r t * 5 A m e r i c a n A r t i s t 4 G r a p h i s 3 S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n 3 S t u d i o M a g a z i n e 2 V a n g u a r d 2 J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n 2 A m e r i c a n C r a f t 2 A r t i s t ' s M a g a z i n e 2 A m e r i c a n A r t T h e r a p y 1 A r t i n A m e r i c a 1 A r t N e w s 1 A r t T i m e s 1 A r t s a n d C r a f t s 1 B r i t i s h A r t E d u c a t i o n 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n A r t s 1 C r e a t i v e C o m p u t e r s 1 H a n d w o v e n 1 H o r i z o n s 1 I N S E 1 J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c s a n d A r t C r i t i c i s m 1 P h i D e l t a K a p p a n 1 S a s k a t c h e w a n A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 1 S t u d i o I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1 T h e A r t i s t 1 T o t a l n u m b e r o f r e s p o n s e s 1 1 9 94 Twenty-seven respondents i n d i c a t e d they r e f e r t o the B.C.A.T.A. J o u r n a l while 11 respondents s a i d they r e f e r t o the Canadian S o c i e t y For Educa t i o n Through A r t J o u r n a l . School A r t s and A r t Educa t i o n were s a i d t o be r e f e r r e d t o by 10 respondents. Three j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s r e f l e c t the most f r e q u e n t l y used A r t Education l i t e r a t u r e . 95 CHAPTER V INTERPRETATION AND CROSS-QUESTION REFERENCE This chapter deals with the inter p r e t a t i o n of the findings for each question and includes cross-question referencing to further develop the interpretations. Each question w i l l be dealt with i n the order i t appeared on the questionnaire. A copy of the questionnaire may be found as Appendix I. 1. Is there a copy of the B.C. Art Curriculum guide available for your use during the school year? Question 1 dealt with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Curriculum guide to each respondent. The response indicated that a l l teachers surveyed had available to them copies of the curriculum guide. With t h i s information we can assume that should a teacher not seem to follow the Art curriculum guide i t i s because the teacher i s exercising professional preference, not as a resu l t of a lack of a v a i l a b i l i t y of curriculum content. The influences which aff e c t the choice to diverge from the curriculum may vary greatly among teachers. Fullan (1982) describes the "daily subjective r e a l i t y of teachers", d e t a i l i n g the conditions under which a teacher must work every day. 96 Fullan suggests there i s more going on i n the classroom than covering the curriculum, and that we should be aware of the pressures that are placed on teachers when we are t r y i n g to implement change within the classroom. One respondent's comment on the questionnaire r e f l e c t s Fullan's statement, "as a q u a l i f i e d teacher I know that an increase i n reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s necessary, however I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to carry on discussions with large classes and with the expectation that I w i l l decorate the school etc." 2. Within how many months approximately, did you l a s t refer to the B.C. Art Curriculum guide? Question 2 asked the respondents to indicate when they l a s t used the curriculum guide. Responses indicated that majority of the respondents had used the curriculum guide within the l a s t 6 months. This implies that the guide i s of some use to most teachers surveyed. 97 3. L i s t e d below are t h e components o f t h e B.C. A r t . C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . P l e a s e e s t i m a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f use o f each component. C O M P O N E N T N E V E R S E L D O M S O M E T I M E S O F T E N A L W A Y S A P P L I C A T I O N S [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C R I T I C I S M [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] D E S I G N [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] D E V E L O P M E N T S [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] I M A G E R Y [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] V O C A B U L A R Y [ ] [ ] [ ] [ j [ ] Most r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y used t h e B.C. A r t C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e w i t h average ("sometimes") f r e q u e n c y . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e g u i d e i s a u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s u r v e y e d t e a c h e r s , r a t h e r t h a n an e s s e n t i a l t o o l t o be used e v e r y day. Q u e s t i o n 10 i n q u i r e d as t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f u s i n g v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g a i d s and t h e m a j o r i t y (82.9%) o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l e s s o n p l a n s based on t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e were used " o f t e n " t o "always". T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from q u e s t i o n 12 t h a t 81.2% o f t h e t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d had been t e a c h i n g f o r more t h a n 5 y e a r s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h t h i s l e n g t h o f e x p e r i e n c e , t e n d t o d e v e l o p l e s s o n s based on t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . I t may be t h a t t h e s e are r e - u s e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , perhaps 98 m o d i f i e d t o s u i t t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e c l a s s e s e n c o u n t e r e d . T h i s f i n d i n g t a k e s on more s i g n i f i c a n c e when one i s c o n s i d e r i n g i m p l e m e n t i n g a change t o an e x i s t i n g program, as some t e a c h e r s may be r e l u c t a n t t o a l t e r a program w h i c h has been d e v e l o p e d over many y e a r s . R e s u l t s from q u e s t i o n 11 i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d had l e s s o n p l a n s based on t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e a v a i l a b l e t o them, a l t h o u g h t h e y were not used, on a r e g u l a r b a s i s by a l l t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The component t h a t was most c o n s i s t e n t l y used answered w i t h "always" was t h e Imagery component. A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s (an average o f 2 5 % ) , i n d i c a t e d t h e D e s i g n , A p p l i c a t i o n s , and V o c a b u l a r y components were "always" used. S i n c e t h e s e components are a l l r e l a t e d t o t h e a r t making p r o c e s s , an i n f e r e n c e can be made t h a t s t u d i o work i s v e r y much a p a r t o f A r t c o u r s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f Q u e s t i o n 9 which d e a l w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f A r t a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e t e a c h e r . The f i n d i n g s o f q u e s t i o n 9 d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t u d i o work, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u r v e y e d t e a c h e r s , showing an awareness o f imagery and t h e a b i l i t y t o use t h e elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n 99 were of the g r e a t e s t importance. I t should be noted t h a t i n q u e s t i o n 3, c l o s e t o h a l f the respondents i n d i c a t e d they use the A p p l i c a t i o n component "sometimes". I t can be surmised t h a t , as most a r t te a c h e r s have a found a t i o n i n s t u d i o work, frequent c o n s u l t a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m guide on t h i s aspect of p r o d u c t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r y . A l s o , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , a r t courses c o n s i s t e d mainly of s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s , and s i n c e many of the t e a c h e r s surveyed have taught f o r over 5 y e a r s , they would have i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a b a t t e r y o f s t u d i o l e s s o n p l a n s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l which have been t r i e d and have proven s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s l e s s e n s the need f o r frequent c o n s u l t a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . The g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s (46.1%) i n d i c a t e d they use the C r i t i c i s m and the H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Development components "sometimes". T h i s f i n d i n g tends t o i n d i c a t e t h a t non-studio a c t i v i t i e s are not a c e n t r a l focus of A r t classrooms. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one f i n d i n g from Question 9, which asked teac h e r s t o r a t e the importance of s p e c i f i c classroom a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b i n g the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process r e c e i v e d a lower r a t i n g i n importance than those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d i o 100 a c t i v i t i e s . It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that i n Question 3, of those respondents who rated t h e i r use of the C r i t i c i s m component, 30% indicated they use t h i s section "seldom" or "never". This was the highest percentage received by any component i n the "seldom to never" rating . This further suggests a lack of teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m as outlined i n the curriculum guide. 4. The B.C. Art Curriculum guide describes reasoned  c r i t i c i s m as "selecting and recording information but also r e f l e c t i n g upon i t , making judgments about i t , and o f f e r i n g explanation for those judgments." What percentage of time, on an average, over a semester or 10 month term, would be spent, formally or informally, per class on reasoned c r i t i c i s m ? not Pv.nr.VKTt.av. nv T T M P Classes applicable 5% 10% 15% 20% more Grade 8 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Grade 9 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Grade 10 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Grade 11 [ ] . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Grade 12 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 101 Question 4 asked respondents to estimate the amount of time they spend teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m at each course l e v e l . Several respondents indicated they had d i f f i c u l t y answering t h i s question because of the need to separate a c t i v i t i e s into percentages of time. These teachers are r e f e r r i n g to the active nature of an art classroom which often comprises several events occurring simultaneously or i n close alternation. It becomes d i f f i c u l t to pinpoint how many times a topic such as reasoned c r i t i c i s m may be touched on during a cla s s . While responses to question 4 are estimates only, t h i s information can be valuable i n that i t provides a sense of how much teachers regard reasoned c r i t i c i s m as a part of t h e i r art programs. Those who attribute a low percentage can be thought of as not interested i n including reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of t h e i r art programs. The findings imply that Art teachers at the junior secondary l e v e l spend less time teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m then do those who teach at the senior secondary art course l e v e l . Eighty percent of the surveyed Art teachers who teach at the grade 8 and 9 l e v e l estimate they spend 5% to 10% of class time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . S i x t y - f i v e percent of the 102 respondents who teach Art at the grade 10 l e v e l estimate they spend 5%-10% on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . As a comparison, 38% of teachers at the grade 11 and 12 levels spend t h i s amount of time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . This implies that the "tal k i n g " about art becomes more possible as an increase i n student commitment to the subject occurs. Or i t may be a general outcome of maturation. Or i t may be that the e l e c t i v e nature of art i n Grades 11 and 12 means that students are involved i n those subject areas holding most intere s t for them. 5. How frequently do you hear the following types of statements made by the students i n your classroom? S T A T E M E N T N E V E R S E L D O M S O M E T I M E S O F T E N A L W A Y S I l i k e i t ! [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] I l i k e t h a t [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] b e c a u s e . . . T h a t l o o k l i k e ( ] [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] a P i c a s s o ( o r s o m e o t h e r w e l l k n o w n a r t i s t ) I t h i n k t h e [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] a r t i s t u s e d d a r k b l u e c o l o u r s t o s h o w t h a t h e f e l t s a d a n d m a y b e d e p r e s s e d a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . 103 The respondents most often (67%) heard t h e i r students make comments which did not r e f l e c t exposure to reasoned c r i t i c i s m teaching although the findings indicate that statements . r e f l e c t i n g the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process were sometimes heard. One respondent stated that i f the students were encouraged to make reasoned responses they did so, such as for assignments or projects, but t h i s did not occur v o l u n t a r i l y . The inference i s that the students were able to use the process but i t had not yet become a natural form of response. This finding seemed to be the case i n spite of the length of time spent on teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m or the course l e v e l . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the statement least l i k e l y to be heard i s one which includes a d i r e c t reference to an a r t i s t . This could be interpreted as showing a lack of knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l developments i n art, therefore preventing students from making comparisons between a r t i s t i c styles and t r a d i t i o n s when describing a r t . 6. Stated below are some ways c r i t i c i s m may occur i n a classroom. Please indicate the frequency each would occur i n your Art classes. CRITICISM FORM NEVER SELDOM SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS a class discussion of a [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] student's work led by the teacher as a form of evaluation to determine a mark. a class discussion led by [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] the teacher describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. a class discussion led by [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] a student describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. the discussion of a [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] student's work between the teacher and the student as a form of evaluation to determine a mark. a discussion among students [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. a discussion among students [ 3 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining a student's work. a discussion between teacher [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] and a student specif ically describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining the student's work. The findings indicate form of evaluation i s the c r i t i c i s m i n the classroom, technique i s used i n the f that using c r i t i c i s m as a most common expression of C r i t i c i s m as an evaluation rm of a discussion between 105 the teacher and student about the student's work. No s p e c i f i c discussion format was described so i t i s unclear as to how or when evaluation would take place. The next most frequently used form of c r i t i c i s m was between the teacher and the student, s p e c i f i c a l l y using the c r i t i c i s m format as i t i s described i n the curriculum guide: that i s , describing, evaluating, judging and explaining the student's work. A formal way of exposing students to the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process i s through a step-by-step lecture format to the entire class; an informal way would be i n the form of a discussion between the teacher and student without formally touching on each step i n the process. This strategy could be regarded, as described by one respondent, as "coming at i t (reasoned c r i t i c i s m ) sideways". A class discussion led by the teacher describing, evaluating, judging and explaining an art reproduction i s a more formal, lecture s t y l e presentation of the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process. This was sometimes used by the respondents but not with great frequency. A student, rather than the teacher, leading discussions about art reproductions was again used at times but not with any frequency. The responses of the surveyed teachers give the impression that both formal and informal presentations of reasoned c r i t i c i s m are used. Although evidence i s not available that describes how or when formal and informal presentations are used i t i s possible to speculate how t h i s might occur. Perhaps a formal presentation of the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m may introduce the concept to the students. This might be followed by the teacher employing the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process on an informal basis s p e c i f i c a l l y when discussing a student's work. This would reinforce the material covered i n the lecture by applying the process where appropriate. Sometimes students w i l l be responsible for discussions of art reproductions using the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process among the class or i n small group situations as a form of assignment or project. It should be noted that a s i g n i f i c a n t number of respondents (30%) were strongly against using student work as a focus for a class discussion as a method of determining a mark. The implication of t h i s finding i s that there i s a protective sense that a teacher develops toward a student which can i n h i b i t that evaluation of a student's work by t h i s method. 107 7. L i s t e d below are Art classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Please estimate the percentage of time, averaged over a semester or 10 month term that you would spend on each a c t i v i t y . A C T I V I T Y 5 % 1 0 % 1 5 % 2 0 % m o r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u s i n e s s ( a t t e n d a n c e , a n n o u n c e m e n t s ) [ ] [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 T e a c h i n g a n d a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h s t u d i o w o r k [ ] [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 I 3 S t u d i o p r e p a r a t i o n a n d s t u d i o c l e a n - u p [ ] [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 T e a c h i n g h i s t o r i c a l a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d g i v i n g s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h i s a r e a [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 t 3 [ 3 t e a c h i n g r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m a n d g i v i n g s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h i s a r e a . [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 [ 3 As estimated by the respondents, the least amount of classroom time i s spent on the administrative business that must be conducted such as attendance, reading announcements and reminding students of assignment deadlines and the l i k e . Respondents who indicated they spend 20% of classroom time on administrative business included comments showing they consider the inevitable tasks of school decoration or making posters to be part of administrative business. The area on which the next greatest number of 108 respondents spent the l e a s t amount of time was reasoned c r i t i c i s m . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f q u e s t i o n 4 which asked t e a c h e r s t o estimate the amount of time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m per course, but i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f q u e s t i o n 9 which asks the teacher t o i n d i c a t e the importance, t o them, of v a r i o u s classroom a c t i v i t i e s . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of respondents thought the steps i n the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process were f a i r l y important. Thus t h e r e appears t o be a di s c r e p a n c y between the estimated amount o f time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m and the degree of importance granted t o i t by the surveyed t e a c h e r s . On one hand teach e r s are s a y i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s important but on the other hand evidence seems t o show l i t t l e time i s spent t e a c h i n g t h i s p a r t o f the a r t course. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s c o u l d be although t h e r e i s evidence from q u e s t i o n 6 t h a t reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s a p a r t of a r t programs, a l b e i t i n an i n f o r m a l way, respondents are not c o n s i d e r i n g i n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n as t e a c h i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m . T h erefore they are not t a k i n g t h i s a c t i v i t y i n t o account when asked t o estimate the amount of time t h a t i s spent t e a c h i n g reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Perhaps t e a c h e r s 109 f e e l that to present the materials i n the C r i t i c i s m components of the curriculum guide properly, a formal lecture to the entire class i s c a l l e d f or. One respondent's comment i s almost a defense of the informal approach to reasoned c r i t i c i s m : "Although a l l are required to do 1 written paper each of 4 terms per year, the vast amount of reasoned c r i t i c i s m takes place i n d i v i d u a l l y and sometimes quite casually. I believe that a non-grandstand approach i s quite acceptable for my s i t u a t i o n " . It i s possible therefore that some teachers are presenting to t h e i r students the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process more often than they r e a l i z e . This p o s s i b i l i t y takes on more v a l i d i t y i f one believes, as t h i s investigator does, that teachers w i l l i n t u i t i v e l y teach those things which they consider to be important. 110 8. I f the requirements for graduation changed to include at least one Art course, to be taken grades 8-12, would the time spent on the classroom a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n question 7 change? No, i t would not change [ ] Yes, i t would change to: A C T I V I T Y 5 % 1 0 % 1 5 % 2 0 % m o r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u s i n e s s [ ] ( a t t e n d a n c e , a n n o u n c e m e n t s ) [ 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] T e a c h i n g a n d a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s [ ] w i t h s t u d i o w o r k [ 1 ( ] [ 1 [ ] S t u d i o p r e p a r a t i o n a n d [ ] s t u d i o c l e a n - u p [ J [ ] [ ] [ ] T e a c h i n g h i s t o r i c a l a n d [ ] c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d g i v i n g s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h i s a r e a [ .] [ ] [ ] [ ] T e a c h i n g r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m [ ] a n d g i v i n g s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h i s a r e a . [ ] [ ] t ] ( ] Most teachers indicated that they would not a l t e r the time a l l o t t e d to each component of the course i f graduation requirement changed. This implies that these respondents f e e l that an adequate d i s t r i b u t i o n of course time i s presently i n e f f e c t . It i s apparent that studio biased art courses are the intent of these teachers and non-studio a c t i v i t i e s are covered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to them i n the time a l l o t t e d . It may I l l also mean that teachers are s u f f i c i e n t l y confident that graduation requirements w i l l not change, that they do not give a l t e r n a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n serious consideration. The most s i g n i f i c a n t change which would occur i s that more time would be spent on the H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Developments component and on the C r i t i c i s m component, and less time would be spent on studio related a c t i v i t i e s . The most frequent comment r e f l e c t e d the f e e l i n g of respondents i s that with a "captive" audience fewer studio related a c t i v i t i e s would be possible. These comments imply that some respondents f e e l i t i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to include more theory related a c t i v i t i e s , but that the expectation of the students to be involved i n studio a c t i v i t i e s for most of t h e i r class time must be met to a large degree. The r e a l i t y for e l e c t i v e course teachers i s that as the number of students enrolled of classes offered must be made. This presents the p o s s i b i l i t y of having to teach classes outside the teacher's area of expertise, or, more d r a s t i c a l l y , l osing one's teaching p o s i t i o n . 112 9. Please indicate the importance of the following Art course a c t i v i t i e s to you. ACTIVITY NOT FAIRLY OF SOME IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT IMPORTANCE FAIRLY IMPORTANT VERY IMPORTANT students describing art work. t ] [ ] I ] [ ] t ] students evaluating art work. t ] [ ] [ 1 [ ] [ 3 students judging art work. t ] [ ] [ 1 [ ] [ ] students explaining art work. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] teacher demonstrating studio techniques. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 1 student participation in studio work. ' [ ] ( ] t ] [ ] [ ] students showing an awareness of imagery [ ] t ] [ ] [ ] [ ] students showing an abi l i ty to use the elements and principles of design [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] t ] students showing an awareness of historical and contemporary developments in art . [ 1 •[ ] [ ] ( 1 [ 1 students showing an awareness of the use of different materials and techniques. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] abi l i ty to use and understand art vocabulary The results of t h i s question indicate that most respondents (83.3%) consider studio related a c t i v i t i e s to be of greatest importance. Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n studio a c t i v i t i e s and students showing an awareness of imagery were most important to the respondents. 113 Students showing an a b i l i t y to use the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and teachers demonstrating studio techniques were regarded by over 60% of the respondents as very important. This i s consistent with the res u l t s of question 7, which indicate that most respondents spend the greater part of class time on studio a c t i v i t i e s . In spite of the apparent stress on studio work i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the steps i n the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process were rated as being of more than some importance by the majority of the teachers. Question 7 findings show that only 5%-10% of class time i s estimated by over h a l f the respondents as occupied with the teaching of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . As suggested e a r l i e r , t h i s discrepancy may be due to a difference i n defining when the a c t i v i t y of teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s occurring. It would seem teachers consider presenting a formal lesson on reasoned c r i t i c i s m as the most appropriate teaching methodology. The step i n the reasoned c r i t i c i s m process which c a l l e d for students to judge art work received more non-responses than did the other steps. As well, t h i s step received the greatest number of responses i n the not important and f a i r l y unimportant categories. This 114 may imply that respondents do not regard t h i s step as important. Another explanation i s that respondents f e l t t h e i r students were not equipped to make such pronouncements with the s k i l l s they had developed thus fa r . 10. Please estimate how frequently you use the following teaching aids when preparing and presenting your Act classes. T E A C H I N G A I D S N E V E R S E L D O M S O M E T I M E S O F T E N A L W A Y S film strips, video tapes, [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] and films slides of student work [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] and art reproductions printed materials such as [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] textbooks, commercial lesson plans. computer software . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] personal lesson plans [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] based on the curriculum guide Personal lesson plans based on the curriculum guide represented the most frequently used teaching aid. Approximately 83% of the respondents indicated they use these often to always. This implies that most of the respondents are following the course outlines to some degree. 115 Film s t r i p s , video tapes and films were used frequently with s l i d e s of art work and printed materials c l o s e l y following i n frequency of use. This information suggests that teachers tend to rel y on t h e i r own course material but w i l l augment i t s use with other aids. One would expect that i f reasoned c r i t i c i s m presented i n a formal lecture was a common occurrence, then the use of v i s u a l teaching aids would be correspondingly more frequent. The teaching aid that was used least was computer software. The res u l t of question 11 indicates that over h a l f the respondents did not have a computer available to them. Question 13(b), findings indicate that many teachers would l i k e workshops and courses offered on the use of the computer. Much of the software available to art teachers deals with studio work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Graphics, but the p o t e n t i a l for the computer to be used as a teaching resource i n the area of art history and reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s largely unrealized. 11. Of the teaching aids l i s t e d above, please indicate those not available for your use. 116 TEACHING AIDS film strips, video tapes, and films slides of student work and art reproductions printed materials such as textbooks, commercial lesson plans computer software personal lesson plans based on the curriculum guide A l l respondents indicated they had personal lesson plans and films, video tapes and f i l m s t r i p s available for t h e i r use. The majority of respondents did not have computers available, i n d i c a t i n g that most schools are not yet equipped with computers i n the Art area. This i s l i k e l y due to the high cost of suitable computer equipment, which i s p r o h i b i t i v e to most school art budgets. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that 18% of the respondents did not have a s l i d e c o l l e c t i o n available for t h e i r use. This gives an in d i c a t i o n of how ind i v i d u a l school situations can d i f f e r , as a s l i d e c o l l e c t i o n of both commercially prepared packages and those gathered by the teacher i s often considered to be a basic necessity of an art department. 12. How long have you been teaching Art courses at the 117 grade 8-12 level? Y E A R S O F T E A C H I N G A R T : l e s s t h a n 3 y e a r s 3 - 5 y e a r s 5 - 1 0 y e a r s 1 0 - 1 5 y e a r s m o r e t h a n 1 5 y e a r s Over 80% of the respondents have 5 to 10 years of art teaching experience. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , over h a l f have more than 10 years of teaching experience. The implications of t h i s are important, as the years of teaching gives some in d i c a t i o n as to when the teacher may have l a s t been i n contact with educational developments. Teachers who have recently attended university have had more opportunities to become aware of new trends i n teaching and therefore may be more open to including less studio related a c t i v i t i e s . The findings i n Question 13 indicate that most respondents l a s t had an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a workshop of course within the l a s t 12 months. This information does not support the notion that years of teaching experience can be a measure of the most recent contact with new educational theories. The determining factor would be the type of workshop or course i n which the respondent was a par t i c i p a n t . 118 Two f a c t o r s c o u l d p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the h i g h d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s w i t h over 5 years e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t s e v e r a l years ago B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s underwent s e v e r a l cutbacks on e d u c a t i o n a l budgets. The e f f e c t of the cutbacks was f e l t by most programs, wi t h the r e s u l t t h a t f o r v a r i o u s reasons fewer e l e c t i v e courses c o u l d be o f f e r e d . Teachers who were e s t a b l i s h e d at t h a t time were able to m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , but t h e r e was l i t t l e need t o h i r e , a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s q u e s t i o n seem to r e f l e c t the gap i n h i r i n g at the time of budget cutbacks. At t h i s time i n B r i t i s h Columbia the requirements f o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n are becoming more s p e c i f i c . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students to e n r o l l i n e l e c t i v e courses i s d i m i n i s h i n g as g r a d u a t i o n requirements must be met. Because of t h i s t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e d u c t i o n i n the number of e l e c t i v e c l a s s e s o f f e r e d as the demand f o r them decreases. A r t programs have not escaped the e f f e c t s of t i g h t e n e d g r a d u a t i o n requirements and as a r e s u l t the decrease i n demand i s r e f l e c t e d i n the number of new t e a c h e r s who are h i r e d by school d i s t r i c t s . 119 13. When d i d you l a s t have the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a non-studio Art course or workshop? W I T H I N T H E P A S T : 12 months • [ ] . 18 months [ j 2 years [ j 3 years [ ] 5 years [ j more than 5 years [ ] The majority of the respondents had p a r t i c i p a t e d in a workshop or course within the l a s t 12 months. Although the question s p e c i f i c a l l y asked for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a non-studio course, findings from question 14 indicate that most respondents were actually involved i n studio workshops. That the respondents were involved i n any type of Art course or workshop implies that maintaining contact with other art teachers and continued professional development i s important to the surveyed teachers. It i s important to r e c a l l that the respondents are a l l members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Teachers' Association and t h i s may r e f l e c t a continued interest in professional development. 14. In reference to question 13: 120 (a) i f you were able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the course or workshop, please describe the general nature of i t . (b) What courses or workshops would be most useful to you i n teaching your Art courses? Question 14 (a) asked respondents to describe the type of workshop that was attended. The majority of the respondents attended studio workshops. This seems to r e f l e c t a greater interest i n studio a c t i v i t i e s but t h i s could also simply r e f l e c t the courses and workshops that were available to the respondents. The non-studio workshops that were attended are varied. The greatest number of respondents had attended an art history workshop given by Canadian Art Historian Annie Smith at a B.C.A.T.A. conference. Further university education r e f l e c t e d the next greatest involvement by the respondents. Individual respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n various other workshops from art therapy, multiculturalism, developing imagery to scope and sequence development for grade 7 to grade 8. One respondent indicated p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a C r i t i c i s m and Talking About Art workshop. The impressive finding of t h i s question i s there are so many d i f f e r e n t workshop opportunities 121 available for teachers. This seems to be the case i n larger school d i s t r i c t s , however, since several teachers from more remote areas expressed f r u s t r a t i o n that nothing was available to them i n t h e i r locations. The majority of the respondents expressed an interest i n attending studio workshops. It seems most of the surveyed teachers are searching for new materials and techniques for teaching studio a c t i v i t i e s . Although some interest i n art history and c r i t i c i s m teaching methods was indicated, i t seems that studio work i s very much the focus of the surveyed teachers. 15. Do you have access to Art Education p e r i o d i c a l s or journals? YES [ ] NO [ ] I f yes, to question 15 what Art Education p e r i o d i c a l s or journals have you referred to during the l a s t 12 months? 122 More than 90% of the respondents indicated they had educational journals and pe r i o d i c a l s available for t h e i r use and as members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Teachers' Association, a l l respondents received the B.C.A.T.A. journal. The majority of other p e r i o d i c a l s were related to studio a c t i v i t i e s . It i s l i k e l y that c r i t i c i s m topics may be encountered i n studio magazines, but i t may be l i k e l y that d i r e c t application could be made to the classroom. This, however, does expose teachers to the use of c r i t i c i s m i n studio areas, perhaps as a culminating a c t i v i t y to the art making process. 123 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents an overview of the contents of Chapters 1 to 5. There i s a restatement of the problem and research questions, followed by a summary of the findings. Conclusions are drawn and the chapter i s concluded with implications for classroom practice. Restatement of the problem and research questions As a group, art teachers by t h e i r acceptance of the new B r i t i s h Columbia Art Curriculum have indicated t h e i r willingness to implement an integrated art program. Reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s an es s e n t i a l component of an integrated art program and t h i s study i s p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with how t h i s aspect i s taught and the extent to which art teachers are prepared to include reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of t h e i r programs. Chapter 1 discussed the goals of the B.C. Art Curriculum and also the learning outcomes which might lead to the achievement of the goals. The importance of a curriculum guide as a resource and reference was discussed, as reasoned c r i t i c i s m may be unfamiliar to some teachers. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , art courses have been studio based. Chapter 1 discussed possible reasons why t h i s s t i l l may be the case. 124 The f o l l o w i n g i s a restatement of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 1. To what extent i s reasoned c r i t i c i s m c l aimed t o be a p a r t of a r t programs i n s e l e c t e d h i g h schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. How do s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t reasoned c r i t i c i s m as p a r t of t h e i r t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? 3. To what extent do s e l e c t e d a r t t e a c h e r s use the reasoned c r i t i c i s m component of the c u r r i c u l u m guide? T h i s study used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r data c o l l e c t i o n procedures i n both a p i l o t and f i n a l s tudy. A t o t a l of 54 h i g h s c h o o l a r t t e a c h e r s from v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B.C. responded to f o r the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Chapter 2 reviewed l i t e r a t u r e on the meaning of reasoned c r i t i c i s m and a l s o p r o v i d e d a review of reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . I t was found t h a t although a r t c r i t i c i s m had been mentioned i n c u r r i c u l a i t was not u n t i l the mid-1960s t h a t i t became re c o g n i z e d as an e s s e n t i a l element. The Penn State Seminar of 1965 i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the f o u n d a t i o n f o r many of the models o f a r t e d u c a t i o n c u r r e n t l y i n use. 125 The work of the CEMREL Aesthetic Education program, SWRL and other curriculum development projects have provided models for art programs which include a c r i t i c a l element. The Getty Center's endorsement of discipline-based art education i s the l a t e s t e f f o r t to achieve integrated art programs i n the United States. Chapter 3 described the conduct of the study, and detailed the administration of the questionnaire. Chapter 4 presented the findings of the study i n the order of the questions as presented on the questionnaire. Chapter 5 presented an inter p r e t a t i o n of the findings by discussing the responses to each question and by cross-question referencing of the responses. Summary o f t h e F i n d i n g s 1. The extent to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s claimed to be part of the art program A review of the questions which asked respondents to estimate the amount of time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m per class, the frequency with which statements with supportive reasons for opinions are heard by teachers, the degree of change teachers think they would make to the amount of time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m i f an art became a required course, and the 126 degree of importance teachers grant to the stages i n the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m help to provide an indi c a t i o n of the extent to which reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s claimed to be a part of art programs. The findings indicate teachers spend less time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m at the junior high l e v e l than i s spent at the senior l e v e l . Overall, the majority of respondents said they spend 10% or less time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m on an average per cla s s . The estimate of the amount of time spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s based on the perception of the teacher; i t may be that the teacher i s spending more, or less time on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . Teachers indicated that the most frequently heard statement made by students were those which did not include supportive reasons for opinions. This i s a possible i n d i c a t i o n that students are not encouraged to give such statements when responding to ar t . One must remember however that the students are adolescents, which i s an important factor when considering the type of statements made. Adolescents, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the early teens tend to be dogmatic and assertive i n t h e i r responses to many issues. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that approximately one t h i r d of the respondents never 127 or seldom heard t h e i r students make supportive-statements which indicated knowledge of the work of well known a r t i s t s , or made int e r p r e t i v e statements about the work viewed. It seems from the responses that the majority of teachers are s a t i s f i e d with the amount of time that i s spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . When given the opportunity to estimate the amount of time that would be spent on classroom a c t i v i t i e s i f the status of art course changed to be a required course for graduation, more than h a l f the teachers said- they would not change the d i s t r i b u t i o n of time. This, however could also indicate that teachers regard the l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s s i t u a t i o n to be so remote that they do not give the question serious consideration. The teachers who did indicate a change would be made gave the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains the greatest increase i n time. In terms of reasoned c r i t i c i s m s p e c i f i c a l l y , these teachers indicated that 20% of class time would be given to reasoned c r i t i c i s m . There seemed to be l i t t l e discrepancy between the degree of importance given to the stages of the c r i t i c a l process by the teacher and the amount of time that was estimated as spent on reasoned c r i t i c i s m . 128 T e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t a g e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a s o n i n g c r i t i c a l l y w e r e o f s o m e i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s i s a n e x p e c t e d r e s p o n s e , a s i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y t e a c h e r w o u l d d i s p u t e t h e n o t i o n t h a t t o d e s c r i b e , e v a l u a t e , e x p l a i n a n d j u d g e a r t w o r k i s u n i m p o r t a n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t d e s c r i b i n g a r t w o r k w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s t a g e , w h i l e t h e j u d g i n g a n d e x p l a i n i n g o f a r t w o r k w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e l e a s t v a l u a b l e s t a g e s . A s u m m a r y o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n s p i t e o f t e a c h e r s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e B . C . S e c o n d a r y a r t c u r r i c u l u m , t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m i s n o t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a r t p r o g r a m s . H o w r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s p a r t o f t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s O n e o f t h e f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g h o w t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m i s t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d o n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s b y t h e t e a c h e r . R e s p o n s e s t o t h i s s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r w a s s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t u d i o w o r k . A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o s t u d i o w o r k , s u c h a s a w a r e n e s s o f i m a g e r y , u s e o f t h e e l e m e n t s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , a n d u s e o f m a t e r i a l s 129 were also considered to be very important. When respondents estimated the amount of time spent on classroom a c t i v i t i e s , studio a c t i v i t i e s received the most time, while teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m was second only to administrative a c t i v i t i e s i n receiving the least amount of time. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents indicated that t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of time would probably not change i f art courses became mandatory for graduation. The form c r i t i c i s m most often takes as part of a class i s as a form of evaluation to determine a mark, between the student and the teacher, on a one-to-one basis. Teachers also indicated that reasoned c r i t i c i s m takes place as part of the d a i l y interchange between the student and teacher when discussing a student's work i n progress. This can be interpreted as an in d i c a t i o n that reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s informally presented as part of studio a c t i v i t i e s . A formal presentation might take the form of a discussion between the teacher and the class of an art work, with each stage i n the process of reasoning c r i t i c a l l y presented. Most respondents indicated they sometimes or often present reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n a formal way. A determining factor i n how teachers would interpret 130 reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of t h e i r art programs would be t h e i r degree of f a m i l i a r i t y with the concept. A review of the t i t l e s l i s t e d as available art education l i t e r a t u r e shows that while many respondents receive art education research 'literature and therefore would be aware of current writing on implementing c r i t i c i s m as a part of art programs, the bulk of the l i t e r a t u r e l i s t e d consists of studio related magazines. A l l respondents as members of the B.C.A.T.A. receive the association's professional journal which has i n the past addressed the topic of art c r i t i c i s m implementation (B.C.A.T.A. Journal, Vol. 23[2]). A review of. the l i s t of workshops and courses taken within the l a s t f i v e years shows that most art teachers p a r t i c i p a t e i n studio related professional development. A v a i l a b i l i t y of courses l i m i t s the type to be taken but the inference i s that studio courses are i n demand. A review of the l i s t of courses teachers would l i k e to take indicates there i s interest i n learning more about the implementation of the curriculum, p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l components. In summary i t seems teachers interpret reasoned c r i t i c i s m as part of t h e i r studio programs, and i t i s 131 presented most often on an informal basis. The extent teachers use the reasoned c r i t i c i s m component of the curriculum guide Response to the survey indicates that the curriculum guide i s available to a l l teachers and was used by almost h a l f the teachers within a month p r i o r to responding to the questionnaire. This tends to indicate that the curriculum guide i s a worthwhile resource and that teachers are aware of the curriculum contents. Further findings show that components of the guide referred to most often are related to the production experience. The c r i t i c i s m component was used by approximately half the respondents on an i r r e g u l a r basis while over one t h i r d of the respondents indicated they never or seldom use t h i s part of the curriculum. This could indicate that the c r i t i c i s m component i s not useful to the teachers or that the teachers had no need to refer to t h i s section. If reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s most frequently presented by informal methods then perhaps t h i s accounts for the lack of use of the c r i t i c i s m component of the curriculum guide. 132 In summary these findings tend to indicate the reasoned c r i t i c i s m component i s not used extensively by the respondents. Conclusions The following i s a summary of the major conclusions that can be drawn on the findings of t h i s study. Although these conclusions are based on a small survey sample i t can give an in d i c a t i o n of how close we are to achieving the goals outlined i n the curriculum guide. 1. Art programs i n B.C. focus on studio experiences. 2. The most important a c t i v i t y to art teachers i s the development of studio s k i l l s . 3. Reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s taught on an informal basis. 4. Reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s more often a part of art programs at the senior high school l e v e l than at the junior high l e v e l . 5. The importance of developing the a b i l i t y to reason c r i t i c a l l y i s not f u l l y recognized by most art teachers. 6. There i s a need for continued in-service on the implementation of the curriculum. 133 7 . The e l e c t i v e nature o f a r t courses i n f l u e n c e s the course c o n t e n t . 8. Teaching a r t i s an i d i o s y n c r a t i c a c t i v i t y . Implications for Classroom Practice A study o f t h i s nature does not p r o v i d e a r t teache r s with m a t e r i a l t h a t can be taken d i r e c t l y i n t o the classroom t o become p a r t o f the t e a c h i n g r e p e r t o i r e but i t does p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used t o b e n e f i t the classroom. Information g a t h e r i n g r e s e a r c h , as i s t h i s study, i s v a l u a b l e because i t p r o v i d e s data on which t o base f u t u r e work. Researchers, r a t h e r than s p e c u l a t i n g about what goes on i n the classroom, can use the data as an i n d i c a t i o n o f what i s i n f a c t o c c u r r i n g i n some a r t c l a s s e s . A major i m p l i c a t i o n f o r classrooms can be drawn from the f i n d i n g s o f the study. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a r t c l a s s e s i n B.C. are not s u b j e c t e d t o i n t e g r a t e d a r t programs. The i n f e r e n c e t h a t can be made i s t h a t the goals o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide are not b e i n g met. A r t te a c h e r s might p r o f i t a b l y r e -assess t h e i r u l t i m a t e goals f o r the c u r r i c u l u m ; and i f the g o a l remains to develop a d u l t s who are aware and a p p r e c i a t e a l l aspects o f the a r t s then some a c t i o n s must be taken t o c o r r e c t the a c u r r e n t imbalance. 134 An underlying assumption of the new curriculum i s that art teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia do want integrated art programs. One interpretation of the data i n t h i s study tends to show t h i s assumption i s incorrect, as i t seems teachers are not implementing the integrated art curriculum. But i t i s t h i s researcher's opinion, through int e r p r e t i n g the data, by assessing the comments of the respondents and by reviewing the l i s t of suggestions for workshops that teachers do wish to f u l f i l l the aim of the curriculum. What seems to be required i s more in-service on how t h i s can be accomplished. Fullan states that studies have found in-service i s a key factor i n teachers' adaptation to change (1982). He states there i s no underestimating the e f f e c t of teacher in t e r a c t i o n on the acceptance of changes. Workshops, group discussions, one-to-one talks w i l l give the teachers opportunities to exchange ideas, ask questions about the changes proposed, learn how to adapt the changes to t h e i r own programs and determine, i f indeed they want to adopt the changes. It becomes the teachers' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n these discussions and to be open-minded about proposed changes, rather than merely dismissing 135 any notion of a l t e r i n g set programs. Day (1984) posited the reason for the lack of inclusion of h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l elements i n some schools i n Milwaukee, was due not to lack of inte r e s t of students but because teachers were not prepared to teach i n these areas, due to backgrounds which emphasized studio aspects. If i t can be assumed that teachers w i l l teach those things with which they are most fa m i l i a r , then school d i s t r i c t s and the Ministry of Education should accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of providing professional development opportunities to broaden teachers' knowledge. This could be i n the form of workshops and release time from classes so that teachers may pursue s p e c i f i c topics of i n t e r e s t . Frequent opportunities to take part i n professional development i s important and teachers should be encouraged to become involved i n such a c t i v i t i e s as participants and also as workshop leaders. A review of the suggestions made by teachers for workshops (Appendix V) shows a keen interest on the part of teachers to have more workshops which have p r a c t i c a l classroom applications. Who better to give t h i s type of information than teachers themselves? Every school d i s t r i c t should have master teachers whose 136 knowledge and experience can be shared by others. In terms of art c r i t i c i s m , a master teacher could demonstrate how the successful integration i n t h i s area might be accomplished. Fullan (1982) points out, however, that although having p r a c t i c a l examples i s important to f u l l implementation, there must also be further development of the understanding of the concepts on which the change i s based. In terms of reasoned c r i t i c i s m as a part of art programs, teachers must have examples of how t h i s can be accomplished i n the classroom. They must also have an understanding of why i t i s valuable to do so. Many art teachers have experienced university education that i s primarily studio based and they are a r t i s t s themselves. Thus they enter the f i e l d with the expectation that the teaching of art involves only studio. Gray (1987) has found that "what teachers don't understand or can't read i l y transform, they w i l l ignore; worse yet, they w i l l t r y, and then when perceiving f a i l u r e , the w i l l condemn, based on t h e i r own good reasons" (p.56) . Although Gray i s r e f e r r i n g to the teaching of aesthetics i n the context of D-BAE, the statement could be applied to reasoned c r i t i c i s m . In-service i n t h i s case could a l l e v i a t e the problem 137 t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n f a c e . More i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s would a d d r e s s many o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t were drawn from t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . The s t a t u s o f a r t as an e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t a r e a has l o n g been a con c e r n o f a r t t e a c h e r s . C h a p t e r 1 d i s c u s s e d c o n s t r a i n t s some a r t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e as b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t because o f a r t ' s e l e c t i v e s t a t u s . I n a d d i t i o n , some a r t t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t because o f t h e p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on t h e s t u d e n t s f o r g r a d u a t i o n and because u n i v e r s i t i e s do not r e c o g n i z e a r t c o u r s e c r e d i t s f o r a d m i s s i o n , fewer s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o i n c l u d e a r t as p a r t o f t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . There a r e p r e s s u r e s b e i n g p l a c e d on government departments t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n . The N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d g o a l s f o r F i n e A r t s I n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e "by 1990, e v e r y h i g h s c h o o l s h a l l r e q u i r e one C a r n e g i e u n i t o f c r e d i t i n t h e a r t s f o r g r a d u a t i o n . By 1992, e v e r y c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s h a l l r e q u i r e a t l e a s t one C a r n e g i e u n i t o f c r e d i t i n t h e a r t s f o r a d m i s s i o n . " (1987). The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c o u l d be t h a t d i s t r i c t e x a m i n a t i o n s or e v a l u a t i o n s may 138 ensue, to ensure that a l l students receive the same course content and have obtained an acceptable l e v e l of achievement. This may c a l l for a more p r e s c r i p t i v e curriculum, r e s u l t i n g i n the quashing of some unique aspects of many art courses. This would c o n f l i c t with t r a d i t i o n a l the i d i o s y n c r a t i c mode of art teaching. In summary, the study reveals that as an in t e g r a l part of B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary. Schools' Art Curriculum and inst r u c t i o n , the existence of reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s barely d i s c e r n i b l e . It i s suggested that reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s presented on an informal basis. While exposing students to reasoned c r i t i c i s m to some degree, that approach does not achieve the f u l l intention of an integrated art program. Continuous i n -service i n a l l aspects of the art curriculum would a s s i s t art teachers i n implementing the curriculum more e f f e c t i v e l y . In-service i n methods and concepts of reasoned c r i t i c i s m would be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n achieving the goals of a thoroughly integrated art curriculum. 139 References Barkan, M. (1966). C u r r i c u l u m problems i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , I n E. M a t t i l , A Seminar i n A r t  E d u c a t i o n f o r Re s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m Development (pp.240-256). P e n n s y l v a n i a : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . B e a r d s l e y , M. (1968). The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l r e a s o n s . J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 2^(3) , 55-63. B e r d i e , D., Anderson, . J . , N i e b u h r , M. (1986).. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : D e s i g n and use (2nd ed.) . Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow P r e s s I n c . Capman, L. (1978). Approaches t o a r t i n e d u c a t i o n . New York: H a r c o u r t Brace and J o v a n i v i c h . Chapman, L. (1982). I n s t a n t a r t , i n s t a n t c u l t u r e . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s . Charach, L. (1975). U s i n g m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : The o p t i m a l methodology (Report. No. 75:34). Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia and I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . C l a r k , G. (1984) .. Beyond Penn s t a t e seminar: A c r i t i q u e o f c u r r i c u l a . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 25 ( 4 ) , 226-231. 140 Curriculum Development Branch. (1983) . B.C. Ministry of Education, Schools Dept. Secondary art guide 8-12, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Day, M. (1984) . Div e r s i t y and innovation: Art education i n the Milwaukee Public Schools, i n Art  history, art c r i t i c i s m , art production: An  examination of art education i n selected school  d i s t r i c t s , Vol.11, Los Angeles: Rand Corp. Dewey, J. (1934) . Art as experience. New York: Perigee P r i n t i n g . Duke, L.L. (1988). The Getty center for education i n the arts and discipline-based art education. Art  Education, 4_1 (2) , 7-12. Ecker, D. (1976). The c r i t i c a l act i n aesthetic inquiry. In E. Eisner (Ed.), The arts, human  development and education .(pp. 111-132) . Berkeley: McCutcheon. Efland, A. (1987). Curriculum antecedents of discipline-based art education. Journal of  Aesthetic Education, 21(2), 57-94. Eisner, E. (1966). Concepts, issues, and problems i n the f i e l d of curriculum. In E. M a t t i l , A Seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development (pp.222-239). Pennsylvania State University. Pennsylvania: E i s n e r , E. (1984). A l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m development i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 25 (4 ) , 259-264. Feldman, E. (1981). V a r i e t i e s o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . Englewoods C l i f f s , N.J.: Abrams. F u l l a n , M. (1982). The meaning o f e d u c a t i o n a l change. Tor o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . Gray, J . (1987). A s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t s o l u t i o n f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f D-BAE. A r t E d u c a t i o n , 4_0 ( 5 ) , 54-57. Gray, J . , & MacGregor, R. (1986). P r o a c t a : P e r s o n a l l y  r e l e v a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s about a r t c o n c e p t s and  t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . ( r e p o r t ) . Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n . G r e e r , D. (1986). The G e t t y I n s t i t u t e : P u t t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l o f  A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 20_(1) , 85-95. Kern, E. (1987) . 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Studies i n Art Education, 25(4), 276-280. McKnight, J. (1986). A school d i s t r i c t resource center  based implementation strategy for the v i s u a l arts  component of the 1985 B.C. elementary fine arts  curriculum. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. National Education Association's 1.8 m i l l i o n members advocate a r t s . (August, 1987). NAEA News, p.2. 143 Smith, R. (1987). The changing image of art education: t h e o r e t i c a l antecedents of discipline-based art education. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 21^(2) , 3-34. Wilson, B. (1984). Tight structure, d i s c i p l i n e , and quality: Art education i n V i r g i n i a Beach. In Art  history, art c r i t i c i s m , and art production: An  examination of art education i n selected school  d i s t r i c t s , Vol.11, Los Angeles: Rand Corp. APPENDIX I P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 145 PRACTISING TEACHER SURVEY This survey i s directed to teachers of Art courses at the Grade 8 to Grade 12 l e v e l . I f t h i s survey i s not appropriate to your teaching l e v e l , would you mark an X in the box below and would you please return the survey as soon as possible. No, sorry t h i s survey i s not appropriate to my teaching l e v e l . [ ] Name : Address Postal Code NO POSTAGE STAMP IS REQUIRED 146 PRACTISING TEACHER SURVEY Please return t h i s page with the completed survey i n the addressed envelope. Because studies of reasoned c r i t i c i s m i n secondary Art classes seem rare and because there do not exist highly s p e c i f i c teaching practices associated with teaching for reasoned c r i t i c i s m , no right or wrong approaches  e x i s t . Teachers tend to do what they think should be done for the best interest of a l l . This survey i s designed to obtain information useful i n describing what teachers do i n the classroom i n regards to the teaching of reasoned c r i t i c i s m . RESPONSES WILL BE KEPT COMPLETELY CONFIDENTIAL In order to maintain an accurate record of the surveys that are returned, please complete the information below and i f you wish, I w i l l be glad to forward to you a copy of the survey results when compiled. Name Address Postal Code I wish to receive a copy of the survey r e s u l t s . [ ] If you wish your responses to be anonymous please omit the information above but bear i n mind that you w i l l be receiving, i n the future, reminders to complete the survey. Please excuse t h i s annoyance but as there i s no way of determining the i d e n t i t y of the anonymous respondent an e f f o r t must be made to obtain a completed survey from each pa r t i c i p a n t . Please return t h i s page with the completed survey i n the addressed envelope. NO POSTAGE STAMP IS REQUIRED P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 1 PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 1. Is there a copy of the B.C. Art Curriculum guide available for your use during the school year? YES [ ] 1 NO , [ ] 2 2. Within how many months approximately, did you l a s t refer to the B.C. Secondary Curriculum guide? USED WITHIN: 1 month [ ] 3 3 months [ ] 4 6 months [ ] 5 12 months [ ] 6 more than 12 months [ ] 7 3. Li s t e d below are the components of the B.C. Art Curriculum guide. Please estimate the frequency of use of each component. COMPONENT NEVER SELDOM SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS APPLICATIONS [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 8 CRITICISM [ ] [ ] t ] ( ] [ ] 9 DESIGN [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ . ] 10 DEVELOPMENTS [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 11 IMAGERY [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] 12 VOCABULARY [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 13 148 P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 4. The B.C. Art Curriculum guide describes reasoned  c r i t i c i s m as "selecting and recording information but also r e f l e c t i n g upon i t , making judgments about i t , and o f f e r i n g explanation for those judgments." What percentage of time, on an average, over a semester or 10 month term, would be spent, formally or informally,per class on reasoned c r i t i c i s m ? Not Classes Applicable 5% 10% 15% 20% more Grade 8 [ ] .[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] . [ ] 14 Grade 9 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 15 Grade 10 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 16 Grade 11 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 17 Grade 12 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 18 5. How frequently do you hear the following types of statements made by the students i n your classroom? STATEMENT NEVER SELDOM SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS I l i k e i t ! [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 19 I l i k e that [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 20 because ... That look l i k e [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 21 a Picasso (or some other well known a r t i s t ) I think the [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 22 a r t i s t used dark blue colours to show that he f e l t sad and maybe depressed about the subject. 149 P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. Stated below are some ways c r i t i c i s m may occur i n a classroom. Please estimate the frequency each would occur i n your Art classes. CRITICISM FORM NEVER SELDOM SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS a class discussion of a student's work led by the teacher as a form of evaluation to determine a mark. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 23 a class discussion led by the teacher describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. a class discussion led by a student describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. the discussion of a student's work between the teacher and the student as a form of evaluation to determine a mark. ] [ ] [ ] t ] [ ] 24 [ ] t ] ] t ] [ ] 25 [ ] [ ] [ 1 ] t ] 26 a discussion among students describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining an art reproduction. a discussion among students describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining a student's work. t ] t ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 27 t ] I ] I ] [ ] [ ] 28 a discussion between teacher and a student specif ically describing, evaluating, judging, and explaining the student's work. [ 1 t ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 29 150 Pr a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 4 PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 7. L i s t e d below are Art classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Please estimate the percentage of time, averaged over a semester or 10 month term that you would spend on each a c t i v i t y . ACTIVITY 5% 10% 15% 20% Administration business (attendance, announcements) Teaching and a s s i s t i n g students with studio work Studio preparation and studio clean-up Teaching h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments and giving student assignments in t h i s area Teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m and giving student assignments i n t h i s area. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] [' ] ] t ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ] t ] 30 31 32 33 34 I f the requirements for graduation changed to include at least one Art course, to be taken between grades 8 - 12, would the time spent on the classroom a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n question 7 change? No, i t would not change [ ] 5 Yes, i t would change to the following percentages i n these areas: ACTIVITY 5% 10% 15% 20% more Administration business [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 36 (attendance, announcements) Teaching and a s s i s t i n g students [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 37 with studio work Studio preparation and [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 38 studio clean-up Teaching h i s t o r i c a l and [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 39 contemporary developments and giving student assignments in t h i s area Teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m [ ] [ ] [ ] [ .] [ ] 40 and giving student assignments in t h i s area. Please explain the reasons allotment for each a c t i v i t y . for the change i n time 151 P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 9. Please i n d i c a t e the importance of the f o l l o w i n g A r t course a c t i v i t i e s t o you. NOT FAIRLY OF SOME FAIRLY VERY ACTIVITY IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT IMPORTANCE IMPORTANT IMPORTANT students describing ( ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 41 art work. students evaluating [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 42 art work. students judging [ ] I ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 43 art work. students explaining [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 44 art work. teacher demonstrating [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] t ] 45 studio techniques. student p a r t i c i p a t i o n [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 46 in studio work. students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 47 awareness of imagery students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 48 a b i l i t y to use the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 4 9 awareness of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments in a r t . students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 50 awareness of the use of d i f f e r e n t materials and techniques. students showing an [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 51 a b i l i t y to use and understand a r t vocabulary 152 Pra c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 6 PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 10. Please estimate how frequently you use the following teaching aids when preparing and presenting Art classes. TEACHING AIDS NEVER SELDOM SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS f i l m s t r i p s , video [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 52 tapes, and films s l i d e s of student [ ] [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] 53 work and art reproductions printed materials [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 54 such as textbooks, commercial lesson plans. computer software [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 55 personal lesson [ ] ( ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 56 plans based on the curriculum guide 11. Of the teaching aids l i s t e d above, please indicate those' not available for your use. TEACHING AIDS Film s t r i p s , video tapes and films Slides of student work and a r t reproductions Printed materials such as textbooks, commercial lesson plans Computer software Personal lesson plans based on the curriculum guide 57 58 59 60 61 12. How long have you been teaching Art courses at the Grade 8 - 1 2 level? YEARS OF TEACHING ART: Less than 3 years 3 - 5 years 5 - 1 0 years 10 - 15 years more than 15 years 62 63 64 65 66 153 Pr a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey PLEASE ANSWER BY PLACING AN X IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. 13. When d i d you l a s t have the opportunity to par t i c i p a t e i n a non-studio Art course or workshop? WITHIN THE PAST: 12 months 18 months 2 years 3 years 5 years more than 5 years 67 68 69 70 71 72 14. In reference to question 13: (a) I f you were able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the course or workshop, please describe the general nature of i t . (b) What courses or workshops would be most useful to you in teaching your Art courses? (a) •  (b) ' 15. Do you have access to Art Education p e r i o d i c a l s or journals? YES [ ] 73 NO [ ] 74 If yes to question 15, what Art Education peri o d i c a l s or journals have you referred to during the l a s t 12 months? 154 P r a c t i s i n g Teacher Survey 8 Thank you for responding to t h i s survey. Please return the completed survey i n the addressed, pre-stamped envelope. The space below i s available for comments and questions regarding t h i s survey. APPENDIX I I Covering L e t t e r f o r P r a c t i s i n g Teaching Survey APPENDIX III Follow up Postcard 157 APPENDIX IV Workshops i n which Respondents P a r t i c i p a t e d 159 APPENDIX IV Workshops i n which Respondents P a r t i c i p a t e d The following i s a l i s t of responses to the question asking art teachers to describe the general nature of the l a s t workshop or course attended. The number of respondents who requested workshops of a si m i l a r nature are indicated. Responses: f Computer graphics 6 Watercolour 6 Art history, Venice 3 B. C. Art teachers' conference 3 Ceramics 3 C. S.E.A. and experts i n various f i e l d s 3 Synergy Conference (Ted Harrison Presentation, Annie Smith-art history) 2 Art curriculum at WWU (Western Washington University) 1 Local s p e c i a l i s t s workshop on ceramics, pottery and lesson planning 1 Alternate schools art and counselling 1 A r t i s t s ' s presentations and history 1 U.B.C. Graduate Studies 2 Art therapy 1 Airbrush 1 Synergy (B.C.A.T.A. Conference) 2 Emily Carr Art History course 1 Eastern Art 1 Taught drawing and c r i t i c i s m course 1 Te x t i l e component of course- implementation 1 Paper making and moulding 1 Curriculum committee to explore scope and sequence for grades 7 and 8 1 I.N.S.E.A. 1 Ar c h i t e c t u r a l rendering 1 Mia Johnstone - painting - a l l theory 1 Due to i s o l a t i o n from art school, g a l l e r i e s 1 etc. I have not had the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e . APPENDIX V Respondents Suggestions f o r Workshops 161 APPENDIX V Respondents Suggestions f o r Workshops The following i s a l i s t of responses to the question which asked art teachers to indicate the workshops or courses which would be most h e l p f u l i n teaching. The number of respondents who requested workshops of a sim i l a r nature are indicated. Responses f Research and studio courses related to s p e c i f i c techniques 7 Courses with "hands on" i n art history 5 Workshop on innovative teaching techniques 5 Use of computers 5 Simple p r i n t i n g techniques 4 Ceramics 3 Integration of components 3 Motivational shows 3 Sculpture 2 Workshop on ordering supplies with a li m i t e d budget 2 Art studio courses with i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s 2 Anything 1 Art careers 1 Drawing 1 Genuine dialogue and exchange with art teachers to bring i n more a r t i s t 1 Lesson aids on reasoned c r i t i c i s m 1 Problem solving i n art 1 Teacher exchanges 1 University credits on curriculum/teaching methodology 1 Video production 1 APPENDIX VI S t a t i s t i c s on the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r t C l a s s e s i n 1987 163 APPENDIX VI The following information received from the Ministry of Education, S t a t i s t i c s Department, V i c t o r i a indicates the number of art classes which were held i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1987 at the high school l e v e l . Grade Level Number of classes 8 114 9 8 10 223 11 76 12 14 

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