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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Early childhood : special education 1987

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EARLY CHILDHOOD : SPECIAL EDUCATION By PATRICIA JAY MCKENZIE B. Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 <£) P a t r i c i a J a y McKenzie, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of j£/^J^^^^Z^T?/!^ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6G/81) ABSTRACT T h i s study examines the growth and development of a program f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of s p e c i a l education teachers i n E a r l y Childhood Education, F o l l o w i n g an overview of h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n E a r l y Childhood and S p e c i a l E d ucation, i n c l u d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s , models which would a i d i n the development of such a program are d i s c u s s e d . The P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g Board and the M i n i s t r y of Education, of B r i t i s h Columbia expressed a wish f o r the development of p o s t - b a s i c s p e c i a l education programs i n E a r l y Childhood Education and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to fund s e v e r a l programs i n the p r o v i n c e . T h e i r c r i t i e r i a and support i s incl u d e d i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of the development, implementation and e v a l u a t i o n of the E a r l y Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education Program at Vancouver Community College? Langara Campus. The purpose of t h i s study i s , t h e r e f o r e , to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the development of such a program and to examine the needs and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i n s p e c i a l education f o r E a r l y Childhood E d u c a t i o n . 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v CHAPTER 1. HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION: A REVIEW 1 2. EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER PREPARATION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION: INFLUENCES FROM GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES 11 3. ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION IN CANADA 44 4. LEGISLATION, ISSUES AND MODELS IN TEACHER PREPARATION SO 5. POST BASIC COMPETENCIES AND THE PRACTICUM 133 6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM IN EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 146 CONCLUSION 212 BIBLIOGRAPHY 216 APPENDICES A 227 B 236 i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C e n t r e Spaces , and F a m i l y Day Care Spaces by Year 71 2. An I n t e g r a t i v e Model f o r T r a i n i n g Teachers o f the S e v e r e l y and P r o f o u n d l y Retarded 123 3 . P r o f i c i e n c y Modules i n M u l t i - L e v e l P r e p a r a t i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n P e r s o n n e l . . . . . . . 125 h. Cumula t ive Competency Development 129 5. Flow C h a r t 130 6. S k i l l s P e r c e i v e d to be Requ ired f o r Teachers o f T r a i n a b l e Retarded Persons 136 7. Proposed Schedule o f Courses f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 208 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am g r a t e f u l to D r . G l e n D i x o n , D r . V i n c e D 'Oy ley and e s p e c i a l l y to D r . Denis M i l b u r n f o r h i s a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e and enthus iasm d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . For t h e i r encouragement and t h e i r i n s i g h t s i n t o the a b i l i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s and young c h i l d r e n , I would l i k e to thank Margery L . Thompson and Wanda J u s t i c e . I would a l s o l i k e to thank f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , e s p e c i a l l y C r a i g , C o l i n , C l a r k and Tracey f o r t h e i r encouragement and pat i ence . v CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION: A REVIEW The importance o f e d u c a t i o n o f the very young c h i l d i s expressed as e a r l y as 400 B . C . by P l a t o . He s t a t e s : "You know a l s o that the b e g i n n i n g i s the most important p a r t o f any work, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f the young and tender t h i n g ; f o r that i s the time at which the c h a r a c t e r i s be ing formed and the d e s i r e d i m p r e s s i o n i s more r e a d i l y t a k e n . " ( U l i c h , 1971). John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) s u g g e s t s , i n The Great D i d a c t i c i n Chapter 17, ' R e q u i s i t e s f o r Easy Teach ing and L e a r n i n g ' , tha t i n s t r u c t i o n must b e g i n e a r l y and b e f o r e the mind i s c o r r u p t e d . Comenius b e l i e v e d : "It i s the n a t u r e o f e v e r y t h i n g that comes i n t o be ing that w h i l e tender i t i s e a s i l y bent and formed, but that when i t has grown h a r d , i t i s not easy to a l t e r " . ( U l r i c h , 1971) Braun and Edwards (1972) s t a t e that John Locke (1632-1704) has long been a s s o c i a t e d with the idea o f the newborn c h i l d as ' t a b u l a r a s a ' (empty s l a t e ) , to be w r i t t e n on by t r a i n i n g and c i r c u m s t a n c e . He imagines ' the minds o f c h i l d r e n to be as e a s i l y turned t h i s way or that as water i t s e l f . Locke admonishes p a r e n t s about be ing r e m i s s i n e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n at the proper season , 'when the minds o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n were most t e n d e r , most e a s i l y bowed' . ( U l i c h , 1971). Modern P i a g e t i a n s would not agree wi th L o c k e . Jean Jaques Rousseau (171E-1778) b e l i e v e d that the c h i l d shou ld be n e i t h e r t r e a t e d as an i r r a t i o n a l a n i m a l , nor as a man, but s i m p l y as a c h i l d . Nature r e q u i r e s c h i l d r e n to be c h i l d r e n b e f o r e they are men. " . . . t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a man commences at h i s b i r t h : b e f o r e he can speak, b e f o r e he can u n d e r s t a n d , he i s a l r e a d y i n s t r u c t e d . E x p e r i e n c e i s the f o r e r u n n e r o f p r e c e p t ; the moment he knows the f e a t u r e s o f h i s n u r s e , he may be s a i d to have a c q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge." ( U l i c h , 1971). Rousseau d i g n i f i e s the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f l i f e as a s tage i n c h i l d development . H i s w r i t i n g s i n f l u e n c e d s o c i e t y to b e g i n t h i n k i n g o f c h i l d h o o d as a s e p a r a t e s tage o f development and c h i l d r e n as c h i l d r e n not merely as m i n i a t u r e a d u l t s . A u s t i n (1976) s t a t e s tha t Rousseau i d e n t i f i e d the p e r i o d o f c h i l d h o o d as s p e c i a l , not j u s t an 'un important and was te fu l s tage through which the c h i l d must pass as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e on h i s way to becoming an a d u l t . ' P e s t a l o z z i (1746-1827) was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the w r i t i n g s o f Rousseau. H i s work r e p r e s e n t s a r e a l b e g i n n i n g f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . He a c t u a l l y taught young c h i l d r e n . He d e s c r i b e d h i s methods o f t e a c h i n g i n h i s books Leonard and G e r t r u d e (1781) , How G e r t r u d e Teaches Her C h i l d r e n (1801) and the Book f o r Mothers (1886) . He p r a c t i c e d h i s methods i n s c h o o l s / a orphanages at Neuhof (1774), Stanz (1798), B u r g d o r f (1800-1805) and Yverdun (1805-1825) . (Braun and Edwards, 1972). Many e d u c a t o r s from other c o u n t r i e s i n Europe came to observe P e s t a l o z z i ' s s c h o o l s and h i s methods o f t e a c h i n g young c h i l d r e n . One o f the many o b s e r v e r s was F r i e d r i c h Wilhe lm F r o e b e l (1782-1852) . F r o e b e l i s regarded as the founder and f a t h e r o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n . U l i c h ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t a t e s that F r o e b e l b e l i e v e d that ' c h i l d h o o d was not j u s t a t r a n s i t i o n toward a d u l t h o o d , and c h i l d ' s p l a y not j u s t a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a c t i v i t i e s o f a mature p e r s o n , but i n themselves something complete and o r g a n i c ' . F r o e b e l des igned c u r r i c u l u m and methods o f t e a c h i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the young c h i l d . H i s i n f l u e n c e throughout E u r o p e , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada are w e l l documented i n Braun and Edwards (1972); M o r r i s o n , (1984); Spodek, (1973); and Aust in<1976) . Many o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s o f the 19th and e a r l y 20th C e n t u r i e s were s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s as w e l l as e d u c a t o r s . They were concerned with the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n as w e l l as t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n . Robert Owen(1771—1858), an E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t , became concerned with the p l i g h t o f working c h i l d r e n i n the mines , m i l l s and f a c t o r i e s i n Great B r i t a i n . Spodek(1973) s t a t e s that Robert Owen o r i g i n a t e d the i n f a n t s c h o o l , the i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s j Horace Mann was known as the ' F a t h e r o f the Common S c h o o l ' . He b e l i e v e d that 3 ' e d u c a t i o n , beyond a l l o ther d e v i c e s o f human o r i g i n , i s the g r e a t e q u a l i z e r o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f men, the b a l a n c e wheel o f the s o c i a l m a c h i n e r y ' . (Braun and Edwards, 197S). Margaret M c M i l l a n (1860-1931) was a c r u s a d e r i n promoting h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n i n Great B r i t a i n . She fought f o r medica l i n s p e c t i o n o f s choo l c h i l d r e n . She was c o n v i n c e d that young c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h problems were o f t e n a l r e a d y too advanced to be remedied by the t ime they reached s i x y e a r s , the age o f e n t r y to the p u b l i c s c h o o l . Commited to a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o o r , u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d r e n , Margaret and her s i s t e r Rachel founded an o p e n - a i r n u r s e r y s choo l i n the Dept ford s e c t i o n o f London. Rache l d i e d t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r the opening o f the n u r s e r y s choo l but Margaret c o n t i n u e d t h e i r work, t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s , promoting n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and w r i t i n g p o l i t i c a l t r a c t s i n the defense o f the w e l f a r e o f young c h i l d r e n u n t i l her own death i n 1931. (Mansbr idge , 1932). M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i (1870-1952) was the f i r s t female to graduate i n and p r a c t i c e medic ine i n I t a l y . E a r l y i n her c a r e e r as a p h y s i c i a n , she began to s tudy the d i s e a s e s of the handicapped and became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n the e d u c a t i o n o f the handicapped young c h i l d . At odds wi th most o f her p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , she b e l i e v e d that mental d e f i c i e n c y was more o f an e d u c a t i o n a l than a medica l one. ( C o s t e l l o e , 1967). M o n t e s s o r i ' s ideas on e d u c a t i o n o f the f e e b l e - m i n d e d became w i d e l y known throughout Europe and North A m e r i c a . A s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Rome f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f the 4 m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d and D r . M o n t e s s o r i served as i t s d i r e c t o r f o r two y e a r s . From the very b e g i n n i n g o f her work with m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n ? M o n t e s s o r i f e l t that her methods c o n t a i n e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s that were u n i v e r s a l and c o u l d be a p p l i e d to the t e a c h i n g o f normal c h i l d r e n . She was very impressed and g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the works o f I t a r d and Segu in b e f o r e h e r . M o n t e s s o r i s t a t e s : "For two y e a r s . . . I c a r r i e d on my exper iments i n e d u c a t i n g d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n Rome. I f o l l o w e d the s u g g e s t i o n s I found i n Seguins book and a l s o d i s c o v e r e d that I t a r d ' s a d m i r a b l e exper iments were a v e r i t a b l e t r e a s u r e . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , f o l l o w i n g the lead of these a u t h o r s , I had a r i c h s tock o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l made f o r my use . T h i s m a t e r i a l , which I d i d not see complete i n any o ther i n s t i t u t i o n , proved to be o f e x c e l l e n t a s s i s t a n c e i n the hands o f anyone who knew how to use i t , though l e f t by i t s e l f i t was passed over u n n o t i c e d by d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n . " ( C o s t e l l o e , 1967). M o n t e s s o r i se t out very d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a f o r those who would teach young c h i l d r e n by the ' M o n t e s s o r i M e t h o d ' . She s t a t e s i n h e r , The D i s c o v e r y o f the C h i l d , ( C o s t e l l o e , 1967) tha t the p r i n c i p l e agent i n the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , i s the o b j e c t i t s e l f and not the i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n by the t e a c h e r . It i s the c h i l d who i s a c t i v e , and not the t e a c h e r . She i s conv inced the competent teacher must have a good knowledge o f c h i l d development and she must be w e l l a c q u a i n t e d with the m a t e r i a l s . The teacher i s p r i m a r i l y an observer and a s tudent o f human development , r a t h e r than a l e c t u r e r and shaper o f b e h a v i o u r . 5 I n t e r e s t i n M o n t e s s o r i ' s s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i v e program f o r young c h i l d r e n spread through Europe and u l t i m a t e l y to North A m e r i c a . She extended her s c h o o l and began to deve lop teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n the ' M o n t e s s o r i M e t h o d ' . An i n t e r n a t i o n a l movement d e v e l o p e d , wi th M o n t e s s o r i s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the world and teacher t r a i n i n g programs o f f e r e d i n many c o u n t r i e s under the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i a n d / o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l M o n t e s s o r i a s s o c i a t i o n s . The extreme i n t e r e s t i n M o n t e s s o r i ' s methods and m a t e r i a l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was s h o r t l i v e d with the peak between 1909 and 1915. Hunt (1964) g i v e s an i n depth a c c o u n t i n g o f the reasons f o r the sudden i n t e r e s t i n the ' M o n t e s s o r i Method' and the reasons f o r i t s e q u a l l y sudden r e j e c t i o n by p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s and c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However c o n t r o v e r s i a l M o n t e s s o r i ' s i d e a s , methods, m a t e r i a l s , c u r r i c u l u m and teacher t r a i n i n g have been f o r t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a c e n t u r y , they have he lped to e s t a b l i s h the importance o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , opened the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f handicapped c h i l d r e n and emphasized the need f o r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f those who would work with young ch i 1 d r e n . From the 18th w e l l i n t o the 20th Century these p h i l o s o p h e r s , medica l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , e d u c a t o r s and s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and mental w e l l be ing o f young c h i l d r e n . A l though they were o f t e n d i v e r s e i n 6 t h e i r methods o f s tudy and reasons f o r commitment to the w e l f a r e o f the young c h i l d , they a l l have c o n t r i b u t e d to the b i r t h o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m , methods o f t e a c h i n g , and teacher t r a i n i n g as l e g i t i m a t e f i e l d s o f s tudy and p r a c t i c e . M o n t e s s o r i ' 5 work with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d a t t i t u d e s that had been d e v e l o p i n g f o r more than a c e n t u r y . By the e a r l y 18th Century a t t i t u d e s toward the handicapped were b e g i n n i n g to change, Hardman e t . a l . (1984) s t a t e that John Locke (1632-1704) an E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r , d i s t i n g u i s h e d between mental r e t a r d a t i o n and mental i l l n e s s and P h i l l i p e P i n e l (1724-1825) , a French p h y s i c i a n , b e l i e v e d that i d i o c y c o u l d be t r e a t e d through e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . He advocated i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e r v e n t i o n , sensory s t i m u l a t i o n and s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n o f the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . Jean Mark I t a r d (1175-1838) a French p h y s i c i a n , who was an a u t h o r i t y on d i s e a s e s o f the ear and the e d u c a t i o n o f the dea f , undertook treatment to a l t e r the behav ior o f a f o u r t e e n year o l d boy who had been found near A v e y r o n , F r a n c e . H i s work was one o f the f i r s t documented e f f o r t s o f treatment f o r a ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d . The sensory s t i m u l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s he used gave impetus to a movement toward the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f the m e n t a l l y hand i capped . 7 I t a r d advocated a deve lopmental approach to i n s t r u c t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , sensory s t i m u l a t i o n , a s y s t e m a t i c p r o g r e s s i o n from c o n c r e t e to a b s t r a c t concept s and a development o f s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s to enable the i n d i v i d u a l to f u n c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y . (Hardman e t . a l . , 1984; B e r d i n e and B l a c k h u r s t , 1981). H i s methods o f e d u c a t i o n are r e c o g n i z e d as the b a s i s f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n today . Suran and R i z z o (1983) suggest that I t a r d ' s account i s , p e r h a p s , the f i r s t documentat ion i n h i s t o r y i n which we e x p e r i e n c e an a d u l t ' s attempt to unders tand the mind and emotions o f a handicapped c h i l d . Edouard Segu in (1818 - 1880) was a s tudent o f I t a r d ' s at the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the Deaf i n P a r i s . C o l e (1959) s t a t e s that S e g u i n ' s main c o n c e r n was those ' sad c r e a t u r e s at the bottom o f the human s c a l e , the i d i o t s ' . He opened a s m a l l s c h o o l f o r the r e t a r d e d i n P a r i s and a f t e r he had worked f o r f i v e y e a r s wi th the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , a commission o f the P a r i s i a n Academy o f S c i e n c e s examined h i s p u p i l s and r e p o r t e d that he had ' s o l v e d ' the problems of e d u c a t i n g the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . P r o f e s s i o n a l s from many c o u n t r i e s came to v i s i t h i s c e n t r e and s tayed to be t r a i n e d by Segu in as t e a c h e r s o f the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . S e g u i n ' s t e x t , I d i o c y and i t s Treatment by the P h y s i o l o g i c a l Method, was p u b l i s h e d i n 1842. H i s methods i n c l u d e d f i r s t motor e d u c a t i o n , then t a c t i l e e x p e r i e n c e s to t r a i n the t h r e e senses o f t o u c h , t a s t e and smel l? then h e a r i n g through music and f i n a l l y s i g h t . In 1848 he emigrated to the U n i t e d S t a t e s where, i n S y r a c u s e , New 8 York i n 1854* he a s s i s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t y f o r the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i n A m e r i c a . (Hardman e t . a l . , 1984). He worked with Samuel G r i d l e y Howe, Thomas Hopkins G a l l a u d e t and o ther American e d u c a t o r s , and wrote s e v e r a l books d e s c r i b i n g h i s methods and the m a t e r i a l s he u s e d . He worked with m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u i n g to r e f i n e h i s methods u n t i l h i s death i n 1880 (Suran , R i z z o , 1983). A l f r e d B i n e t , born i n N i c e i n 1857, s t u d i e d law, medic ine and psycho logy i n P a r i s . In 1904, he began to i n v e s t i g a t e improvements f o r the t e a c h i n g o f the deaf and the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . From t h i s endeavour he d e v i s e d h i s f i r s t s c a l e f o r the measurement o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . B i n e t ' s main o b j e c t i v e i n h i s r e s e a r c h was to determine i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a l l areas o f human development . In c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s he was a b l e to s t a n d a r d i z e h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . A l though he used the t e s t s to measure i n t e l l i g e n c e , he emphasized the b e l i e f that no t e s t c o u l d take the p l a c e o f a c c u r a t e i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . He i n s i s t e d the more complete and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a c h i l d shou ld be the main method of assessment . ( C o l e , 1959). H i s s c a l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e measurement and h i s t e s t i n g methods have been the models f o r l a t e r i n d i v i d u a l and group t e s t i n g and have had a profound i n f l u e n c e on the t e s t i n g and assessment o f c h i l d r e n i n the EOth Century e s p e c i a l l y i n North A m e r i c a . L o u i s B r a i l l e (1809 - 185S) l o s t h i s v i s i o n through an a c c i d e n t as a young c h i l d . As a r e s u l t he was e n r o l l e d as a 9 s tudent at the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d i n P a r i s and a f t e r he g r a d u a t e d , he s tayed on at the I n s t i t u t e as an i n s t r u c t o r . It was at t h i s t ime that he deve loped h i s system of embossed s i x dot code c e l l w r i t i n g to enable the b l i n d to r e a d . B r a i l l e ' s l i t e r a r y code f o r the b l i n d was p u b l i s h e d i n 1854. I t a r d , S e g u i n , B i n e t and B r a i l l e l i v e d and p r a c t i c e d i n P a r i s . C o l e (1959) s t a t e s , "It shou ld be noted that the French c o n t r i b u t e d more to the e d u c a t i o n o f handicapped c h i l d r e n than any o ther c o u n t r y . One Frenchman invented the s i g n language , another the r a i s e d a l p h a b e t ; a t h i r d d e v i s e d the o n l y s u c c e s s f u l method f o r t r a i n i n g extreme d e f e c t i v e s , and a f o u r t h c o n s t r u c t e d the f i r s t s c a l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e by which mental d e f e c t c o u l d be proved and i t s degree measured. The f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s f o r dea f , b l i n d , and d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n were a l l opened i n P a r i s . " Such examples o f ' c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g ' are not unusual and , as w i l l be seen i n C h a p t e r s II and I I I , have been very i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development o f E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. 10 CHAPTER S EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER TRAINING IN SPECIAL EDUCATION: INFLUENCES FROM GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA So much o f the e d u c a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e o f Canada has been i n f l u e n c e d by the B r i t i s h and American systems that we s h a l l look i n g e n e r a l at some o f those i n f l u e n c e s which have a f f e c t e d the development o f e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s f o r t e a c h e r s , programs f o r young c h i l d r e n and l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the young a n d / o r s p e c i a l c h i l d . For the thousand y e a r s b e f o r e the R e f o r m a t i o n , the Church c o n t r o l l e d a b s o l u t e l y and was, almost e x c l u s i v e l y , the p r o v i d e r o f a l l o r g a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n . A l l t e a c h e r s were l i c e n s e d by the b i s h o p s , and with few e x c e p t i o n s the t e a c h e r s were a l s o c l e r k s i n the o r d e r s o f the C h u r c h . Dent (1977) s t a t e s that the Church c l a i m e d a monopoly i n e d u c a t i o n , and though i t s power was o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s p u t e d from the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y onward, i n p r a c t i c e i t was most e f f e c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n e d . Near the c l o s e of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s began to fund the t e a c h i n g o f the poor to r e a d . Dent (1977) suggests that at l e a s t i n and about London each p a r i s h had i t s own s c h o o l . These weekday, c h a r i t y s c h o o l s f a c e d two o b s t a c l e s : lack o f s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g and a s c a r c i t y o f competent t e a c h e r s . The s c h o o l s t r i e d to overcome the o b s t a c l e s by employing one or two a d u l t t e a c h e r s who were p a i d from monies r a i s e d by the v o l u n t a r y 11 s o c i e t i e s . Most o f the c l a s s e s were s u p e r v i s e d by ' m o n i t o r s ' who were o l d e r c h i l d r e n charged with the t e a c h i n g o f younger c h i l d r e n . Some of these ' m o n i t o r s ' were as young as t h i r t e e n and had as many as s i x t y c h i l d r e n under t h e i r c a r e . (Hyndman, 1978). A l though many new s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d and mainta ined under the ' m o n i t o r i a l system'? t h e r e were never enough s c h o o l s to s a t i s f y the needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n . Demands were r a i s e d a g a i n and a g a i n f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d from p u b l i c f u n d s . " F i n a l l y , wi th s u c c e s s , i n 1833 the House o f Commons was induced to grant the sum o f 20,000 to a s s i s t the N a t i o n a l and B r i t i s h S o c i e t i e s to b u i l d s c h o o l s . The g r a n t . . . i n 1839 was i n c r e a s e d to 30 ,000 . In tha t year the Government c r e a t e d an E d u c a t i o n Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l to s u p e r v i s e the d i s t r i b u t i o n and use o f what had become an annual g r a n t , and the newly-formed committee at once c l a i m e d the r i g h t to i n s p e c t a l l g r a n t - a i d e d s c h o o l s . Such were the modest b e g i n n i n g s i n England of S t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . " (Dent, 1977). S i r James K a y - S h u t t l e w o r t h , the f i r s t s e c r e t a r y o f the new committee , t r i e d to expand the c u r r i c u l u m o f the s c h o o l s beyond the 3 R ' s and p r o v i d e d s u b s i d i e s to teacher t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s . The f i r s t s t a t e g r a n t s towards teacher t r a i n i n g and the b u i l d i n g o f normal s c h o o l s were made a v a i l a b l e i n 1835 on the c o n d i t i o n that the committee would have the r i g h t o f i n s p e c t i o n . Hyndman (1978) , sugges ts that K a y - S h u t t l e w o r t h c r e a t e d a c o n t i n u o u s , s t a t e - f i n a n c e d p r o c e s s by which a t h i r t e e n year o l d i n an i n s p e c t e d s c h o o l c o u l d become a p u p i 1 - t e a c h e r f o r f i v e y e a r s , then a t t e n d c o l l e g e f o r one, two or t h r e e y e a r s s u b s i d i z e d by government f u n d s . However, as l a t e as 1898 l e s s than h a l f o f the 12 female t e a c h e r s and l e s s than t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the male t e a c h e r s i n the n a t i o n had any c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g . The E lementary E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1870 d i d not guarantee a s t a t e supported e d u c a t i o n sys tem, but i t d i d empower the government to support and m a i n t a i n s c h o o l s i n areas where p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i e t i e s were not i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g s c h o o l s . By 1880 a t tendance at e lementary s choo l was compul sory , and by 1891 the government was pay ing compensatory g r a n t s to s c h o o l s that had d i s c o n t i n u e d c h a r g i n g f e e s . T o t a l a b o l i t i o n o f f ee s i n e lementary s c h o o l s was not r e a l i z e d u n t i l 1918. (Dent, 1977). Day t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s were funded by the E d u c a t i o n Department f o r the f i r s t t ime i n 1890. At f i r s t the day c o l l e g e s were c r i t i c i z e d , but i t was soon r e a l i z e d that these c o l l e g e s had many advantages f o r the f u t u r e t e a c h e r . The p l a n was that s t u d e n t s would be a b l e to pursue t h e i r s t u d i e s w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e and the s e g r e g a t i o n o f s tudent t e a c h e r s that had been a p a r t o f the r e s i d e n t i a l c o l l e g e programs, would no longer be a f a c t o r . I t was f e l t that the u n i v e r s i t i e s had a wider concept o f t eacher t r a i n i n g . C u r t i s and Boultwood (1960) suggest that they (the u n i v e r s i t i e s ) a t t a c h e d grea t v a l u e to forming the o u t l o o k of the s t u d e n t , and they r e a l i z e d that the s tudy of the p h i l o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , and psycho logy o f e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n ex tend ing the t e a c h e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p u p i l s . 13 A . J . B a l f o u r was e l e c t e d Prime M i n i s t e r i n 190E. Under h i s d i r e c t i o n Robert Morant p lanned the E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1902. The ac t made monies from l o c a l tax assessments a v a i l a b l e to ' v o l u n t a r y ' s c h o o l s and c r e a t e d L o c a l E d u c a t i o n A u t h o r i t i e s ( L E A ' s ) who were r e s p o n s i b l e to County C o u n c i l s who were, i n t u r n , r e s p o n s i b l e to a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y under the Board o f E d u c a t i o n . The L . E . A . ' s were g i v e n the power to e s t a b l i s h county and m u n i c i p a l t eacher t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s . By 1921, a f o u r year c o u r s e became the norm f o r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g departments . The f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s were spent i n degree s t u d i e s and the f o u r t h year i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g y e a r . The c o l l e g e s o f f e r e d one, two or t h r e e year t r a i n i n g programs. By 1938 there were t w e n t y - e i g h t c o l l e g e s supported by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ( C u r t i s & Boul twood, 1960). The B e g i n n i n g o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n From the e a r l y 1800's the i n f a n t s choo l i n B r i t a i n had been a r e a l i t y , p a r t l y due to the p r e s s u r e s o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n on both p a r e n t s i n a f a m i l y to work, and p a r t l y due to l e g i s l a t i o n which r e g u l a t e d the ages when c h i l d r e n might s t a r t to work. The concept o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n o r i g i n a t e d with Robert Owen (1771-1858), who e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t i n f a n t s c h o o l i n New L a n a r k , S c o t l a n d i n 1816.(Spodek, 1973) H i s s c h o o l e n r o l l e d c h i l d r e n from the ages o f two to t w e l v e . Owen was e s p e c i a l l y concerned with the work of c h i l d r e n under the age o f s i x and he s t r e s s e d the importance o f the e a r l y 14 y e a r s o f l i f e i n the e d u c a t i o n o f the c h i l d . Lawrence (1961) s t a t e s that through h i s e f f o r t s and those o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n f a n t s c h o o l s were opened i n London and e l sewhere . These s c h o o l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r i n f a n t s , were e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t by c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and by the middle o f the 19th C e n t u r y , wi th the he lp o f government a i d . The Home and C o l o n i a l S o c i e t y was founded i n 1837 f o r the purpose o f t r a i n i n g i n f a n t - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . The S o c i e t y f e l t that the t e a c h i n g o f young c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t approach than the t e a c h i n g o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The i n f l u e n c e o f F r o e b e l ' s K i n d e r g a r t e n Methods began to be f e l t i n B r i t a i n i n the 1850's . There were many p i o n e e r s i n the F r o e b e l i a n movement i n B r i t a i n amongst whom were: Johann and B e r t h a Ronge, Baroness von Maren-ho1tz -Bulow and the Reverend Muirhead M i t c h e l l who was c o n v i n c e d that i n f a n t s c h o o l t e a c h e r s shou ld be d i f f e r e n t l y s e l e c t e d and have a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g than the t e a c h e r s o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n . (Smi th , 1961). As a r e s u l t o f the p i o n e e r s l e c t u r i n g on the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f the new k i n d e r g a r t e n movement and e s t a b l i s h i n g i n f a n t s c h o o l s and t r a i n i n g programs f o r young women to teach i n the s c h o o l s , F r o e b e l i a n methods began to spread throughout B r i t a i n . The F r o e b e l S o c i e t y was formed i n 1874-75 and through i t s members i n f l u e n c e d the t r a i n i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s and the development o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n movement. ( A u s t i n , 1976). In 1857 the C o u n c i l o f the Home and C o l o n i a l 15 S o c i e t y ? tha t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c e r t i f y i n g i n f a n t s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , i n v i t e d a noted F r o e b e l i a n , H e i n r i c h Hoffman, to d i r e c t the s t u d i e s o f two o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s i n F r o e b e l i a n Methods. In l i g h t o f the c h i l d s tudy movement led by B . S t a n l e y H a l l and the i n f l u e n c e o f such e d u c a t o r s as John Dewey, p r o g r e s s i v e F r o e b e l i a n s began to re form t h e i r methods wi th r e g a r d to the new d i s c o v e r i e s and t h e o r i e s i n c h i l d psycho logy and l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . D r . M a r i a M o n t e s s o r i f i r s t v i s i t e d B r i t a i n i n 1912 and r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n from the p r e s s . Smith (1961) s t a t e s that t e a c h e r s l earned to combine the group work o f the Froebe1-Dewey s c h o o l wi th the g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each c h i l d i n s i s t e d upon by D r . M o n t e s s o r i , and the knowledge t h a t , i n sense t r a i n i n g and i n a c q u i r i n g b a s i c s k i l l s , c h i l d r e n shou ld be l e f t to make t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s . Rachel and Margaret M c M i l l a n were the two e d u c a t o r s most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the development o f the n u r s e r y s choo l i n B r i t a i n . M a r g a r e t , as an e l e c t e d member o f the B r a d f o r d School B o a r d , campaigned f o r s c h o o l b a t h s , medica l i n s p e c t i o n and a scheme f o r f e e d i n g s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . She undertook the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Rachel M c M i l l a n T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e i n 1917. The c o l l e g e o f f e r e d a one year t r a i n i n g c o u r s e f o r a l r e a d y c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s and a t h r e e year program f o r women wish ing to s p e c i a l i z e as n u r s e r y s choo l t e a c h e r s . The s t u d e n t s had many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work with c h i l d r e n i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and the i n f a n t departments o f e lementary s c h o o l s . The academic 16 c u r r i c u l u m was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r F r o e b e l i a n t r a i n i n g . Her work with u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n was known and r e s p e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance o f the t r a i n i n g s c h o o l was i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t tha t s i n c e i t s inception) s t u d e n t s from I n d i a , E g y p t , A m e r i c a , Sweden and Poland had been i n r e s i d e n c e . (Mansbr idge , 193E) . Her advocacy f o r young c h i l d r e n was p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l . As an example Robert Morant had a c l a u s e i n s e r t e d i n the E d u c a t i o n B i l l o f 1907 which became law the same y e a r . The B i l l made medica l i n s p e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n the p u b l i c supported e lementary s c h o o l s a duty o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and i t a l s o gave the L . E . A . ' s the power o f treatment o f these c h i l d r e n . It was the b e g i n n i n g o f the s c h o o l medica l s e r v i c e and opened the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n need o f ' s p e c i a l ' e d u c a t i o n . <Eaglesham, 1967). Rachel M c M i l l a n ' s involvement i n the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o f young c h i l d r e n and i n the p r o v i s i o n o f c e n t r e s f o r young c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d o ther e d u c a t o r s to f o l l o w s u i t and deve lop t r a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s . "With the growth of the (nursery s c h o o l ) movement, o ther c o l l e g e s made p r o v i s i o n f o r t r a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s . The N a t i o n a l F r o e b e l Union examined f o r a Nursery School Diploma between 193E and 1939, a f t e r which , p r o v i s i o n was made i n the o r d i n a r y T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r examining c a n d i d a t e s t r a i n e d f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l work." (Lawrence, 1961). In 19E5, an E d u c a t i o n Departmental Committee, under the c h a i r m a n s h i p o f L o r d Burnham, r e p o r t e d on the t r a i n i n g o f 17 t e a c h e r s . A l though t r a i n e d c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s now formed the m a j o r i t y o f p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s , t h e r e were s t i l l n o n - t r a i n e d c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s , u n c e r t i f i c a t e d and supplementary t e a c h e r s who were o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . The committee suggested that u n c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s who wished to c o n t i n u e t e a c h i n g take a c o u r s e o f academic s tudy and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r at l e a s t one year and the appointment o f supplementary t e a c h e r s shou ld c e a s e . Most o f the r e c o g n i z e d supplementary t e a c h e r s were women who were employed i n i n f a n t s c h o o l s i n r u r a l a r e a s . T h e i r o n l y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were that they had reached the age of e i g h t e e n , possessed a good moral c h a r a c t e r and had been v a c c i n a t e d . ( C u r t i s & Boul twood, 1960). A l though the major concerns o f l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n the E d u c a t i o n A c t s o f the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s had not been concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n o f the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d , the l e g i s l a t i o n d i d i n f l u e n c e i n d i r e c t l y the s t a t u s o f the e d u c a t i o n o f young and e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r t e a c h e r s . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n Some p r o g r e s s toward a u n i v e r s a l e d u c a t i o n system with e q u a l i t y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n was made d u r i n g the f i r s t f o r t y y e a r s o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , but i t was the appointment o f the McNair Committee by the Board o f E d u c a t i o n i n 194E and the Committee ' s r e p o r t , which became the b a s i s f o r the E d u c a t i o n Act 18 o f 1944 that proposed and supported d r a s t i c changes i n the B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n sys tem. P r e v i o u s to the 1944 Act the L . E . A . ' s were r e s p o n s i b l e to make s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n o n l y f o r those c h i l d r e n who were unable to a t t e n d the p u b l i c s c h o o l s because o f some mental or p h y s i c a l d e f e c t . T h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a p p l i e d o n l y to c h i l d r e n who were f i v e y e a r s or o l d e r and was l i m i t e d to f i v e groups o f handicapped c h i l d r e n : the b l i n d , the dea f , the p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , the m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e and the e p i l e p t i c . (Dent, 1977). There were p r o v i s i o n s i n the new Act that were s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d to the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d and to a l l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . Compulsory e d u c a t i o n was to b e g i n at the age o f f i v e , but the L . E . A . ' s were r e q u i r e d to g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and c e n t r e s f o r c h i l d r e n under the age o f f i v e . They were r e q u i r e d to s e c u r e f r e e medica l and d e n t a l treatment f o r a l l c h i l d r e n between the ages o f two and e i g h t e e n . They were r e q u i r e d to g i v e p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the needs o f c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from any d i s a b i l i t y o f mind or body. They must a s c e r t a i n which c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t , because o f d i s a b i l i t i e s , and p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l treatment f o r them. Quince (1958) sugges ts that i n 1944 p r o b a b l y no one thought that the s e c t i o n o f the community tha t would p r o f i t the most from the new e d u c a t i o n ac t would be young c h i l d r e n wi th p h y s i c a l and mental h a n d i c a p s , but such i n f a c t has been the c a s e . 19 In 1954 i t became n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t h a t : "handicapped c h i l d r e n s h a l l be educated i n the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s u n l e s s t h e i r d i s a b i l i t y r e n d e r s t h i s i m p r a c t i c a l or u n d e s i r a b l e . So f a r as p o s s i b l e , handicapped c h i l d r e n are to be educated a long with o r d i n a r y c h i l d r e n , so tha t they may p a r t i c i p a t e i n the normal l i f e o f s o c i e t y . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and treatment i n B r i t a i n i s p r o v i d e d i n : o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s , s p e c i a l day s c h o o l s , r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , s p e c i a l c l a s srooms i n h o s p i t a l s and on a one to one b a s i s to some c h i l d r e n i n h o s p i t a l or at h o m e . . . J u s t as i t i s n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t h a t , wherever p r a c t i c a b l e a handicapped c h i l d s h a l l be educated i n an o r d i n a r y s c h o o l , so i t i s p o l i c y t h a t , where a s p e c i a l s c h o o l i s n e c e s s a r y , a day s c h o o l i s p r e f e r a b l e i f i t o f f e r s a s a t i s f a c t o r y and p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n . Whenever p o s s i b l e handicapped c h i l d r e n are not to be d e p r i v e d of home l i f e . Board ing s p e c i a l s c h o o l s and b o a r d i n g homes f o r handicapped p u p i l s are to be ' r e s e r v e d f o r those cases where t h e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n ' . " ( C i r c u l a r E 7 , P r o v i s i o n o f S p e c i a l S c h o o l s , June E 5 , 1954). From 1944 to 1971, (when e d u c a t i o n o f the s e v e r e l y sub-normal c h i l d r e n was i n c l u d e d i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the L . E . A . ' s ) , the number o f s p e c i a l s c h o o l s i n B r i t a i n had d o u b l e d . The range o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y had broadened to i n c l u d e from D i n n i n g t o n Lodge the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l Nursery s choo l f o r the deaf , to the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l t r a i n i n g u n i t f o r s e v e r e l y sub-normal s p a s t i c c h i l d r e n at B e r k s h i r e and M e l d r e t h T r a i n i n g School i n Cambridge , to who l ly i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s e s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. (Dent, 1977). EO There was a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t a i n f o l l o w i n g World War II and a shor tage o f t e a c h e r s to f i l l the c l a s s r o o m s p a c e s . The teacher s h o r t a g e a f f e c t e d the expans ion of e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n under the age o f f i v e . A u s t i n (1976) quotes C i r c u l a r E80 of the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ) "the M i n i s t r y w i l l expect the a d m i s s i o n o f c h i l d r e n under f i v e to be r e s t r i c t e d or p r o h i b i t e d where t h e i r admis s ion would s tand i n the way of a r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e o f o v e r - l a r g e c l a s s e s ( for c h i l d r e n over 5 )" . T h i s p o l i c y was f o r m a l i z e d i n 1960 when the M i n i s t r y imposed almost a t o t a l ban on the expans ion o f ma in ta ined or d i r e c t grant n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n . The reasons g i v e n f o r t h i s ban were t w o f o l d ; the s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a t t e n t i o n } money and e d u c a t i o n a l t a l e n t on ex tend ing the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age form 15 to 16 y e a r s . The Plowden R e p o r t : C h i l d r e n and T h e i r P r i m a r y S c h o o l s (1967) was i n o p p o s i t i o n to the s t a n c e o f the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . A u s t i n (1976) s t a t e s that one o f the key recommendations o f the r e p o r t was to have a l a r g e expans ion o f n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n f o r two t h i r d s o f a l l the 3 and 4 year o l d s . It a l s o recommended that at l e a s t f i f t e e n per cent o f these c h i l d r e n shou ld be a t t e n d i n g f u l l day programs, and that there shou ld be p r i o r i t i e s set as to the number and l o c a t i o n o f new p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e based on a p o l i c y o f ' p o s i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . "As a matter o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , ' p o s i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' shou ld favour s c h o o l s i n ne ighbourhoods where c h i l d r e n are most s e v e r e l y handicapped by home c o n d i t i o n s . The E l program shou ld be phased to make s c h o o l s i n the most d e p r i v e d areas as good as the best i n the c o u n t r y . For t h i s , i t may be n e c e s s a r y that t h e i r c l a i m on r e s o u r c e s shou ld be m a i n t a i n e d . " (Plowden R e p o r t , 1967, p .66) In 1972 a Department o f E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e White Paper was p u b l i s h e d that s t a t e d that the concept o f ' p o s i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' would be s e r i o u s l y implemented. The government changed i t s p o l i c y to g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i t s support f o r the expans ion of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n d e p r i v e d areas o f the c o u n t r y . A u s t i n (1976) sugges t s tha t the major b e n e f i t o f the new p o l i c y lay i n the e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the needs o f young c h i l d r e n p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and medica l a r e a s . In 197S the Department o f E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e White Paper on S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Needs (The Warnock Report ) made some f a r r e a c h i n g recommendations . It recommended the law be changed to a b o l i s h the system of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l treatment f o r c h i l d r e n on a c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s and that a l l i n i t i a l t eacher t r a i n i n g have a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n component. It u n d e r l i n e d the need f o r more r e s o u r c e s to be spent on the expans ion of n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs , more parent input i n t o and c o n t r o l over t h e i r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d ' s program and p lacement , and that a N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee on C h i l d r e n with S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Needs be formed . Al though the E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1981 was the f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n whol ly concerned with the range o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n England and Wales and many o f the Warnock recommendations became law, the Government d i d not support the 22 l e g i s l a t i o n with the r e q u i r e d funds to implement a l l the areas e f f e c t i v e l y . There were no e x t r a funds f o r expanding n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n or monies a l l o c a t e d to teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s to expand or i n t r o d u c e new c o u r s e s f o r t e a c h e r s o f c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs . Warnock was r e p o r t e d as commenting that u n l e s s p r o v i s i o n were made f o r e x t r a teacher t r a i n i n g the r e s t o f the Report 'would not be worth t u p p e n c e ' . ( P e t e r , 1980). Warnock i s not so c r i t i c a l o f the Government's lack o f f i n a n c i a l support as she i s o f the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s to revamp and r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r programs. "It i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r the Government to put money i n now and i n a sense they do not need to do so i f o n l y the c o l l e g e s and o ther t r a i n i n g b o d i e s would g a l v a n i z e themse lves . They c o u l d do a grea t dea l i f they would i n t e r e s t themselves more and there are s i g n s tha t many of them a r e . " (Warnock i n P e t e r , 1980). E a r l y C h i l d h o o d T r a i n i n g Requirements and C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n Br i t a i n In common with non-graduate t e a c h e r s o f o ther l e v e l s , the i n i t i a l c o u r s e f o r non-graduate n u r s e r y t e a c h e r s , at p r e s e n t , c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e y e a r s t r a i n i n g i n the theory and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n . C o l l e g e o f e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s are that s t u d e n t s have reached the age o f e i g h t e e n and have completed a minimum of f i v e o r d i n a r y l e v e l h igh s c h o o l c o u r s e s , but the approach to t eacher t r a i n i n g i n England s i n c e World War II has been to move, E3 as f a r as p o s s i b l e , to t r a i n i n g f o r a degree i n e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s has a p p l i e d e q u a l l y i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , and i n the past decade i n c r e a s i n g l y so i n c o u r s e s d e a l i n g wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p o l i c y f o r t eacher t r a i n i n g f o r the n u r s e r y s choo l has not r u n p a r a l l e l to teacher e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . A repeated c r i t i c i s m o f the Plowden Report has been that a l though i t he lped to r e v o l u t i o n i z e the approach to P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n i n England and Wales , i t v i r t u a l l y ignored the p l a c e o f the Nursery s c h o o l s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l sys tem. Nursery t r a i n i n g , c o u r s e s are o f t e n combined with i n f a n t or i n f a n t / j u n i o r c o u r s e s and as a r e s u l t n u r s e r y t e a c h e r s o f t e n have had e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The s t u d e n t s are r e q u i r e d to take c o u r s e s i n theory and p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s and at l e a s t one o ther area o f s t u d y . They spend at l e a s t one b lock p r a c t i c u m a y e a r , l a s t i n g s e v e r a l weeks, i n the s c h o o l s and they have added o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r one day o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d . Other teacher e d u c a t i o n o p t i o n s o f f e r e d by t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e a f o u r year Bache lor o f E d u c a t i o n Degree and a one year p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g course f o r post g r a d u a t e s . The m a j o r i t y o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l a s s i s t a n t s are n u r s e r y nurses who have earned the C e r t i f i c a t e o f the N a t i o n a l Nursery E x a m i n a t i o n Board (NNEB). These c e r t i f i c a t e s are awarded when the s t u d e n t s have completed a two year t r a i n i n g course that i n c l u d e s the c a r e o f c h i l d r e n from b i r t h to seven y e a r s o f age, c o u r s e s i n c h i l d growth and development , c u r r i c u l u m , h e a l t h and academic e l e c t i v e s r e l a t e d to E4 the f i e l d such as home and s o c i e t y ? man and h i s environment? communicat ions and the c r e a t i v e a r t s . P r a c t i c u m placements are spent i n L . E . A . or S o c i a l S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S tudents have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to v i s i t and observe the p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f the c a r e o f c h i l d r e n i n h o s p i t a l s as w e l l . C o l l e g e s o f f e r i n s e r v i c e and r e f r e s h e r courses? and c o u r s e s des igned to t r a i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l a s s i s t a n t s to encourage the language o f young c h i l d r e n ? to c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs? and to work with c h i l d r e n o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . < C l i f t e t . a l . ? 1980). In B r i t a i n ? the r o l e o f the n u r s e r y s choo l teacher i s seen as one i n which the teacher i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r encourag ing h e a l t h y growth and development o f c h i l d r e n between the ages o f two and f i v e ? o f i d e n t i f y i n g and a l l e v i a t i n g ( through r e f e r r a l to s p e c i a l i s t s where neces sary ) p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l impairments and as s u p p o r t i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g p a r e n t s . Many n u r s e r y t e a c h e r s are the l e a d e r s o f teams? and i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r work with c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r care? they must a l s o have s k i l l s i n d iagnoses? c o u n s e l l i n g and l e a d e r s h i p . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S ta tes? from i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n the 19th Century? has been c o n s i d e r e d a means toward s o c i a l change . When the K i n d e r g a r t e n was in troduced? i t s u r v i v e d main ly supported by p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s long E5 b e f o r e i t became a p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s . The g r e a t i n f l u x o f i m m i g r a n t s i n t h e 1800's f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i m i l a t e and were s l o w t o a c c e p t and be a b l e t o a f f o r d A m e r i c a n i d e a l s and s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g . E a c h e t h n i c g r o u p t h a t a r r i v e d t e n d e d t o g r a v i t a t e t o p e o p l e w i t h s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s i n t h e l a r g e c i t i e s w h ere j o b s were more a v a i l a b l e . B e c a u s e o f t h e p o v e r t y and c l o s e l i v i n g q u a r t e r s ? t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s became s o u r c e s o f d i s e a s e , c r i m e , d e l i n q u e n c y and c e n t r e s f o r p r o b l e m s w h i c h A m e r i c a was n o t p r e p a r e d t o meet. B r a u n and E d w a r d s (1972) s u g g e s t t h a t s o c i e t y t u r n e d t o t h e young c h i l d a s t h e one g r e a t hope f o r A m e r i c a ' s f u t u r e and k i n d e r g a r t e n s w e re opened u n d e r r e l i g i o u s and p h i l a n t h r o p i c s u p p o r t i n many c e n t r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Some o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s w e re l o c a t e d i n t h e w o r s t s l u m s o f t h e c i t i e s 'where young w e l l e d u c a t e d women t a u g h t w i t h e n t h u s i a s m and commitment t o t h e c a u s e o f s o c i a l c h a n g e ' . " B o t h k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s and p h i l a n t h r o p i c b o a r d s s o o n saw t h e need o f t h e m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c i a n , t h e n u r s e , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r o r t h e v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r . F u n d s were so low t h a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n e r t a u g h t i n t h e m o r n i n g and s p e n t h e r a f t e r n o o n s a s a s o c i a 1 - w e 1 f a r e w o r k e r ... s e e k i n g work f o r t h e u n e m p l o y e d p a r e n t s , s p a c e i n h o s p i t a l s f o r i l l m o t h e r s , s i s t e r s o r b r o t h e r s , s e a r c h i n g f o r p h y s i c i a n s who w o u l d remove a d e n o i d s and t o n s i l s o r d e n t i s t s who w o u l d e x t r a c t d i s e a s e d t e e t h f r e e o f c h a r g e . . . a t t h i s p e r i o d t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n was f r e q u e n t l y t h e o n l y s o c i a l a g e n c y o f f e r i n g a h e l p i n g hand i n t h e r a p i d l y - i n c r e a s i n g s l u m s . " ( B r a u n and E d w a r d s , 1 9 7 2 ) . 26 Because the p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s always had a s t r u g g l e f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g the k i n d e r g a r t e n s , they began to put p r e s s u r e on p u b l i c s choo l boards to accept the k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l systems. F i r s t they reques ted the use o f vacant rooms i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s r e n t f r e e , then they persuaded many boards o f e d u c a t i o n to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f u l l o p e r a t i n g expenses o f the programs. The k i n d e r g a r t e n s soon became an accepted member o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. As the k i n d e r g a r t e n became a p a r t o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l sys tem, the r a t i o of c h i l d r e n to t eacher was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d and to reduce c o s t s and reach a g r e a t e r number o f c h i l d r e n the double s e s s i o n was i n t r o d u c e d . Braun and Edwards (1972), s t a t e that t h i s p l a n e l i m i n a t e d a l l w e l f a r e work f o r m e r l y done by the k i n d e r g a r t e n e r i n the a f t e r n o o n such as home v i s i t i n g , medica l and c l i n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n , and v a r i o u s o ther forms o f p a r e n t a l gu idance and a s s i s t a n c e . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d began as an accepted f i e l d o f s tudy i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the 1920's . R e s e a r c h e r s such as G. S t a n l e y H a l l , J . McVicker Hunt , W i l l i a m H . K i l p a t r i c k , Lawrence F r a n k , and A r n o l d G e s e l l emphasized and c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the growth and development o f the young c h i l d . P r a c t i t i o n e r s such as P a t t y Smith H i l l , A b i g a i l E l l i o t , Susan Blow, H a r r i e t Johnson , Eva M c L i n and many o t h e r s from a v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s were i n t e r e s t e d i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the young c h i l d , and were h e l p f u l i n r a i s i n g the concern o f the p u b l i c at l a r g e . 27 The f i r s t r e c o r d e d n u r s e r y s c h o o l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was s t a r t e d by a group of f a c u l t y wives at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . The second was d i r e c t e d by Eva McLin i n New York c i t y i n 1915. In 1919, H a r r i e t Johnson , a n u r s e , e s t a b l i s h e d the Bank S t r e e t Nursery School and P a t t y Smith H i l l he lped to i n i t i a t e a l a b o r a t o r y n u r s e r y s c h o o l at Columbia T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e . In 1922 i n B o s t o n , The Ruggles S t r e e t n u r s e r y s c h o o l was s t a r t e d by A b i g a i l E l l i o t , a s o c i a l worker . In the same year Edna Noble White began a n u r s e r y s c h o o l i n D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n which had as i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e the t r a i n i n g o f young women i n the a r t o f c h i l d c a r e . In s p i t e o f the e f f o r t s o f the p i o n e e r r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s the growth o f the n u r s e r y s c h o o l movement was s low. In 1924 a l i s t compi led i n the Twenty -e ight Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the s tudy o f e d u c a t i o n , showed o n l y t w e n t y - e i g h t n u r s e r y s c h o o l s i n e l e v e n s t a t e s . (Braun and Edwards, 1972, M o r r i s o n , 19S4). There were three s p u r t s o f growth i n the f i e l d of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d i n the U . S . , one i n the 1930's , one i n the 1940's and one i n the 1960's . Support f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d has been g i v e n to f i l l the needs o f s o c i e t y as a whole not always to f u r t h e r the e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n a l o n e . Dur ing the d e p r e s s i o n many p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were out o f work and to s e c u r e jobs f o r these t e a c h e r s the f e d e r a l government p r o v i d e d f u n d i n g through the Work P r o j e c t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to s t a r t n u r s e r y s c h o o l s throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g j o b l e s s t e a c h e r s wi th work, i t was hoped that n u r s e r y s c h o o l s would he lp 28 to combat p h y s i c a l and mental hand icaps be ing imposed upon young c h i l d r e n because o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f p o v e r t y caused by the d e p r e s s i o n . Through the W . P . A . e f f o r t s n u r s e r y s c h o o l s became w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the U . S . , and by 1933 there were i n excess o f 2,000 n u r s e r y s c h o o l s throughout the c o u n t r y . (Braun & Edwards , 1972). In the 1940's many day c a r e s and n u r s e r y s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d with f e d e r a l f u n d i n g to support mothers who were working i n s h i p and a i r p l a n e b u i l d i n g f a c t o r i e s . The K a i s e r C h i l d Care C e n t r e s were e x c e l l e n t examples o f the programs a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s d u r i n g World War I I . I t was hoped by E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s l i k e James Hymes that the war time c e n t r e s would be an example f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s i n the post war p e r i o d . "But perhaps most buoying i s the hope each teacher has here i n P o r t l a n d , ground i s be ing broken f o r a vas t postwar development i n n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n . There i s the v i s i o n that perhaps the K a i s e r answer to a wartime problem can show the way to a c o u n t r y ' s answer to s i m i l a r peacet ime needs . T h i s experiment i n c o o p e r a t i o n may lead other i n d u s t r i e s , o ther communit ies to p r o v i d e s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s . " (Hymes, 1944). However f o l l o w i n g the war many of the c e n t r e s were c l o s e d and f e d e r a l f u n d i n g d i m i n i s h e d d r a s t i c a l l y . In the 1960's , once a g a i n t h e r e was a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . T h i s t ime i t was f e l t that E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n c o u l d he lp a l l e v i a t e the g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s 29 between c h i l d r e n of f a m i l i e s s u f f e r i n g from p o v e r t y and middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n i n A m e r i c a . The premise was tha t i f the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f d i sadvantaged c h i l d r e n c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d there would be much s t r o n g e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r succes s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f the n a t i o n , and h o p e f u l l y the p o v e r t y c y c l e c o u l d b e g i n to d i s a p p e a r . In 1964 the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government passed the Economic O p p o r t u n i t y A c t . Under the Act the O f f i c e o f Economic O p p o r t u n i t y was c r e a t e d and out o f t h i s o f f i c e came P r o j e c t Head S t a r t . Once a g a i n the f e d e r a l government d i r e c t e d funds to E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , t h i s t ime through the Head S t a r t Program. The program was o f f i c i a l l y announced i n January o f 1965 and was i n o p e r a t i o n on a n a t i o n wide b a s i s by the summer of that y e a r . Head S t a r t Programs i n order to r e c e i v e f u n d i n g , were r e q u i r e d to have h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , an e d u c a t i o n a l component, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , parent involvement on a s a l a r i e d or v o l u n t e e r b a s i s , the use o f v o l u n t e e r s and a t r a i n i n g component. These s e r v i c e s were d e l i v e r e d i n f i v e h a l f - d a y or whole -day programs, p l a n n e d , deve loped and implemented by l o c a l a g e n c i e s to f i t the needs o f c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s o f the community they s e r v e d . In s p i t e o f the amount of money spent and the e f f o r t put f o r t h by the many E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s i n the program, James Hymes (1969) sugges t s that o f the e s t imated 1,193,000 young c h i l d r e n at each age l e v e l who come from poor f a m i l i e s and are 30 presumably s t u n t e d i n t h e i r development because o f the wretched c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r home and community? o n l y about h a l f are reached by some k ind o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d program. The b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n to make an important d i f f e r e n c e i n the l i v e s o f young c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d u l t i m a t e l y i n the c r e a t i o n o f the Head S t a r t Program as a p a r t o f the War o f P o v e r t y i n 1964 and 1965. It was hoped by the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n that important changes i n the a b i l i t y o f poor c h i l d r e n to succeed i n the pr imary grades would take p l a c e as a r e s u l t of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d i n t e r v e n t i o n . In the 20 y e a r s from 1965 onward t h e r e has been a s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n p r e s c h o o l programs and a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the growth has been f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . S p e c i a l needs i n the American contex t encompasses c h i l d r e n who because o f t h e i r p o v e r t y may s u f f e r from d e l a y e d growth i n a l l areas o f development not o n l y those c h i l d r e n who are unable to manage i n the s c h o o l system because o f a g e n e t i c p h y s i c a l or mental hand i c a p . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d Sates o f America The e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n began i n the e a r l y 19th Century i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Al though much of the i n i t i a l work with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n was accompl i shed i n Europe? American e d u c a t o r s s t u d i e d the p r o g r e s s be ing made there and many o f them t r a v e l l e d to Europe to s tudy the new methods f i r s t hand. 31 Reynolds and B i r c h (1977) suggest that formal arrangements f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s o f p r o g r e s s : 19th Century r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e , e a r l y EOth Century community day s c h o o l s , 1940's to 1970's s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , 1970's to the presen t e d u c a t i o n i n the ' l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t ' . The f i r s t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , the American School f o r the Deaf , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1817 under the d i r e c t i o n o f Thomas H . G a l l a u d e t (1787-1851) . Samuel G . Howe (1801-1876) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l s choo l f o r b l i n d s t u d e n t s i n Water ton , Massachuse t t s i n 1829. In 1848 Sequ in emigrated to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and he was appo in ted d i r e c t o r o f the P e n n s y l v a n i a T r a i n i n g School f o r I d i o t s . L a t e r he moved to New York to c o n t i n u e t e a c h i n g and r e f i n i n g h i s methods and m a t e r i a l s f o r working wi th the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . These i n s t i t u t i o n s were narrowly c a t e g o r i c a l i n f o c u s model led a f t e r t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s and asylums o f E u r o p e . As t h e r e were no t r a i n i n g programs f o r t e a c h e r s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s at t h i s t ime , the i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n e d t h e i r employees on the job or se t up t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s as a d j u n c t s to the i n s t i t u t i o n s . Many s t a t e s opened r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r the dea f , b l i n d and m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d but t h e r e were never enough spaces f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n who needed s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and c a r e . 32 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c a r e o f t e n presented as many i f not more problems than i t was s o l v i n g . F a m i l i e s were d i s t r e s s e d at the long s e p a r a t i o n s from t h e i r c h i l d r e n that a t tendance at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s demanded and mu1t ihandicapped c h i l d r e n were not e l i g i b l e f o r the narrowly c a t e g o r i c a l programs o f f e r e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e s u l t s the p i o n e e r s ach ieved were remarkable b u t : " . . . d e s p i t e the energy , opt imism and achievement o f these e a r l y l e a d e r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n l o s t i t s momentum i n America d u r i n g the l a s t p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Humane and e f f e c t i v e treatment turned to i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and human warehous ing; hope turned to d e s p a i r . " ( H a l l a h a n and Kauffman, 1982) In the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th C e n t u r i e s , community based programs were i n i t i a t e d f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n day s c h o o l s and i n s e l f c o n t a i n e d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s f o r the b l i n d , the dea f , and the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . R e s i d e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s began to t r a i n s p e c i a l i z e d t e a c h e r s f o r community day s c h o o l s and s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . In 1904 the V i n e l a n d T r a i n i n g School i n New J e r s e y began to o f f e r summer t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . ( H i l l , 1945). Dur ing the f i r s t h a l f o f the 20th Century the growth o f community programs was very s low. The n e g l e c t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n was due l a r g e l y to the p u b l i c ' s lack o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g about a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s o f these c h i l d r e n and a lack o f l o c a l funds to support expans ion of expens ive programs. T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e d u r i n g the 1930's . 33 During the t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s from 1945-1970, there was a g r e a t surge o f i n t e r e s t i n , and commitment to programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . In 1948 l e s s than 500,000 c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs. By 1972, almost 3 ,000 ,000 c h i l d r e n were be ing s e r v e d . There was a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n programs to t r a i n t e a c h e r s i n methods o f t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m and m a t e r i a l development a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the needs o f the c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the new and expanding programs. In 1948 t h e r e were fewer than 80 c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d i n g teacher t r a i n i n g i n one or more s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . By 1976, i t was e s t i m a t e d that t h e r e were more than 600 post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s or programs f o r t e a c h e r s . The f i n a n c i a l involvement o f the f e d e r a l government encouraged the r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y programs. (Reynolds and B i r c h , 1977). A m i l e s t o n e i n the h i s t o r y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d s t a t e s was the enactment o f the 926th law of the 85th C o n g r e s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y P . L . 85-926. The law paved the way f o r a growing commitment o f the f e d e r a l government to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . The b i l l a u t h o r i z e d g r a n t s to u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s and o ther i n v o l v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Even b e f o r e the passage o f P . L . 85-926 t h e r e was p r e s s u r e w i t h i n the Senate and the House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to extend the law to i n c l u d e a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i t y . In 1963 the b i l l was extended by the passage o f P . L . 88-164 to i n c l u d e : "Menta l l y r e t a r d e d , hard o f h e a r i n g , 34 d e a f , speech i m p a i r e d , v i s u a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , s e r i o u s l y e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d , c r i p p l e d or h e a l t h impaired c h i l d r e n who by reason t h e r e o f r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . " (Burke , 1976). Subsequent b i l l s and amendments have r e i n f o r c e d and expanded the commitment o f the f e d e r a l government to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and c r e a t e d the Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n f o r the Handicapped ( P . L . 98-750) wi th i t s t h r e e d i v i s i o n s : t r a i n i n g , r e s e a r c h and s e r v i c e s . The f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has depended h e a v i l y f o r i t s support on f u n d i n g from the f e d e r a l government. I n i t i a l l y , most f u n d i n g was based on n a r r o w l y c a t e g o r i c a l l i n e s . The l a r g e s t amount was d e s i g n a t e d f o r the t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s to work with the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d f o l l o w e d by the areas o f speech and h e a r i n g . U n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s who wished to move from the c a t e g o r i c a l approach to t r a i n i n g to a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l approach with more emphasis on the moderate ly handicapped r a n the r i s k o f r e c e i v i n g l e s s f u n d i n g . (Burke , 1976). In the e a r l y 1970's the f e d e r a l government began to award f u n d i n g f o r n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l m u l t i - y e a r programs. The r e s u l t o f t h i s p o l i c y change has been to encourage longer term p l a n n i n g . N o n - c a t e g o r i c a l p l a n n i n g i s addressed at the l o c a l l e v e l , and when p r i o r i t i e s change u n i v e r s i t y and co1 lege dep artments are a b l e to s h i f t f e d e r a l funds e a s i l y . Because o f i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g many programs have been a b l e to deve lop e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s to support the development o f f u t u r e t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . 35 With the landmark l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1975 o f amendments to the E d u c a t i o n o f the Handicapped Act <P.L. 94 -142) , the date f o r p r o v i d i n g a p u b l i c supported a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n was moved ahead to September o f 1978. The amendment a l s o p r o v i d e d that s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s be f o r every handicapped c h i l d (3-21) y e a r s o f age i n the ' l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e env ironment ' and that each c h i l d be assured of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l program that would bes t s u i t h i s / h e r needs . Meet ing the f u l l s e r v i c e mandate o f P . L . 94-142 means s e r v i n g an e s t i m a t e d 7 ,800,000 handicapped c h i l d r e n . Harvey (1976) sugges t s that 250,000 a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l w i l l be r e q u i r e d and o f the 250,000 a l r e a d y employed i n the e d u c a t i o n o f the handicapped as h igh as 40 per cent r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g to q u a l i f y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The D i v i s i o n o f Personne l P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Bureau of E d u c a t i o n f o r the Handicapped has as i t s p r i o r i t y an assurance o f the p r o v i s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s to improve and extend programs f o r the h a n d i c a p p e d . A c r i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e o f the B E H i s to a s sure "that a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s have a t r a i n e d teacher or o ther r e s o u r c e person competent i n the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to a i d c h i l d r e n i n r e a c h i n g t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . " (Harvey , 1976). The B E H p r i o r i t i e s a l s o i n c l u d e p e r s o n n e l p r e p a r a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n the area o f p r e s c h o o l handicapped c h i l d r e n and i n f a n t s . To s a t i s f y the amendment P . L . 94-142, the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government has commited i t s e l f 36 and i t s monies to a massive program f o r the t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l . In 1960 the f e d e r a l f u n d i n g earmarked f o r p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g was $985,222. A p p r o p r i a t i o n s i n the year 1976 were $40 ,375 ,000 . (Burke , 1976). " . . . t h e y e a r s have been tumul tuous , but they have a l s o been marked by a f e e l i n g o f g r e a t accompl i shment . The p e r i o d from 1958 to 1976 has wi tnessed a s p e c t a c u l a r growth of p e r s o n n e l p r e p a r a t i o n programs, from fewer than 40 to more than 400. The number o f f u l l t ime p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d , a t o t a l o f 28 i n A p r i l 1957, has grown to the p o i n t that today some u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n programs have t h i s many f a c u l t y a l o n e . Most o f the c u r r e n t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t y members, moreover , have been the r e c i p i e n t s o f BEH f e l l o w s h i p s u p p o r t . " (Burke , 1976). S a e t t l e r (1976) sugges ts that the s u c c e s s f u l implementat ion of the new law ( P . L . 94-142) w i l l depend upon the a b i l i t y o f s t a t e , f e d e r a l and l o c a l e d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s to work together i n d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n n e l p r e p a r a t i o n programs the c r u c i a l element i n making sure that a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n do r e c e i v e the f r e e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n to which they are e n t i t l e d . Spodek and Saracho (1982) suggest that any d i s c o u r s e , about the p r e p a r a t i o n and c e r t i f i c a t i o n of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p e r s o n n e l , shou ld address q u a l i f i c a t i o n s p e r s o n n e l shou ld have , methods o f t r a i n i n g , and who shou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p e r s o n n e l . They i n s i s t that with such b a s i c i s s u e s i n c o n f l i c t t h e r e i s no agreement as to the p r e p a r a t i o n persons i n the f i e l d ought to have or the minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that sh ou ld be e s t a b l i s h e d . There e x i s t s a g r e a t range o f programs i n v o l v i n g 37 p r a c t i t i o n e r s who work with young c h i l d r e n from programs that emphasize c o g n i t i v e development to programs where s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l development i s the prime f o c u s . The d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n programs leads to c o n t r o v e r s y over whether the p r a c t i t i o n e r s are t e a c h e r s or c a r e g i v e r s or b o t h . James Bryant Conant (1963) suggests tha t i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y four components o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l equipment that are p r e r e q u i s i t e s to the development o f t e a c h i n g s k i l l s to work with c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t he c a l l s , a 'democra t i c s o c i a l component' , the second i s an i n t e r e s t i n the way b e h a v i o r d e v e l o p s i n groups o f c h i l d r e n , the t h i r d i s a sympathet i c knowledge o f the growth and development o f c h i l d r e n , by which he means much more than p h y s i c a l growth a l o n e , and the f o u r t h he sugges t s i s the p r i n c i p l e s o f t e a c h i n g which a p p l y when working with one c h i l d as much as wi th a group o f c h i l d r e n when a t t empt ing to he lp c h i l d r e n deve lop an i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l . He s t r e s s e s that the 'one i n d i s p u t a b l e e s s e n t i a l element i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i s the p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g ' . He goes on to recommend tha t the p r o f e s s o r from the c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y who i s to s u p e r v i s e and assess the p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g shou ld have had e x t e n s i v e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . The i n s t r u c t o r ' s s t a t u s shou ld be 'ana logous to that o f a c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r i n c e r t a i n medica l s c h o o l s ' . He a l s o sugges t s that the program f o r t e a c h e r s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n and grades one, two, and t h r e e shou ld p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s i n content and methodology o f a l l s u b j e c t s taught i n these e a r l y y e a r s . Depth i n a s i n g l e s u b j e c t or c l u s t e r o f s u b j e c t s i s not n e c e s s a r y . Most c o l l e g e s 38 and u n i v e r s i t i e s do f o l l o w the f o u r t e n e t s tha t Conant has suggested i n t h e i r teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs. E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r e p a r a t i o n programs tend to p l a c e more s t r e s s on the a spec t s o f c h i l d growth and development and a h e a v i e r emphasis on p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e . P r i n c i p l e s o f t e a c h i n g and content o f s u b j e c t areas u s u a l l y r e c e i v e l e s s semester hours and are c o n s i d e r e d secondary to knowing the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y grade t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to have a degree i n e d u c a t i o n earned at a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . P r i m a r y t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to have c e r t i f i c a t i o n by the s t a t e i n which they choose to t e a c h . U s u a l l y c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s earned upon c o m p l e t i o n o f a r e c o g n i z e d program o f t eacher e d u c a t i o n and the recommendation o f the t eacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n that the g r a d u a t i n g s tudent i s q u a l i f i e d as a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r . Most s t a t e s r e q u i r e K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s to be c e r t i f i e d as w e l l . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s working i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and day c a r e c e n t r e s are e s t a b l i s h e d under c e n t r e l i c e n s i n g s t a n d a r d s under l o c a l or s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s . I f agenc i e s a n d / o r c e n t r e s want to r e c e i v e f e d e r a l f u n d i n g they must h i r e s t a f f tha t meets c r i t e r i a demanded by f e d e r a l government r e g u l a t i o n s . Boodlad e t . a l . (1973), i n a t h r e e year s tudy o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l s i n n i n e c i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , found that d i r e c t o r s o f c e n t r e s u s u a l l y possessed a degree , sometimes a graduate degree , t e a c h i n g s t a f f had a c o l l e g e degree or at l e a s t some c o l l e g e 39 t r a i n i n g , a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r s were h igh s c h o o l graduates wi th p o s s i b l y some c o l l e g e c o u r s e s but very l i t t l e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . There were p a i d and unpaid a i d e s most o f whom had no t r a i n i n g to work with young c h i l d r e n . They recommended i n t h e i r r e p o r t that s t a t e s shou ld deve lop c r i t e r i a f o r the l i c e n s i n g and conduct o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l s to ensure a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r s t a f f i n c h i l d development , c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , and e v a l u a t i o n and that s t a t e s shou ld p r o v i d e s p e c i a l f u n d i n g f o r p r e p a r i n g p e r s o n n e l to work i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s . The department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Wel fare o f the f e d e r a l government has suggested c r i t e r i a f o r r e g u l a t i o n s govern ing t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f working i n l i c e n s e d day c a r e s tha t s t a t e s shou ld c o n s i d e r . The suggested q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are that s t a f f have a B a c h e l o r or A s s o c i a t e o f A r t s degree wi th at l e a s t twelve semester hours o f c h i l d development , c h i l d h e a l t h or d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d f i e l d s o f s t u d y , or a h igh s c h o o l d ip loma wi th at l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e working with young c h i l d r e n , or c e r t i f i c a t i o n as a C h i l d Development A s s o c i a t e . (Spodek &< S a r a c h o , 1982). The C h i l d Development A s s o c i a t e Consort ium (CDAC), a p r i v a t e n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n with h a l f a m i l l i o n members, was e s t a b l i s h e d as a c r e d e n t i a 1 i n g agency, wi thout the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g , and i s funded by the f e d e r a l Department o f H e a l t h and Human S e r v i c e s . A CDAC C r e d e n t i a l i s n a t i o n a l , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i sh ing to work i n f e d e r a l l y funded programs such 40 as Head S t a r t must have earned the c r e d e n t i a l . C a n d i d a t e s f o r the CDAC C r e d e n t i a l submit examples o f m a t e r i a l and work they have done wi th c h i l d r e n . They are observed working with c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s by an assessment team. At an assessment meet ing , the team judges the m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t e d and the o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the c a n d i d a t e ' s performance and determines whether the c a n d i d a t e shou ld be awarded a c r e d e n t i a l . The c r e d e n t i a l i s granted f o r t h r e e y e a r s . To d a t e , over 6,00 c a n d i d a t e s have r e c e i v e d c r e d e n t i a l s from the CDAC. ( K l e i n , 19S0). A c c r e d i t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s that p r e p a r e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s h e l p s to r e g u l a t e programs that p r e p a r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o r the f i e l d . The a c c r e d i t a t i o n agency i n the a r e a o f teacher e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the A c c r e d i t a t i o n o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n (NCATE). A l though a c c r e d i t a t i o n i s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s more and more c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s are s eek ing a c c r e d i t a t i o n to g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y wi th o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s and to ensure the e m p l o y a b i l i t y o f t h e i r g r a d u a t e s . Through the a c c r e d i t a t i o n p r o c e s s i t i s p o s s i b l e to a s ses s the t r a i n i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s who work wi th young c h i l d r e n i f they have been educated and t r a i n e d i n the teacher e d u c a t i o n model , but many E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r s have r e c e i v e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n o ther models o f t r a i n i n g and i t i s not so easy to a s se s s t h e i r competenc ies or the s t a n d a r d o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g . "The a c c r e d i t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s that p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s has been seen as an important v e h i c l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the q u a l i t y o f t eacher e d u c a t i o n programs, but i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n i s 41 u n c l e a r . The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the E d u c a t i o n o f Young C h i l d r e n has o n l y r e c e n t l y become i n v o l v e d i n the NCATE a c c r e d i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Programs that p r e p a r e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d t e a c h e r s may e x i s t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s s u b j e c t to NCATE a c c r e d i t a t i o n . However, many of the persons employed i n p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s are not graduate s o f teacher e d u c a t i o n programs i n f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s but are prepared i n c h i l d development programs or i n two-year c o l l e g e s which are not s u b j e c t to NCATE a c c r e d i t a t i o n . S t i l l o t h e r s are prepared i n h igh s choo l programs or have no f o r m a l p r e p a r a t i o n at a l l . There i s at p r e s e n t no system of a c c r e d i t a t i o n that oversees the q u a l i t y o f programs p r e p a r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r s o u t s i d e the framework o f teacher e d u c a t i o n . " (Spodek and S a r a c h o , 1982) As a r e s u l t o f the passage o f P u b l i c Law 94-142, there i s a growing need f o r s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d and c e r t i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work with p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . The q u a l i f i e d p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r , a l though educated i n normal p a t t e r n s of development o f young c h i l d r e n , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y knowledgeable about v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and h i g h l y unique a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f handicapped p r e s c h o o l e r s . In a q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent to the departments o f e d u c a t i o n o f a l l 50 s t a t e s , E n z i n n a and Pol loway (1982) found that o n l y 14 s t a t e s i s s u e c e r t i f i c a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t e a c h e r s o f p r e s c h o o l handicapped c h i l d r e n and o n l y 15 more were c o n s i d e r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n the near f u t u r e . In seven of the s t a t e s r e p o r t i n g s p e c i f i c c r e d e n t i a l s f o r the t e a c h i n g o f p r e s h c o o l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs , the c r e d e n t i a l s were mandatory f o r employment i n the f i e l d . The r e s u l t s o f the survey suggest that many p e r s o n n e l working with p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs have t r a i n i n g i n o ther areas o f t e a c h i n g and as at 42 l e a s t h a l f o f t h e s t a t e s h a v e no p l a n s f o r r e q u i r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l w i l l c o n t i n u e i n d e f i n i t e l y . T h i s i s a p r o b l e m * w h i c h we w i l l f i n d i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n C a n a d a . We may t h e r e f o r e now b e g i n a r e v i e w o f u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n and t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n o u r own c o u n t r y . 43 CHAPTER 3 ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION AND TEACHER PREPARATION IN CANADA Be fore examining programs f o r teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , we must f i r s t examine the growth o f u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. In the e a r l y y e a r s o f Canada' s h i s t o r y , f i r s t as a c o l o n y of F r a n c e , l a t e r a c o l o n y of England and then as a Dominion , e d u c a t i o n o f the young c h i l d took p l a c e i n the home, the c h u r c h , and f i n a l l y w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l sys tem. Johnson (1968) sugges t s tha t as s e t t l e m e n t s spread and p a r i s h e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , i t became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p a r i s h p r i e s t s or c u r e s to e s t a b l i s h a ' p e t i t e c o l e ' i n each p a r i s h where c h i l d r e n might l e a r n the three R ' s o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and r e l i g i o n . Such p a r i s h s c h o o l s seem to have been r e l a t i v e l y common. With the B r i t i s h conquest o f the c o l o n y and l a t e r the i n f l u x o f E n g l i s h speak ing s e t t l e r s from a c r o s s the b o r d e r , as a r e s u l t o f the American War of Independence i n 1776, demands f o r s c h o o l s i n c r e a s e d . The new s e t t l e r s se t up t h e i r own s c h o o l s as was the custom i n the New England S t a t e s , and r e c r u i t e d t e a c h e r s from a c r o s s the b o r d e r . In 1829, a b i l l f o r the 'Encouragement o f E lementary E d u c a t i o n ' was passed by the Assembly o f Upper Canada. I t gave p a r i s h e s and townships the r i g h t to l o c a l c o n t r o l o f 44 t h e i r s c h o o l s and g r a n t s from the government to a l l a y c o s t s o f b u i l d i n g s and t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s . By 1835, there were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Upper Canada. (Johnson, 1968). Unres t i n Upper and Lower Canada f o r c e d the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t to appo in t Lord Durham as Governor Genera l under a s p e c i a l commiss ion to i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on the causes o f d i s c o n t e n t i n both c o l o n i e s . He gave c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the s t a t e o f Canadian e d u c a t i o n and conc luded that the B r i t i s h Government had done l i t t l e f o r the promot ion o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. There was a g r e a t dea l o f support to p a t t e r n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n the new c o l o n i e s a f t e r the B r i t i s h system. The A n g l i c a n Church had the most i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s area and John S t r a c h a n , the f i r s t A n g l i c a n Bishop of T o r o n t o , was a l eader i n the movement. In 1822, when the l e g i s l a t u r e c r e a t e d a G e n e r a l Board o f E d u c a t i o n , S t r a c h a n became the f i r s t c h a i r m a n . The Board was to e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s i o n over the c o l o n y ' s s c h o o l s and S t r a c h a n , as i t s c h a i r m a n , became the f i r s t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s f o r Upper Canada. S t r a c h a n ' s s t r o n g commitment to an A n g l i c a n c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n system f o r Upper Canada and h i s q u e s t i o n i n g o f the l o y a l t y o f the p r o v i n c e ' s l a r g e Method i s t p o p u l a t i o n l ed to s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n to h i s p o l i c i e s by the p o p u l a c e , and to the emergence o f a new l eader i n e d u c a t i o n , a young Method i s t p r e a c h e r , E g e r t o n R y e r s o n . ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). 45 In the Act o f Union o f 1841, i t was decreed that t h e r e shou ld be one u n i t e d co lony of Canada and that Upper and Lower Canada would become merely a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s o f the C o l o n y . At the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the new p a r l i a m e n t , The Common School Act o f 1841 was passed to g i v e the Colony a un i form s c h o o l sys tem. " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a s t a t e s c h o o l system were l a i d when the Act o f 1841 c r e a t e d the o f f i c e o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n and when subsequent l e g i s l a t i o n gave each p r o v i n c e i t s own s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s o f f i c e was c l e a r l y based on p r e c e d e n t s i n the a d j o i n i n g o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the U n i t e s S t a t e s o f Canadian thought and p r a c t i c e . " (Johnson, 1968). Upper Canada began to e s t a b l i s h one o f the best common s c h o o l systems of the p e r i o d and much o f the c r e d i t f o r t h i s p r o g r e s s goes to E g e r t o n R y e r s o n . In 1841 he was chosen to be p r i n c i p a l o f the Method i s t Academy as i t was awarded u n i v e r s i t y s t a t u s and became the new V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e . In 1844, he was a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Upper Canada . B e f o r e assuming h i s new o f f i c e , he t r a v e l l e d i n more than twenty c o u n t r i e s to s tudy a v a r i e t y o f s c h o o l sys tems. Whi le i n E u r o p e , he s t u d i e d P e s t o l z z i a n and F r o e b e l l i a n methods and p h i l o s o p h i e s . He admired I r i s h text books and took I r i s h Normal S c h o o l s as models when he e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t Normal s c h o o l i n T o r o n t o . On h i s r e t u r n to Canada, he prepared a r e p o r t which was the b a s i s f o r the Common School Act o f 1846. Under t h i s a c t , a p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l system i n Upper Canada was e s t a b l i s h e d which was supported by p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s that must be matched by l o c a l funds through 46 f ee s from p a r e n t s o f s t u d e n t s . The Common Schoo l Act o f 1850 was an improvement over the Act o f 1846 i n t h a t , i t a l lowed d i s t r i c t s to r a i s e revenues by t a x i n g a l l the p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , e s t a b l i s h i n g f r e e common s c h o o l s f o r a l l . "For n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y O n t a r i o , the c e n t r a l theme i n the h i s t o r y o f c h i l d h o o d i s the emergence o f s c h o o l i n g as a dominant e x p e r i e n c e o f growing up . The speed o f t h i s development i s r e m a r k a b l e . In 1800, formal e d u c a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to a s m a l l number o f youths from f a m i l i e s who had the money and i n t e r e s t to arrange p r i v a t e l y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s or i n s m a l l g r o u p s . One hundred y e a r s l a t e r , the vas t m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d at l e a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g i n a p u b l i c system and many at tended c l a s s c o n s i s t e n t l y between the ages o f f i v e and s i x t e e n . Schoo l had begun to r i v a l the f a m i l y as a d e t e r m i n i n g i n f l u e n c e o f the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . " ( G a f f i e l d , 1982). The M a r i t i m e and Western P r o v i n c e s s t r u g g l e d with many of the problems e x p e r i e n c e d i n O n t a r i o i n e s t a b l i s h i n g f r e e common s c h o o l s f o r a l l and e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a i n i n g programs f o r t e a c h e r s . The f i r s t s c h o o l s were opened by church sponsored m i s s i o n a r i e s and r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s or on a p r i v a t e b a s i s by anyone who f e l t i n c l i n e d to become a teacher o f the young. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d passed the F r e e E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1852, New Brunswick the P a r i s h School Act o f 1858 and Nova S c o t i a f o l l o w e d with the Encouragement o f E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1865. With the passage o f these a c t s , most c h i l d r e n of the M a r i t i m e s were o f f e r e d a f r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). 47 The f i r s t e d u c a t i o n a l g r a n t s i n Western Canada came from the Hudson's Bay Company. The g r a n t s were bestowed i m p a r t i a l l y on Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n s a l i k e . The p a t e r n a l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n and f i n a n c i a l support by the churches and f u r t r a d i n g companies i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the 19th Century i n Western Canada were s i m i l a r to tha t i n E a s t e r n Canada b e f o r e the 1850's . However, by 1871 a year a f t e r Manitoba had j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n , a system o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n with c e n t r a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s had been i n t r o d u c e d i n that p r o v i n c e . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l though the government had passed the Common School Act o f 1865 p r o m i s i n g to assume the cos t o f e d u c a t i o n i n the c o l o n y , i t was not u n t i l the p a s s i n g o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s Act o f 1869 and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871 that p u b l i c supported e d u c a t i o n began to become a r e a l i t y . A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan passed b i l l s making p r o v i s i o n s f o r l o c a l s c h o o l boards and p u b l i c f u n d i n g o f the s c h o o l s when they e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1905. ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). D e s p i t e the f a c t that the B r i t i s h North America Act 1867 a s s i g n e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s c o a s t - t o - c o a s t e d u c a t i o n a l development a f t e r the 1870's . At that t i m e , p u b l i c e lementary e d u c a t i o n f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n brought an expans ion i n the number o f c h i l d r e n s e r v e d , and a l s o a q u e s t i o n i n g o f the very purpose o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . From the l a t e 1900's to the p r e s e n t day , few i n n o v a t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n have been i n i t i a t e d i n one p r o v i n c e a l o n e . E d u c a t i o n a l developments i n O n t a r i o were s i m i l a r 48 to those i n the M a r i t i m e s and both O n t a r i o and Quebec e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s have had an impact on the development o f e d u c a t i o n systems i n the Western P r o v i n c e s . By the b e g i n n i n g o f the 20th Century t h e r e was p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d e lementary e d u c a t i o n i n a l l the p r o v i n c e s ? but i t was not u n t i l the 1920's most p r o v i n c e s (not Quebec and Newfoundland) o f f e r e d a f r e e secondary e d u c a t i o n to Canadian c h i l d r e n . ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). D u r i n g the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th C e n t u r i e s , Canadian e d u c a t o r s were i n f l u e n c e d by new t h e o r i e s and methods from Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . W r i t e r s and e d u c a t o r s such as Rousseau, P e s t a l o z z i i , F r o e b e l , M o n t e s s o r i and Dewey were advanc ing new ideas on t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s that e v e n t u a l l y would i n f l u e n c e changes i n the emphasis i s that Canadian e d u c a t o r s p l a c e on the growth and development o f the c h i l d over the s u b j e c t matter the c h i l d i s to l e a r n . Canadian e d u c a t o r s c o n t i n u e to be i n f l u e n c e d by i n n o v a t i o n s i n Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s system o f j u n i o r c o l l e g e s was s t r o n g i n the 60 ' s wi th the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f Community C o l l e g e s throughout Canada. The B r i t i s h Infant School System has been the model f o r many of the f a m i l y group ing c l a s s e s i n the e lementary s c h o o l s i n Canada i n the past twenty y e a r s . But p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n Canada has come of age as i t were. E x c e l l e n t r e s e a r c h i s be ing c a r r i e d out on l e a r n i n g t h e o r y , c h i l d growth and development and methods o f t e a c h i n g i n a l l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . R e c e n t l y the S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a has been 49 r e c r u i t i n g t e a c h e r s from Canada to he lp a l l e v i a t e i t s c u r r e n t teacher s h o r t a g e . Recent r e p o r t s i n Vancouver newspapers suggest that s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n C a l i f o r n i a are very impressed with the q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r s produced by Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h i r d wor ld c o u n t r i e s e s p e c i a l l y those i n South E a s t A s i a and A f r i c a have enjoyed the b e n e f i t o f Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e i n d e s i g n i n g and implementing e d u c a t i o n programs. Canada has become an e x p o r t e r as w e l l as an importer o f e d u c a t i o n a l ideas and innovat i o n s . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada The e d u c a t i o n and c a r e o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n Canada i n the e a r l y 1800's took p l a c e e i t h e r i n the home where the f a m i l y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any t r a i n i n g the c h i l d might r e c e i v e a n d \ o r i n a l o c a l s c h o o l where the c h i l d would repeat grade a f t e r grade u n t i l he / she grew too l a r g e f o r the desks i n the c l a s s r o o m or caused so many d i s r u p t i o n s that the teacher or p r i n c i p a l i n s i s t e d the c h i l d be removed from the s c h o o l . As p u b l i c s c h o o l systems i n Canada became e s t a b l i s h e d and e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n became mandatory i n the p r o v i n c e s , some c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d was i n i t i a t e d . 50 " T y p i c a l o f e a r l y e f f o r t s was a p e t i t i o n a s k i n g the government o f Upper Canada i n 1 8 3 6 » to vote a sum to p r o v i d e f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f two deaf and dumb c h i l d r e n , and a r e p o r t i n the same year o f a s p e c i a l committee o f the l e g i s l a t u r e recommending the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s f o r the deaf and the d u m b . . . I n 1858, a S o c i e t y of the I n s t r u c t i o n o f the Deaf and Dumb was opened i n B e l l e v i 1 l e . . . t h i s O n t a r i o development had been preceded by the f o u n d a t i o n i n 1857, o f the H a l i f a x I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Deaf and Dumb. The H a l i f a x School f o r the B l i n d was opened i n 1871. . .New Brunswick e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the deaf and dumb at F r e d e r i c t o n i n 1 8 7 2 . . . ( a n d the ) O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r the E d u c a t i o n o f the B l i n d was e s t a b l i s h e d at B r a n t f o r d i n 1871." ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as e a r l y as 1890 the Department o f E d u c a t i o n assumed l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r some handicapped c h i l d r e n . In 1890, a smal l a p p r o p r i a t i o n was made by the l e g i s l a t u r e to cover the expenses o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the I n s t i t u t e f o r the Deaf and Dumb i n W i n n i p e g , Manitoba which had been opened i n 1889. ( B l a k e , 1956). J e r i c h o H i l l Schoo l f o r the Deaf and B l i n d was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver , i n 1913. In A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n were sent to O n t a r i o , M a n i t o b a , B r i t i s h Columbia and some U n i t e d S t a t e s c e n t r e s f o r c a r e and e d u c a t i o n . The c o s t s i n c u r r e d were funded by the two p r o v i n c e s . C h i l d r e n l i v e d away from t h e i r f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the s c h o o l year and r e c e i v e d c a r e but very few program i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s c o u l d be c l a s s e d as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g . 51 By the e a r l y y e a r s o f the 20th Century there was an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n on the p a r t o f the l a r g e r c i t y s choo l boards f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n whose p h y s i c a l and mental hand icaps had kept them o u t s i d e the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , p r e v i o u s l y . "Af ter about 1910, and i n the l a r g e s t c i t i e s f i r s t , t h e r e began to appear open a i r and f o r e s t c l a s s e s f o r t u b e r c u l a r and s i c k l y c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s f o r c r i p p l e d c h i l d r e n , speech c o r r e c t i o n c l a s s e s , v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s f o r s t a y - a t - h o m e s , and a g r e a t many o ther s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s . . . " ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). Under the i n f l u e n c e o f James Hughes, Inspec tor o f S c h o o l s f o r the C i t y o f T o r o n t o , s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r t u b e r c u l a r , s e v e r e l y u n d e r n o u r i s h e d , and m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n were o f f e r e d by the c i t y by 1914. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the c i t i e s o f V i c t o r i a and Vancouver began day programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n by 19E0. S i t t e n s (1980) s t a t e s that the Vancouver School Board p r o v i d e d needed l e a d e r s h i p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a program f o r the deaf i n 1915, f o l l o w e d by a program f o r the b l i n d i n 1916, and a program f o r m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n 1919. In 1914 the O n t a r i o A u x i l i a r y C l a s s e s Act was passed and an Inspec tor o f A u x i l i a r y C l a s s e s was appo in ted by the O n t a r i o Department o f E d u c a t i o n . That same y e a r , summer c l a s s e s were o f f e r e d to t e a c h e r s who would be t e a c h i n g the a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s . The number o f programs f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs grew very s l o w l y throughout Canada. The n e g l e c t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the EOth Century was p r i m a r i l y due, as i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , to the lack 52 o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p u b l i c at l a r g e about a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs and the lack o f l o c a l funds to support expens ive programs e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the 1930's . P h i l l i p s (1957) notes a survey done by Russe l and T y l e r i n 1941-42 that i n d i c a t e d there were o n l y 525 spaces i n Canada f o r c h i l d r e n o f the 50-75 I . Q . r a n g e . Of these 323 were i n T o r o n t o , 66 i n M o n t r e a l , 48 i n W i n n i p e g , and 29 i n Vancouver . The remainder were i n o ther c i t i e s o f a l l p r o v i n c e s except P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Newfoundland was not a p r o v i n c e at that t i m e . These s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d o p e n - a i r c l a s s e s f o r t u b e r c u l a r and s i c k l y c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s f o r c r i p p l e d c h i l d r e n speech c o r r e c t i o n c l a s s e s , v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s f o r the home bound, s i g h t s a v i n g c l a s s e s , c l a s s e s f o r ' s l o w ' l e a r n e r s , t r a i n a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d and educab le m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . In 1938, a f u l l y mature young woman o f 15 y e a r s was e n r o l l e d i n an e lementary s c h o o l i n Burnaby, B . C . i n a s p l i t grade one/two c l a s s . She sa t at the back of the room, and when the younger c h i l d r e n were f i n i s h e d t h e i r work ahead of the r e s t o f the c l a s s , they would s i t wi th ' M a r y ' and he lp her weave paper mats. M a r y ' s mother had to work and c o u l d not c a r e f o r her at home. When Mary was 16, she was committed to Woodland S c h o o l , where she remained f o r the r e s t o f her l i f e . 1 In 1942 ' B i l l ' a very t a l l 16 year o l d was i n a grade s i x c l a s s i n New Westmins ter . He was not a b l e to do any of the r e g u l a r l y a s s igned c l a s s work, and spent h i s days d i s r u p t i n g the c l a s s by s e t t i n g an a larm c l o c k to go o f f i n 53 h i s desk p e r i o d i c a l l y d u r i n g the day , and b r i n g i n g white mice or toys to s c h o o l . When the c l a s s moved on to the J u n i o r High School the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , B i l l l e f t s c h o o l . He worked at odd jobs tha t never l a s t e d more than a day or two. He turned to hot w i r i n g c a r s , and d r i v i n g by the s choo l to impress h i s o l d c l a s s m a t e s . He s t o l e one too many c a r s , was a r r e s t e d and sent to ' r e f o r m ' s c h o o l f o r two y e a r s . These two examples o f the p l i g h t o f ' s low l e a r n e r s ' i n the p u b l i c s choo l system were p r o b a b l y the norm r a t h e r than e x c e p t i o n s i n Canada b e f o r e the 1950's . In the post war e r a from 1945 i n t o the 1960's s c h o o l boards throughout the n a t i o n focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and f i n a n c e s on r e l i e v i n g the shor tage o f t e a c h e r s , managing overcrowded s c h o o l s and r e d u c i n g c l a s s s i z e . In the 50 ' s i t was not uncommon to have a c l a s s o f 50 c h i l d r e n i n the e lementary s c h o o l s . An example was one grade t h r e e c l a s s o f 50, ten of whom shou ld have had some type o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , taught by an e i g h t e e n year o l d t eacher 3 wi th one year o f Normal s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . There were few i t i n e r a n t t e a c h e r s wi th ' s p e c i a l ' t r a i n i n g and few l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s even i n the l a r g e c i t i e s . In the r u r a l c e n t r e s r e s o u r c e s were n o n - e x i s t e n t . I f a c h i l d was s e v e r e l y impa ired t h e r e might be a s p e c i a l c l a s s i n a l o c a l s choo l but u s u a l l y the c h i l d would be sent to a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , sometimes a g r e a t d i s t a n c e from h i s / h e r home. Laycock (1963) , f o u n d , i n a comparison o f the p r o v i n c e s that t h e r e were wide d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n p r o v i s i o n s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d . He found that i n O n t a r i o 54 t h e r e were c l o s e to 800 s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r educable m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n w h i l e i n Quebec comparable f a c i l i t i e s d i d not e x i s t . He found that there were d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r adequate e d u c a t i o n o f the h e a r i n g and v i s u a l l y impaired? speech handicapped and e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n i n the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s . He sugges t s tha t wi th the i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f the vas t importance o f the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s i n a c h i l d ' s development i . e . the normal p r e s c h o o l c h i l d l e a r n s a language and a f o u n d a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e s f o r l e a r n i n g to read) to handle number r e l a t i o n s h i p s and beg ins to unders tand the world o f n a t u r e about him as w e l l as l e a r n i n g to l i v e wi th a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n that ' i f any y o u n g s t e r , handicapped or o t h e r w i s e , i s d e p r i v e d o f a r e a s o n a b l e measure o f these e x p e r i e n c e s i n the p r e s c h o o l p e r i o d , the l o s s i s a lmost i r r e p a r a b l e . ' Laycock (1963) goes on to s t r e s s the importance o f the t e a c h e r : " . . . i f a p r o v i n c e or a s c h o o l system has s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , the g i f t e d , the c r i p p l e d , the hard o f h e a r i n g , or the e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d means l i t t l e i n i t s e l f . Even i m p r e s s i v e b u i l d i n g s and equipment may not be s u f f i c i e n t . It i s the q u a l i t y o f the teacher and her r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th her c l a s s that c o u n t . " In F e b r u a r y 1966, a N a t i o n a l Commission on Emot iona l and L e a r n i n g D i s o r d e r s i n C h i l d r e n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada, sponsored by s i x n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They were: The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Retarded C h i l d r e n The Canadian C o u n c i l f o r C h i l d r e n and Youth 55 The Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n The Canadian Mental Health A s s o c i a t i o n The Canadian R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l f o r the D i s a b l e d The Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l 56 The Commission s e l e c t e d and appo in ted a committee composed o f a pane l o f s p e c i a l i s t s from a c r o s s Canada r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s concerned with c h i l d r e n with emot iona l and l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s . The scope of the s tudy was l e f t to the Committee to d e f i n e . It was g i v e n the freedom to f o r m u l a t e i t s p r i n c i p l e s ? determine i t s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ? and e v o l v e i t s methods o f s t u d y . The s tudy was a very expens ive u n d e r t a k i n g and f i n a n c i a l support was s o l i c i t e d and r e c e i v e d from the Government o f Canada? the P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f Educat ion? and many v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The product o f the Committee ' s work was One M i l l i o n C h i l d r e n : A N a t i o n a l Study o f Canadian C h i l d r e n wi th Emot iona l and L e a r n i n g D i s o r d e r s . (The C . E . L . D . I . C . R e p o r t ) . One o f the f i s t problems the Committee t a c k l e d was to t r y to e s t i m a t e the number o f c h i l d r e n i n Canada that should be i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . They found that the q u e s t i o n o f which and how many c h i l d r e n shou ld be regarded as hav ing emot iona l and /or l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s had no easy answers . I f they agreed? a f t e r s t u d y i n g many s u r v e y s that had been done i n Canada and o ther c o u n t r i e s ? on an i n c i d e n c e f i g u r e o f ten to f i f t e e n p e r c e n t then between 840,000 and 1,260?000 c h i l d r e n and youth had l e a r n i n g and emot iona l d i s o r d e r s ? and would be the c o n c e r n of the Commiss ion ' s s t u d y . 57 During their f i e l d v i s i t s the Committee found ample evidence that a well-trained teacher, who was provided with adequate supportive assistance, and was permitted to function within a f l e x i b l e imaginative curriculum, was able to develop the strengths of even the most handicapped c h i l d . They found that to be e f f e c t i v e , preschool programs must be based on s p e c i f i c a l l y prepared plans not just 'downward versions of regular grade one programs'. The programs must involve personnel with special training and understanding of the needs and a b i l i t i e s of preschool children and they must be designed to provide, for children who are physically, s o c i a l l y or emotionally handicapped who have learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , experiences and opportunities that w i l l narrow the gap that exists between these children and their peers. The Committee recommended three main requirements of special education services: 1) trained professional personnel possessing special competencies, E) special curriculum, 3) special f a c i l i t i e s . The report suggests that the t r a d i t i o n a l role of the teacher as d i s t r i b u t o r of knowledge i s much too narrow to encourage the tot a l development of exceptional children and i t be expanded to the teacher as c a t a l y s t . If the role of the teacher i s to change, the report i n s i s t s there must be changes in the professional preparation of teachers and other professionals both in professional preparation i n s t i t u t i o n s and in-service exper iences. 58 The Committee made almost 150 recommendations r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , s e r v i c e s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , o p e r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs , c o o r d i n a t i o n and support o f p e r s o n n e l , r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s , f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r o l e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , s t a n d a r d s , f u n d i n g , j u v e n i l e c o u r t o p e r a t i o n s , t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l , p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c i t i z e n ' s r o l e s , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h . The recommendations p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l to work with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n were: that h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s p r o v i d e f o r the c o l l e c t i o n and i n d e x i n g o f p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d which with a p p r o p r i a t e s a f e g u a r d s r e g a r d i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y can be made a v a i l a b l e to those who r e q u i r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to p l a n to meet the c o n t i n u i n g needs o f the c h i l d . 34 p.174 tha t e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s make n u r s e r y and k i n d e r g a r t e n programs a v a i l a b l e to a l l c h i l d r e n who are l i k e l y to b e n e f i t from these p r e - s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s and that i n the development o f these s e r v i c e s p r i o r i t y be g i v e n to c h i l d r e n who are p h y s i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l l y or s o c i a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . a p . 1 4 3 that communit ies g i v e p r i o r i t y to the development o f a v a r i e t y o f day car programs f o r i n f a n t s p r e - s c h o o l and s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . 38 p.175 tha t h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s coopera te wi th e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s i n the development o f s t a n d a r d s f o r l i c e n s i n g o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e day c a r e c e n t r e s and n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and that such s t a n d a r d s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e to personne l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a p p r o p r i a t e programs and that p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n to ensure the maintenance o f s t a n d a r d s be mandatory. 39 p.176 That p r o v i n c i a l governments p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l s to s t i m u l a t e r e c r u i t m e n t and c o o p e r a t e i n the development of t r a i n i n g 59 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a r e e r s i n c h i l d c a r e , day c a r e and h e a l t h r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s that work with c h i l d r e n with emot iona l and l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s . 46 p.176 that i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n i n g personne l to work with c h i l d r e n deve lop a c u r r i c u l u m des igned to p r o v i d e the s tudent with an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the normal c h i l d and h i s work as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to the more s p e c i a l i z e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c h i l d as s t u d e n t , p a t i e n t , ward and o f f e n d e r . 187 p.488 that e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s develop i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and i n t e r - p r o f e s s i o n a l seminars and l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g to work with c h i l d r e n . 128 p.422 tha t t eacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s r e d e s i g n t h e i r c u r r i c u l a to i n c l u d e c o u r s e s and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s to i n c r e a s e the t e a c h e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the a f f e c t i v e l i f e o f the c h i l d , the meaning o f major s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s - f a m i l y , s c h o o l , community- i n the l i f e o f the c h i l d , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c causes and treatment o f emot iona l and l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s , group p r o c e s s e s , and the r o l e o f the t eacher as a person i n the group 23 p.150 tha t t eacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and s c h o o l systems experiment and develop improved methods of p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t e a c h e r s i n t r a i n i n g . 24 p . 150 60 That teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s d e s i g n i n t e r - d i s c i p 1 i n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s that w i l l a s s i s t the teacher to f u l f i l l h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e i n p a r t n e r s h i p with o ther h e l p i n g s e r v i c e s i n the community 25 p.151 tha t u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s i n p a r t n e r s h i p wi th f i e l d s e t t i n g deve lop i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y t r a i n i n g programs f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s to a s s i s t them to i n c r e a s e t h e i r c a p a c i t y to s e r v e as c o n s u l t a n t s . 129 p.423 tha t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g f o r the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s p l a c e emphasis on t e c h n i q u e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g and communicat ion with p a r e n t s 139 p.443 •nee the CELDIC Report had been p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d , the major concerns a c r o s s Canada were how to implement i t s recommendations and how to f i n a n c e the implementat ion o f the recommendations . The B r i t i s h Columbia CELDIC Committee, working as an adhoc committee o f SPARC o f B . C . ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l o f B . C . ) , with f u n d i n g from the B . C . M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s F o u n d a t i o n undertook a s tudy with o b j e c t i v e s to e s t a b l i s h a d i a l o g u e wi th the P r o v i n c i a l Government about the s tudy and implementat ion o f the CELDIC Report i n B . C . , to s t i m u l a t e communit ies to e s t a b l i s h committees f o r the s tudy o f l o c a l needs and r e s o u r c e s , to p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e peop le and r e s o u r c e s to the l o c a l committee , to examine the t r a i n i n g and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s to s t a f f the s e r v i c e s needed f o r c h i l d r e n , and to s tudy the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n the p r o v i n c e . The Committee made recommendations to c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the P r o v i n c i a l Government, to SPARC of B . C . and to p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The recommendations i n c l u d e d the need f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g , t ime to do the p l a n n i n g , the need f o r t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s 61 to work with c h i l d r e n ? that the t r a i n i n g should f o l l o w i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y model , that p a r e n t s be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t n e r s i n p l a n n i n g programs f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and tha t the government make a c l e a r and p u b l i c statement o f i t s commitment to c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l and p r o v i d e funds f o r b u i l t i n e v a l u a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . The committee s t a t e d tha t i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o o p e r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i s the most w i d e l y agreed upon, yet UNMET need i n the d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s to a l l peop le wi th emot iona l a n d / o r l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s . (The A p p l i c a t i o n o f the CELDIC Report i n B . C . , 1973). Be fore the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the CELDIC Report i n 1970, B a l l a n c e and K e n d a l l (1969) d i s c u s s e d and compared r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g s e r v i c e s to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n Canada. A l l p r o v i n c e s have mandatory s choo l a t tendance laws. Some p r o v i n c e s r e q u i r e c h i l d r e n to s t a r t s c h o o l at s i x y e a r s o f age o t h e r s at seven y e a r s o f age. A l l p r o v i n c e s had exemption c l a u s e s o f one k i n d or a n o t h e r . These c l a u s e s exempt c h i l d r e n who 'by s i c k n e s s or u n a v o i d a b l e c a u s e ' , ' a r e m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e ' , 'have a mental or p h y s i c a l d e f e c t ' , cannot p r o f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n by a s k i l l f u l t e a c h e r . A l l p r o v i n c e s p r o v i d e f u n d i n g f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r b l i n d a n d / o r deaf c h i l d r e n or s u b s i d i z e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n o ther p r o v i n c e s . A l l p r o v i n c e s have e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n that a l l o w s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n or to f i n a n c i a l l y s u b s i d i z e such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the M e n t a l l y Handicapped to p r o v i d e such s e r v i c e s . They found few s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l 62 c h i l d r e n that were mandatory. In comparing Canada to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n they s t a t e : "No where do we f i n d any statement as c l e a r as that i n the E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1944, or i n some of the A c t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , which r e q u i r e a s c h o o l system to a s c e r t a i n or i d e n t i f y those c h i l d r e n i n need o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . " ( B a l l a n c e and K e n d a l l , 1969). E l e v e n y e a r s a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the CELDIC R e p o r t , M u r r a y - R e g i s t e r ( 1 9 S 1 ) , i n a survey o f l e g i s l a t i o n a s s u r i n g programs f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs , found that four p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, namely Nova S c o t i a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland have mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n g u a r a n t e e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . The l e g i s l a t i o n i n these p r o v i n c e s i s not as d e t a i l e d as U . S . P . L . 94-14S and i s main ly concerned with whether handicapped c h i l d r e n shou ld be mainstreamed r a t h e r than with q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n f o r each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . The o ther p r o v i n c e s had p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n which g i v e s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s the o p t i o n to e s t a b l i s h s p e c i a l programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . She sugges t s that the v a r i a b i l i t y i n p o l i c y s tatements and f u n d i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h i n and a c r o s s p r o v i n c e s r e s u l t s i n a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s and p r a c t i c e s i n Canada. We may now examine E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n and teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i n Canada. 63 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n In Canada, very young c h i l d r e n have been cared f o r o u t s i d e t h e i r homes as e a r l y as 1658. In that y e a r , M a r g u e r i t e Bourgeoy, i n a c o n v e r t e d s tone s t a b l e , opened the doors o f her f i r s t s c h o o l . Chalmers (1974) s t a t e s that when she found h e r s e l f c a r i n g f o r abandoned or n e g l e c t e d n a t i v e i n f a n t s on the I s l a n d of M o n t r e a l , i t was i n e v i t a b l e that she would deve lop a n u r s e r y s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n f o r the c h i l d r e n of French c o l o n i s t f a m i l i e s whose women worked as hard i n the f i e l d as the men d i d . Through the 18th and 19th C e n t u r i e s , church and p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r e d c a r e f o r young c h i l d r e n o f the poor i n c r e c h e s and day n u r s e r i e s . The pr imary f o c u s o f these programs was c u s o t i d a l c a r e and very few, i f any e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , except i n the areas o f hyg iene and h e a l t h c a r e , were c o n s i d e r e d important f o r c h i l d r e n o f p r e s c h o o l age . In the l a t e 19th and e a r l y SOth C e n t u r i e s , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n became more p o p u l a r , f i r s t as a p r i v i l e d g e f o r c h i l d r e n whose f a m i l i e s c o u l d a f f o r d to pay f o r i t then as a means to he lp c h i l d r e n o f the poor get a b e t t e r s t a r t . P r e s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n of poor immigrant f a m i l i e s was seen as a means to he lp them a d j u s t more q u i c k l y to the ways o f Canadian s o c i e t y . James L . Hughes, an o u t s t a n d i n g s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the Toronto School System and devoted proponent o f the methods o f 64 F r o e b e l , i n t r o d u c e d the f i r s t p u b l i c s choo l k n i d e r g a r t e n i n Canada i n the year 1885. Ada Mareau, who l a t e r became M r s . Hughes, had been sent to S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i to observe the F r o e b e l i a n K i n d e r g a r t e n methods be ing used i n that d i s t r i c t . She r e t u r n e d to Toronto to become the f i r s t p u b l i c s c h o o l K i n d e r g a r t e n teacher i n Canada. By the year 1900 there were ISO k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n O n t a r i o s e r v i n g 11,000 c h i l r e n under age o f s i x . ( P a t t e r s o n e t . a l . , 1974). In 1888 the K i n d e r g a r t e n program was on the agenda o f an e d u c a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n the M a r i t i m e s . "At the c o n v e n t i o n o f the Dominion E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1894 t h e r e was a k i n d e r g a r t e n s e c t i o n i n which papers were g i v e n by the Inspec tor o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s o f O n t a r i o and by a t eacher o f H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a . The k i n d e r g a r t e n had been a c c e p t e d . " ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). F r o e b e l 7 s i n f l u e n c e was f e l t throughout the system i n the a d o p t i o n o f manual t r a i n i n g , domest ic s c i e n c e , and n a t u r e s tudy but most s t r o n g l y supported i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n s . In Canada l e g i s l a t i o n passed c o n c e r n i n g the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f p r e s c h o o l e r s i s u s u a l l y p e r m i s s s i v e r a t h e r than namdatory. The problem o f f u n d i n g i s u s u a l l y the s t r o n g e s t d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n whether i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i l l or w i l l not p r o v i d e c e n t r e s f o r young c h i l d r e n tha t are supported by p u b l i c monies . A l though K i n d e r g a r t e n s became p a r t o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n O n t a r i o i n 1885, the 65 l e g i s l a t i o n passed to open the way f o r t h e i r f u r t h e r development was p e r m i s s i v e not mandatory. Other p r o v i n c e s s l o w l y f o l l o w e d O n t a r i o ' s l ead but i t was not u n t i l a f t e r World War II that k i n d e r g a r t e n programs became a v a i l a b l e on a wider b a s i s i n some p r o v i n c e s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , k i n d e r g a r t e n s have been p o s s i b l e s i n c e 1922 but as l a t e as 1959 there were fewer than 4,000 c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c s choo l k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n the p r o v i n c e . As i n the o ther p r o v i n c e s , there were, however, many f i v e year o l d s a t t e n d i n g p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s sponsored by c h u r c h , parent and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Wycherley (1974), s t a t e s that at the b e g i n n i n g o f World War II many p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s and p r e s c h o o l s began to s p r i n g up . Because many women took jobs o u t s i d e the home to he lp wi th the war e f f o r t , there was a g r e a t neeed f o r c h i l d c a r e . In 1942 the F e d e r a l Govenment passed the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Agreement which made p r o v i s i o n f o r f e d e r a l funds to be used to he lp with the c o s t o f s e t t i n g up and o p e r a t i n g p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s . In 1946 when the war p l a n t s were c l o s e d , and i t was a n t i c i p a t e d women would l eave t h e i r jobs and r e t u r n to t h e i r homes to c a r e f o r t h e i r own c h i l d r e n , the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Agreement was t e r m i n a t e d . P a r e n t s p r o t e s t e d the t e r m i n a t i o n and the Day N u r s e r i e s Act came i n t o e f f e c t on June 30, 1946, the day the i n i t i a l Agreement ended. The g a i n s made d u r i n g World War I I , i n the number o f c e n t r e s a v a i l a b l e to p r e s c h o o l e r s and the f u n d i n g r e q u i r e d from govenment 66 s o u r c e s to keep these c e n t r e s i n o p e r a t i o n were a l l but l o s t i n the 15 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the war. The E d u c a t i o n Report o f the Senate Committee on P o v e r t y p u b l i s h e d i n 1971 c o n c l u d e s t h a t : "The b a s i c sad f a c t s remain : there are between 85,000 and 100,000 p o v e r t y c h i l d r e n i n Canada who are four y e a r s o f age and o n l y ten p e r c e n t at the very most are i n some s o r t o f p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r p u b l i c or p r i v a t e . . . A d d to these 75,000 exc luded p o v e r t y f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , about 90,000 exc luded p o v e r t y t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s , and at l e a s t 50,000 f i v e - y e a r - o l d s , and the magnitude o f Canada' s p u b l i c p o l i c y f a i l u r e d u r i n g the 1950's and 1960's at the p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l becomes s t a r k l y a p p a r e n t . " < p . 2 9 ) . Canada has had many Royal Commissions f o c u s i n g on c h i l d r e n / p o v e r t y / e d u c a t i o n at the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . In a l l o f these Commission R e p o r t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Canadian s o c i e t y to the young c h i l d i s recommended. The Royal Commission on E d u c a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o (1945-50) recommended that e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s be p e r m i t t e d to e s t a b l i s h n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s f o r 3 and 4 year o l d c h i l d r e n , a t t endance shou ld be v o l u n t a r y and on a h a l f - d a y b a s i s , the f u l l c o s t o f the c l a s s e s would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , and that d i s t r i c t s shou ld charge f ee s f o r such c l a s s e s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the Chant Commission (1960) found e v i d e n c e i n i t s i n q u i r y to support the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u b l i c s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n s as be ing o f ' e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l advantage to p r e - p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' . The Chant Commission recommended that k i n d e r g a r t e n s be e s t a b l i s h e d at the d i s c r e t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l boards throughout the p r o v i n c e on a shared cos t b a s i s wi th 67 the p r o v i n c i a l government, a t t endance be v o l u n t a r y and not longer than h a l f a day , no f ees should be charged and no t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be p r o v i d e d . The Commission a l s o recommended that the Department o f E d u c a t i o n be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s u p e r v i s o r s o f p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s and that the C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e more s p e c i a l i z e d teacher t r a i n i n g and encourage r e s e a r c h i n t o the e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n . It was f e l t that b e t t e r q u l a i f i e d t e a c h e r s would do the most to r a i s e the s t a n d a r d s and enhance the s t a t u s o f the p r o f e s s i o n o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . K i n d e r g a r t e n s d i d not become mandatory i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l 1975. At p r e s e n t , k i n d e r g a r t e n programs supported by p u b l i c funds are o f f e r e d i n o n l y s i x o f the p r o v i n c e s . (Royal Bank N e w s l a t t e r , O c t o b e r , 1986). In most cases programs are o f f e r e d o n l y to f i v e - y e a r - o l d s . However, i n a few i n s t a n c e s such as some d i s t r i c t s i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, programs are o f f e r e d to f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . J u n i o r k i n d e r g a r t e n programs began i n Ottawa and then Toronto i n the 1940's . Logan and Logan (1974) suggest that these c l a s s e s were set up as a r e s u l t o f the need f o r c a r e o f c h i l d r e n caused by the number o f women employed i n the work f o r c e d u r i n g World War I I . A f t e r the War some f o u r - y e a r - o l d programs were c o n t i n u e d and made a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n from d i sadvantaged backgrounds but they have now been ex tended , where they are o f f e r e d , to i n c l u d e a l l f o u r - y e a r - o l d s whose f a m i l i e s wish them to a t t e n d . A l though s c h o o l a t tendance i n Canada i s not 68 compulsory u n t i l the age o f s i x or seven? some p r o v i n c e s have mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n that r e q u i r e s s choo l boards to o f f e r f i v e - y e a r - o l d programs? some have p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n and some p r o v i d e very l i t t l e f u n d i n g f o r f i v e - y e a r - o l d k i n d e r g a r t e n programs. A growing number o f d i s t r i c t s i n O n t a r i o and Quebec p r o v i d e j u n i o r k i n d e r g a r t e n programs f o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ? but f o r the most par t? p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n have l e f t the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments do? however? p r o v i d e s u b s i d i e s to i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s to he lp them pay the c o s t s o f day c a r e and n u r s e r y s c h o o l . Regan (1978)? found that i n s p i t e o f the f a c t that s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o were not f i n a n c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g programs f o r p r e - k i n d e r g a r ten c h i l d r e n ? many d i s t r i c t s had programs o p e r a t i n g i n the s c h o o l s . The programs were a d m i n i s t e r e d by community or parent o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n unused s c h o o l spac e . These programs i n c l u d e d daycares? n u r s e r y s choo l s? French immersion programs and programs f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s wi th s p e c i a l needs . In B r i t i s h Columbia? some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have l eased vacant c la s srooms to n u r s e r y schoo l s? daycares? k i n d e r c a r e s ? E . S . L . programs? programs f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs? and to the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Study C e n t r e . Low e n r o l l m e n t s a c r o s s Canada i n the e lementary s c h o o l s mean that t h e r e are vacant c l a s s r o o m s . These c l a s s r o o m s are be ing made a v a i l a b l e to p r e s c h o o l programs but they are u s u a l l y not a d m i n i s t e r e d or f i n a n c e d by p u b l i c 69 schoo l boards except f o r s e n i o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s (5 y e a r - o l d s ) and i n a few i n s t a n c e s j u n i o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s <4 y e a r - o l d s ) . Growth i n day c a r e programs i n Canada has been uneven i n the past f i f t y y e a r s . Dur ing the e a r l y 1930's the worst t imes o f the D e p r e s s i o n , t h e r e was an almost complete lack o f fund ing to support any p r e s c h o o l programs f o r young c h i l d r e n . C e n t r e s that d i d e x i s t at t h i s t ime were p r o v i d e d f o r the d i sadvantaged i n the l a r g e c i t i e s by church sponsored groups and o ther community c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Most programs had to r e l y on d o n a t i o n s to meet t h e i r budge t s . There was very l i t t l e money f o r s a l a r i e s and l e s s f o r equipment and m a t e r i a l s . The c e n t r e s were o f t e n housed i n church basements wi th poor l i g h t i n g , l e s s than adequate v e n t i l a t i o n , l i m i t e d indoor space and o f t e n no outdoor p l a y a r e a s . S i n c e the 1970's the i n c r e a s e i n the number o f women working o u t s i d e the home has emphasized the importance o f day c a r e s e r v i c e s i n Canada. In 1971, H e a l t h and Wel f are Canada conducted +++ational survey to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on day c a r e s e r v i c e s i n Canada. The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n the 1971 survey has s erved as a b a s e l i n e from which ' to compare f u t u r e growth i n day c a r e and to e v a l u a t e the impact o f any new i n i t i a t i v e o f the f e d e r a l government i n the day c a r e f i e l d ' . The s u r v e y s have been p u b l i s h e d y e a r l y from 1973 to the present under the t i t l e , S t a t u s o f Day Care i n Canada. 70 During the e a r l y 1970's the number of a v a i l a b l e day care spaces increased remarkably. (See F i g u r e 1). The growth continued u n t i l 1976. In 197S the number of spaces decreased by almost 4,000. The decrease i n the demand f o r ce n t r e based day care over the two year p e r i o d was a t t r i b u t e d , at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , to the increased cost of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and i n a b i l i t y of f a m i l i e s to pay the high c o s t s . March .•31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 Increase Over 1982 1973 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1983 No. % Number of Centre Spaces 26 811 50 996 78 153 74 516 98 238 109 535 123 292 13 757 12.56 Number of Family Day Care Spaces 1 562 4 185 5 367 7 763 10 903 14 427 15 778 1 351 9.36 Total Spaces 28 373 55 181 83 523 82 279 109 141 123 962 139 070 15 108 12.19 F i g u r e 1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Centre Spaces, and Family Day Care Spaces by Year. (Status of Day Care i n Canada, 1983). 71 In 1979 the demand f o r s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d once a g a i n and has c o n t i n u e d to r i s e . "Many day c a r e people a s s o c i a t e the i n c r e a s e , s t a r t i n g i n 1979, wi th the c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e s and demands f o r day c a r e by community groups a c r o s s the c o u n t r y that have appeared to be e s c a l a t i n g s i n c e 1978." (S ta tus o f Day Care i n Canada, 1983). E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs i n Canada i n c l u d e group and f a m i l y day c a r e , p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s , n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , E . S . L . c e n t r e s , French immersion p r e s c h o o l s , k i n d e r c a r e , a f t e r s c h o o l c a r e , d r o p - i n - c e n t r e s , and c e n t r e s f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . Programs may be operated by a p r o v i n c e , m u n i c i p a l i t y , c h u r c h , s o c i a l agency, community g r o u p , p a r e n t s , or p r o f i t making o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Programs are f i n a n c e d through p a r e n t ' s f e e s , community agency f u n d s , p r o v i n c i a l s u b s i d i e s to c e n t r e s and to f a m i l i e s , and the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n through which the f e d e r a l government s h a r e s i n the cos t to the p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f p r o v i d i n g day c a r e f o r low-income f a m i l i e s . " C e r t a i n s t r e n g t h s are a s s o c i a t e d with d i f f e r e n t types o f s p o n s o r s h i p o f c e n t r e s . With community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n v o l v e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f some c e n t r e s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and support o f the needs o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d are broadened . F r a n c h i s e and p r i v a t e l y owned c e n t r e s i n c r e a s e the numer of spaces a v a i l a b l e to middle and upper s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a m i l i e s . " (S ta tus of Day Care i n Canada, 1983). On Tuesday , November 27, 1985, the M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Jake E p p , announced the c r e a t i o n o f the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Task F o r c e on C i l d C a r e . The Task F o r c e was charged with 7E ' examining and r e p o r t i n g on the f u t u r e o f c h i l d c a r e i n Canada i n the contex t o f the changing needs o f the Canadian f a m i l y i n t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y ' . The Task F o r c e i s to g i v e p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n f o r c a r e , the r o l e o f the f e d e r a l government i n c h i l d c a r e , a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n by the f e d e r a l government, the s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f v a r i o u s f a m i l i e s , and f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f e d e r a l government o f any i n i t i a t i v e s which may be proposed.<Day Care A d v o c a t e , J a n u a r y , 1986). The Task F o r c e Committee has been t r a v e l l i n g a c r o s s the c o u n t r y h o l d i n g p u b l i c meetings and s o l i c i t i n g b r i e f s from concerned o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . Teacher T r a i n i n g i n Canada In the y e a r s b e f o r e 1850, persons e n t e r i n g the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n were o f t e n i g n o r a n t and o f low moral c h a r a c t e r who chose to teach because they c o u l d not f i n d o ther employment. Teachers were r e q u i r e d to accept p a r t o f t h e i r s a l a r i e s i n ' b o a r d ' and to l i v e wi th f a m i l i e s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . They were o f t e n expected to do chores b e f o r e they went to s choo l i n the morning and a g a i n when they r e t u r n e d from schoo l i n the l a t e a f t e r n o o n . They had no p r i v a c y and f o r many the l i f e o f a t eacher i n e a r l y Canada was a degrad ing e x p e r i e n c e . Most t e a c h e r s had l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n and used o n l y the methods by which they had been taught as models to c a r r y out t h e i r own t e a c h i n g dut i e s . 7 3 There were s e v e r a l methods o f t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s used i n the b e g i n n i n g o f formal e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. The ' m o n i t o r ' system was adopted from Great B r i t a i n f o r a t i m e . The 'model ' s c h o o l system a l lowed young t e a c h e r s to beg in t h e i r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s a f t e r some h igh s c h o o l c o u r s e s and t h r e e months t r a i n i n g i n a 'mode l ' s c h o o l . The 'model ' s choo l would have a p r i n c i p a l wi th a f i r s t c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e ( s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and four to ten months at normal s c h o o l ) , and t e a c h e r s wi th second c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s (normal s c h o o l t r a i n i n g ) . With t h i s minimum t r a i n i n g the s t u d e n t s would r e c e i v e a t h i r d c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e upon the c o m p l e t i o n o f the 'mode l ' s c h o o l program. These t e a c h e r s were suppposed to upgrade t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s wi th a d d i t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s and l a t e r a f i v e month normal s c h o o l c o u r s e . However, few bothered to c o n t i n u e t h e i r t r a i n i n g and as a r e s u l t there was an o v e r s u p p l y o f p o o r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . The 'model ' s c h o o l system of t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s was most widespread i n O n t a r i o . " . . . t h e e f f e c t of the model s c h o o l s upon the s t a t u s o f the p r o f e s s i o n was d e v a s t a t i n g . They (the model s c h o o l s ) succeeded i n handing over the vas t m a j o r i t y o f the s c h o o l s to the h a l f - t r a i n e d and immature." ( A l t h o u s e , 1949). In the M a r i t i m e s and the Western P r o v i n c e s , some p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d as w e l l as academic c o u r s e s i n the secondary s c h o o l s . In Nova S c o t i a , u n t i l 1893, p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s were r e q u i r e d o f a l l s t u d e n t s as a p a r t o f the r e g u l a r h igh s c h o o l d ip loma program and u n t i l 1933, temporary l i c e n s e s were i s sued to a p p l i c a n t s wi thout t r a i n i n g . In the Northwest 74 T e r r i t o r i e s ( l a t e r the p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan) , many h igh s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a t eacher t r a i n i n g department and i n B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e 1900, h igh s c h o o l t r a i n i n g was the o n l y type o f t eacher e d u c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). In the l a t t e r h a l f o f the 19th C e n t u r y , normal s c h o o l s des igned s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n E a s t e r n Canada. In the f i r s t normal s c h o o l programs, content was c o n s i d e r e d o f a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n . As more o f the s tudent t e a c h e r s had some secondary e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g the normal s c h o o l s , the emphasis o f the c u r r i c u l u m began to s h i f t from p u r e l y academic c o u r s e s and began to i n c l u d e i n t h e i r programs: p s y c h o l o g y , g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f e d u c a t i o n , h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n and methods o f t e a c h i n g , and i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s such as r e a d i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , w r i t i n g , a r t , mus ic , e t c . By the l a t e 19S0's , a l l p r o v i n c e s had e s t a b l i s h e d normal s c h o o l s . The minimum p r e r e q u i s i t e s were r a i s e d from two y e a r s to t h r e e y e a r s o f secondary e d u c a t i o n . In 1940, s t a n d a r d s f o r t eacher t r a i n i n g i n Canada ranged from Grade S and one year o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d to Grade XIII and one year o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These s t a n d a r d s were low compared to Great B r i t i a n which r e q u i r e d two y e a r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f secondary s choo l and the U n i t e d S t a t e s which 75 r e q u i r e d i n many s t a t e s three and four y e a r s o f post secondary e d u c a t i o n even f o r e lementary t e a c h e r s . ( P h i l l i p s , 1957). A l b e r t a , i n 1945, was the f i r s t p r o v i n c e to cease o p e r a t i o n of i t s Normal s c h o o l s and t r a n s f e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s to the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . E lementary t e a c h e r s were r e q u i r e d to f i n i s h the f i r s t two y e a r s o f a Bache lor o f E d u c a t i o n program b e f o r e they commenced t e a c h i n g and c o n t i n u e course work at summer s e s s i o n s u n t i l they completed t h e i r d e g r e e s . Through the 1950's most p r o v i n c e s f o l l o w e d A l b e r t a ' s l e a d . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n T r a i n i n g i n Canada T r a i n i n g f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s a c r o s s Canada v a r i e s as much as the types o f c e n t r e s a v a i l a b l e to young c h i l d r e n . Where the K i n d e r g a r t e n i s a p a r t o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l system the t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to have the same t r a i n i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n as t e a c h e r s o f p r i m a r y g r a d e s . In n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e s c h o o l s , and daycares the range o f t e a c h e r s / s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e s those wi th t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y , n u r s i n g , r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s and s o c i a l work to those with no t r a i n i n g at a l l who ' l i k e c h i l d r e n ' and d e c i d e to open a baby s i t t i n g s e r v i c e i n t h e i r own homes or an u n s t r u c t u r e d morning program i n the neighbourhood church basement. 76 The p a t t e r n s o f development o f t r a i n i n g programs f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s have f o l l o w e d s i m i l a r l i n e s to those of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n the p u b l i c s choo l sys tem, a l though 40 - 50 y e a r s l a t e r i n t ime . In the 1940's and 1950's c e n t r e s f o r young c h i l d r e n were operated by s u p e r v i s o r s who o f t e n had l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d . As the demand f o r q u a l i t y daycare i n c r e a s e d i n the 1960's , t h e r e was p r e s s u r e from p a r e n t s to have b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , p r e s s u r e from Day Care Boards and o ther o p e r a t o r s to upgrade t r a i n i n g f o r f u t u r e employees and p r e s s u r e from workers themselves f o r more and b e t t e r t r a i n i n g . Community C o l l e g e s have l ed the cause f o r b e t t e r and more t r a i n i n g f o r those who work with young c h i l d r e n i n p r e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . At the presen t t ime t h e r e are many r o u t e s to f o l l o w to r e c e i v e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g . The s tudent may f i n d employment i n a c e n t r e as an a i d e w h i l e t a k i n g c o u r s e s through the many C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n programs i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d o f f e r e d a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . Community C o l l e g e s , i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , o f f e r one to f o u r semester programs that are very s i m i l a r to the programs o f f e r e d to p r o s p e c t i v e e lementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the Normal s c h o o l s o f the 1950's . Some u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r a B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n with a major i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d . However, most u n i v e r s i t y programs tend to c o n c e n t r a t e on the c u r r r i c u l u m and methods o f t e a c h i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d i n daycare or n u r s e r y s c h o o l . 77 A l l programs o f f e r e d i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n w i l l have some c o u r s e s i n psycho logy ( c h i l d growth and deve lopment ) , h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y , c u r r i c u l u m f o r young c h i l d r e n , methods o f t e a c h i n g and c h i l d management, n u t r i t i o n , h e a l t h and s a f e t y , o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s , and may or may not i n c l u d e : a d m i n s t r a t i o n o f p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s , working with c h i l d r e n under t h r e e , and an i n t r o d u c t i o n to working with the c h i l d wi th s p e c i a l needs . Al though most p r o v i n c e s have s t a n d a r d s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n p l a c e or are i n the p r o c e s s o f s e t t i n g p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p e r s o n n e l , many u n q u a l i f i e d a i d e s c o n t i n u e to f i l l p o s i t i o n s f o r which they have l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g . Employers must take some o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n t i n u i n g market f o r u n t r a i n e d and sometimes h i g h l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n n e l . They are e i t h e r i g n o r a n t o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s and the needs o f young c h i l d r e n a n d / o r more i n t e r e s t e d i n h i r i n g s t a f f at the lowest pay p o s s i b l e than on i n s i s t i n g on w e l l t r a i n e d q u a l i t y s u p r e v i s o r s . However, as p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l have become more aware o f c h i l d r e n ' s needs and more c o n v i n c e d of the importance o f the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s they have become more i n s i s t e n t on the upgrad ing o f the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f s t a f f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n of , young c h i l d r e n . Parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n groups and n o n - p r o f i t c e n t r e s are i n s i s t i n g on w e l l q u a l i f i e d s t a f f . U n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e 78 l a b o r a t o r y and demonstraion preschool c e n t r e s are leading the f i e l d i n e x p e c t i n g a l l s t a f f to have a Bachelor's degree i n psychology or E a r l y Childhood Education as a minimum requirement f o r employment i n t h e i r c e n t r e s . There i s a need f o r P r o v i n c i a l governments to continue to upgrade standards f o r entry i n t o the f i e l d by r e f u s i n g to allow any a d d i t i o n a l u n t r a i n e d s t a f f to work i n the f i e l d i n the f u t u r e . A l s o , they should to i n s i s t that the u n t r a i n e d personnel working i n the f i e l d at the present time become q u a l i f i e d as soon as p o s s i b l e , and support r e s e a r c h i n t o the best p o s s i b l e way to t r a i n and educate personnel who w i l l s t a f f E a r l y Childhood c e n t r e s i n the f u t u r e . 79 CHAPTER 4 LEGISLATION, ISSUES AND MODELS IN TEACHER PREPARATION It may be p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n , from a review o f the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e by E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d , ' t h e best e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e ' when o f f e r i n g post b a s i c s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n to E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . From recommendations i n the l i t e r a t u r e , p r i o r i t i e s i n knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work with young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs w i l l be s e t . In the survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e , l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c i e s and presen t p r a c t i c e s that i n f l u e n c e the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n are n o t e d . The i s s u e s o f ma ins treaming , n o n c a t e g o r i c a1 t r a i n i n g , and s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s working wi th p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs are e x p l o r e d . Models f o r the t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l are d e s c r i b e d with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on n o n c a t e g o r i c a1, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , and competency-based models . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , no matter which system i s f o l l o w e d as a model f o r t r a i n i n g , t h e r e are s p e c i f i c competencies r e q u i r e d of s t a f f who work with e x c e p t i o n a l young c h i l d r e n , i s recommended. The l i t e r a t u r e sugges t s what these competenc ies should be . Inc luded i n the l i t e r a t u r e rev iew are the m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l equipment that are a v a i l a b l e to enhance the p r a c t i t i o n e r s c a r e and 80 e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l young c h i l d r e n and enab le the c h i l d r e n to cope wi th t h e i r env i ronments . Because t h e r e i s l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work with the young c h i l d with s p e c i a l needs , the rev iew i n c l u d e s t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s who work with o l d e r c h i l d r e n and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n r e g u l a r p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s . U n t i l there i s more r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , i t i s neces sary to rev iew and adapt methods from r e l a t e d f i e l d s . R i c h e r t (19SE) , d i s c u s s e s the d i r e c t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n the European Communities and notes the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : "1. To r e l a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n o f the handicapped to o ther e d u c a t i o n E . To make p e d a g o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l gu idance and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e wi thout c o s t to the f a m i l y , the f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be ing e s t a b l i s h e d by l e g i s l a t i o n 3 . To see the environment and s e r v i c e measures that are e s s e n t i a l f o r meaningful e d u c a t i o n as an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n and thus of the e d u c a t i o n budget . T h i s i n c l u d e s bu i1d i ngs , 4 . To o f f e r s p e c i a l p e d a g o g i c a l a s s i s t a n c e at n u r s e r y s c h o o l age as soon as the need i s r e c o g n i z e d and to make t h i s a s s i s t a n c e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , who i n t h i s contex t coopera te wi th s o c i a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s 5 . To i n s u r e s p e c i a l i s t t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f g i v i n g p e d a g o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l gu idance i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n 6. To s choo l l e a v e r s the e d u c a t i o n system w i l l o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e and gu idance to the handicapped with the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the 81 labour market a u t h o r i t i e s . 7. To p r o v i d e funds f o r s p e c i a l p e d a g o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and development , i n c l u d i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a i d s . " He sugges ts that the European Communities have taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , S e e f e l d t and Barbour (1986) , s t a t e f o u r major purposes i n c l u d e d i n the E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Handicapped C h i l d r e n Act ( P u b l i c Law 94-142): "1. To i n s u r e a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n a f r e e , a p p r o p r i a t e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . 2. P r o t e c t i o n o f the r i g h t s o f handicapped c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s 3 . To a s s i s t to s t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r handicapped ch i 1 d r e n . 4. To i n s i s t on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e f f o r t s to educate handicapped c h i l d r e n . " G i l k e r s o n e t . a l . (1981), surveyed three s t a t e s with v a r y i n g l e g i s l a t i o n tha t they f e l t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . They found that t h e r e was not a ground s w e l l o f support i n the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d and that when p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs was not mandatory and i t had to compete f o r f u n d i n g t h e r e were not enough monies to generate the needed r e s o u r c e s . When funds must be found from the community at l a r g e , programs w i l l not e v o l v e e a s i l y . The a u t h o r s found that t h e r e was s t r o n g support among p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r a f u l l t ime E a r l y C h i l d h o o d ; s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t to demonstrate the 82 s t a t e ' s suppor t and to oversee a common c o l l e c t i o n p o i n t f o r the most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h and da ta i n the f i e l d . They found that the best e s t i m a t e s i n some s t a t e s o f the t i m i n g f o r complete s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would not be f o r ten y e a r s . T h e r e f o r e , they suggest tha t the s t a t e s need to encourage l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s to i n i t i a t e programs w h i l e at the same t ime m a i n t a i n a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with p r i v a t e agenc i e s who p r e s e n t l y are p r o v i d i n g neces sary s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n . In one s t a t e wi th mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e was o n l y one t r a i n i n g program that o f f e r e d an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n d e g r e e . The other two s t a t e s d i d not p r o v i d e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n E a r l y Chi1dhood:Spec ia1 E d u c a t i o n . A l though the a u t h o r s d i d not recommend g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , from the smal l sample i n t h e i r survey they d i d suggest that mandatory p r o v i s i o n o f E a r l y C h i 1 d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n programs, adequate f u n d i n g f o r such programs, and s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work with c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs shou ld be h igh p r i o r i t i e s f o r s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s now and i n the f u t u r e . Recommendations o f the Warnock Report o f the Committee o f I n q u i r y i n t o S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n England and Wales were the b a s i s f o r the E d u c a t i o n Act 1981. Some o f the more important areas covered i n the l e g i s l a t i o n are as f o l l o w s : 1. the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs 8. p a r e n t s must be c o n s u l t e d b e f o r e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s can be made f o r a c h i l d o t h e r w i s e than i n a s choo l 83 3 . p a r e n t s must be n o t i f i e d i n w r i t i n g o f t h e i r r i g h t o f appeal i f they are d i s s a t i s f i e d wi th L E A ' s d e c i s i o n to make or not to make s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d 4. L E A ' s have the power to as ses s c h i l d r e n under the age o f f i v e with consent o f the p a r e n t s and are o b l i g e d to make an assessment i f p a r e n t s reques t i t 5 . L E A ' s should move toward i n t e g r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs i n t o the 'mains tream' o f e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n ( P e t r i e , 1981, 1984, Blythman 1984, and H e r m e l i n , 1981). Mary Warnock suggest that ' u n l e s s p r o v i s i o n s are made f o r e x t r a teacher t r a i n i n g the r e s t o f the r e p o r t would not be worth t u p p e n c e ' . ( P e t e r , 1980). The E d u c a t i o n Act i n 1981 d i d not make recommendations f o r f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r t eacher t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . However, Herme l in (1981) , sugges t s tha t c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s c o u l d be made i n implementing the act i f t e a c h e r s were g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to extend t h e i r knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e by a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s and t r a i n i n g programs des igned to i n c l u d e as many d i f f e r e n t forms o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs as p o s s i b l e . He goes on to emphasize tha t u n l e s s teacher t r a i n i n g programs f o r those working now i n o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s are q u i c k l y deve loped throughout the c o u n t r y i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l remain a meaning less p h r a s e . H e r m e l i n (1981) i s p o s i t i v e about the f u t u r e . He hopes a t t i t u d e s w i l l change because o f the 1981 Act and that when the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s o f the government improve more recommendations o f the Warnock r e p o r t w i l l be implemented. 84 In Canada a l though the F e d e r a l Government o n l y l ends f i n a n c i a l suppor t to the p r o v i n c e s f o r post secondary and p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , Csapo (1981) , recommends that the government shou ld be more i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . She f e e l s i t i s a d m i s s i b l e to se t some f e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n i n order to guarantee t h e i r b a s i c human r i g h t s n a t i o n w i d e . She suggests these o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d i n c l u d e : every handicapped c h i l d should r e c e i v e an a p p r o p r i a t e l y des igned e d u c a t i o n from the p u b l i c t r e a s u r y , on l e a v i n g s c h o o l every handicapped c h i l d shou ld have some r e l e v a n t t r a i n i n g f o r the job markets and every handicapped c h i l d shou ld have access to a teacher s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d and competent i n the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to promote e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . She sugges ts that i n a c o u n t r y as broad and with as many r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s as i s found i n Canada, the task o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g the o b j e c t i v e s i s not easy but under a f e d e r a l o f f i c e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n long range p l a n n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d . As the f e d e r a l government s h a r e s the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d c a r e and post secondary e d u c a t i o n at the present t ime , the areas o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and the t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s to p r o v i d e programs f o r these c h i l d r e n may be an opportune area i n which the government can se t f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . I f the government i n Ottawa were to implement and support f i n a n c i a l l y the recommendations o f the Report o f the Task F o r c e on C h i l d Care (1986) made c o n c e r n i n g 85 e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , involvement o f the f e d e r a l making and implementing p o l i c i e s on e d u c a t i o n c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e g i n with a comprehensive Canadian government and c a r e p o l i c y . i n f o r In the U n i t e d S t a t e s where mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n has been i n p l a c e f o r ten y e a r s , the implementat ion o f q u a l i t y programs f o r a l l c h i l d r e n who need s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s not a lways a v a i l a b l e . Where programs are o f f e r e d t h e r e i s o f t e n a lack of q u a l i f i e d s t a f f wi th s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . In Canada where most l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the p u b l i c c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs i s p e r m i s s i v e , programs are o f f e r e d at the p l e a s u r e o f p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In t imes o f r e s t r a i n t when t h e r e i s not enough f u n d i n g r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e programs f o r s choo l age c h i l d r e n t h e r e i s very l i t t l e ear marked f o r the needs o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Whether p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s are se t by mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n as i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and to a l e s s e r degree i n Great B r i t a i n or p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n as i n Canada, the d i r e c t i o n o f the western world i s to a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the needs of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the minimum s t a n d a r d s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a r e and e d u c a t i o n which shou ld be p r o v i d e d f o r c h i l d r e n . The r e c e s s i o n o f the 1980's and the r e s u l t a n t c u t b a c k s i n a l l s o c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s have slowed the p r o g r e s s that o t h e r w i s e might have been made toward the goa l o f meeting the needs o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . 86 Issues i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n By 1978-79 the Bureau of E d u c a t i o n f o r the Handicapped was f u n d i n g 23 s t a t e s through S t a t e Implementat ion Grant ( S . E . G . ) programs to a s s i s t them i n the implementat ion o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S t a t e P l a n s to deve lop s t a t e w i d e networks o f s e r v i c e s f o r young handicapped c h i l d r e n . C a r t e r e t . a 1 . ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i n summarizing the o b s e r v a t i o n s o f f i v e S t a t e Implementat ion D i r e c t o r s , suggest that there are few t r a d i t i o n s or p r e c e d e n t s r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n under k i n d e r g a r t e n age . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s an uneven commitment to E a r l y C h i l d h o o d programming at the s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l s . S . I . G . D i r e c t o r s are r e a l i z i n g the n e c e s s i t y to p r o v i d e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n as to the b e n e f i t s o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n and have become s t r o n g advocates f o r young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . The a u t h o r s recommend that s t a t e support f o r programs i s needed to guarantee c o n s i s t e n c y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f programs to a l l c h i l d r e n i n need of s e r v i c e s . They s t a t e tha t p r o f e s s i o n a l s agree tha t i n t e r v e n t i o n d u r i n g the c r u c i a l e a r l y y e a r s o f development y i e l d s g r e a t e r r e t u r n s f o r the c h i l d than l a t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n . They suggest that e x i s t i n g programs have o f t e n been implemented by s t a f f who are not s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and many t e a c h e r s o f young c h i l d r e n do not have a depth o f knowledge o f c h i l d growth and development i n the e a r l y y e a r s . Courses i n t h i s area shou l d be p r o v i d e d and updated i n tune wi th the most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h through i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . One of the most 87 important areas f i n a n c e d by S . I . B . ' s i s the t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l . O ' C o n n e l l (1983) r e p o r t s on a survey of teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n d i r e c t o r s i n the 50 s t a t e s p l u s the D i s t r i c t o f Columbia i n the U . S . A . One of the o b j e c t i v e s o f the survey was to as ses s the p r o g r e s s o f s t a t e e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g handicapped p r e s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . S t a t e s t a n d a r d s were reviewed to v e r i f y that handicapped p r e s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t i o n was a s e p a r a t e and r e c o g n i z e d c a t e g o r y w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s t a t e c e r t i f i c a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s . She found that 18 s t a t e s have e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c e r t i f y i n g t e a c h e r s o f handicapped p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , IE s t a t e s were i n the p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n and 21 s t a t e s r e p o r t e d no s p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d s r e g u l a t i n g t e a c h e r s o f young handicapped c h i l d r e n . She recommends that e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l must b e g i n i n t e r a c t i n g wi th o ther c h i l d c a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and that the g e n e r a l p u b l i c must be informed of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n as an e d u c a t i o n a l approach i n h e l p i n g young c h i l d r e n to l e a r n . U n l e s s the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s unders tand the f u n c t i o n o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n f o r the handicapped and are shown p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s they w i l l not support the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f needed f u n d i n g f o r c h i l d r e n ' s programs and the t r a i n i n g o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . D r . B r i c k e r , (Thomas, 1980) s t a t e s that c u t b a c k s ( i n e d u c a t i o n a l spending) have and w i l l c o n t i n u e to have a dec ided 88 e f f e c t on the d e l i v e r y systems f o r young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . She views ' r e s t r a i n t ' programs as hav ing p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s on the f i e l d . The cut b a c k s , i n her o p i n i o n , w i l l cause e d u c a t o r s to be c o s t e f f e c t i v e , deve lop e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e a c h i n g f u t u r e g o a l s and f o r c e o r g a n i z e d p o o l i n g o f data and r e s o u r c e s . She s t a t e s , very e m p h a t i c a l l y , that r e s t r a i n t s can have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o n l y i f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s who are implementing new programs know what they are d o i n g . The succes s o f programs f o r young c h i l d r e n can be brought about o n l y , by the t h o u g h t f u l p l a n n i n g and r i g o r o u s e x e c u t i o n o f program p l a n s by p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have ' ' tra in ing and e x p e r i e n c e i n working with young c h i l d r e n and unders tand the growth and development and n a t u r e o f the needs o f young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . I f the r i g h t o f handicapped c h i l d r e n to an ' a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n ' means more than j u s t access to b u i l d i n g s and programs, then t e a c h e r s o f young c h i l d r e n must demonstrate that c h i l d r e n are r e c e i v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l programs and not j u s t r e a s o n a b l e c u s t o d i a l c a r e . Raphael Simches ( S o e f f i n g , 1975) sugges ts that the concerns o f the p u b l i c must be aroused to the importance o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n programs i f the p u b l i c i s to g i v e i t s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The programs and the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d have to have means o f e v a l u a t i n g s e r v i c e s and p r o v i n g to the p u b l i c that they are making a d i f f e r e n c e to the c h i l d r e n they s e r v e . I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s may not be a b l e to p r o v i d e the programs a l o n e . They need s k i l l s to i n f l u e n c e o ther 89 p r o f e s s i o n a l s to see that c h i l d r e n are e v a l u a t e d e f f e c t i v e l y so they r e c e i v e the most a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e , treatment and e d u c a t i o n . There must be methods to measure p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a b i l i t i e s to e v a l u a t e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s wi th c h i l d r e n . In the same a r t i c l e , ( S o e f f i n g , 1975), Edward W. M a r t i n sugges ts tha t i f a t t i t u d e s are not r a i s e d by e v a l u a t i v e p r o o f o f p r o g r e s s f o r the young c h i l d , ' then c o l l e g e s w i l l be slow to modify t h e i r t eacher t r a i n i n g to i n c l u d e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d and s e v e r e l y handicapped course w o r k ' . The unique and d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n o f young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n may not be adequate ly served e i t h e r by E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s o f non-handicapped c h i l d r e n or by t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n another area o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , ( H i r s h o r e n and Umansky, 1977). C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a r a p i d l y growing r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d and c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s o f p r e s c h o o l handicapped c h i l d r e n . The teacher o f the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d shou ld be knowledgeable i n the area o f normal c h i l d growth and development , and must be concerned with the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of b a s i c fundamental s k i l l s i n areas such as language , s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e and motor development . The teacher o f the p r e s h c o o l handicapped c h i l d must have a d d i t i o n a l knowledge about v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and the h i g h l y unique a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d i v i d u a l handicapped p r e s c h o o l e r s . The teacher o f o l d e r handicapped c h i l d r e n may have knowledge o f the a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s o f handicapped c h i l d r e n but have very l i t t l e background i n the area o f normal growth and development o f the 90 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d . T h e r e f o r e , i t may be unreasonab le to assume that a t e a c h e r , t r a i n e d i n another area o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n or as an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d educator of t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n can be expected to meet the d i v e r s e needs o f p r e s c h o o l handicapped c h i l d r e n wi thout a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the a r e a . ( H i r s h o r e n , Umansky, 1977). The r e s u l t s o f a survey done by E n z i n n a and Pol loway (1982) suggest tha t many t e a c h e r s working with p r e s c h o o l handicapped c h i l d r e n are t r a i n e d i n o ther areas o f t e a c h i n g . The employment o f t e a c h e r s u n c e r t i f i e d i n p r e s c h o o l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n may be a neces sary s tep i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l phase between the d e c i s i o n o f a s t a t e (or p r o v i n c e ) to r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d and , the t ime personne l need to a c q u i r e the p r e s c r i b e d e d u c a t i o n . Departments o f E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada have been slow to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r s p e c i f i c c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o f the p r e s c h o o l e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d , and where c r i t e r i a have been e s t a b l i s h e d have not r e q u i r e d p e r s o n n e l to meet s t a n d a r d s as a c o n d i t i o n o f employment. E n z i n n a and P o l l o w a y , (1982) s t a t e that the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d f o r handicapped p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would seem to be enhanced by t r a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y to work with t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . However, u n l e s s r e g u l a t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g p e r s o n n e l to have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g are e n f o r c e d by r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s the employment o f u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l w i l l c o n t i n u e . 91 Mains treaming i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n One o f , i f not the major i s s u e i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs i s that o f ma ins t reaming . Mains treaming i s e d u c a t i o n a l programming that i n t e g r a t e s e x c e p t i o n a l and t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n i n t o r e g u l a r p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . M e i s e l s (1977), s t a t e s t h a t : "The goa l o f mainstreaming i s to p r o v i d e a f a v o r a b l e and ' n o r m a l i z e d ' l e a r n i n g environment f o r s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n and to p r o v i d e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n the l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment p o s s i b l e : the r e g u l a r c las sroom" (pg.4) He goes on to suggest that a l l c h i l d r e n vary i n t h e i r backgrounds , a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s and that the i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e shou ld be des igned to p r o v i d e an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e that a t tempts to meet the d i f f e r i n g needs o f a l l the c h i l d r e n . He j u s t i f i e s mainstreaming on l e g a l , m o r a l , s o c i a 1-cu1tura1 and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y grounds m o r a l l y , i t should p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to reduce i s o l a t i o n and p r e j u d i c e , s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l l y , i t shou ld i n c r e a s e the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f handicapped c h i l d r e n , and e d u c a t i o n a l l y , mainstreaming sh ou ld p r o v i d e e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n with p o s i t i v e peer models and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n f a l l on a continuum from f u l l i n t e g r a t i o n to complete s e g r e g a t i o n . In f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d p r e s c h o o l s , one or two c h i l d r e n 9E with s p e c i a l needs w i l l be e n r o l l e d . The c h i l d r e n i n these programs may need some s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l programming but f o r the most p a r t manage i n the mainstream with very l i t t l e e x t r a h e l p . I n t e g r a t i o n i n c l u d e s s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many c e n t r e s have i n t e g r a t e d c h i l d r e n wi th d i v e r s e hand icaps and a b i l i t i e s . U s u a l l y i n these c e n t r e s the s t a f f c h i l d r a t i o w i l l be h i g h e r and the e n t i r e s t a f f w i l l have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n as w e l l as the t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n . There may be o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the program who w i l l remove i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s d u r i n g the day f o r s p e c i a l he lp i n such areas as language , psychomotor a c t i v i t i e s e t c . Some programs e n r o l l one or two c h i l d r e n wi th s evere a n d / o r m u l t i h a n d i c a p s . These programs w i l l have an e x t r a s t a f f member who w i l l work on a one - to -one b a s i s wi th the c h i l d r e n . T h i s s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f member w i l l a s ses s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s , p l a n independent e d u c a t i o n a l programs, c o n s u l t wi th p a r e n t s and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s and a t t e n d to the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l needs . P r e s c h o o l s that began f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n wi th hand icaps r a n g i n g from m i l d deve lopmental d e l a y to severe m u l t i - h a n d i c a p s have p r a c t i c e d ' r e v e r s e ' mainstreaming i n i n t e g r a t i n g t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n i n t o a program that was o r i g i n a l l y set up to s e r v e e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . There are a l s o p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s that have s e p a r a t e c la s srooms f o r the c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . The e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n are i n t e g r a t e d f o r p a r t s o f each day f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . At o ther t i m e s , they are educated and cared f o r on a segregated b a s i s . Each program has i t s own s p e c i f i c rewards and problems i n 93 the i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . The needs f o r i n s e r v i c e and post b a s i c t r a i n i n g of s t a f f , the neces sary support p e r s o n n e l , s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s and equipment may be q u i t e i n d i v i d u a l depending on the pr imary focus o f each i n t e g r a t e d program. In the pas t f i f t e e n y e a r s the numbers o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs who have been 'mainstreamed' i n t o r e g u l a r p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . The p r a c t i c e o f mainstreaming has become a c c e p t a b l e i n the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d at l e a s t on an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s . In p r a c t i c e , how to ensure that i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e s p r o v i d e q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n f o r t y p i c a l and e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , i s where the c o n t r o v e r s y over the p r a c t i c e o f mainstreaming l i e s . Widerstrom (1982) suggest that i n any i n t e g r a t e d program p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p a r e n t s need to d i s c u s s what the e f f e c t s o f mainstreaming w i l l be on the handicapped c h i l d , what the e f f e c t s o f mainstreaming w i l l be on the t y p i c a l c h i l d and how the p a r e n t s and s t a f f f e e l about i n t e g r a t i n g handicapped and nonhandicapped p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . B a l c h e r and T u r n b u l l (1983), suggest that how p a r e n t s o f nonhandicapped c h i l d r e n view mainstreaming c o u l d a l s o a f f e c t the implementat ion o f p r e s c h o o l mainstreaming and the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f p a r e n t - t o - p a r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . Some p r o f e s s i o n a l s s t i l l oppose the i n t e g r a t i o n o f handicapped c h i l d r e n i n t o r e g u l a r programs on the grounds that handicapped c h i l d r e n l e a r n more i n a segregated program and that 94 handicapped c h i l d r e n w i l l be i s o l a t e d i n i n t e g r a t e d programs. V i n c e n t e t . a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) s t a t e that they c o u l d l o c a t e no r e s e a r c h to support these as sumpt ions . F a l v e y (1980), compared the p r o g r e s s o f two matched groups o f handicapped k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s . One group was i n a segregated c l a s s r o o m with l i m i t e d i n t e g r a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . One group was i n a segregated c l a s s s i t u a t i o n . He found that the two groups o f handicapped made equal deve lopmenta l and s o c i a l g a i n s . He a l s o found that the c h i l d r e n i n the i n t e g r a t e d program showed h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a p p r o p r i a t e o b s e r v i n g behav iour and lower l e v e l s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . V i n c e n t e t . a l . (1986) suggest that i f the two groups had made equal g a i n s the second program shou ld be the program o f c h o i c e because o f the l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e n a t u r e o f the program. Chr i s toph e r s o n (1978) found that t h r e e , four and f i v e year o l d s were the most a c c e p t i n g o f handicapped playmates o f a l l ages through e lementary s choo l and that mainstreaming was a g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n at the p r e s c h o o l l e v e l . Odom e t . a l . (1984) examined the r e s u l t s o f p l a c i n g nonhandicapped c h i l d r e n i n c l a s s e s p r i m a r i l y c o n t a i n i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n and found t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance o f the nonhandicapped c h i l d r e n and conc luded that the placement d i d not i n t e r f e r e wi th the normal development o f the c h i l d r e n . In M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n , a group o f p a r e n t s o f t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n were concerned that the s c h o o l t h e i r c h i l d r e n were to a t t e n d d i d not i n c l u d e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs. They b e l i e v e d the s i t u a t i o n 95 would l i m i t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . V i n c e n t e t . a l . <1981) suggest that these p a r e n t s b e l i e v e that handicapped c h i l d r e n and t h e i r t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n have the r i g h t to be i n v o l v e d i n programs wi th handicapped c h i l d r e n . Even i f e d u c a t o r s and p a r e n t s b e l i e v e that i n t e g r a t e d programs p r o v i d e the o n l y r e l e v a n t environments f o r the e d u c a t i o n and c a r e o f young c h i l d r e n j i t i s not enough to i n s i s t ' thou s h a l t i n t e g r a t e ' and expect s t a f f , wi th l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g i n meeting the needs o f the c h i l d r e n they are expected to i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h e i r c e n t r e s to do i t w e l l . S t a f f must be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n s e r v i c e or post b a s i c programs to l e a r n s k i l l s i n the assessment o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n p l a n n i n g i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n programs, f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e s , and to p r a c t i c e t h e i r newly l e a r n e d s k i l l s under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f t r a i n e d s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . A l though t h e r e i s agreement about the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and some agreement about the competencies to be l earned t h e r e i s very l i t t l e agreement about how E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g should be des igned and implemented. N o n - C a t e g o r i c a l v s . C a t e g o r i c a l Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l l y , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s f o r e lementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s have been des igned a long c a t e g o r i c a l l i n e s and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n B r i t a i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n by e d u c a t i o n 96 a u t h o r i t i e s has been o f f e r e d f o r s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s . Wherever c e r t i f i c a t i o n has been o f f e r e d f o r s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s o f e x p e r t i s e such as t e a c h i n g the v i s u a l l y impaired? the h e a r i n g impaired? m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d e t c . ? c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s tend to o f f e r programs and c o u r s e s i n a c a t e g o r i c a l model to meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the c e r t i f y i n g a g e n c i e s . ( B l a c k h u r s t ? 1981). B l a c k h u r s t (1981) sugges ts t h e r e are many drawbacks to c a t e g o r i c a l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g . He s t a t e s that c a t e g o r i e s are e d u c a t i o n a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . S imply knowing the d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r y i n t o which a c h i l d has been p l a c e d p r o v i d e s l i t t l e h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to t e a c h e r s . He f e e l s c a t e g o r i c a l g r o u p i n g s u s u a l l y o v e r l a p one another? c a t e g o r i e s l a b e l c h i l d r e n and l a b e l l i n g r e s u l t s i n s t e r e o t y p i n g and n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n people who work with l a b e l l e d c h i l d r e n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ? a v a i l a b l e f o r use wi th c h i l d r e n who have s p e c i a l needs? are not c a t e g o r y s p e c i f i c except i n a few cases such as c l o s e c a p t i o n e d f i l m s and b r a i l l e books . He suggests t h a t p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s a long t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i c a l l i n e s r e s u l t s i n redundancy o f c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s at u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n c a t e g o r i c a l c o u r s e s d e a l i n g wi th methods o f t e a c h i n g . C a t e g o r i c a l t r a i n i n g programs encourage b a r r i e r s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n at the s tudent l e v e l and are hard to break down once p e r s o n n e l en ter the work f o r c e . B l a c k h u r s t (1981) d i s c u s s e s problems that w i l l f a c e program d e s i g n e r s who p l a n programs i n the n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l mode. The 97 f i r s t i s , which handicaps shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n , the second r e l a t e s to the i s suance o f c r e d e n t i a l s by e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s which are c a t e g o r y e x p l i c i t . (In the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Great B r i t a i n may c r e d e n t i a l s are i s sued on a c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s . ) U n t i l graduates can earn c e r t i f i c a t i o n on a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l c o n t i n u e to approach s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r a i n i n g on a c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s . E a r n i n g c r e d e n t i a l s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n on a c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s i s not the case i n Canada. Bachor (1983) suggests that t h e r e has been no h i s t o r y o f c a t e g o r i c a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n Canada. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t e a c h e r s do not r e c e i v e any s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s may be noted on degrees granted by the three u n i v e r s i t i e s but they are not always i n d i c a t e d . He goes on to s t a t e t h a t , i n O n t a r i o , a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a program l e a d i n g to t eacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n , e x t r a t r a i n i n g may be taken which r e s u l t s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n endorsements . These endorsements o n l y i n d i c a t e tha t a teacher has reached a b e g i n n i n g , i n t e r m e d i a t e or s p e c i a l i s t l e v e l . They do not s t i p u l a t e any d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r y . B l a c k h u r s t (1981) r a i s e s o ther i s s u e s that r e l a t e to the f u n c t i o n s performed by those t r a i n e d i n a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l model . The competenc ies r e q u i r e d of those t r a i n e d to carry out a q u a l i t y program f o r young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n must be s p e l l e d o u t . S t a f f i n g o f t eacher e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t i e s becomes an i s s u e i n a 98 n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l a p p r o a c h . Should f a c u l t y members have n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l t r a i n i n g i n o r d e r to be employed by E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g programs? P r a c t i c u m placements o f t e n become d i f f i c u l t as many c e n t r e s are bound to d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s . O f t e n , these programs do not p r o v i d e good models f o r s t u d e n t s to emulate i n t h e i r s tudent t e a c h i n g and o ther p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s . Most E a r l y C h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g programs o f f e r c o u r s e s based on a very broad view o f what t e a c h i n g and e d u c a t i o n o f the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d e n t a i l s . B a s i c programs u s u a l l y i n c l u d e c o u r s e s i n c h i l d growth and development , s o c i o l o g y o f the f a m i l y , h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g , c h i l d management, h e a l t h , and n u t r i t i o n . The s tudent i s expected to become competent i n a l l areas but always wi th the view o f t e a c h i n g the 'whole ' c h i l d i n such a way that h i s / h e r i n d i v i d u a l e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and c r e a t i v e growth w i l l be encouraged at the optimum r a t e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , a l l w i t h i n the group contex t where the needs o f one c h i l d may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and s e p a r a t e from the needs o f another c h i l d . A n o n c a t e g o r i c a1 approach to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g seems to be more l o g i c a l and r e l e v a n t than c a t e g o r i c a l approaches , e s p e c i a l l y , i n the area o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d teacher t r a i n i n g . Models f o r the T r a i n i n g o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Teachers 99 Sheperd (1975) d e s c r i b e s a model as ' a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l system' f o r s t r u c t u r i n g and p r e d i c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between symbol i c and r e a l e v e n t s : He sugges ts that through t h i s p r o c e s s i t i s p o s s i b l e to f o r m u l a t e the c r i t i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s o f an o p e r a t i o n a l model f o r teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs. Models p r e s c r i b e d i r e c t i o n s f o r d e s i g n , implementat ion and e v a l u a t i o n o f programs and enab le the u s e r s to r e t r a c e the s t e p s , unders tand the p r o c e s s and d u p l i c a t e the a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s . G l a s s e r (1962), sugges t s four parameters o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l model . The f o u r components a r e : i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s , e n t e r i n g b e h a v i o r , i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s and performance assessment . Stamm <1975), i n s t r u c t u r i n g h i s t r a i n i n g model , uses M i t z e l ' s (1960) parameters f o r t r a i n i n g model b u i l d i n g which are p r e s a g e , p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t . Stamm (1975) sugges ts that any model be ing d e v i s e d f o r the t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s should have: 1) a complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f the major a s p e c t s o f the program and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2) l o g i c a l l y s t a t e d t e r m i n a l competencies 3) t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and support systems 4) an i n s t r u c t i o n a l management system to monitor the program 5) p r o v i s i o n to respond to the needs o f s t u d e n t s and f u t u r e emp1oyers 6) p r o c e s s e s to enable a d a p t a t i o n to the changing context o f educat i o n Shepherd (1975), c a u t i o n s that whenever a system i s des igned and implemented those i n v o l v e d must s t a r t wi th the b a s i c assumption that they can a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t the f u t u r e environment o f the system and that the model w i l l run at a pace commensurate wi th t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s . There i s always the danger tha t once a t r a i n i n g program becomes committed to a c e r t a i n 100 model) the p a r t i c i p a n t s become so t i e d not respond to i s s u e s and needs r a i s e d i n the program or p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the to the model that they do by s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g f i e l d . There has been a r a p i d growth i n personne l p r e p a r a t i o n c o u r s e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the pas t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . Numbers have grown from l e s s than 40 i n the 1950's to more than 400 i n the 1970's . (Burke , 1976). However, Lampner (1979) , sugges ts that very l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e has been devoted to d e v e l o p i n g models o f comprehensive e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n s l e a d i n g to a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n degree and /or c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Few models have been based on the l e a r n i n g needs o f the p r e s e r v i c e t eacher and methods o f t e a c h i n g c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s tudent t e a c h e r s e f f e c t i v e l y . F o u r - D - M o d e l T h i a g a r j a n e t . a l . (1974), d e s c r i b e the Four -D- t iode l systems approach to the t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l development p r o c e s s o f the model i s d i v i d e d i n t o four s t a g e s : D e f i n i t i o n , D e s i g n , Development and D i s s e m i n a t i o n . 1) D e f i n i t i o n : The purpose o f t h i s s tage i s to s t i p u l a t e p r o c e s s e s and d e f i n e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r : a) r a i s i n g the performance l e v e l s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s b) a s s e s s i n g e n t e r i n g competencies and background e x p e r i e n c e o f e n t e r i n g s t u d e n t s c) i d e n t i f y i n g s k i l l s to be a c q u i r e d by s t u d e n t s 101 d) i d e n t i f y i n g major concept s to be l earned by s t u d e n t s e) s p e c i f y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s 2) D e s i g n : The purposes o f the second s tage a r e : a) to c o n s t r u c t c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s b) to i d e n t i f y and s e l e c t the most a p p r o p r i a t e media to be used The a u t h o r s i d e n t i f y twenty-one formats f o r d e s i g n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r t eacher t r a i n i n g . The i n i t i a l d e s i g n w i l l c o n t a i n s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g e s s e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n through a p p r o p r i a t e media i n the most r e l e v a n t sequence. 3) Development: T h i s s tage i n v o l v e s p u t t i n g the d e s i g n i n t o p r a c t i c e . Feedback i s r e c e i v e d from f a c u l t y and e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d . F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and m a t e r i a l s are r e v i s e d . M a t e r i a l i s t e s t e d on s tudents? feedback i s encouraged and m a t e r i a l s are m o d i f i e d . The c y c l e o f t e s t i n g ? r e v i s i n g and r e t e s t i n g i s repeated u n t i l m a t e r i a l s works c o n s i s t e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . 4) D i s s e m i n a t i o n : The f o u r t h s tage i n v o l v e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r e v i s e d d e s i g n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and m a t e r i a l s ( l e s s o n p lans? i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ? overheads? f i l m s v i d e o s e t c . ) are implemented by f a c u l t y a f t e r a summative e v a l u a t i o n i s undertaken and when deve lopmental t e s t i n g y i e l d s c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s and 102 expert a p p r a i s a l y i e l d s p o s i t i v e comments and a c c e p t a n c e . The N o n - C a t e g o r i c a l Approach Model Anderson e t . a l . (1976) d e s c r i b e s one approach to d e a l i n g wi th the n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l model at Memphis s t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . They suggest that t h e r e are some t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s which can be r e t a i n e d i n a g e n e r i c program. The most u n i v e r s a l one o f these i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n course on e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . At Memphis, i t was i n the areas o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , methods, m a t e r i a l s and p r a c t i c u m c o u r s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i c a l areas that e x t e n s i v e changes were be ing made. The f i r s t c o u r s e i n the new program was ' C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s wi th C o g n i t i v e and A f f e c t i v e and Psychomotor H a n d i c a p s ' . The emphasis of the course i s on the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f hand icaps on the p r o c e s s e s o f m a t u r a t i o n , l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n . The second requirement i s a g e n e r i c methods c o u r s e , ' C l i n i c a l Teach ing o f E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' . The f o c u s o f t h i s course i s on the competenc ies r e q u i r e d by t e a c h e r s to produce d e s i r e d academic and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s i n c h i l d r e n with v a r i o u s e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s . The c u r r i c u l u m o f the course i n c l u d e s o b s e r v a t i o n , d i a g n o s i s , i n t e r v e n t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Anderson e t . a l (1976) have attempted to deve lop a r a t i o n a l f o r n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l course p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e v e r a l key c o u r s e s which might s e r v e as the nuc l eus f o r a 103 program to p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s o f m i l d l y handicapped c h i l d r e n who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c a t e g o r i z e d as educable m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d or l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d . Heward e t . a l . (1981) d e s c r i b e a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l t r a i n i n g program at Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y that c o n s i s t s o f i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s c o v e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i t y , h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , l e g a l a s p e c t s and v a r i o u s models o f d e l i v e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to handicapped c h i l d r e n . S tudents a c q u i r e competencies i n assessment , c u r r i c u l a r needs , i n s t r u c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . There are two c o u r s e s devoted to i n s t r u c t i o n a l s k i l l s . One i s a c u r r i c u l u m / m e t h o d s course that c o n c e n t r a t e s on d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s . The second c o u r s e d e a l s wi th modules o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n d a i 1 y - 1 i v i n g , p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l gu idance and p r e p a r a t i o n s k i l l a r e a s . The s tudent t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m i s an important f a c e t o f the program. In the p r a c t i c u m ass ignment , s t u d e n t s must i n s t r u c t a c h i l d i n an academic a c t i v i t y i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the c h i l d ' s d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r y . T h i s approach c h a l l e n g e s the premise that s e p a r a t e areas o f e x c e p t i o n a l i t y r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The s t u d e n t s s t a r t working with a s m a l l group o f c h i l d r e n and move to t a k i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g , implementing and e v a l u a t i n g a whole program. Feedback from the c o o p e r a t i n g teacher and f a c u l t y members i s c o n s i d e r e d a key 104 i n g r e d i e n t o f the p r a c t i c u m program. The n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l approach has had p o s i t i v e feedback from s t u d e n t s , c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and f a c u l t y . As p r o f e s s i o n a l s are expected to p l a y a more a c t i v e r o l e i n working with p a r e n t s and the s k i l l s neces sary to work e f f e c t i v e l y with p a r e n t s o f m i l d l y handicapped c h i l d r e n are n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l i n n a t u r e , Heward e t . a l . (1981) view the move to the new model as a welcome, long overdue change w i t h i n the f i e l d . They s t a t e that the p o s s i b i l i t y (or r e a l i t y ) o f reduced r e s o u r c e s i s not s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r combining teacher e d u c a t i o n programs. However, i n the m i l d l y handicapped area where r e s e a r c h and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e i n d i c a t e that e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n are e f f e c t i v e r e g a r d l e s s o f a c h i l d ' s s u b c a t e g o r y , n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l t eacher t r a i n i n g programs, at l e a s t i n the area o f the m i l d l y h a n d i c a p p e d , w i l l be the common model f o r the f u t u r e . Smith and Neisworth (1975) have o u t l i n e d t h e i r reasons f o r support o f a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l approach i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r a i n i n g programs. They agree with B l a c k h u r s t (1981) i n s u g g e s t i n g that c a t e g o r i e s are e d u c a t i o n a l l y i r r e l e v a n t , c a t e g o r i c a l g r o u p i n g s o v e r l a p , m a t e r i a l s are not c a t e g o r y s p e c i f i c , and l a b e l l i n g c h i l d r e n l eads to s t e r e o t y p i n g . P r e p a r a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r s a long c a t e g o r i c a l l i n e s r e s u l t s i n redundancy o f c o u r s e work and the s e t t i n g o f b a r r i e r s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . They suggest that a l though communicat ion may be f a c i l i t a t e d w i t h i n c a t e g o r i c a l g r o u p s , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s erves as a b a r r i e r to communicat ion between g r o u p s . 105 A c o n c e r n f o r t h e f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n c a t e g o r y b a s e d p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s i s t h a t a l t h o u g h i t may be f e a s i b l e t o p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n c e n t r e s a c c o r d i n g t o a d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r y and h i r e s u p e r v i s o r s t r a i n e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y i n l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s ) i t w o u l d be p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e and i m p o s s i b l e t o s e r v i c e a l l c e n t r e s w i t h E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s u p e r v i s o r s / t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s t o meet t h e n e e d s o f e a c h and e v e r y p r e s c h o o l c h i l d i n l e s s d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . < B l a c k h u r s t ( 1 9 8 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a t r e n d t o n o n c a t e g o r i c a 1 c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a t l e a s t 40'/. o f t h e s t a t e s c u r r e n t l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t an u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s a r e r e d e s i g n i n g p r o g r a m s t o f i t t h e t r e n d t o n o n c a t e g o r i c a l c r e d e n t i a l s . He s e e s p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s i n t h e t r e n d b u t he d o e s s u g g e s t some p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n n o n c a t e g o r i c a 1 t r a i n i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The c o n c e r n s t h a t he f e e l s must be a d d r e s s e d i n m o v i n g t o o r d e s i g n i n g a n o n c a t e g o r i c a 1 p r o g r a m a r e : 1) t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m ) 2) f u n c t i o n s g r a d u a t e s must be a b l e t o p e r f o r m j 3) t h e c o m p e t e n c i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h f u n c t i o n , 4) c o n t e n t t o be i n c l u d e d , 5) t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m i n t e r m s o f c o u r s e s and p r a c t i c u m , 6) r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o g r a m ) 7) p r o g r a m s management p r o c e d u r e s , and 8) f o r m a t i v e and s u m m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n s t o be a d d r e s s e d . The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y he p r e d i c t s i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g p r a t i c u m s i t e s t h a t c a p t u r e t h e ' e s s e n c e ' o f n o n c a t e g o r i c a 1 106 programming. I n a p p r o p r i a t e l y s t r u c t u r e d programs or programs bound to d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s do not p r o v i d e good models f o r s t u d e n t s to emulate i n t h e i r s tudent t e a c h i n g and other p r a c t i c u m exper i e n c e s . I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y T r a i n i n g Model The p o l i c y statement o f the American A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n (AACTE) r e g a r d i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r e d u c a t i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e s that changes i n p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s r e q u i r e that e d u c a t o r s be: " T r a i n e d as a member o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l team, a b l e to u t i l i z e both human and t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s , a b l e to f u n c t i o n as a team member - sometimes i n a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , o ther t imes a s a s u p p o r t i v e o b s e r v e r , sometimes as a c a t a l y s t , and other t imes as a consumer o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . " (AACTE, 1978). The team approach as a p p l i e d to E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s e t t i n g s ranges from an e d u c a t i o n a l team s e r v i n g m i l d l y impaired c h i l d r e n i n an i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g to an i n s t i t u t i o n a 1 - b a s e d team working wi th s e v e r e l y , mu1t i -handicapped c h i l d r e n . Swanson and T a y l o r (198S) i n s i s t that sound programs f o r the handicapped o f t e n f a i l to come together because p r o f e s s i o n a l s do not work together to the best advantage o f the c h i l d . In the past the main focus o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teams has been assessment i n order to make placement recommendations . They suggest that c u r r e n t teams must not o n l y make placement 107 recommendations but a l s o deve lop u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l management p l a n s (IEP.'s) to i n c l u d e s h o r t and long term i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . I f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n are to have a p p r o p r i a t e q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n then teamwork among r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n s working to common g o a l s f o r the c h i l d i s a key i n g r e d i e n t to s u c c e s s . Teaming models from the past may not be s u f f i c i e n t f o r the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f presen t day needs and p r o f e s s i o n a l s must unders tand and a p p r e c i a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s from o ther d i s c i p l i n e s . I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s i n r e a l l i f e s e t t i n g s w i l l enhance s t u d e n t s ' knowledge o f the members from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s and g i v e them p r a c t i c e i n working as members o f a team f o r the e d u c a t i o n and c a r e o f the 'whole ' c h i l d . Freund e t . a l . (1988) r e p o r t on a r e q u i r e d course f o r a l l s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s ) ' M e d i c a l Problems i n C h i l d Deve lopment ' , o f f e r e d at the U n i v e r s i t y o f A r k a n s a s . The course i n t r o d u c e s t e a c h e r s to medica l a s p e c t s o f problems and r e l a t e d t rea tments f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , and i n c l u d e s p r o c e d u r e s used i n making r e f e r r a l s to medica l and o ther h e a l t h r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The s tudent t eacher has an o p p o r t u n i t y to deve lop s k i l l s f o r engaging i n p r o d u c t i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n with medica l p r o f e s s i o n a l s . It . i s hoped that through e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s course s t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n knowledge about medica l prob lems , t h e i r c a u s e s , m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t . Regular and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s need to have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f drugs p r e s c r i b e d f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . As p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l treatment i s the most common area 108 of medica l management r e q u i r e d of t e a c h e r s , element i n the course c o n t e n t . i t i s an important S tudents w i l l be a b l e to r e f e r p a r e n t s to the c o r r e c t p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and w i l l g a i n knowledge o f the medica l approach to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n that w i l l he lp them to work more e f f e c t i v e l y on an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team. Freund e t . a l . c o n c l u d e t h a t : " C e r t a i n l y , s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t by o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about medica l areas e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r d a i l y work. Moreover , e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r many handicapped c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e input from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s . For t h i s p r o c e s s to work, a common framework of communicat ion i s e s s e n t i a l . E d u c a t i n g t e a c h e r s wi th r e s p e c t to medica l a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d i s a b i l i t i e s i s one means o f improv ing the l e v e l o f communicat ion . An a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t a c c r u e s to f a c u l t y members themse lves , who thought these c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s are improv ing t h e i r own i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teamwork and r e f e r r a l s k i 1 I s . " Swanson and T a y l o r (198E) suggest that some c o u r s e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d f i e l d s shou ld i n c o r p o r a t e f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s that b u i l d upon shared p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s and tha t f i e l d s i t e s shou ld be s e l e c t e d c a r e f u l l y i n order to expose s t u d e n t s to the best models a v a i l a b l e i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l team o p e r a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . S tudents need to be prepared i n the c l a s s r o o m p r i o r to f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s through d i s c u s s i o n s , r e a d i n g ass ignments and i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e t t i n g they w i l l v i s i t . 109 F o l l o w up i n the c la s sroom r e i n f o r c e s the e x p e r i e n c e s i n f i e l d s e t t i n g s . The a u t h o r s , suggest that through the f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s the s t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f the continuum o f s e r v i c e s that e x i s t f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , unders tand b e t t e r the r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f each i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team member, and a p p r e c i a t e how e f f e c t i v e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team d e c i s i o n making can improve the development and implementat ion o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . G o l i n and Duncanis (1981), d e s c r i b e a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t eacher p r e p a r a t i o n program at the U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h . The o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s t u d e n t s o f the course i n v o l v e l e a r n i n g to i d e n t i f y competenc ies and p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f o t h e r s who might b r i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e to s o l v i n g the problems of the v i s u a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , l e a r n i n g to u t i l i z e community r e s o u r c e s , and l e a r n i n g to f u n c t i o n as a member o f a team s e r v i n g p r e s c h o o l and s c h o o l - a g e v i s u a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n . S tudent s are a s s igned to a c l a s s team o f s i x to e i g h t members from a v a r i e t y o f r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l backgrounds . They s tudy a team i n o p e r a t i o n i n the community, a t t e n d meetings o f the team, i n t e r v i e w i n d i v i d u a l team members and submit a f i n a l r e p o r t on t h e i r p r o j e c t which has to be a team e f f o r t . The s t u d e n t s are g i v e n c l a s s t ime weekly to work with t h e i r team. The i n s t r u c t o r s s e r v e as r e s o u r c e persons i n problems of team f u n c t i o n i n g and d i r e c t i o n s r e p o r t s shou ld t a k e . The theory 1 10 s e c t i o n o f the course c o v e r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f teams and how teams f u n c t i o n . There are l e c t u r e s , r e a d i n g s , and d i s c u s s i o n a i d s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r c a r r y i n g out team r e s e a r c h . S tudents were p o s i t i v e about t h e i r team e x p e r i e n c e s i n the course and i n f o l l o w up e v a l u a t i o n s o f the c o u r s e , i t was apparent that the e x p e r i e n c e he lped graduates to be e f f e c t i v e i n working with c o l l e a g u e s i n the f i e l d . There are i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s tudent b a r r i e r s to such a program. D e c i s i o n s have to be made as to how the program w i l l be budgeted and who shou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o u r s e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs are o f t e n so crowded with r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s that u n l e s s the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o u r s e i s s t r o n g l y supported by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n both i n p h i l o s o p h y and i n f u n d i n g , the course w i l l not be a p r i o r i t y . S tudents from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c o u r s e and may not have had enough e x p e r i e n c e to have e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r o n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e i r own. There are many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team approach to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f an e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d . The problems w i t h i n the p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , problems i n implementing team recommendations lack of t r a i n i n g and guidance i n the team p r o c e s s f o r team members, and the i n a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s to work together i n an i n t e g r a t i v e f a s h i o n and 11 1 a r r i v e at a consensus on recommendations f o r p r o c e d u r e s to f o l l o w to meet the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . B a i l e y (1984) d e s c r i b e s a ' t r i a x l i a l model o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team and group p r o c e s s ' i n which he t r i e s to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the team p r o c e s s and d y s f u n c t i o n i n teams. He sugges t s that the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team i s a complex e n t i t y t h a t s prime purpose i s to deve lop an i n t e g r a t e d p l a n f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and t h e r a p e u t i c s e r v i c e s to meet the needs o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . He f e e l s that these teams o f t e n do not f u n c t i o n w e l l because o f problems a s s o c i a t e d with team development , team subsystems, and with the team as a whole . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f reasons f o r team d y s f u n c t i o n he sugges ts that the s tudy o f t h e o r i e s and models of teams, and how they f u n c t i o n or do not f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y , shou ld be a key i n g r e d i e n t i n any t r a i n i n g program f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who w i l l work with c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . Bennet (1988) sugges ts that t h e r e are some problems that need to be over come i n the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h . He f e e l s tha t d e f i n i t i o n o f and p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ' t u r f i s a major i s s u e . P a r e n t s may become confused r a t h e r than e n l i g h t e n e d by the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o c e s s i f s u f f i c i e n t c a r e i s not taken to c o o r d i n a t e and s y n t h e s i z e the numerous p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s . Of ten no member of the team takes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , or as i n the h i s t o r i c a l medica l model , the p h y s i c i a n expec t s or i s expected to assume the 118 team leader r o l e . The problems that cause an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team to be i n e f f e c t u a l must be unders tood and combatted f o r the good of the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Bennet <198S) sugges ts that problems which are common to most teams are not insurmountable but that s o l u t i o n s r e q u i r e s e n s i t i v e , s e c u r e , f l e x i b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who are a b l e to a p p r e c i a t e the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o c e s s . Members o f teams must take p e r s o n a l as w e l l as group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r assessment and placement d e c i s i o n s as w e l l as long term f o l l o w up . A l l members o f teams must have the e x p e r i e n c e and m a t u r i t y to f u n c t i o n as team l e a d e r s , as w e l l as team members, depending on the p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s o f i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . In l a r g e u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b a r r i e r s w i l l be g r e a t i n implementing an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y model . F a c u l t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s are l a r g e and communicat ion between f a c u l t i e s may be almost n o n e x i s t e n t . In s m a l l c o l l e g e s some d i s c i p l i n e s may not e x i s t and i t may be d i f f i c u l t to s i m u l a t e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teams. In l e s s p o p u l a t e d c e n t r e s i t may be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d models o f e f f e c t i v e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teams i n the f i e l d . I f as A l l e n (1978) sugges t s f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i t i s o f t e n the e a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r o f e s s i o n a l who i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e team member to work as an i n t e r d i s c i p 1 i n a r i a n and s y n t h e s i z e the p r o f e s s i o n a l j argon which can impede communicat ion on i n t e r d i c i p 1 i n a r y teams, then 113 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s need to be i n t r o d u c e d to the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach and t h e o r i e s o f team development and d y s f u n c t i o n i n c l a s s r o o m l e c t u r e s and p r a c t i c u m s e t t i n g s d u r i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g . H i s t o r i c a l l y , p a r e n t s have had too l i t t l e input i n t o d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs as major d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n were l e f t to the ' e x p e r t s ' . More r e c e n t l y p a r e n t s have demanded through the l e g a l system a g r e a t e r say i n the placement o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and p a r e n t s have been encouraged to become i n v o l v e d i n p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the 1930's the F e d e r a l Work P r o j e c t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n funded emergency n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and parent e d u c a t i o n programs to t r y ' to combat the d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s caused by the d e p r e s s i o n ' . (Braun and Edwards, 197E) . In the 1960's the F e d e r a l government poured m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s i n t o p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n to fund and monitor P r o j e c t Head S t a r t under the O f f i c e o f Economic O p p o r t u n i t y . There were over 100,000 a d u l t s ( p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p h y s i c i a n s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s and v o l u n t e e r s ) i n v o l v e d i n t h i s massive p r o j e c t . The q u a l i t y o f work and the amount o f involvement with p a r e n t s v a r i e d . Osborn (1965) s t a t e d that i f the program was to be more than j u s t ' f i r s t a i d ' p a r e n t s must be brought i n t o c e n t r e s and i n c l u d e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the ^ programs. The mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f P . L . 94-142 ensures parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the assessment p r o c e d u r e s , placement and program p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and guarantees 114 the r i g h t s and p r o t e c t i o n f o r p a r e n t s as w e l l as e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1981 i n Great B r i t a i n ensures p a r e n t s ' r i g h t o f appeal i n d e c i s i o n s made i n assessment and placement o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The p a r e n t s have a r i g h t to be presen t at an examinat ion f o r assessment o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the r i g h t o f appeal o f the assessment i . e . the a s surance that when h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s have formed the o p i n i o n that a c h i l d under the age o f f i v e has , or may have, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs , they must in form the p a r e n t s and g i v e the p a r e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r input and then b r i n g the matter to the a t t e n t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e L E A . The l e g i s l a t i o n i s p r o o f o f the growing i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t s i n d e c i s i o n s made f o r the e d u c a t i o n and c a r e o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . ( H e r m e l i n , 1981). A l though l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada tends to be more p e r m i s s i v e than mandatory, pre sen t p r a c t i c e shows a growing i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t s i n d e c i s i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . Recent c o u r t cases have been fought by p a r e n t s r e g a r d i n g the r i g h t s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e and e d u c a t i o n and the r i g h t s o f the p a r e n t s to be p a r t o f the d e c i s i o n making teams that recommend the placement and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s f o r the t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F r i t h and K e l l y (1981) , when commenting on t r a i n i n g p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s to work with p a r e n t s , suggest the a b i l i t y o f p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s to c o n t r i b u t e to parent involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s programs i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The a u t h o r s f e e l t r a i n i n g shou l d i n c l u d e an emphasis on the team concept and a d i s c u s s i o n 1 15 o f the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s team members. D i r e c t p a r e n t a l c o n t a c t through p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s and seminars /workshops f o r p a r e n t s shou ld be r e q u i r e d of any t r a i n i n g program. I f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s are to be s u c c e s s f u l i n working wi th c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs and t h e i r f a m i l i e s they need i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s to dea l wi th the h i g h l y complex human i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s that e x i s t i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g s ) the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs and the c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s o f a r r i v i n g at the best p o s s i b l e p lacement , d e s i g n , implementat ion and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r c a r e and e d u c a t i o n . Acceptance and c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s as f u l l team members i n the p r o c e s s can o n l y l ead to more e f f e c t i v e programming f o r c h i l d r e n . S o l i n and Duncanis (1981) suggest that development and implementat ion o f i n t e r d i c i p 1 i n a r y programs r e q u i r e a c o n t i n u e d h igh commitment from f a c u l t y , s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s and f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . They recommend that anyone u n d e r t a k i n g such a program shou ld i n c l u d e s t u d e n t s from a v a r i e t y o f human s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l , f a c u l t y wi th d i v e r s e e x p e r t i s e and backgrounds , t h e o r e t i c a l c o u r s e work, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s to p r a c t i c e the t h e o r i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n d i n g to ensure the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the c o u r s e , and f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n as i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f the c o u r s e . They c o n c l u d e that r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the team approach to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs o f 116 e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d and that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed f o r the e f f e c t i v e and r e l e v a n t implementat ion o f programs tha t would t r a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s to become e f f e c t i v e team members. Competency-Based Teacher E d u c a t i o n Model A competency-based teacher e d u c a t i o n program has been d e f i n e d as a program which s p e c i f i e s the competencies to be demonstrated by the s t u d e n t , makes e x p l i c i t the c r i t e r i a to be a p p l i e d i n a s s e s s i n g the s t u d e n t ' s competencies and h o l d s the s tudent a c c o u n t a b l e f o r meeting those c r i t e r i a . ( B u t l e r , 1978). Competency-based e d u c a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from and o r g a n i z e d around an agreed upon set o f competenc ies and p r o v i d e s the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s des igned to l ead to the a t ta inment o f those competenc ie s . S t a n l e y Elam (1971) d e s c r i b e s the e lements o f a competency-based teacher e d u c a t i o n (CBTE) program. He d e s c r i b e s competenc ies as b e i n g : d e r i v e d from c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e , d e s c r i b e d e x p l i c i t l y i n b e h a v i o u r a l terms, made p u b l i c i n advance , and are to be demonstrated by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . Assessment shou ld be congruent wi th the s p e c i f i e d competenc ie s , e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n terms o f mastery l e v e l s , made p u b l i c i n advance , n e g o t i a b l e and des igned to measure per formance . The s t u d e n t ' s r a t e o f p r o g r e s s i s determined by demonstrated competency r a t h e r than by t ime spent i n program or c o u r s e s t a k e n . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l program p r o v i d e s an a p p r o p r i a t e framework f o r the development and assessment o f s p e c i f i c competenc i e s . 117 Elam(1971) a l s o i m p l i e s i n h i s conceptual model that programs w i l l have c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The program should i n c l u d e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and p e r s o n a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n and f o r m a t i v e feedback to students a s s e s s i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s . The primary i n s t r u c t i o n a l 1 , component i s the modules a se t of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s intended to f a c i l i t a t e the students' achievement i n demonstrating a competency or set of competencies. Payne e t . a l . (1980), a f t e r reviewing the teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n of a l l f i f t y s t a t e s , suggest that the minimum competencies r e q u i r e d to work with mentally r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n should be the f o l l o w i n g : The student should: 1) possess an e x t e n s i v e knowledge of the content a p p r o p r i a t e to the f i e l d of mental r e t a r d a t i o n ( e t i o l o g y ) , h i s t o r y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , treatments, l i t i g a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n e t c : 8) i n t e r a c t humanely with the r e t a r d e d l e a r n e r 3) manage the teaching environment so that r e t a r d e d l e a r n e r s work e f f i c i e n t l y 4) produce p o s i t i v e and observable change i n the r e t a r d e d l e a r n e r ' s academic performance The four b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l areas they suggest are: b a s i c knowledge of the s u b j e c t matter r e l a t e d to mental r e t a r d a t i o n , techniques and methods f o r teaching the r e t a r d e d , knowledge of a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l u m f o r mentally r e t a r d e d students and demonstration of teaching competency with mentally r e t a r d e d ch i l d r e n . Assessment as to whether competencies have been a t t a i n e d w i l l be made through paper and p e n c i l t e s t s , o r a l responses to q u e s t i o n s , and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of the student i n a f i e l d 118 placement . The e v a l u a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t ' s competency w i l l depend on the judgement o f the f a c u l t y and c e n t r e s u p e r v i s o r s tha t the s tudent has a s u f f i c i e n t grasp o f i d e a s , concepts and s k i l l s . The a u t h o r s suggest that the programs f o r t eacher p r e p a r a t i o n can be measured by making s u r e o f the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s t e p s : the s p e c i f i c content t o p i c i s i n c l u d e d i n one o f the f o u r competency i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a s ; the s p e c i f i c content t o p i c f i t s one o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a ; the s p e c i f i c content t o p i c i s assessed by one o f the assessment o p t i o n s . They recommend the p r e c e d i n g format c o u l d be used to e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g programs w e l l as to deve lop new programs. Gentry (1976) suggests that i t i s premature to suggest tha t CBTE programs are ' b e t t e r t h a n ' c o n v e n t i o n a l t eacher t r a i n i n g programs. He s t a t e s that w h i l e t h e r e e x i s t s among e d u c a t o r s a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s o f C B T E , we can assume that there are c e r t a i n 'minimal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' on which a l l can agree and g i v e n that assumption any program l a c k i n g the 'min imal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' cannot be c o n s i d e r e d competency-based . He goes on to suggest that i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether any of the l a r g e r teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t empt ing CBTE have yet deve loped a l l the 'minimal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , tha t i s to say , tha t a l though many programs may p u r p o r t to be , there are p r o b a b l y no t r u l y and c o m p l e t e l y competency-based programs. L o r b e r (1979) d e s c r i b e s an e i g h t year ' exper iment ' at I l l i n o i s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y i n C B T E . He c o n c l u d e s that the 119 s i n g l e - f o r m a t , s e l f - p a c e d , competency-based program d i d not adequate ly meet the v a r y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs o f s t u d e n t s . He c a u t i o n s o ther e d u c a t o r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y those c o n s i d e r i n g the implementat ion o f competency s t a n d a r d s to ' l o o k 7 b e f o r e they ' l e a p ' i n t o competency-based e d u c a t i o n . He found that the m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s i n the program d i s p l a y e d v a r y i n g s e l f - p a c i n g a b i l i t i e s when such a l t e r n a t i v e s were a v a i l a b l e . I n i t i a l f a c u l t y support was e n t h u s i a s t i c but has come to v i r t u a l agreement tha t changes are needed. " F a c u l t y d i s c o n t e n t stems from l i m i t a t i o n s (both r e a l and imagined) on academic freedom, from honest d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l content and s t r a t e g i e s , and from the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a c h i n g consensus on s t a n d a r d s f o r the l e v e l c a l l e d f o r i n the t e a c h i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f s k i l l s at the h i g h e r c o g n i t i v e l e v e l c a l l e d f o r i n the t e a c h i n g and e v a l u a t i n g o f l e s s o n s . " ( L o r b e r , 1979). In a r e b u t t a l to L o r b e r (1979), Smith and Nagel (1979) l i s t the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s tha t have been r e a l i z e d through a CBTE program at San Deigo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . They compared s t u d e n t s o f the CBET program to s t u d e n t s o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l program at SDSU. They found that the CBTE s t u d e n t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r knowledge about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g , b e t t e r v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n with c h i l d r e n , g r e a t e r use o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , and g r e a t e r r a t i n g s o f t h e i r performance from c h i l d r e n they t a u g h t . They are c o n v i n c e d that o p p o s i t i o n to CBTE a r i s e s from the r e s i s t a n c e to change i n mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n by i n s t r u c t o r s , and tha t CBTE programs r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r commitment o f t ime and ieo e f f o r t and a v a i 1 a b i 1 i 1 t y to the s t u d e n t s than does the c o n v e n t i o n a l l e c t u r e format o f p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l . A c c o u n t a b i l i t y Model S t a i n b a c h e t . a l . (1977) d i s c u s s a model f o r t r a i n i n g that ' i n c o r p o r a t e s a h igh degree o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r the t r a i n i n g program as w e l l as f o r the p o t e n t i a l t e a c h e r s ' . The model i n c o r p o r a t e s the components needed by t e a c h e r s o f the s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d with a p r a c t i c u m based o r i e n t a t i o n . The program c o n s i s t s o f an I n t r o d u c t o r y Sequence and four Phases . The i n t r o d u c t o r y sequence i s p lannned to a c q u a i n t the s tudent wi th the p o p u l a t i o n to be served through l e c t u r e s on b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and i s s u e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , some exposure to c h i l d r e n who are s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d with v a r i o u s h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s and v i s i t s to v a r i o u s community a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n . In Phase I the s tudent l e a r n s the b a s i c s k i l l s o f behav iour m o d i f i c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . The s tudent w i l l l e a r n about task p r e s e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s , s k i l l sequenc ing and c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n and have an o p p o r t u n i t y to put i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o p r a c t i c e wi th a c h i l d i n a p r a c t i c u m s e t t i n g . S t a i n b a c h e t . a l . (1977) s t a t e tha t the p r a c t i u m e x p e r i e n c e s e r v e s as the c o r e o f the program fed by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o u r s e . In Phase II the t e a c h i n g emphasis moves to a group of c h i l d r e n . In Phase III the p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e s the s tudent to s erve the needs o f the c h i l d r e n by i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y communtiy teamwork. Phase IV 121 i n v o l v e s t o t a l management o f a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n and a l l the s k i l l s and competenc ies that are r e q u i r e d . There i s an advanced seminar that completes the p r a c t i c u m . ( F i g u r e 2 ) . M u l t i - L e v e l Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n Model De Hoop (1973), d e s c r i b e s a model f o r the development o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l system to p r e p a r e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l . The c r i t e r i a f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l system a r e : u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , p r o v i d e f o r the most e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s to the l a r g e s t number o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s , a n a l y z e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s i n each component o f the program, i d e n t i f y the t a s k s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a l l per sonne l i n v o l v e d , p r o v i d e f o r c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l and s t u d e n t s , and use e v a l u a t i o n as feed back f o r c o n t i n u e d improvement i n program and p a r t i c i p a n t s . 122 I n t r o d u c t o r y S e q u e n c e E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n H u m a n G r o w t h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P h y s i o l o g y Y 7 F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n P r a c t i c u m S t u d i e s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Y P h a s e I - T u t o r i a l I n t r o d u c t o r y M a n a g e m e n t " T u t o r i a l P r a c t i c u m I n t r o d u c t o r y C u r r i c u l u m P h a s e I I - C r o u p A d v a n c e d M a n a g e m e n t N P r e a c a d e m i c C u r r i c u l u m G r o u p P r a c t i c u m S e l f H e l p C u r r i c u l u m P h a s e I I I - I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y H o m e - S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s S e m i n a r I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y P r a c t i c u m C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e s P h a s e I V -C l a s s r o o m Advanced Seminar S e v e r e a n d P r o f o u n d C l a s s r o o m P r a c t i c u m F i g u r e 2 - An I n t e g r a t i v e Model f o r T r a i n i n g Teachers of the Severely and Profound 1y Retarded.(Stainbach e t . a l . , 1977) 123 The f a c u l t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i e l d i n s t r u c t o r s and academic i n s t r u c t o r s . F i e l d i n s t r u c t o r s observe s t u d e n t s i n p r a c t i c u m p lacements , e v a l u a t e performance and supp ly feedback to s t u d e n t s and academic i n s t r u c t o r s about areas o f weakness. Academic i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . Academic and f i e l d i n s t r u c t o r s , and p e r s o n n e l i n a f f i l i a t e d c e n t r e s i n the f i e l d c o o p e r a t e c l o s e l y , t h e r e are f i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l phases f o r which t h e r e are s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l modules . S t u d e n t s , depending on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e , may move through the d i f f e r e n t phases at t h e i r own p a c e . At the end of each phase the s t u d e n t s are expected to be p r o f i c i e n t i n the knowledge and the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to master the p a r t i c u l a r phase . ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The program draws from the knowledge and the s k i l l s o f a broad group o f the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y , a l l o w s f o r s tudent i n f l u e n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the program, and f a c i l i t a t e s a s s i s t a n c e to s t u d e n t s at a l l l e v e l s o f the program. The author sugges ts that t h i s model can be a p p l i e d to s t r u c t u r a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t programs i . e . s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , speech p a t h o l o g y , e t c . 124 Instructional Activities Instructional Phases Exceptional Individuals Setting Methods and Materials Educational and/or Peutic management Undergraduate I: Acquainted 1. Observe first hand and audiovisually. 2. Read literature. 3. Attend lectures, discus- sions, and demonstrations. 1. Observe: preschool, ele- mentary, high school, voca- tional, workshops, home, and residential institutions; fund drives and similar endeavors. 1. Observe: Instructional Resource Center at EKU, SE1MC at UK, and Title III Satellite Center. 1. Observe: educational man- agement, speech and play thera- pists, behavior modification and observation techniques. II: Involved 1. Identify. 2. Interact. 3. Study systematically. 4. Attend lectures, discus- sions, and demonstrations. 1. Observe setting in rela- tion to developmental differ- ences of exceptional individ- uals. 1. Analyze then experi- ment with materials in simu- lated or real setting. 2. Make a comparative study of materials in use. 1. Apply reinforcement and reward techniques for preference: behavior modification. 2. Construct instructional se- quence based on task analysis. Ill: Proficient 1. Identify and record be- havioral changes. 2. Read and interpret re- search reports (use library). 3. Attend lectures, discus- sions, and demonstrations. 1. Choose setting relevant to occupational goal. 2. Describe pupil perfor- mance. 1. Select then develop ap- propriate materials for a speci- fic instructional objective. 1. Supervised student teaching or therapy. Graduate IV: Professional 1. Study case studies. 2. Study psychological techniques. 3. Study independently. 4. Develop attitudes or critical evaluation. 1. Study social-psychologi- cal and educational aspects of setting. 2. Study case studies. 1. Study educational and psychological foundations for methods and materials. 2. Study case studies. 1. Study educational founda- tions of education. 2. Study case studies. V: Specialized 1. Study characteristics relative to specialization in teaching, administration, psychoeducational diagnosis, and counseling. 1. Study setting relevant to area of specialization: school, education system, workshop, residential institution, etc. 1. Evaluate methods and materials relative to specializa- tion on validity, utility, and generality as evidenced by re- search findings. 1. Develop short term and long term goals. F i g u r e 3 - P r o f i c i e n c y Modules i n M u l t i - L e v e l P r e p a r a t i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Pe r sonne l (de Hoop, 1973). The model i s des igned to remedy some o f the r e s t r a i n t s o f t e n imposed on i n s t r u c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e depar tments . The model e n a b l e s s t u d e n t s at d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t to work on the same phases i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and s t u d e n t s at the same l e v e l s i n c o l l e g e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the phase o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n they can manage. The author sugges ts an e v a l u a t i o n system o f s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y , content and m a t e r i a l s tha t s u p p l i e s c o n s t a n t feedback to support changes i n the program that w i l l ensure the r e l e v a n c e and c r e d i b i l i t y o f the program and the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n i t . A l though the program seems to be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l a r g e post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e are t e n e t s o f the program that c o u l d be adapted to f i t the needs o f a s m a l l c o l l e g e program. S tudent s e n t e r i n g a post b a s i c E a r l y C h i 1 d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n program with s e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e working with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n p r o b a b l y c o u l d move through the phases at a f a s t e r pace than those s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g the f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n suggested between c o l l e g e f a c u l t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d would o f f e r s t u d e n t s i n a smal l program o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r exposure t o , and e x p e r i e n c e s wi th p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s tha t would not be a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the c o l l e g e . The e v a l u a t i o n system that i s suggested i s a very e x t e n s i v e one and i s c a r r i e d out on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . O f t e n , when f u n d i n g i s made a v a i l a b l e to i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r new programs t h e r e i s l i t t l e i f any f u n d i n g f o r 1E6 e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f course c o n t e n t , m a t e r i a l s , i n s t r u c t i o n or f i e l d p lacements . Al though i t may be too c o s t l y to implement as f o r m a l i z e d e v a l u a t i o n s as recommended, the p r o c e d u r e s i n the model c o u l d be used as g u i d e l i n e s f o r l e s s formal and l e s s expens ive e v a l u a t i o n s . A C u m u l a t i v e Development Model Lampner (1979), d e s c r i b e s a c u m u l a t i v e development model that s t r i v e s t o : a) promote i n s tudent t e a c h e r s r e t e n t i o n and t r a n s f e r o f a c q u i r e d competencies from semester to semester b) teach p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s i n deve lopmental s tages tha t m i r r o r the ways they w i l l be t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n . The model i s viewed as a program r a t h e r than a set o f r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s . "The program i s o r g a n i z e d on l e v e l s o f development i n which competencies are a c q u i r e d c u m u l a t i v e l y from l e v e l to l e v e l , growing and i n t e n s i f y i n g at each succeed ing l e v e l . Each l e v e l i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o three t r a c k s which cover the competenc ies f o r t e a c h i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l , deve lopmental and c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . (Lampner, 1979). The c u m u l a t i v e development o f s t u d e n t s i s supported through t h r e e phases . Phase I c o v e r s b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and concepts o f t e a c h i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , Phase I I , assessment p r i n c i p l e s , methods and i n s t r u m e n t s . Phase III which i n c l u d e s l e v e l s 3 -6 c o n c e n t r a t e s on c u r r i c u l u m development , methods and m a t e r i a l s . 127 The model r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s to move through the s i x h i g h l y - s e q u e n c e d l e v e l s o f competency development . each l e v e l i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a l l succeed ing l e v e l s . ( F i g u r e s 4 and 5 ) . In the f i n a l s tage o f competency development the s t u d e n t s are expected to a p p l y a l l p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d competencies i n s t u d y i n g and d e s i g n i n g comprehensive i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs and s t r a t e g i e s . In a d d i t i o n to the s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s as o u t l i n e d i n the model s t u d e n t s are r e q u i r e d to take c o u r s e s from o ther departments to round out t h e i r knowledge i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , c h i l d psycho logy s o c i o l o g y , r e c r e a t i o n e t c . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the program and as i n s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n depth and scope , f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s become more complex. Lampner(1979) sugges ts that the t r a c k system p e r m i t s e x t e n s i v e f a c u l t y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the program and a l l o w s c o n t i n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y which f a c i l i t a t e s m o n i t o r i n g o f s tudent competency development . 128 T R A C K 2 F i g u r e <4 - Cumula t ive Competency Development. (Lampner, 1979) 129 \ LEVEL\ \ LEVEfX LIS \ LEVEL\ LP \LEVEC\ W V E L \ SPECIAL EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE & PERFORMANCE COMPETENCIEŜ TRACK 1 X f TEACHINC ' 1 V PSYCHOSOCIAL ; V SKILLS _y II U BASIC CONCEPTS ASSESSMENT 4 PRINCIPLES OF . TEACHINC n SELF CONCEPT. DEVELOPMENT n THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION PROCESSES n n APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 1 1 [ APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS II INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS TRACK 2 TEACHINC \ DEVELOPMENTAL SKILLS BASIC CONCEPTS . 1 [ ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES :i ( DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE 1 f DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE II DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE III r INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS BASIC CONCEPTS f ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES ;i {' COGNITIVE SEQUENCE 1 i 1] COGNITIVE SEQUENCE 11 •1 1 COGNITIVE SEQUENCE III * i f EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES (PARALLEL 'N PROGRAM J PROFESS- IONAL DE- VELOPMENT ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES o PRESCRIP- TIVE PRINCIPLES SCHOOL <& COMMUNITY RELATIONS RIGHT TO EDUCATION o wRrriNG lEPs F i g u r e 5 - Flow Chart o f Program S t r u c t u r e and Cont e n t . (Lampner, 1979) 130 I f q u a l i t y programs f o r p r e s c h o o l e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n are to become a p r i o r i t y and r e c e i v e the share o f p u b l i c f u n d i n g they r e q u i r e , then the p u b l i c at l a r g e needs to be made aware o f the importance o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the f u t u r e development o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . I f the r i g h t s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n to equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n i n ' the l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e env ironment ' are to be r e a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n E a r l y C h i1d h o o d : S p e c i a1 E d u c a t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e to o f f e r i n t e g r a t e d programs that s a t i s f y the needs o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s and the t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r fami 1 i e s . In the d e s i g n o f new programs i t i s b e n e f i c i a l to rev iew models that have been employed s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the past and to choose those f a c e t s tha t w i l l meet the needs o f the new program w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t ime , space and f u n d i n g o f the i n s t i t u t i o n that w i l l o p e r a t e the program. In a l l t eacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs, p u t t i n g theory i n t o p r a c t i c e p r e s e n t s many c o n c e r n s . The competenc ies the g r a d u a t i n g s tudent shou ld be expected to d i s p l a y and the most e f f e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s the program can f o l l o w to ensure a l l s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e the competenc ies are o f major impor tance . Suggested competencies and p r a c t i c u m methods by which the s tudent may d i s p l a y h i s / h e r competency are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V . 131 PAGE 13 2 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING PAGE 13 2 OMISE DANS LA PAGINATION CHAPTER 5 POST BASIC COMPETENCIES REQUIRED TO CARE FOR AND EDUCATE EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN Whether the d e s i g n e r s o f o f t r a i n i n g programs f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s choose to f o l l o w a ' C B T E ' model , a more t r a d i t i o n a l or c o n v e n t i o n a l model or a h u m a n i s t i c person c e n t e r e d approach ( L i c k o n a , 1976), they w i l l a l l expect some ' competenc i e s ' o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s b e f o r e the s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e c r e d i t f o r the program. I f t h e r e i s to be improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e f o r young c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs , there has to be a f o c u s on what competenc ies E a r l y C h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s r e q u i r e to p r o v i d e q u a l i t y s e r v i c e i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young and s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n . One problem r e g a r d i n g the development o f such competencies i s tha t s t a t e d competenc ies o f t e n lack e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y . R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have been conducted w i t h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s t r a t e g i e s , t a c t i c s , or o ther t e a c h i n g v a r i a b l e s that are more d e s i r a b l e than o t h e r s . B l a c k w e l l (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between good and poor t e a c h e r s of t r a i n a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , and found that hav ing p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , be ing a woman, and t e a c h i n g at the p r e s c h o o l l e v e l were r e l a t e d to b e t t e r t e a c h e r s . 133 W e s t l i n g e t . a l . (1981) se t out i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h to answer two q u e s t i o n s : What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s t r a t e g i e s , and t a c t i c s d e s c r i b i n g c u r r e n t c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s would be i d e n t i f i e d by a m a j o r i t y o f superb s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s and how these would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05) from those i d e n t i f i e d by a c o n t r a s t group of average s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . A l though the a u t h o r s do admit to l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , they do f e e l that t h e r e were v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s that c o u l d p r o v i d e f o r e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n . They conc luded that e x p e r i e n c e and graduate t r a i n i n g are more t y p i c a l o f the s u p e r i o r ( W e s t l i n g ' s wording) t e a c h e r . They found that s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s used more s m a l l group i n s t r u c t i o n , and f e l t that i t was p o s s i b l e that average t e a c h e r s used l a r g e group i n s t r u c t i o n more f r e q u e n t l y because they have d i f f i c u l t y managing the bahav iour o f the c h i l d r e n not i n the t a r g e t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p . They recommend s tudent t e a c h e r s be p r o v i d e d with b e t t e r management t e c h n i q u e s and conc luded that more e x t e n s i v e p r e s e r v i c e p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s are a s s o c i a t e d with a g r e a t e r number o f s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s . They found that e f f o r t was be ing made by ' s u p e r i o r ' t e a c h e r s to document c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s d u r i n g the year wi th preyear and p o s t y e a r t e s t i n g . W e s t l i n g e t . a l . suggest that i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g programs to present t h i s e v a l u a t i o n format to a l l p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . Us ing the da ta from the r e s e a r c h d e p i c t i n g most ' s u p e r i o r ' t e a c h e r s and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g them from those o f average t e a c h e r s , p e r s e r v i c e 134 and i n s e r v i c e t eacher t r a i n i n g programs may be des igned that w i l l improve the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f a l l s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . F o o s , (1976) conducted a survey o f t e a c h e r s o f the t r a i n a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . The t e a c h e r s were asked to e v a l u a t e expected competenc ies and t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g t r a i n a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . r e s u l t s o f the survey are c o n t a i n e d i n F i g u r e 6. The t e a c h e r s f e l t that there needed to be more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r a c t i c u m b e g i n n i n g as e a r l y i n the program as p o s s i b l e . They emphasized the need f o r adequate p r e p a r a t i o n i n assessment and d i a g n o s t i c t e a c h i n g . Frequent mention o f h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o r y ; measurement, e v a l u a t i o n and r e s e a r c h ; and l e a r n i n g , growth and m a t u r a t i o n as needing s t r o n g e r emphasis i n d i c a t e s i n t e r e s t and a p e r c e i v e d need f o r more academic c o n t e n t . The t e a c h e r s were n e a r l y unanimous i n t h e i r p l e a s f o r p r a c t i c a l he lp i n l e a r n i n g how to communicate wi th p a r e n t s and s k i l l s to e n l i s t the c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p a r e n t s and v o l u n t e e r s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l program. 135 Areas of Competency Extensively Required 1 Seldom Required2 Method2 I. General Skills 1. List basic skills needed for semi-independent living. 86% 3% Lett u re 2. Learn ing characteristics of T M R persons. 87% 4% Lecture 3. Utilize parents in curr icu lum planning. 89% 4% Lecture II. Learn ing , Growth , and Maturation 4. Early direct experience with T M R chi ldren. 88% 4% Lecture- observation 5. Adequate supervision dur ing and after work with T M R chi ldren. 80% 5% Lecture- observation 6. Pinpoint individual differences in levels o f functioning. 82% 4% Lecture- observation 7. Sequence motor activities to overcome or lessen physical deficiencies. 83% 4% Lecture- observation III. Measurement, Evaluation, and Research 8. Assess physical and menial readiness for tasks. 92% 1% Lecture- practicum 9. Outl ine remediation steps for individual learning problems. 89% 2% Lecture- pracl icum 10. Record systematically the academic, social, and physical progress of child. 87% 3% Lecture- practicum IV. Instruction: C u r r i c u l u m and Methodology 11. Organize and modify teaching aids and materials. 98% 1% Practicum- observation 12. Devise tasks to insure some success for each child. 96% 1% Practicum- observation 13. Break tasks into small, sequential steps from simple to complex. 95% \ 1% Practicurri- observation 14. Bui ld learning on real-life experiences. 97% 1% Practicum- observation 15. Use concrete materials and concepts. 94"% ' < 0 Praci icum- observation 16. Develop techniques to enliven dril l . 87% 1% Practicum- observation V . Self, Society, and Family 17. H e l p child accept himself as a person o f worth. 96% 1% Lecture-seminar 18. Interact with parents on professional level 91% 1% Lecture-seminar 19. Recognize problems of parents in accepting their handicapped child. 94% 1% Lecture-seminar V I . C o m m u n i t y Resources and Relationships 20. Use allied services for support in p r o g r a m m i n g for T M R . 91% 3% Independent studv-scminar F i g u r e 6 - S k i l l s P e r c e i v e d to be Requ ired f o r Teachers of T r a i n a b l e Retarded P e r s o n s . (Foos , 1976). 136 Areas of Competency Extensively Seldom Required' Required2 Method3 21. Suggest recreation and leisure activities available 92% 4% to TMRs. 22. Work with other disciplines in assessment and 87% 2% follow-up of trainable persons. VII. Speech and Language Skills 23. Plan developmental speech and language lessons. 75% 5% 24. Recognize specific patterns of certain groups of 72% 5% children. VIII. Vocational Preparation 25. Structural experiences to develop desirable work 97% 0 habits. 26. List jobs feasible for TMRs. 91% " 2% 27. Enlist community support in providing work 86% 4% experiences. IX. Behavior Management 28. Identify behaviors which interfere with child's 93% 2% learning. 29. Determine what is most rewarding for each child. 94% 1% 30. Administer rewards and punishments to obtain 93% 0 changes in pupil behavior. 31. Record on-task and off-task behaviors to identify 80% 2% patterns of behavior. Independent study-seminar Independent study-seminar Lecture- observation Lecture- observation Practicum- seminar Practicum- seminar Practicum- seminar Practicum- observation Practicum- observation Practicum- observation Practicum- observation 1 This figure represents the percentage of teachers who indicated this skill was extremely or considerably required. 2 This figure represents the percentage of teachers indicating this skill was seldom or never required. 3 This column indicates the majority opinion as to the preferred method of teaching specific skills. F i g u r e 6 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 137 Q s t a n s k i (1975) suggests that changes are needed i n the t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s . He sugges ts t h e r e should be thorough r e t h i n k i n g o f changes to be made and tha t e d u c a t o r s must be c a r e f u l not to l o se what they have a l r e a d y l earned about s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , but on the o ther hand they must not be so c a u t i o u s about change that they c o n t i n u e to r e i n f o r c e the mis takes that have a l r e a d y been made. He f e e l s that some o f the new d imens ions and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s shou ld be: 1) cease t r a i n i n g ' s p e c i a l c l a s s ' t e a c h e r s : but r a t h e r t r a i n t e a c h e r s more b r o a d l y S) make c e r t a i n that s tudent t e a c h e r s have much more c o n t a c t wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 3) change the f o c u s o f methods c o u r s e s to aim at competency 4) p r e p a r e f u t u r e t e a c h e r s to read and put new r e s e a r c h ideas i n t o p r a c t i c e Smith (1969) suggests that the important aspect o f t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s i s c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . He i n s i s t s that i f e d u c a t o r s are going to produce q u a l i t y programs c h i l d r e n w i l l need to be exposed to b e h a v i o u r a l managers who are competent and can e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y what they are d o i n g . They must a l s o be a b l e to demonstrate a minimal l e v e l o f competence i n d i a g n o s i s , p r e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . D r . Susan S t a i n b a c h (Thomas, 19S0) comments that t e a c h i n g the s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d i s no longer an ' u n c h a r t e d f r o n t i e r ' because e d u c a t o r s can now r e c o g n i z e and b e t t e r 138 unders tand areas o f p e r s o n n e l p r e p a r a t i o n a l though they are s t i l l f u n c t i o n i n g at a very b a s i c l e v e l . She f e e l s a t t i t u d e s and competenc ies s t u d e n t s must have to be e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s o f s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n are dependent on t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n that these c h i l d r e n are c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g . The s tudent must be r e i n f o r c e d with smal l changes i n the c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s and shou ld be a b l e to program o b j e c t i v e l y f o r these c h i l d r e n w h i l e be ing p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h . S tudents must have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to be i n v o l v e d i n c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th community i n d i v i d u a l s and a g e n c i e s that work f o r s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d as s t r o n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are ex tremely h e l p f u l i n working with o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s . F a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s can g a i n from working with and u n d e r s t a n d i n g the competenc ies o f personne l from a v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s . She i n s i s t s tha t "without such r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , t r a i n i n g programs cannot be expected to p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s who a r e knowledgeable and p r o f i c i e n t i n changing c h i l d r e n ' s behav iour or i n working with p r o f e s s i o n a l s beyond the s u r f a c e l e v e l ' S t a i n b a c h f e e l s that t e a c h e r s o f the s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d shou ld have i n t e n s i v e i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g , should be r e q u i r e d to engage i n c o n t i n u o u s i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and shou ld not be g i v e n permanent c e r t i f i c a t i o n without the s t i p u l a t i o n that they must engage i n ongoing i n s e r v i c e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . To earn the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s C r e d e n t i a l i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s , a f t e r 500 hours o f work e x p e r i e n c e , are r e q u i r e d to be competent i n e i g h t 139 areas o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n (Competencies f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , 1984). The f i r s t g e n e r a l area o f competency i s Knowing the I n d i v i d u a l C h i l d . One of the major competencies i n t h i s area i s : the s tudent w i l l be a b l e wi th the support o f o t h e r s to r e c o g n i z e , a s ses s and i n t e g r a t e s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . ' Under t h i s competency c l u s t e r are i n c l u d e d s k i l l s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p r o c e d u r e s f o r assessment , program m o d i f i c a t i o n s to f a c i l i t a t e maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , and communicat ion with p a r e n t s and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s i s a new area that has been added to the b a s i c l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n Programs i n the p r o v i n c e must address t h i s t o p i c and add to the a l r e a d y demanding t r a i n i n g programs. Stennet (1980) i n a survey commissioned by the E x e c u t i v e o f the O n t a r i o F e d e r a t i o n o f C h a p t e r s o f the C o u n c i l f o r Except i o n a l C h i l d r e n ( C E C ) , se t out to i n v e s t i g a t e the t r a i n i n g needs o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . He i n d i c a t e d v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s which made the p a r t i c i p a n t s past t r a i n i n g ' e x c e l l e n t ' or very g o o d ' . The f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d the most i mpor t a n t : 1) s k i l l e d h i g h l y t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s who were ' i n t o u c h ' wi th c h i l d r e n 8) m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t and p r a c t i c a l f o r immediate app 1 i c a t i on 3) a c t i v e , p a r t i c i p a n t smal l group approach to i n s t r u c t i on 4) o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f o r s u p e r v i s e d p r a c t i c e 5) s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s that were p r o v i d e d ( f i e l d t r i p s and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s ) 140 The t h r e e most s t a t e d f e a t u r e s which made t h e i r t r a i n i n g 'below average ' or ' p o o r ' were: 1) too t h e o r e t i c a l , a b s t r a c t , t e c h n i c a l , s e v e r a l (as opposed to Foos see page — . 2) poor i n s t r u c t o r , d i s t a n t , no w e l l q u a l i f i e d 3) m a t e r i a l was n e i t h e r new nor a p p r o p r i a t e , p o o r l y o r g a n i zed From t h i s survey i t can be conc luded that i f a program i s to be e f f e c t i v e and r e l a t i v e to s t u d e n t s needs , m a t e r i a l s ( t ex t books , f i l m s , v i d e o s , j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ) must be c u r r e n t . Smal l group d i s c u s s i o n / i n s t r u c t i o n , r a t h e r than l a r g e l e c t u r e c l a s s e s , wi th h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n s t r u c t o r s who have r e c e n t work e x p e r i e n c e wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i s recommended. P r a c t i c u m and f i e l d based o b s e r v a t i o n s must be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the program as w e l l . The P r a c t i c u m The t r a d i t i o n a l importance o f p r a c t i c u m f o r s tudent t e a c h e r s has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Few u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s would c o n s i d e r awarding a degree or d ip loma to any s t u d e n t s that had not completed* at l e a s t one s u c c e s s f u l s t i n t o f s tudent t e a c h i n g even i f the s tudent had r e c e i v e d honours a c a d e m i c a l l y . Noar and Mi lgram (1980), compared 'two p r e s e r v i c e s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r e p a r i n g r e g u l a r c l a s s t e a c h e r s f o r m a i n s t r e a m i n g ' . Each program c o n s i s t e d o f 15 weekly s e s s i o n s . In the t r a d i t i o n a l program, the 90 minute weekly l e c t u r e , d i s c u s s i o n and case a n a l y s e s were aimed at i n c r e a s i n g the 141 s t u d e n t ' s knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The e x p e r i e n t i a l program covered the same m a t e r i a l i n n i n e weekly s e s s i o n s but spent s i x o f the s e s s i o n s on f i e l d t r i p s to s p e c i a l needs c e n t r e s . The f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d the s tudent wi th o p p o r t u n i t i e s to observe the c e n t r e s and the c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n them. The a u t h o r s t e s t e d the s t u d e n t s at the end o f the two c o u r s e s and from the r e s u l t s conc luded that p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g that p r o v i d e s f o r s tudent c o n t a c t with a v a r i e t y o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n as w e l l as f o r l e c t u r e / d i s c u s s i o n about them was found to be more e f f e c t i v e than t r a i n i n g l i m i t e d to the c o l l e g e c l a s s r o o m . They suggest that i n the l i g h t o f the growing t rend toward mains treaming , a p r e s e r v i c e c o u r s e i n e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n appears to be e s s e n t i a l f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o f r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h suggest that the a d d i t i o n o f on s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e s enab les s t u d e n t s to f e e l more s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th the course and with t h e i r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e change toward c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs . B e r d i n e e t . a l . (1977) suggest that the movement toward competency-based t r a i n i n g f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s i n the 1970's gave r i s e to concerns about e v a l u a t i o n o f per formance . C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n to what competencies to r a t e , how o f t e n , over what p e r i o d s o f t ime and i n what s e t t i n g s , who shou ld do the r a t i n g s and what uses shou ld be made of them. They d i s c u s s an e v a l u a t i o n system that i s i n use at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky . It i s comprised of a D a i l y R a t i n g Form, 142 a F i n a l R a t i n g Form, a Performance P r o f i l e and a N a r r a t i v e Summary. The competencies i n c l u d e d i n the d a i l y form and the f i n a l form are the same. They c o n t a i n competency s tatements i n c l u d i n g f i v e performance a r e a s : a ) p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n , b) c l a s s r o o m management, c) p r o f e s s i o n a l adequacy, d) p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e) i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a s . The f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n i s based on the combined judgement o f the c o l l e g e s u p e r v i s o r and the c e n t r e s u p e r v i s o r . The competencies are r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e and the s tudent must r e c e i v e an average o f three or above f o r each area o f competency. I f s t u d e n t s do not pass the p r a c t i c u m they are not p e r m i t t e d to graduate and w i l l be asked to repea t the p r a c t i c u m or withdraw. The a u t h o r s suggest that the comprehensive and c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s h e l p s the s t u d e n t s to become more r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . The a u t h o r s have i n c l u d e d suggested competenc i e s . Shane and Van Osol (1974) suggest that an i n t e g r a t e d p r a c t i c u m i n a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g program i s e s s e n t i a l to p r e p a r e w e l l t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and i s the most p r a c t i c a l way, u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s have to ' b r i d g e the gap' between theory and p r a c t i c e . P r a c t i c u m i s e s s e n t i a l e a r l y i n the s t u d e n t ' s program to enable the s t u d e n t s to d e c i d e i f the f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s a proper c a r e e r c h o i c e , and to g i v e s t u d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y to observe and work with o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and to i n t r o d u c e d s t u d e n t s to the i n t e r d i s c p 1 i n a r y team a p p r o a c h . The e x p e r i e n c e w i l l encourage 143 s t u d e n t s to e x p l o r e p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s can make to the w e l l be ing o f the 'whole; c h i l d . The a u t h o r s suggest that p r a c t i c u m s can he lp to implement a more n o n c a t e g o r i c a l a p p r o a c h . I f p lacements are chosen with c a r e the s t u d e n t s w i l l have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work with a wide v a r i e t y o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The a c t u a l involvement wi th c h i l d r e n g i v e s s t u d e n t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to put theory i n t o p r a c t i c e as they are a b l e to a p p l y the s k i l l s they have l earned and to t e s t a v a r i e t y o f approaches which they have s t u d i e d i n the c l a s s r o o m . P r a c t i c u m may be implemented i n v a r i o u s ways. It may be a b l o c k p r a c t i c u m 5 an o b s e r v a t i o n p lacement , an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y , an i n t e r n s h i p or i t may be scheduled as one o f the hours i n a t h r e e hour a week c o u r s e . The a u t h o r s s t r o n g l y recommend that the p r a c t i c u m be implemented as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the t o t a l t r a i n i n g program. Stamm (1980) , s t a t e s that t h e r e are many p r o f e s s i o n a l competenc ies which cannot be taught or which cannot be taught w e l l from the c l a s s room. He s u g g e s t s , that the c l o s e r t r a i n i n g o c c u r s to the environment i n which i t s r e s u l t s w i l l be judged as a c c e p t a b l e or u n a c c e p t a b l e by consumers, the g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y that the t r a i n e e s w i l l a c q u i r e and use a p p r o p r i a t e competenc i e s . P r a c t i c u m shou ld be a t ime when theory and p r a c t i c e are merged toge ther and t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and competencies are d e v e l o p e d . There are never two p r a c t i c u m e x p e r i e n c e s that are 144 the same but each e x p e r i e n c e seems to add to the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth o f s t u d e n t s . Newburger (1982)> has c o n s t r u c t e d a very comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n form to be used i n a s s e s s i n g the competencies o f s tudent t e a c h e r s i n p r a c t i c u m p lacements . He makes the i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n that 'use o f the p r a c t i c u m form w i l l i d e n t i f y both s u p e r v i s i n g t e a c h e r s and teacher t r a i n e e s who have not mastered the c u r r e n t l y popular mainstream t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ' . Making d e c i s i o n s about a p p r o p r i a t e p lacements f o r s t u d e n t s i s a p e r e n n i a l p r o b l e m . Us ing the p r a c t i c u m e v a l u a t i o n from to make d e c i s i o n s when choos ing sponsor t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d may he lp c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s to ensure that s t u d e n t s have b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d the competencies which are c o n s i d e r e d most important by the f a c u l t y and s t a f f o f the t r a i n i n g program. F i n a l l y j the p l a c e o f the p r a c t i c u m i n teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programmes can not be over emphas ized . 145 CHAPTER 6 A TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION HISTORICAL BACKGROUND E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n p r e p a r a t i o n c o u r s e s have been a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r more than 30 y e a r s . The f i r s t c o u r s e s were p a r t - t i m e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by some s c h o o l boards and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s E x t e n s i o n Department . There were ten b a s i c c o u r s e s that those who wished to work with young c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to take to be e l i g i b l e f o r an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r C r e d e n t i a l from the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d c a r e F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g B o a r d . The ten c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d were: P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s ) C u r r i c u l u m P lanning? Working wi th P a r e n t s ) C h i l d Growth and Development) O b s e r v i n g and Record ing) Language A r t s , A r t ) Music and Movement) H e a l t h ) S a f e t y and N u t r i t i o n ? and P r a c t i c u m I and P r a c t i c u m I I . Some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c o n t i n u e to o f f e r p a r t - t i m e programs and s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s o f f e r extended day programs on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . The f i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e program i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d began i n January o f 1968 at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (at that t ime Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e ) . Margery L . Thompson planned and implemented the program and was appo in ted c o o r d i n a t o r o f the new program. Dur ing the 1970's E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 18 a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l 146 c o l l e g e s and one p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n and i n the 1980's two a d d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d a mandate to o f f e r programs i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y a l l the programs were des igned around the o r i g i n a l 10 b a s i c c o u r s e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e are as many methods o f d e l i v e r i n g E a r l y C h i l d h o o d programs as t h e r e are i n s t i t u t i o n s which o f f e r the programs. Courses d i f f e r i n d u r a t i o n - t h e r e are f u l l and p a r t t ime programs. Requ ired c o u r s e s , l e c t u r e hours and p r a c t i c u m hours are not the same i n any two programs. Al though a l l the programs began with the 10 c o u r s e s as t h e i r b a s i s , s e v e r a l programs working with c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs , t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a second language , the f a m i l y i n s o c i e t y e t c . Programs that were not a b l e to extend the d u r a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u r s e s managed to touch on these a d d i t i o n a l areas i n the c o u r s e s they were a l r e a d y o f f e r i n g . P r a c t i c u m hours were extended i n most programs, and some c o l l e g e s r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s to complete as many as f i v e p r a c t i c u m s , sometimes i n c l u d i n g under t h r e e , s p e c i a l needs k i n d e r g a r t e n and E . S . L . p lacement s . There are many d i s c r e p a n c i e s between programs. Courses r e q u i r e d i n some c o l l e g e s were not i n o t h e r s . In the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n programs there are no r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r E n g l i s h or Communication c o u r s e s . I n s t r u c t o r s ranged from h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d a c a d e m i c a l l y wi th l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d to i n s t r u c t o r s wi th many y e a r s o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and minimal academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . These two examples are the extremes o f the continuum from which i n s t r u c t o r s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d programs are drawn. The o n l y approach to 147 s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g i n the p r o v i n c e was the 10 b a s i c c o u r s e s the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g Board ( B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . ) demanded f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . under the cha irmansh ip of Dr John B l a t h e r w i c k expressed a growing concern f o r the lack o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d programs and the unequal range o f competenc ies r e q u i r e d of s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g programs i n the p r o v i n c e . In 1977, at the reques t of the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . the Program Research and Development Branch of the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n commenced a program development p r o j e c t i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n u s i n g the DACUM approach to competency deve1opment. The DACUM approach to c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n i s a s y s t e m a t i c model o f development based on the u n d e r l y i n g assumption that i n order to deve lop a program i n a l o g i c a l manner, the outcomes of the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s must be c l e a r l y s p e l l e d o u t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the program must, t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e the competenc ies that s t u d e n t s w i l l demonstrate when working i n t h e i r chosen v o c a t i o n . A c r o s s s e c t i o n o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s i n the p r o v i n c e was r e c r u i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a DACUM workshop to s p e c i f y the competenc ies expected o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s e n t e r i n g the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d daycare s u p e r v i s o r s , n u r s e r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s 148 from the c o l l e g e s , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a and Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the areas o f h e a l t h and human r e s o u r c e s . The competenc ies tha t were i d e n t i f i e d i n the workshop i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . The g e n e r a l areas o f competence r e c o g n i z e d were Knowing the I n d i v i d u a l C h i l d , Program P l a n n i n g , G u i d i n g and C a r i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , H e a l t h , Communicat ions , I n t e r p e r s o n a l S k i l l s , I n t e r a c t i n g wi th F a m i l i e s , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P r o f e s s i o n a l Conduct and A t t i t u d e . Each g e n e r a l area o f competence was d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l Competency C l u s t e r s . In t o t a l there were 44 Competency C l u s t e r s . In the c l u s t e r s t h e r e were 162 major competenc ies wi th from 1 - 2 4 s k i l l s that were r e q u i r e d to meet each one o f the 162 competenc ie s . The working d r a f t produced by workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s was d i s t r i b u t e d to a random sampl ing o f 300 p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n the f i e l d of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c a r e and e d u c a t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e . The f i e l d p r o f e s s i o n a l s were asked to i n d i c a t e i f the ' f u n c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out by a s s i s t a n t s and a s c r i b e a l e v e l o f importance to each f u n c t i o n ' . Based on the input from the f i e l d and from the P r o v i n c i a l E a r l y C h i l d h o o d A r t i c u l a t i o n Committee the working d r a f t was r e v i s e d . In March o f 1979, the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d the document, COMPETENCIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, and d i s t r i b u t e d i t to a l l t r a i n i n g programs i n the p r o v i n c e . When s t u d e n t s have mastered the competencies and s u c c e s s f u l l y completed f i v e hundred hours o f work e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d under the d i r e c t i o n o f a q u a l i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r , they are e l i g i b l e f o r a B . C . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r C r e d e n t i a l . 149 Some E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r C r e d e n t i a l s are s t i l l awarded on the c o m p l e t i o n o f the i n i t i a l 10 b a s i c c o u r s e , but the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . i s committed to moving to competency-based programs i n a l l o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e that o f f e r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs except those o f f e r e d at the t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s . In the l a t e 1970's a l l c o l l e g e programs began to r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r c o u r s e s and p r a c t i c u m to enab le s t u d e n t s to meet the competencies r e q u i r e d f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In 1985, the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d the document, PART-TIME EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAM CURRICULUM GUIDE, (Watson, 1985). The m a t e r i a l i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide i s based upon the COMPETENCIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, (1979) . It p r o v i d e s a gu ide f o r e n s u r i n g c o n s i s t e n c y and commonality i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and programs o f f e r e d on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s throughout the p r o v i n c e . Many programs have found d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g to move to a Competency-Based M o d e l . The 1980's have been t imes o f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t and c u t b a c k s i n e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Ins tead o f r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g to p r o v i d e f o r the more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d n a t u r e o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s e l f p a c i n g , and a d d i t i o n a l hours o f p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s i o n , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs were be ing asked to cutback on b u d g e t s . I n the s p r i n g o f 1985 a l l E a r l y C h i l d h o o d C o l l e g e Programs were d e c l a r e d P r o v i n c i a l l y Des ignated Programs. I n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s c o u l d no longer add to or d e l e t e from E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs wi thout the consent o f the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . In the days o f 150 o v e r a l l s evere budget c u t s the new d e s i g n a t i o n d i d o f f e r some p r o t e c t i o n to e x i s t i n g programs. However? the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a d v i s e d a l l c o l l e g e programs to r o l l back t h e i r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d programs to f i t the 10 month V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g M o d e l . Be fore 1985 there were s e v e r a l two year programs i n the p r o v i n c e , and t h e r e were s e v e r a l o t h e r s , hoping to expand t h e i r programs to more f u l l y p r e p a r e t h e i r s t u d e n t s to meet the competenc ies r e q u i r e d by the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . In the pas t ten y e a r s , g r e a t e r p r o v i n c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n to the young c h i l d with s p e c i a l needs and p r e s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n with a v a r i e t y o f a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s have been opened both i n the more p o p u l a t e d urban areas and l a t e r , i n s m a l l e r c e n t r e s . Most o f these programs e n r o l l c h i l d r e n with a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l needs and endeavour to r e c r u i t c a r e g i v e r s who are a b l e to approach the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f these p r e s c h o o l e r s on a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l b a s i s . Some c e n t r e s are s p e c i f i c a l l y p lanned f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , s i g h t i m p a i r e d , language de layed or m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . In the past f i v e y e a r s many e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a r p r e s c h o o l s and d a y c a r e s . I f the s u p e r v i s o r s i n these c e n t r e s a r e to p r o v i d e q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n , they w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s to d e s i g n programs that meet the needs o f a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r programs. By the s p r i n g o f 1984, the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . was becoming concerned about the growing need f o r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n E a r l y 151 C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . The demand f o r t r a i n e d and c e r t i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r s to f i l l p o s i t i o n s i n the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r e s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e and the growing need f o r s t a f f to educate and c a r e f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n who were be ing i n t e g r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a r daycares and p r e s c h o o l s , had g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d over the p r e v i o u s f i v e y e a r s . The B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . o f f e r s an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Post B a s i c S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n C r e d e n t i a l , but fewer than 30 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s i n the p r o v i n c e had r e c e i v e d the c r e d e n t i a l . The few p r o f e s s i o n a l s tha t had been awarded the Post B a s i c C r e d e n t i a l had r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g through many d i f f e r e n t avenues , w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e . Some o f them had met the r a t h e r broad c r i t e r i a by r e c e i v i n g a B . E d i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , In fant S t i m u l a t i o n s e m i n a r s , and c o u r s e s o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e from f u l l degrees i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n to a se t of correspondence c o u r s e s . Because i t was d i f f i c u l t to g a i n the c r e d i t s neces sary w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , many s u p e r v i s o r s had no p o s t - b a s i c t r a i n i n g . They l e a r n e d t h e i r s k i l l s o n - t h e - j o b and through i n - s e r v i c e workshops. In May of 1984, the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . approached the f a c u l t i e s o f s e v e r a l o f the c o l l e g e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs and suggested they submit p r o p o s a l s to the M i n i s t r y f o r implementat ion o f Post B a s i c Programs i n E a r l y C h i 1 d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n . Funding would be made a v a i l a b l e by the M i n i s t r y f o r s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s to o f f e r the t r a i n i n g to q u a l i f i e d E a r l y C h i l d h o o d s u p e r v i s o r s . Vancouver 152 Community C o l l e g e , Langara Campus was one of the c o l l e g e s t h a t was approached and d e c i d e d to c o n s i d e r s u b m i t t i n g a p r o p o s a l . R a t i o n a l e The s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the B a s i c E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , Langara Campus have been r e q u i r e d to take one c o u r s e i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n s i n c e the summer o f 1981. The course i s Psycho logy 318: Psycho logy o f the E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d . The emphasis o f the c o u r s e i s p l a c e d on o b s e r v i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and promoting the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l w e l f a r e o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The course i s o r i e n t e d to the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n ( E . C . E . ) Program. (Langara Ca lendar 1986-87) . S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's a l l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the E . C . E . Program have been r e q u i r e d to complete one p r a c t i c u m i n a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y . Because o f t h e i r p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s the f a c u l t y o f the program became very aware o f the lack o f t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to s u p e r v i s o r s working with e x c e p t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The s u p e r v i s o r s were concerned about the minimal t r a i n i n g they had r e c e i v e d and were r e q u e s t i n g that some p o s t - b a s i c s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s be made a v a i l a b l e to them, D i r e c t o r s o f the S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s were concerned about the lack o f q u a l i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r s (who had some s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g ) , to s t a f f t h e i r c e n t r e s . Agenc ie s s p o n s o r i n g and m o n i t o r i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r e s c h o o l s , d a y c a r e s , and i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e s were i n t e r e s t e d i n hav ing the 153 best t r a i n e d s t a f f p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i r programs. P a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs were i n s i s t i n g that t h e i r c h i l d r e n have q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n tha t o n l y t r a i n e d s t a f f c o u l d o f f e r . Boards o f d i r e c t o r s and s t a f f of p r e s c h o o l s and daycares were be ing approached to i n t e g r a t e c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs i n t o t h e i r c e n t r e s but were very h e s i t a n t to do so u n l e s s they were a b l e to h i r e a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f wi th the knowledge and s k i l l s to p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t c a r e and e d u c a t i o n to the young c h i l d r e n they were be ing asked to e n r o l l i n t h e i r programs. Other p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( e . g . p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , p e d i a t r i c i a n s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , speech t h e r a p i s t s , e t c . ) were uneasy about p l a c i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n c e n t r e s where s t a f f had l i t t l e i f any e x p e r i e n c e a n d / o r t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Because the need f o r post b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was apparent and the M i n i s t r y had s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d that f u n d i n g would be made a v a i l a b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g program the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d F a c u l t y at Langara d e c i d e d to submit a p r o p o s a l . Assessment o f Needs i n the Community The c o l l e g e r e q u i r e s that f a c u l t y p r o p o s i n g any new Career Program c a r r y out an assessment o f the needs i n the community f o r such a program and p r e d i c t the number o f s t u d e n t s the c o l l e g e can expect to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program. 154 F a c u l t y c a r r i e d out f i v e one-hour taped p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s wi th s p e c i a l needs P r e s c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , and i n excess o f t h i r t y s h o r t p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s wi th p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s they v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s i o n s f o r the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program. F o r t y E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s i n the lower mainland were chosen at random and te lephoned by f a c u l t y to a s c e r t a i n s t a f f support f o r the program, and i f the program was o f f e r e d would the head s u p e r v i s o r s or s t a f f o f these c e n t r e s r e g i s t e r f o r the program i n September o f 1985. The presen t c l a s s a t t e n d i n g the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program was surveyed to a s c e r t a i n how many of them would be i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g i s t e r i n g f o r the new program. The comment most o f t e n o f f e r e d by a l l o f the p r a c t i t i o n e r s surveyed was tha t p o s t - b a s i c c o u r s e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n were long overdue . The p r a c t i t i o n e r s who were working with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n wanted to know i f c o u r s e s they had taken i n the past would be accepted as advance c r e d i t i n the proposed program. Many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had s u g g e s t i o n s o f the content they thought shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n the program and most i n s i s t e d tha t a ' p r a c t i c a l ' r a t h e r than an 'academic ' program i . e . 'what shou ld we do? ' and 'how shou ld we do i t ? ' was the o n l y type o f program that would be o f i n t e r e s t to them. The overwhelming support from p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o r the c o l l e g e to o f f e r the program was a p p a r e n t . S e v e r a l o f the p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o l l o w e d the i n t e r v i e w with w r i t t e n l e t t e r s o f support f o r the program. 155 The P r o c e s s Al though the M i n i s t r y had assured Vancouver Community C o l l e g e that any ' r e a s o n a b l e ' program p r o p o s a l w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t ime and budget would be accepted and funded , i t was n e c e s s a r y to presen t a twenty-one p o i n t p r o p o s a l < a requirement o f a l l new c o l l e g e programs i n the p r o v i n c e ) through the usua l c o l l e g e c h a n n e l s f o r a p p r o v a l . The p r o p o s a l must be presented to the A d v i s o r y Committee f o r the program (composed of a broad spectrum o f f i e l d p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) . The recommendation and p r o p o s a l are then presented to the a p p r o p r i a t e Department and D i v i s i o n Cha irmen , Dean o f C a r e e r s , Academic C o u n c i l and P r i n c i p a l o f Langara Campus and then forwarded to R e g i o n a l O f f i c e o f Vancouver Community C o l l e g e f o r recommendation o f i t s a p p r o v a l to the Vancouver Community C o l l e g e Board of D i r e c t o r s . The p r o p o s a l i s then r e t u r n e d to the Dean o f I n s t r u c t i o n o f Langara Campus and i s submit ted to the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r a p p r o v a l and d e s i g n a t i o n of f u n d i n g . Proposed E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs must have a p p r o v a l o f the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . b e f o r e f i n a l a p p r o v a l can be o b t a i n e d from the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , i f the graduate s o f the program are to q u a l i f y f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r C r e d e n t i a l s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A s p e c i a l meeting of the Program A d v i s o r y Committee f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n was c a l l e d f o r November 8, 1984. Members a t t e n d i n g r e p r e s e n t e d d a y c a r e s , an Under Three C e n t r e , 156 an E . S . L . p r e s c h o o l , a n u r s e r y s c h o o l , and the Langara C h i l d Development C e n t r e . Others presen t were the D i r e c t o r o f the Bob Berwick P r e s c h o o l , a former p r o v i n c i a l c h i l d c a r e c o n s u l t a n t , the D i v i s i o n Chairman, the Dean of Career Programs and the f a c u l t y o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program. The f a c u l t y informed the committee o f the M i n i s t r y ' s i n d i c a t i o n o f support f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n p o s t - b a s i c programs. It a l s o expressed i t s d e s i r e to o f f e r a S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Program, and asked the Committee f o r i t s i n p u t , recommendations and s u p p o r t . There was d i s c u s s i o n about the need f o r such a program, the d i r e c t i o n the program might t a k e , the need to present the program at a t ime conven ient f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s , the need f o r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e to be p a r t o f the program and the need f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to have r e l e v a n t and q u a l i t y p lacements f o r p r a c t i c u m . The Committee unanimously recommended that a p r o p o s a l be made to the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and that the t i t l e o f the proposed program be E a r l y Chi1dhood:Spec ia1 E d u c a t i o n . The Des ign In the survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e (see Chapter 4) i t was apparent that s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs a non—categor ica l c u r r i c u l u m . The emphasis should be on the c h i l d r e n s ' a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r than on t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s . T h i s l a t t e r approach has h i s t o r i c a l l y p l a c e d them i n c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s ( b l i n d , deaf m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , p h y s i c a l l y handicapped) and c o n t i n u e d the p r a c t i c e o f l a b e l l i n g a c h i l d because o f h i s / h e r d i s a b i l i t i e s 157 r a t h e r than h i s / h e r a b i l i t i e s . The F a c u l t y dec ided on a n o n c a t e g o r i c a l approach because o f the na ture o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s i n the p r o v i n c e ( i . e . p r e s c h o o l s and daycares that may i integrate one or two e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and p l a c e them i n c l a s s e s on the b a s i s o f t h e i r s tages o f deve lopment ) , the move to i n t e g r a t e as many e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e i n t o r e g u l a r c e n t r e s , and the p r o g r e s s i n i n t e g r a t i n g r e g u l a r c h i l d r e n i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d s p e c i a l needs p r e s c h o o l s and i n the community and h o s p i t a l s the F a c u l t y was c o n v i n c e d that a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l approach to the p l a n n i n g was the a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h . A l l l e c t u r e / s e m i n a r and p r a c t i c u m c o u r s e s were s t r u c t u r e d with an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h . To p r o v i d e a q u a l i t y post b a s i c program i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n with an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach i s a c h a l l e n g e w i t h i n a smal l c o l l e g e where p e r s o n n e l and r e s o u r c e s are l i m i t e d . The e x p e r t i s e and r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Teacher A s s i s t a n t , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d , N u r s i n g and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Programs were s u r v e y e d . I n s t r u c t o r s from the programs were asked f o r t h e i r input and s u p p o r t . Present l i b r a r y and audio v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s were a s s e s s e d . It was c l e a r t h a t r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the c o l l e g e would have to be supplemented to ensure the s t u d e n t s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s . A d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were purchased and s t u d e n t s were a d v i s e d to p r o c u r e a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Community L i b r a r y C a r d . 15S The l e c t u r e / s e m i n a r s e s s i o n s were p lanned to i n c l u d e p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the community who would b r i n g e x p e r t i s e to the program that was not a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the c o l l e g e . C o n t a c t s were made with p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the f i e l d , advocacy g r o u p s , p a r e n t s , and f a c u l t y from the u n i v e r s i t i e s . It was planned that the c o n t a c t s with the community would f o s t e r an expans ion of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . P o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r the c o l l e g e were expected to be an awareness i n the community o f the e x i s t e n c e and g o a l s o f the program, and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the c o l l e g e ' s e f f o r t to implement the new program. From the l i t e r a t u r e (Conant 1953; Leycock 1963;, B l a c k h u r s t 1981; Sanche e t . a l . 1988; Swanson and T a y l o r 1988), i n t e r v i e w s wi th d i r e c t o r s o f p r e s c h o o l s p e c i a l needs c e n t r e s , d i s c u s s i o n s wi th p r a c t i t i o n e r s and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s , as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r s working with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , a b a s i s f o r the content o f the program (knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to work with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n ) was formed. There were four major areas o f s tudy and p r a c t i c e that were c o n s i d e r e d to be p r i o r i t i e s . The major areas were: 1. A knowledge o f the f i e l d o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 Educat i on a) h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n b) c u r r e n t i s s u e s and t r e n d s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 8. A knowledge o f the c h i l d 159 a) c h i l d growth and development b) c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which p l a c e a c h i l d i n need o f s p e c i a l c a r e and e d u c a t i o n c) assessment t e c h n i q u e s and m a t e r i a l s 3) C u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s a) r o l e o f the s u p e r v i s o r b) group program p l a n n i n g c) i n d i v i d u a l program p l a n n i n g d) t e c h n i q u e s o f c l a s s r o o m management e) assessment o f p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g f ) v a l u a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s 4) Working wi th f a m i l i e s and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d a) the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team approach b) communicating wi th p a r e n t s c) communicating with o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s d) a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the community The importance o f p r a c t i c u m i n any teacher p r e p a r a t i o n program i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the s tudent to observe e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , programs, and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s were p lanned f o r P r a c t i c u m I . P r a c t i c e i n p l a n n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and i n implementing s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s with young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n was p lanned f o r P r a c t i c u m I I . These p r a c t i c u m placements would g i v e the s t u d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to put ' t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e ' . The f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s : Psycho logy 318, E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n 415, 417, 418 and 419 were des igned to meet the needs o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the 160 f i e l d and the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the p r o v i n c i a l E a r l y C h i l d h o o d P o s t - B a s i c C r e d e n t i a l . One o f the c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d w i t h i n the program i s Psycho logy 318 which i s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e w i t h i n the Psychology Department at the c o l l e g e . A b r i e f overview of the course i s as f o11ows: Psycho logy 318: Psycho logy o f the E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d T h i s course examines the a n t e c e d e n t s , consequences and e d u c a t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e s o f the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d wi th unusual needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s . M a t e r i a l w i l l i n c l u d e both g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make a c h i l d d i f f e r e n t , or i n need of s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on o b s e r v i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and promoting the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l w e l f a r e o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . T h i s course i s o r i e n t e d to the requ irements of the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program. (Langara C a l e n d a r , 1985-86) . For a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f Psycho logy 318 see Appendix I . The t h r e e l e c t u r e / s e m i n a r c o u r s e s E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n 415, 417 and 418 were planned i n d e t a i l wi th the purpose o f i n t r o d u c i n g s t u d e n t s to the i s s u e s and t r e n d s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , and the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to p l a n , implement and e v a l u a t e c u r r i c u l u m f o r young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . S tudents w i l l be exposed to o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 161 p a r e n t s with whom they w i l l be r e q u i r e d to work u s i n g an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to p r o v i d i n g q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The t h r e e c o u r s e s were des igned with r e f e r e n c e to a rev iew o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d (see Chapter 4 ) , e s t a b l i s h e d E a r l y C h i 1 d h o o d : S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n p r e p a r a t i o n programs, input from i n t e r v i e w s h e l d wi th f i e l d p r a c t i t i o n e r s and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s p e c i a l needs p r e s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s and c h i l d r e n i n order to r e c o r d what s u p e r v i s o r s a c t u a l l y do 'on the j o b ' . The d e s i g n o f the t h r e e c o u r s e s i n c l u d e d : a course d e s c r i p t i o n ; major content a r e a s ; g e n e r a l c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s ; major competencies i n the k n o w l e d g e / c o g n i t i v e and the a t t i t u d e s / a f f e c t i v e a r e a s ; as w e l l as a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c competencies f o r each c o u r s e . E . C . E . 419 ( P r a c t i c u m I and II) would g i v e s t u d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y to put theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . The course d e s i g n s were d i s t r i b u t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d f o r comments. Comments were r e c e i v e d and a p p r o p r i a t e r e v i s i o n s were made. The f i n a l d e s i g n s o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 415, 417, 41S and 419 are as f o l l o w s : 162 E . C . E . 415 - INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION I . Course D e s c r i p t i o n T h i s course i s des igned to o r i e n t s t u d e n t s to the f i e l d o f E a r l y Chi1dhood:Spec ia1 E d u c a t i o n . An overview of the h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r o o t s o f contemporary programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . The importance of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n , and i n t e g r a t i o n i n contemporary programs w i l l be surveyed i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the young c h i l d . The i s s u e s o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n as they a f f e c t contemporary programs w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . There w i l l be an i n t r o d u c t i o n to assessment p r o c e d u r e s and m a t e r i a l s , the importance o f o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these assessment to q u a l i t y program p l a n n i n g . Three C r e d i t s I I . Major Content Area 1. P e r s p e c t i v e s on t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n a) h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y of working with e x c e p t i o n a l ch i 1 d r e n b) e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n c) i n t e g r a t i o n d) parent movement e) l e g i s l a t i o n 2. Contemporary programs a) home based programs b) i n f a n t s t i m u l a t i o n programs 163 c) s p e c i a l p r e s c h o o l s d) i n t e g r a t e d p r e s c h o o l and day c a r e programs e) l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e environment 3 . A p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e , assessment , and m a t e r i a l s a)Assessment i . a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e o f assessment b a t t e r i e s i i . importance o f o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n i i i . r e c o r d s and w r i t t e n communicat ion i v . r e l a t i o n s h i p o f assessment to program development 4. Program p l a n n i n g i . goa l s e t t ing i i . task a n a l y s i s i i i . program p l a n n i n g i v . p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g I I I . Genera l Course O b j e c t i v e s 1. Overview o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n - h i s t o r y / p h i l o s o p h y a) ph i1osophy b) d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s c) pre sen t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e 2. Study of deve lopmenta l assessment a) survey o f assessment b a t t e r i e s a v a i l a b l e 164 b) s e l e c t i o n r a t i o n a l e c) p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s f o r use (observat i o n - r e c o r d i n g - s c o r ing) d) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of assessment r e s u l t s 3 . Goal s e t t i n g - p r i o r i t i z i n g needs - u t i l i z i n g s t r e n g t h s a) u t i l i z i n g c o n s u l t a n t he lp b) i n c o r p o r a t i n g p a r e n t ' s g o a l s c) s e l e c t i n g pr imary g o a l s 4. Task a n a l y s i s (unders tand ing the s t e p s ) 5. I n d i v i d u a l program p l a n s 6. Communication and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p l a n s with p a r e n t s a) w r i t t e n b) c o n f e r e n c e 7. P r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g - i n c o r p o r a t i n g the I . E . P . i n t o the program 8. L i b r a r y and o ther r e s o u r c e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n Major Competencies 1. K n o w l e d g e / C o g n i t i v e area - s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : 165 a) d e s c r i b e h i s t o r y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e , d e 1 i v e r y and p h i l o s o p h y b) d e s c r i b e present range o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s and parent involvement c) d e s c r i b e programs c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e to young c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs i n t h i s area d) o u t l i n e the need f o r assessments i n a p r e s c h o o l or daycare s o c i e t y e) d e s c r i b e p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s employed i n u s i n g assessments f ) o u t l i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f deve lopmental assessments to program development g) d i s c u s s the need to d i s t i n g u i s h pr imary and secondary g o a l s f o r i n d i v i d u a l program development h) d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e task a n a l y s i s i ) d e s c r i b e the i n d i v i d u a l program p l a n s j) d i s c u s s the involvement o f the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s i n the development o f I . E . P . ' s k) d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g 1) d e s c r i b e f o u r d i f f e r e n t means o f g a i n i n g on go ing and c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs E . A t t i t u d e s / A f f e c t i v e area - the s tudent shou ld be a b l e to : a) demonstrate p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n working with 166 e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n b) d i s p l a y the a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and o b s e r v a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f a committed , c a r i n g teacher of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n c) presen t a p o i n t o f view o f h i m / h e r s e l f ( s e l f awareness) and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r working with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n d) deve lop a p r o f e s s i o n a l awareness o f the need f o r deve lopmenta l assessment , b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s and an e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n V. S p e c i f i c Competencies - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : 1. D e f i n e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a) e x p l a i n and d i s c u s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between pas t p r a c t i c e and p h i l o s o p h i e s ( i n r e g a r d to e d u c a t i o n and c a r e o f handicapped persons to presen t p r a c t i c e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s b) d e s c r i b e the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f the s p e c i a l educator c) d i s c u s s the new broader r o l e o f the s p e c i a l educator and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d 167 E . D e s c r i b e the r o l e o f the p a r e n t s o f handicapped c h i l d r e n i n the i n i t i a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a) d i s c u s s why i n t e g r a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t : e m p i r i c a l and v a l u e reasons b) d i s c u s s approaches to i n t e g r a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g from s e v e r e l y to m i l d l y handicapped c) i d e n t i f y the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when i n t e g r a t i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n i n t o r e g u l a r p r e - s c h o o l c1assrooms 3 . E x p l a i n the l i m i t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n l a b e l l i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n 4. D i s c u s s the r a t i o n a l e behind E a r l y C h i l d h o o d i n t e g r a t i o n a) p r e v e n t i o n b) e l i m i n a t i o n o f many problems c) enab le handicapped c h i l d r e n to f u n c t i o n at a h i g h e r l e v e l 5 . S t a t e and e x p l a i n the p r e v a l e n c e o f young handicapped c h i l d r e n needing e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n a) d e s c r i b e c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n p r a c t i c e and p h i l o s o p h y r e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e to young 168 c h i l d r e n with hand icaps as those t r e n d s a f f e c t the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f c h i l d c a r e and e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s 6. D i s c u s s the major , p o s i t i v e t r e n d s i n e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i on a) lower ing o f age b) n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l approach c) r e - o r d e r i n g o f p r i o r i t i e s of s e r v i c e s to the hand icapped d) ongoing e v a l u a t i o n and e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e) i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs 7. D e f i n e the term i n t e g r a t i o n e x p l a i n the concept o f i n t e g r a t i o n as a continuum r a n g i n g from n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m 8. Name, l o c a t e and d e s c r i b e at l e a s t 2 programs c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e to young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs that a r e : a) segregated 169 b) i n t e g r a t e d c) d e l i v e r e d i n the c h i l d ' s home d) d e l i v e r e d i n a treatment c e n t r e 9 . D e f i n e the term assessment 10. D i f f e r e n t i a t e between assessment and t e s t i n g with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e s to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 11. L i s t and d i s c u s s why assessment i s important i n s p e c i a l educat i on a) development o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s b) s e q u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c) group i ng d) awareness o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m e) d e v e l o p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n 12. L i s t and d i s c u s s the advantages o f t eacher assessment i n c o n t r a s t to formal t e s t i n g . 13. Develop an awareness o f major terms r e l a t e d to formal s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g 14. Develop an awareness o f the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the t e s t i n g i ns truments a) name and d e s c r i b e at l e a s t 4 assessment b a t t e r i e s 170 that are c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e and which would be u s e f u l i n a p r e s c h o o 1 / d a y c a r e s e t t i n g . D e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n c e s between these b a t t e r i e s b) u t i l i z e an assessment b a t t e r y to d e s c r i b e the present f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l o f a p r e s c h o o l c h i l d with one or more h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s c) meet with c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s and determine p a r e n t ' s g o a l s f o r c h i l d d) p r i o r i t i z e pr imary and secondary g o a l s u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from f u n c t i o n a l assessment and p a r e n t ' s s t a t e d g o a l s e) a n a l y z e t a s k s ( s teps ) r e q u i s i t e to c h i l d r e a c h i n g g o a l s f ) w r i t e i n d i v i d u a l program p l a n ( p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r "teaching") g) communicate I . E . P . to parent o f c h i l d h) i n c o r p o r a t e I . E . P . f o r c h i l d i n t o g e n e r a l program p l a n f o r group of c h i l d r e n i ) l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to program development f o r a c h i l d w i t h : i . a v i s i o n problem i i . an audito~ry d e f i c i t i i i . g l o b a l a p h a s i a i v . a t a x i c c e r e b r a l p a l s y v . s evere mu1t i -hand icap v i . W i l l i a m s syndrome 171 15. D i s c u s s how and why p a r e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f u n c t i o n and importance o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s program can i n f l u e n c e i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n and succes s 16. D i s c u s s and unders tand importance o f c o n s t a n t open communicat ion with f a m i l i e s 17. D i s c u s s and share f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e o f t e a c h e r s working with p a r e n t s 172 E . C . E . 417 - HUMAN RELATIONS I . Course D e s c r i p t i o n T h i s course i s des igned to present the t e c h n i q u e s and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Educator to work e f f e c t i v e l y wi th ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on team and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches to c h i l d c a r e and g u i d a n c e . There w i l l be an overview o f the community r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to lend support to the ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d and h i s / h e r f a m i l y and the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r . P r e r e q u i s i t e : E . C . E . E17 (or e q u i v a l e n t ) Three C r e d i t s I I . Major Content Areas 1. Communication s k i l l s . E . Working with f a m i l i e s a) i n d i v i d u a l i t y and uniqueness o f each f a m i l y b) p a r e n t s as equal members o f team 173 c) r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s d) empathet ic u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f a m i l i e s ' s t r e n g t h s and 1imi t a t i ons 3 . The team approach i n g u i d i n g and c a r i n g f o r the young c h i l d 4. Working with o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s a) the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h . t o p l a n n i n g f o r the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l needs b) p r o f e s s i o n a l support f o r p l a n n i n g , implementing and e v a l u a t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n 5. Community r e s o u r c e s and support groups 6. C u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and f u n d i n g which a f f e c t s ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s 7. Working with v o l u n t e e r s 8. P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 9. P r o f e s s i o n a l development 10. Advocacy f o r ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s 174 I I I . Genera l Course O b j e c t i v e s Major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s course i n c l u d e the development o f : 1. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f a m i l i e s i n Canadian S o c i e t y S. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the importance o f q u a l i t y p a r e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s i n the optimum development o f a ' s p e c i a l ' c h i I d 3 . S k i l l s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the team approach i n the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the young c h i l d 4. S k i l l s i n c o o p e r a t i n g wi th o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s a) d o c t o r s b) p u b l i c h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l c) language t h e r a p i s t s d) p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s e) a u d i o l o g i s t s f ) o t h e r s 5 . Knowledge o f community r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the suppor t o f the young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d ) h i s / h e r f a m i l y and the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Educator IV. Major Competencies 175 1. K n o w l e d g e / C o g n i t i v e Area - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e to : a) d i s c u s s the f a m i l y i n the contex t o f a changing Canadian s o c i e t y b) d e s c r i b e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f q u a l i t y f a m i l y - t e a c h e r r e l a t ions c) i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e community r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s d) e x p l a i n the importance o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team approach to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d 2. A t t i t u d e s / A f f e c t i v e Area - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e to : a) demonstrate i n t e r e s t i n working with f a m i l i e s o f ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n b) i d e n t i f y a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and o b s e r v a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f good t e a c h e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s c) a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team approach to working with young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s V . S p e c i f i c Competencies - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : 1. I d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s the i n d i c a t o r s o f change i n the 176 contemporary f a m i l y 2. D i s c u s s the ' s p e c i a l ' f a m i l y i n the contex t of a changing Canadian s o c i e t y 3. L i s t and d i s c u s s the uniqueness o f f a m i l i e s a) i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s b) problems c) t a l e n t s d) r e s o u r c e s e) l i m i t a t i o n s 4. D i s c u s s and unders tand p o s s i b l e f e e l i n g s o f parent who have s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n a) c o n f u s i o n b) q u i e t f e e l i n g s c) d i sappo in tment d) c o n c e r n e) embarrassment f ) g u i l t g) blame h) f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s i ) h o p e l e s s n e s s j ) sorrow k) anger 177 5 . D i s c u s s how and why p a r e n t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f u n c t i o n and importance o f t h e i r c h i l d ' program can i n f l u e n c e i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n and succes s 6. D i s c u s s the importance o f the f a m i l y - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p f o n the ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d . D i s c u s s the d i f f e r e n c e between an e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p 7. D i s c u s s and share f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e o f t e a c h e r s working with p a r e n t s . 8. D i s c u s s the n e c e s s i t y f o r honesty and i n t e g r i t y i n fami 1y - t eacher communicat ion 9. Communicate wi th p a r e n t s i n an o b j e c t i v e , p r e c i s e , and c o n s t r u c t i v e manner i n j a r g o n - f r e e language u s i n g : a) o r a l communicat ion b) w r i t t e n r e p o r t s 10. Work through and suggest a program which might be h e l p f u l to p a r e n t s o f handicapped c h i l d r e n 11. D i s c u s s wi th p a r e n t s approaches to i n t e g r a t i o n 18. D i s c u s s wi th p a r e n t s the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when 178 i n t e g r a t i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n i n t o r e g u l a r p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s 13. L i s t and d i s c u s s the advantages o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teams approach to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d a) s e t t i n g g o a l s b) p l a n n i n g programs c) implementing c u r r i c u l u m s d) e v a l u a t i n g p r o g r e s s 14. D e s c r i b e a p r a c t i c a l approach to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d f o r the teacher who does not have access to an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team 15. D e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s r o l e s members o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team may have i n f o s t e r i n g the optimum p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , emot iona l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development o f the ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d 16. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e community support r e s o u r c e s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to the ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d and h i s / h e r f a m i l y 17. D e s c r i b e and t r y to unders tand problems p a r e n t s sometimes have i n d e a l i n g wi th l a r g e agenc i e s 179 18. P l a n and implement a home v i s i t 19. Plan and implement a parent-teacher conference 20. Pl a n programs f o r the education and support of parents 21. Give v e r b a l and/or w r i t t e n d a i l y r e p o r t s on c h i l d r e n to t h e i r parents 22. Write an assessment of a c h i l d ' s developmental progress and d e s c r i b e how c h i l d ' s needs and s t r e n g t h s r e l a t e d to parent's g o a l s f o r c h i l d 23. E x p l a i n advocacy f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 24. L i s t and d i s c u s s ways e a r l y c h i l d h o o d educators can s t a r t and/or become i n v o l v e d i n an advocacy program f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . 180 E . C . E . 418 - SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM PLANNING 1. Course D e s c r i p t i o n T h i s course c o v e r s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d program p l a n n i n g , use o f m a t e r i a l s and equipment , the r o l e o f the s u p e r v i s o r , t e c h n i q u e s o f c l a s s r o o m management, l e a r n i n g phenomena i n c h i l d r e n and methods o f meeting needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i a l ch i 1 d r e n . It i s des igned to a c q u a i n t the s tudent wi th e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and implementat ion i n c l u d i n g b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , l e s s o n p l a n s , r e s o u r c e u n i t s , and long term p l a n n i n g f o r ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n , wi th emphasis on the c h i l d i n a i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g . P r e r e q u i s i t e s : E . C . E . 415 (or e q u i v a l e n t ) Three C r e d i t s I I Major Content Areas 1. The r o l e o f the s u p e r v i s o r o f s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n a) r e q u i r e d t e a c h i n g s k i l l s b ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g behav iour o f t e a c h e r / s u p e r v i s o r and c h i Id c ) gu idance and d i s c i p l i n e 181 d) h e a l t h and s a f e t y - s p e c i a l d i e t s , m e d i c a t i o n , a l l e r g i e s - p o s i t i o n i n g f o r f e e d i n g - s u p e r v i s i o n f o r s a f e t y Behaviour Management a) i n t e r i o r d i s c i p l i n e , e x t e r i o r d i s c i p l i n e b) d i s c i p l i n e problems and s t r a t e g i e s c) the r o l e of a t t e n t i o n ( p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e ) d) the r o l e o f communicat ion ( d e s c r i p t i o n , acknowledgement, response) C u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and development a) e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n ( i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n p lan) based on deve lopmental assessment b) i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n - present f u n c t i o n - long term goa l ( b e h a v i o u r a l ob j e c t i ve ) - i n cremen t a l s t e p s to goa l - p r o c e d u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n - c o m p l e t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n c) group a c t i v i t i e s to i n c l u d e the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d d) s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and p r o c e d u r e s to encourage i n t e r a c t i o n between handicapped/nonhandicapped ch i 1 d r e n 182 4. C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and i n: a c t i v i t i e s to a s s i s t a) motor c o o r d i n a t i o n , b a l a n c e and a g i l i t y b) s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s i . e . d r e s s i n g , t o i l e t i n g , e a t i n g , naptime p r o c e d u r e s c) sensory motor a c u i t y and d e x t e r i t y d) soc i a l s k i l l s e) b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l f ) communicat ion - r e c e p t i v e / e x p r e s s i v e g) i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y - m o t o r / a u r a 1 / v i s u a 1 / t a c t i 1 e h) c o g n i t i v e development - memory, concept development , sequencing assessments 5. P l a n n i n g indoor and outdoor environments f o r young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n a) a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s b) s p e c i f i c equipment f o r use by the v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d / h e a r i n g impaired e t c . c) a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s d) economic u s e f u l n e s s e) r e c r e a t i o n and e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s f ) q u a n t i t a t i v e concept s 183 I l l GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. The s tudent w i l l deve lop an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the l i m i t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the teacher o f young c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs 8. The s tudent w i l l d i s p l a y a range o f methods and management t e c h n i q u e s f o r working with young c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs 3 . The s tudent w i l l develop a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l f o r e n s u r i n g a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p r e s c h o o 1 / c h i l d c a r e program f o r a c h i l d with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n : a) mob i 1 i ty b) c o g n i t i o n c) communicat ion d) f i n e muscle c o n t r o l e) v i s i on f ) h e a r i n g g) behav i our 4. The s tudent w i l l deve lop m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t y p l a n s s p e c i f i c to the v a r i o u s h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s - to a s s i s t c h i l d r e n to d e v e l o p : a) c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s 184 b) communicat ion s k i l l s c) manual d e x t e r i t y d) u s e a b l e v i s i o n e) l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s f ) c o n t r o l o f behav iour g) b a l a n c e and m o b i l i t y The s tudent w i l l l e a r n to deve lop a p p r o p r i a t e and r e a l i s t i c long term (one year) and s h o r t term g o a l s f o r a s p e c i f i c c h i l d wi th s p e c i a l needs? and w i l l l e a r n to p r i o r i t i z e g o a l s i n t o pr imary and secondary ca tegor i e s . The s tudent w i l l d e s i g n and implement two i n d i v i d u a l programs based on i n f o r m a t i o n ga ined from deve lopmental assessments? i n c o r p o r a t i n g - a c t i v i t y p l a n s and m a t e r i a l s a p p r o p r i a t e to the c h i l d ' s age? f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l s ? p r i m a r y and secondary goals? (one o f which w i l l i n c l u d e a change o f behav iour as a pr imary g o a l . ) The s tudent w i l l implement an a c t i v i t y p l a n that s u p p o r t s and a c t i v e l y encourages c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between handicapped and nonhandicapped c h i l d r e n i n an i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g . 185 8. The s tudent w i l l i n v o l v e h i m / h e r s e l f i n a p l a y s i t u a t i o n with a handicapped c h i l d and by h i s / h e r a c t i o n s enhance the l e a r n i n g t a k i n g p l a c e i n the s i tuat i o n . Major Competencies 1. K n o w l e d g e / C o g n i t i v e Area - The s tudent should be a b l e to : a) d e f i n e and d i s c u s s the r o l e o f the s u p e r v i s o r wi th handicapped c h i l d r e n b) d e s c r i b e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to d i s c i p l i n e f o r young handicapped c h i l d r e n c) d e s i g n and deve lop m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e v e r a l c u r r i c u l u m areas d) d e s i g n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programs based on deve lopmental assessments e) d e s i g n complete l e s s o n p l a n s u s i n g b e h a v i o u r a l ob j e c t i v e s f ) p l a n a sa f e and h e a l t h y indoor and outdoor environment f o r young handicapped c h i l d r e n S p e c i f i c Competencies Behaviour Management 186 1. E x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behav iour and i t s consequences E . E x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f consequences of b e h a v i o u r : a) p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p l e a s a n t consequences b) p r e s e n t a t i o n o f unpleasant consequences c) removal o f p l e a s a n t consequences d) removal o f unp leasant consequences e) w i t h h o l d i n g any consequences 3 . D i s c u s s s e v e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r changing b e h a v i o u r . 4. E x p l a i n what i s meant by p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . 5 . D e s c r i b e ways o f p r e v e n t i n g problems b e f o r e they a c t u a l l y b e g i n . 6. E x p l a i n how you get and ho ld a t t e n t i o n . 7. E x p l a i n how to d e a l with minor i n a t t e n t i o n and m i s b e h a v i o u r . 8. E x p l a i n how to dea l wi th pro longed or d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r . 187 L e a r n i nq 9 . E x p l a i n how an environment might be i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y o v e r s t i m u l a t i n g and u n d e r s t i m u l a t i n g at the same t i m e . 10. D e s c r i b e what i s meant by p a c i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s . 11. E x p l a i n the importance o f c o n c r e t e p l a y and m a n i p u l a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g the c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the young c h i l d . IS . E x p l a i n the f u n c t i o n of a d u l t v e r b a l i z a t i o n with c h i l d r e n who l e a r n most ly by d o i n g . 13. E x p l a i n the major r o l e o f the a d u l t w h i l e c h i l d r e n 1earn . P h y s i c a l Environment 14. D e s c r i b e f a c t o r s that are most important i n d e s i g n i n g a s u c c e s s f u l p h y s i c a l environment f o r young handicapped c h i l d r e n . 15. P l a n a s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g c e n t e r . 188 16. E x p l a i n how the p h y s i c a l environment determines i n l a r g e measure the f requency and q u a l i t y o f independent p l a y a c t i v i t i e s that c h i l d r e n can engage i n . 17. Des ign a p l a n f o r an indoor and outdoor p l a y a r e a . P l a n n i n g Programs 18. E x p l a i n the p r o c e s s o f how c h i l d r e n l e a r n : p e r c e i v i n g i t h i n k i n g , d o i n g . 19. D i f f e r e n t i a t e between i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m . 20. E x p l a i n and use the s i x s t eps i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n p r o c e s s i n p r e p a r i n g a l e s s o n : a) de termine f o c u s o f l e s s o n b) de termine i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s c) a s ses s p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a 1 behav iour d) de termine l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s e) de termine r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s f ) e v a l u a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes 21 . Determine the i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a) w r i t e s u c c e s s f u l b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d i n g 189 the three major e l ements , b) i d e n t i f y and e x p l a i n each of the three e lements o f a b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e : 1. the d e s i r e d o b s e r v a b l e behav iour 2. under what c o n d i t i o n s the behav iour i s expected to be performed? and 3 . how w i l l the c h i l d be expected to perform (cr i t er i a ) . Determine a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r a c h i l d or s m a l l group of c h i l d r e n . E x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p t e a c h i n g : i . e . , c h i l d ac t i v i t i e s . Demonstrate i n l e s s o n p l a n s Show, D i s c u s s , Apply and Rei Determine a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i and m a t e r i a l s ) to be used p r o c e s s f o r a c h i l d or smal l between l e a r n i n g and a c t i v i t i e s and teacher the t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f n f o r c e . ng a c t i v i t i e s (procedures d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l group o f c h i l d r e n i n : a) p h y s i c a l and motor development b) s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s c) s o c i a l development 190 d) communicat ion s k i l l s e) r e c r e a t i o n and e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s f ) q u a n t i t a t i v e concept s g) s a f e t y and h e a l t h 26. U t i l i z e an e f f e c t i v e model i n e v a l u a t i n g the outcomes o f i n s t r u c t i o n . 27 . P l a n the i n t e g r a t i o n of a c h i l d wi th s p e c i a l needs i n t o a ' n o r m a l ' p r e s c h o o l or daycare c e n t r e . 28. E v a l u a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . 191 E . C . E . 419 - PRACTICUM I and II I . Course D e s c r i p t i o n The purpose o f t h i s c o u r s e i s to p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s i n t e g r a t i n g ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and a s p e c i a l needs p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e . O p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , programs and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and p r a c t i c e i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s with young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n , i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n g r o u p s . I I . Genera l Course Requirements 1. P r a c t i c u m I a) o r i e n t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s b) d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s c) gu ided p a r t i c i p a t i o n under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f sponsor t e a c h e r s E . P r a c t icum 11 a) o r i e n t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s b) d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s 19E c) gu ided p a r t i c i p a t i o n under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f sponsor t e a c h e r s d) p l a n n i n g and implementat ion o f s tudent des igned a c t i v i t i e s I I I . Major Competencies 1. K n o w l e d g e / C o g n i t i v e - the s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : a) r e c o g n i z e and d i s c u s s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n programs i n t e g r a t i n g ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and S p e c i a l Needs Preschoo1s b) exempl i fy p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and good working r e l a t i o n s wi th co-workers* p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n c) deve lop an awareness o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t ionsh i p s d) deve lop and c a r r y out p lanned a c t i v i t i e s i n as many c u r r i c u l u m areas as p o s s i b l e e) e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l f - d e v e l o p e d l e s s o n p l a n s ( s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses) f ) develop and implement a change i n p l a n n i n g a n d / o r working wi th c h i l d r e n i n response to c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m from the sponsor teacher or c o l l e g e i n s t r u c tor S. S k i 1 l s / p s y c h o m o t o r - the s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : 193 a) o b j e c t i v e l y observe and comment about v a r i o u s types o f c e n t r e f o r ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n b) v e r b a l i z e o b j e c t i v e l y o b s e r v a t i o n s on the behav iour of ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n c) deve lop and use m a t e r i a l s and equipment a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the deve lopmental l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n d) i d e n t i f y d i s r u p t i v e behav iour e) respond e f f e c t i v e l y to d i s r u p t i v e behav iour f ) e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r y out s e l f - d e v e l o p e d a c t i v i t i e s g) arrange c l a s s r o o m f o r q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n h) e f f e c t i v e l y s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n i n indoor and outdoor a c t i v i t i e s i ) e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r y out i n s t r u c t i o n from the sponsor teacher j) deve lop and implement p l a n s to i n v o l v e ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n i n the program i n an i n t e g r a t e d s i t u a t i o n Length o f P r a c t i c u m 1. P r a c t icum I - IS h a l f - d a y placements <48 hours) Dur ing t h i s p r a c t i c u m i t i s hoped the s tudent w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y to see as many d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s as p o s s i b l e that e n r o l l ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n 194 The s tudent w i l l have s e v e r a l d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n ass ignments and c a r r y out sponsor teacher d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s wi th the c h i l d The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s the c o m p l e t i o n o f a twenty-one p o i n t p r o p o s a l b e f o r e any new c a r e e r program i n the c o l l e g e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The p r o p o s a l as submit ted to the M i n i s t r y i s as f o l l o w s : P r o p o s a l f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , Langara Campus. 1. T I T L E OF PROGRAM: E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 2. C o l l e g e C e r t i f i c a t e : E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e PURPOSE: The program i s des igned to presen t the knowledge t e c h n i q u e s and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s to p l a n q u a l i t y programs f o r and work e f f e c t i v e l y with ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to team and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches to c h i l d c a r e and g u i d a n c e . Emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on the r o l e o f the e a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r i n : 195 a) P r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s f u n c t i o n i n g e x p r e s s l y f o r ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n b) I n t e g r a t e d p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s and /or c ) C e n t r e s c o n s i d e r i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n o f ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n The EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATE would meet the c r i t e r i a f o r the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . SPECIAL NEEDS PRESCHOOL SUPERVISOR CREDENTIAL. Length of Program: The program w i l l be e q u i v a l e n t to one f u l l semester 5 Courses 15 C r e d i t s I t i s in tended that two c o u r s e s w i l l be o f f e r e d i n each of the F a l l and S p r i n g Semesters . S tudents may choose to take E c o u r s e s (6 c r e d i t s ) each semester and complete the program i n two semesters S tudents may choose to take 1 course (3 c r e d i t s ) each semester and complete the program i n 20 months. E . C . E . 415 and PSYCHOLOGY 318 w i l l be o f f e r e d i n the F a l l . or 196 E . C . E . 418 and E . C . E . 417 w i l l be o f f e r e d i n the S p r i n g Semester . Courses w i l l be o f f e r e d two days a week i n the l a t e a f t e r n o o n , to enable as many E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s as p o s s i b l e who are working the the f i e l d to a t t e n d c l a s s e s wi thout d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r work s c h e d u l e s . E . C . E . 419 w i l l c o n s i s t o f 48 hours o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e and 140 hours o f p r a c t i c e i n a b l o c k p lacement . The program i s des igned f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s who wish to meet the c r i t e r i a f o r o b t a i n i n g the : P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g B o a r d : SPECIAL NEEDS PRESCHOOL SUPERVISOR CREDENTIAL - that i s : a) E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s working i n S p e c i a l Needs P r e s c h o o 1 s . b) E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s working i n i n t e g r a t e d E . C . C e n t r e s . c) E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s c o n s i d e r i n g i n t e g r a t i n g ' s p e c i a l 3 c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e i r programs. d> E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s working i n H o s p i t a l Preschoo1s . 197 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s working w i t h s p e c i a c h i l d r e n i n group home s e t t i n g s . C h i l d Care Workers working on a one-to-one b a s i s wi young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n . V o l u n t e e r s working w i t h young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n . P a r e n t s of young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n . ESTIMATED COSTS OF THE PROGRAM: S t a r t Up Budget Fac u l t y release time for one semester h time $ 3,383.60 (planning program, i n t e r v i e w i n g students and f a c u l t y , implementing, s t a f f i n g , l i b r a r y searches) (20 x $169.18) L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s (books and audio v i s u a l ) 1,000.00 Classroom m a t e r i a l s (Curriculum, Learning K i t s , Testing M a t e r i a l s ) 400.00 $ 4,783.60 $ 4,783.60 OPERATING BUDGET: S a l a r i e s F a l l Semester one h a l f - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r Step 6, per diem - $154.76 x 2 x 13 4,023,76 Spring Semester one h time i n s t r u c t o r Step 6, per diem - $154.76 x 2 x 13 4,023.76 Practicum supervisor - two h a l f - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s f o r 20 days, Step 6, per diem.- >j x 2 x 20 x $154.76 3,095.20 Classroom M a t e r i a l s 400.00 L i b r a r y & Audio V i s u a l M a t e r i a l s 400.00 $11,942.72 $11,942.72 TOTAL cost September 1, 1985 - May 31, 1986 $16,725.32 198 8. ENROLLMENT PREDICTIONS: E n r o l l m e n t p r e d i c t i o n s f o r the f i r s t y e a r : EO to 30 s t u d e n t s . The program w i l l a t t r a c t q u a l i f i e d E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s from a l l areas o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n - e . g . . Under Three C e n t r e s , Day Care C e n t r e s , Nursery S c h o o l s , Parent P a r t i c i p a t i o n C e n t r e s , E . S . L . P r e s c h o o 1 s , S p e c i a 1 Needs P r e s c h o o l s , I n t e g r a t e d P r e s c h o o l s and Day C a r e s e t c . , Courses w i l l be open, where space a l l o w s , to p a r e n t s o f ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and community v o l u n t e e r s working with ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n . New r e g u l a t i o n s r e c e n t l y passed by the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g Board r e q u i r i n g E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s to upgrade t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s every t h r e e y e a r s i n order to m a i n t a i n a v a l i d E a r l y C h i l d h o o d C r e d e n t i a l w i l l encourage many s u p e r v i s o r s to upgrade t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n the area o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . 9 . N/A 10. Proposed Implementat ion Date : 199 It would be p o s s i b l e to b e g i n the program January 1, 1985. Because o f budget c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a more r e a l i s t i c t a r g e t s t a r t up date i s September 5, 1985. F i e l d P lacements : P r e s e n t l y , s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the E . C . E . Program spend one o f t h e i r f i v e f i e l d p lacements i n a P r e s c h o o l f o r ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n or an i n t e g r a t e d E a r l y C h i l d h o o d C e n t r e . C e n t r e that have cooperated with placements f o r s t u d e n t s r e p e a t e d l y a r e : Bob Berwick P r e s c h o o l (UBC) Bob Berwick i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s Burnaby C h i l d Development C e n t r e Richmond P r e s c h o o l f o r S p e c i a l C h i l d r e n Step by Step (Coqui t lam) Rainbow Day Care (New Westminster) N G. F . S trong P r e s c h o o l S u n n y h i l l H o s p i t a l P r e s c h o o l S t . John The D i v i n e Day Care B o b o l i n k Day Care i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e s Mt . P l e a s a n t Day Care The D i r e c t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s o f these programs have been s u p p o r t i v e i n our e f f o r t s to p l a n and implement the program. They have assured the i n s t r u c t o r s that they would 800 welcome s t u d e n t s on p r a c t i c u m and o b s e r v a t i o n placements i n t h e i r c e n t r e s . 12. The program i s des igned as p o s t - b a s i c t r a i n i n g f o r graduate s o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Programs throughout the p r o v i n c e . It w i l l p r o v i d e much needed t r a i n i n g f o r those s u p e r v i s o r s a l r e a d y working with ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n and f o r those c o n t e m p l a t i n g a move i n t o the f i e l d of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n . It w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e an avenue f o r those q u a l i f i e d E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s to renew or upgrade t h e i r present c r e d e n t i a l s . 13. C o n s u l t a t i o n s wi th A p p r o p r i a t e Reference Groups: Needs Assessment (see page —) I n s t r u c t o r s - A d v i s o r y Committee E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n Langara - 14. E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s C o n s u l t a t i o n s : 201 L i t e r a t u r e from other i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r programs i n o ther p r o v i n c e s and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been s u r v e y e d . Douglas C o l l e g e ' s p r o p o s a l to the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n has been s t u d i e d . Concerns the B . C . P . C . C . F . L . B . expressed about the Douglas Program have been addressed i n the p l a n n i n g f o r the Langara Program. Recommendations from the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n : "Further to our c o n v e r s a t i o n on May 3, 1984, I am w r i t i n g to a f f i r m the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ' s support o f the development at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e o f a post b a s i c s p e c i a l t y to the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n program, i n the area o f s p e c i a l needs c e r t i f i c a t i o n t r a i n i n g . T h i s support i s based on a reques t from the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g Board that the M i n i s t r y endeavour to e s t a b l i s h t r a i n i n g programs that can be accepted by the Board f o r the i s s u a n c e o f a l i c e n s e f o r people to s e r v e as s p e c i a l needs s u p e r v i s o r s . . . I r e p r e s e n t the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n on the L i c e n s i n g B o a r d . I would expect to take your program, a f t e r i t r e c e i v e d program a p p r o v a l , to the Board wi th a motion tha t the board accept 808 the program f o r l i c e n s i n g p u r p o s e s . I can say that the Board i s f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d to a p r o p o s a l from V . C . C . " 16 & 17 Job Placement O p p o r t u n i t i e s : S p e c i a l Needs P r e s c h o o l S u p e r v i s o r s S u p e r v i s o r s i n I n t e g r a t e d Day Care and P r e s c h o o l Programs C h i l d Care Workers I n - H o s p i t a l P r e s c h o o l S u p e r v i s o r s S u p e r v i s o r s o f Group Homes f o r young ' s p e c i a l ' c h i l d r e n . 18. One o ther C o l l e g e Program (Douglas C o l l e g e ) has been or i s i n the p r o c e s s o f be ing approved and implemented. 19. Not A p p l i c a b l e at t h i s t ime , however, the C o l l e g e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d A r t i c u l a t i o n Committee has a s t a n d i n g committee s t u d y i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f C o l l e g e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c r e d i t s to U . B . C , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . EO. Informal f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n (survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) to s t u d e n t s , d i r e c t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , sponsor t e a c h e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s at the c o m p l e t i o n o f the f i r s t y e a r . E l . N/A 203 The p r o p o s a l was presented to the Academic c o u n c i l at Langara i n December o f 1984. The c o u n c i l reviewed and accepted the p r o p o s a l and recommended tha t i t be sent to R e g i o n a l O f f i c e f o r a c c e p t a n c e . On December 18, 1984 the C o l l e g e E x e c u t i v e Committee met wi th M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to d i s c u s s the 1985-86 budget f o r Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . The meeting was h e l d to in form c o l l e g e o f f i c i a l s that the next y e a r ' s budget would be l e s s than the present y e a r ' s budget and the t h e r e would be no f u n d i n g f o r a d d i t i o n a l programs or c o u r s e s . The p r o p o s a l was put on h o l d . From the c l e a r message the c o l l e g e was r e c e i v i n g from the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n the development and a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s was s t o p p e d . In January o f 1985 the M i n i s t r y i n s i s t e d the f u n d i n g f o r the program was ' i n ' the budget . The program would b e g i n i n September, 1985. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM Pub 1 ic i ty The Langara 1985-86 Ca lendar was i n the p r o c e s s o f be ing p r i n t e d b e f o r e the new program had been approved so i t was not p lanned to appear i n the c a l e n d a r u n t i l the S p r i n g semester o f 1986. The program was a d v e r t i s e d i n the Vancouver Sun i n May o f 1985 but the adver t i s ement was i n c o r r e c t i n that the program was a d v e r t i s e d as p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program r a t h e r than a c o l l e g e c r e d i t program. The f a c u l t y dec ided that the best way to a d v e r t i s e the program was to mai l an announcement to a l l the 804 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c e n t r e s i n the c i t y and to a l l the s p e c i a l needs and i n t e g r a t e d c e n t r e s i n Richmond, Burnaby and North Vancouver . The f a c u l t y p e r s o n a l l y c o n t a c t e d the d i r e c t o r s o f most o f the s p e c i a l needs c e n t r e s i n the Vancouver a r e a . A d i n n e r was h e l d f o r a l l the sponsor t e a c h e r s that have s t u d e n t s from the b a s i c program throughout the y e a r . The new program was announced and the f a c u l t y asked the D i r e c t o r o f the Bob Berwick P r e s c h o o l to speak about the n e c e s s i t y f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n teacher p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s t a f f who were working with or p l a n n i n g to work wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The newspaper p u b l i c i t y was the most expens ive and the l e a s t e f f e c t i v e method o f r e a c h i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the f i e l d . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and d i r e c t ma i l accounted f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g e t t i n g to twenty - four o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t s t u d e n t s who r e g i s t e r e d f o r the program i n September o f 1985. F a c u l t y From the rev iew of the l i t e r a t u r e , (Stennet 1980; Connant 1980; Foos 1976; Browder 198E) past e x p e r i e n c e s o f p r e s e n t f a c u l t y o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program, and recommendations made by d i r e c t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s o f p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e s the most important c r i t e r i a n f o r s e l e c t i n g f a c u l t y f o r the new program shou ld be that the f a c u l t y must have r e c e n t hands-on e x p e r i e n c e i n working d i r e c t l y wi th young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . Two a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s were h i r e d from a l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . One o f these teaches a s p e c i a l needs k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s . The 205 s i x c h i l d r e n i n her c l a s s are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f the day on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . In the a f t e r n o o n s she i s a s choo l p s y c h o l o g i s t who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c r e e n i n g the p r e s c h o o l e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n who are about to enter the p u b l i c s choo l sys tem. She i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d wi th a B . E d . i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and an M . A . i n Psycho logy and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d . She i s employed to teach E . C . E . 415 i n the F a l l Semester and E . C . E . 418 i n the S p r i n g Semester . The o ther i n s t r u c t o r i s a p s y c h o l o g i s t wi th the same schoo l d i s t r i c t who has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f working with the f a m i l i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n throughout the d i s t r i c t . He i s a c o u n s e l o r who i s a c a n d i d a t e f o r a PhD i n E d u c a t i o n a l Psycho logy at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r E . C . E . 417 i n the S p r i n g Semester . The f a c u l t y o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program was c o n v i n c e d that the two i n s t r u c t o r s were knowledgeable i n the f i e l d » and had the commitment r e q u i r e d to spend the number o f e x t r a hours needed to s t a r t a new program. The c o o r d i n a t o r o f the E a r l y C h i 1 d h o o d : B a s i c Program w i l l c o - o r d i n a t e the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n program as wel 1 . As Psycho logy 318 was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e , r e s c h e d u l i n g o f the c o u r s e to a c o n v e n i e n t t ime f o r the s t u d e n t s o f the p o s t - b a s i c program was a l l that was n e c e s s a r y . 806 S c h e d u l i n g o f Courses It was hoped that s t u d e n t s would e n r o l l i n Psycho logy 318 and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 415 i n the F a l l Semester and i n E . C . E . 417 and E . C . E . 418 i n the S p r i n g Semester . However) the f a c u l t y c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that some p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s who were employed i n very demanding f u l l t ime p o s i t i o n s would c o n s i d e r two c o u r s e s o f three u n i t s too heavy and would choose to take one c o u r s e per semester . It was d e c i d e d that the c o u r s e s would be scheduled to make a l lowances f o r s t u d e n t s to f i n i s h the c o u r s e i n two semesters or i n f o u r semes ters . S tudents would e n r o l l i n Psycho logy 318 a n d / o r E . C . E . 415 i n the F a l l Semester . I f they chose to take both c o u r s e s i n the F a l l and completed them s u c c e s s f u l l y then they would be e l i g i b l e to take E . C . E . 417. As E . C . E . 415 i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to E . C . E . 418 they must complete E . C . E . 415 b e f o r e e n r o l l i n g i n E . C . E . 4 1 8 . ( F i g u r e 6) E07 FALL SEMESTER 1985 Psycho logy 318 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 415 or FALL SEMESTER 1985 Psycho logy 318 SPRING SEMESTER 1986 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 417 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 418 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 419 SPRING SEMESTER 1986 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 417 FALL SEMESTER 1986 SPRING SEMESTER 1987 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 415 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 418 E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 419 F i g u r e 7 - Proposed Schedule o f Courses f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Programs P r a c t i c u m S c h e d u l i n g As most o f the s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the program would be working i n f u l l t ime p o s i t i o n s , many o f them i n s p e c i a l needs p r e s c h o o l s or i n i n t e g r a t e d d a y c a r e s , i t was dec ided that the t i m i n g f o r P r a c t i c u m II o f E . C . E . 419 would be arranged by s t u d e n t s and the c o o r d i n a t o r on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The p r a c t i c u m would occupy a minimum of f i v e hours a day and f o u r weeks. It c o u l d be arranged to f i t with s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l working s c h e d u l e s as long as the s t u d e n t s have s u c c e s s f u l l y completed Psycho logy 318 and E . C . E . 415, and were i n the p r o c e s s 808 o f s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t i n g E . C . E . 417 and E . C . E . 418. T h e r e f o r e , i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r some s t u d e n t s to complete the program i n e i g h t months. O t h e r s might choose to complete the program i n two y e a r s . A c l a s s o f 28 s t u d e n t s had e n r o l l e d i n the program by the end o f J u l y 1985. Over one h a l f o f the e n r o l l i n g s t u d e n t s had completed Psycho logy 318 or an e q u i v a l e n t c o u r s e p r e v i o u s l y . As a r e s u l t , o n l y twelve s t u d e n t s would be r e q u i r e d to take the Psycho logy c o u r s e . The Psycho logy Department, because o f budget r e s t r a i n t s , was not prepared to o f f e r a course f o r o n l y twelve s t u d e n t s . The E a r l y C h i l d h o o d f a c u l t y dec ided that the s t u d e n t s would be a l lowed to e n r o l l i n the program and complete the Psycho logy c o u r s e i n the summer semester o f 1986, when i t would next be o f f e r e d . F i v e o f the s t u d e n t s who d i d not have c r e d i t f o r Psycho logy 318 completed the c o u r s e i n the summer semester of 1986. With the he lp o f the Dean of C a r e e r s , the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d F a c u l t y was a b l e to c o n v i n c e the Psychology Department to o f f e r a s e c t i o n o f the course i n the f a l l semester o f 1986. S tudent s e n r o l l i n g i n the program i n September o f 1986 and the remain ing seven s t u d e n t s o f the 1985 c l a s s were a b l e to e n r o l l i n Psycho logy 318 i n September o f 1986. The psycho logy course w i l l not be o f f e r e d i n the f a l l semester o f 1987 but s t u d e n t s w i sh ing to e n r o l l i n the E a r l y Chi1dhood:Spec ia1 E d u c a t i o n program at that t ime w i l l be a d v i s e d to take the course i n the summer semester o f 1987 b e f o r e they enter the program. 209 EVALUATION At the i n i t i a l l e c t u r e i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d 415, the s t u d e n t s were a d v i s e d o f the importance that t h e i r assessments o f the program would have i n any r e s t r u c t u r i n g and r e d e s i g n i n g of the program i n the f u t u r e . The c o o r d i n a t o r o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program, the f a c u l t y sought s t u d e n t s ' s u g g e s t i o n s throughout the f a 11 semester . In December o f 1985, the D i r e c t o r o f the Bob Berwick C e n t r e , the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d c o o r d i n a t o r and the i n s t r u c t o r o f E . C . E . 415 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the program thus f a r , wi th the 28 s t u d e n t s . The c l a s s was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups and each group d i s c u s s i o n / e v a l u a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by one o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Comments and concerns about c o n t e n t , f a c u l t y , and s c h e d u l i n g were s o l i c i t e d . The s t u d e n t s were very open i n the d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s . The comments were p o s i t i v e about s cope , and r e l e v a n c e o f m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d , but d i d express concerns about the problems they had i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g some o f the r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s they were r e q u i r e d to r e v i e w . They f e l t the i n s t r u c t o r was s u p p o r t i v e i n her u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and spent s u f f i c i e n t t ime i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c i n g to g i v e a d d i t i o n a l he lp to those s t u d e n t s who needed i t . The s t u d e n t s who had the most d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s area were those who had not completed the psycho logy c o u r s e or i t s e q u i v a l e n t . 210 Most s t u d e n t s expressed p o s i t i v e comments about the i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the community who were i n v o l v e d i n some of the l e c t u r e s , the e x c e l l e n t v i d e o s from the Young and S p e c i a l S e r i e s , and the ass ignments they were r e q u i r e d to comple te . They assessed the i n s t r u c t o r as be ing h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , and s e r i o u s about her commitment to q u a l i t y c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . They a l s o commented that they f e l t that she expected the same commitment from them. They were impressed with her knowledge o f c h i l d r e n her involvement with o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d , and her a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to t h e i r concerns about t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n s because o f her d a i l y c o n t a c t s wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . An a d d i t i o n a l f o r m a t i v e assessment o f the program was c a r r i e d out i n A p r i l o f 1986, and s i m i l a r p o s i t i v e comments were e x p r e s s e d . There were many concerns expressed about the amount o f m a t e r i a l the s t u d e n t s needed to cover i n E . C . E . 418. P l a n n i n g c u r r i c u l a f o r i n d i v i d u a l e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n seems to be the top p r i o r i t y wi th s t u d e n t s i n the program. They want to have as many r e s o u r c e s as p o s s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and implementing c u r r i c u l a f o r c h i l d r e n , and f o r d e s i g n i n g e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s . 211 CONCLUSION With the advent o f u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n most European and North American c o u n t r i e s by the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y , the a t t e n t i o n o f e d u c a t o r s i n c r e a s i n g l y was focused on E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . By the 1970's , r e s e a r c h began to show the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . In many i n s t a n c e s , p a r e n t s were winning cases i n the law c o u r t s to c o n f i r m the human r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , to an a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n i n the l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e env ironment . With the growing demands o f p a r e n t s and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r o f e s s i o n a l s tha t e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n should have the r i g h t o f acces s to q u a l i t y programs with t r a i n e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s , t h e r e has been c o n t i n u e d p r e s s u r e on p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s to p r o v i d e such programs. The l i t e r a t u r e sugges ts that the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r who c a r e s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n may need more s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g than he / she w i l l have r e c e i v e d i n a b a s i c E a r l y C h i l d h o o d teacher p r e p a r a t i o n program. It i s with t h i s i n mind and with the support o f the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n that the f a c u l t y o f the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Program, Vancouver Community c o l l e g e , Langara Campus, undertook S12 to d e s i g n , implement and e v a l u a t e the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Program Chapter VI o f f e r s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r methods o f d e s i g n i n g a program that can draw p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e and other r e s o u r c e s from the community that w i l l broaden the f o c u s of such a program. M a i n t a i n i n g c r e d i b i l i t y i n the f i e l d and w i t h i n the academic community i s a x i o m a t i c . C r e d i b i l i t y can be m a i n t a i n e d , however, through cons tant communicat ion with o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I t i s always d i f f i c u l t to suggest that a program des igned f o r one i n s t i t u t i o n s may be a p p r o p r i a t e to f i t the needs o f o t h e r s . However, the f o l l o w i n g recommendations may be o f i n t e r e s t to o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g o f f e r i n g s i m i l a r programs f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Recommendations: The Des ign of an E a r l y C h i l d h o o d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n Program 1. A program f o r E a r l y c h i l d h o o d E d u c a t o r s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n shou ld i n c l u d e four major areas of s t u d y . a) c h i l d growth and development as w e l l as the g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which p l a c e e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n need of s p e c i a l c a r e and e d u c a t i o n 213 b) programs, c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , m a t e r i a l s , equipment , and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r work with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n c) the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to working with p r o f e s s i o n a l s and f a m i l i e s to p r o v i d e q u a l i t y programs f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n d) the l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s to ensure the r i g h t s o f a l l c h i l d r e n , the need-- f o r c o n t i n u e d p r o f e s s i o n a l development and the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Educator The s t a f f who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g and a s s e s s i n g the s t u d e n t s should have r e l e v a n t and r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e wi th e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r en . S t a f f shou ld be w e l l q u a l i f i e d i n t h e i r d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d and be committed to t h e i r own c o n t i n u e d p r o f e s s i o n a l development . The program should m a i n t a i n wi th o ther academic and w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , o f f e r i n g s i m i l a r programs c e n t r e s i n the community. c l o s e , p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s p r o f e s s i o n a l departments with o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s and with the p r e s c h o o l 214 4. The program shou ld have u p - t o - d a t e r e s o u r c e s i n p r i n t , v i d e o , f i l m and community p e r s o n n e l . Frequent c o n t a c t wi th knowledgeable p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the community cannot be over emphas ized . 5. The program needs to monitor the s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e o f p r a c t i c u m placement i f the s t u d e n t s are to observe and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the most u p - t o - d a t e and a c c e p t a b l e methods. 6. P l a n s f o r the f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n need to be a p a r t o f the d e s i g n o f the program. Areas f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and s tudy c o u l d w e l l be: f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o competenc ies that a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s who work with young e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n shou ld have; e v a l u a t i o n methods and i n s t r u m e n t s that w i l l a s s i s t f i e l d s u p e r v i s o r s i n more c e r t a i n assessments of s tudent competency; the development o f c o u r s e s that would i n t r o d u c e s t u d e n t s o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d at the b a s i c l e v e l to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n ; d e c i s i o n s as to which n o n c a t e g o r i c a 1 c o u r s e s c o u l d be added to the c o r e program tha t are more c a t e g o r i c a l i n n a t u r e ; r e s e a r c h i n t o the most e f f e c t i v e programs, c o u r s e s , i n s e r v i c e - s e m i n a r s , and r e s o u r c e s that c o l l e g e s c o u l d o f f e r to support the c o n t i n u i n g growth and p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S u p e r v i s o r s o f young c h i l d r e n wi th s p e c i a l needs . 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E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n : Issues f o r a New Decade. C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 57: 2:104-109. V i n c e n t , L . J . , L . Brown, and M. S h e f f e l . 1981. I n t e g r a t i n g Handicapped and T y p i c a l C h i l d r e n Dur ing the P r e s c h o o l Y e a r s : The D e f i n i t i o n o f Best E d u c a t i o n a l P r a c t i c e . T o p i c s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . 225 Warnock R e p o r t . 1978. S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Needs. London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . Watson, B . 1985. P a r t - t i m e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n Program C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e . V i c t o r i a : B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . W e s t l i n g , D . L . , M.R. K o o r l a n d , and T . L . Rose . 1981. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S u p e r i o r and Average S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h e r s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . 47: 5:357-363. Widers t rom, A . 1988. Mains treaming Handicapped P r e s c h o o l e r s : Should We or S h o u l d n ' t We? C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 57: 3:178-177. W i l s o n , J . <ed. ) , D. Stamp, R . M . Audet . L o u i s - P h i 1 1 i p e . 1970. Canadian E d u c a t i o n : a H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Wison, J . D . and D . C . J o n e s . 1980. S c h o o l i n g and S o c i e t y i n Twent ie th Century B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a l g a r y : D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s L i m i t e d . Whorton, J . 1975. A F o l l o w up Study o f Personne l T r a i n e d i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g o f the M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d . 10:180-183. Wycher ley , K . 1959. A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f the P r e s c h o o l Movement i n Vancouver . Vancouver: B . C . P r e s c h o o l E d u c a t o r s Assoc i at i o n . Young and S p e c i a l S e r i e s . V i c t o r i a : P . E . M . C . 886 APPENDIX A 227 PSYCHOLOGY 31S - PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EXCEPTIONAL CHILD I . Course D e s c r i p t i o n A rev iew of the p h y s i c a l , c o g n i t i v e - i n t e l l e c t u a l , emot ional and s o c i a l development o f the normal c h i l d from b i r t h to f i v e y e a r s . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n development o f young c h i l d r e n are examined. O r i e n t a t i o n to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s s i b l e causes o f the problems of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . P r e r e q u i s i t e ; Psycho logy 118 and 218 (or e q u i v a l e n t s ) Three C r e d i t s 11 . Major Content Areas 1. Normal Growth P a t t e r n s a) F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e a r l y development i . hered i ty i i . environment b) F a c t o r s r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c areas o f development i . P h y s i c a l development 1) growth r a t e 2) motor s k i l l s (gross and f i n e ) i i . I n t e l l e c t u a l development 1) l e v e l s o f development 2) c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s i i i . Emot iona l development 1) a f f e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 2) p e r s o n a l i t y and f e e l i n g s 2. O r i e n t a t i o n to the cause , n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n N e u r o l o g i c , O r t h o p e d i c and o ther H e a l t h Impairments The V i s u a l l y Impaired C h i l d r e n The Hear ing Impaired C h i l d r e n M e n t a l l y Handicapped C h i l d r e n Speech De lays and D i s o r d e r s S p e c i f i c L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s C h i l d r e n with Behaviour D i s o r d e r s The I n t e l l e c t u a l l y G i f t e d C h i l d r e n 3 . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n t e r - and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s found i n c h i l d r e n who are c l a s s i f i e d as except i o n a l . 4. Assessment p r o c e d u r e s used i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s o f development a) rev iew of o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g procedures b) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f formal and i n f o r m a l deve lopmental 228 s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s - Denver , Memphis, Performance Ob j e c t i v e s c) d e t e r m i n i n g areas o f s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses as ev idenced by the assessment d) d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t i v e s based on assessment r e s u l t s e) a n a l y s i s of assessment i n areas o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , language , and motor ( f i n e / g r o s s ) s k i l l s . 5 . an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f each c h i l d ' s un iqueness I I I . Genera l Course O b j e c t i v e s Major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s course i n c l u d e the development o f : 1. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f growth and development o f the young c h i l d to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , and i t s importance i n working wi th the handicapped c h i l d 8. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the cause s , n a t u r e , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n who are commonly c l a s s i f i e d as s p e c i a l 3 . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n who are commonly c l a s s i f i e d as s p e c i a l 4. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n t e r - and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s found i n c h i l d r e n who are c l a s s i f i e d as spec i a 1. 5 . Competency i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a l a s ses s d e v i c e ( s ) 6. Competency i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s based on proper assessment p r o c e d u r e s 7. A b i l i t y to compare and e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s assessment i ns truments 8. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the major terms r e l a t e d to formal s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g IV. Major Competencies 1. K n o w l e d g e / c o g n i t i v e area - the s tudent shou ld be a b l e to : a) e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f growth and development o f the young c h i l d to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and the handicapped c h i l d b) d e s c r i b e the a b i l i t i e s and d i s a b i l i t i e s (major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) f o r the f o l l o w i n g h a n d i c a p s : 889 speech , mental r e t a r d a t i o n , a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , n e u r o l o g i c , o r t h o p e d i c , h e a l t h , b e h a v i o u r a l c) e x p l a i n the p r o b a b l e causes o f the above handicaps ( h e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r s , p r e n a t a l c o n d i t i o n s , b i r t h i n j u r y , p o s t - n a t a l env i ronmenta l c o n d i t i o n s ) d) e x p l a i n the i n t e r - and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s found i n c h i l d r e n who are c l a s s i f i e d as e x c e p t i o n a l e) compare and c o n t r a s t the ways i n which the e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d i s l i k e and d i f f e r e n t from the normal c h i l d i n : i . s ensory a b i l i t i e s i i . p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i i i . mental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i v . communicat ive a b i l i t i e s v . s o c i a l emot iona l behav iour f ) de termine a c h i l d ' s area o f s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses based on the r e s u l t s o f deve lopmental assessment g) de termine a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t i v e s based on the r e s u l t s o f deve lopmental assessment h) compare and e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s deve lopmental assessment in s t ruments 2. A t t i t u d e s / A f f e c t i v e area - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e to : a) deve lop an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f growth and development o f the young c h i l d to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and i t s importance i n working wi th the handicapped c h i l d b) demonstrate a c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e o f i n t e r e s t i n the problems o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n c) deve lop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the impact o f e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l hand icaps upon an i nd i v i dua1 d) develop an i n t e r e s t i n the w e l f a r e o f the handicapped and a r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o c i e t y ' s c h a l l e n g e to he lp them r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e) deve lop an awareness o f the need f o r deve lopmental assessment , b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and an e d u c a t i o n p 1 an V. S p e c i f i c Competencies - The s tudent shou ld be a b l e t o : 1. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e s o u r c e s o f development a) i n t e r n a l growth f a c t o r s b) e x t e r n a l growth f a c t o r s ( env ironmenta l e lements) 2. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the s i g n i f i c a n t h e r e d i t a r y terms: a) chromosomes b) genes c) zygo tes 230 d) embryonic p e r i o d of p r e n a t a l development e) f e t a l p e r i o d of p r e n a t a l development 3 . E x p l a i n the n a t u r e o f 1earninq 4. E x p l a i n the p e r t i n e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f development a) development i s an o r d e r l y p r o c e s s b) d i r e c t i o n o f growth: c e p h a l o - c a u d a l , p r o x i m o - d i s t a l c) a b a s i c p a t t e r n and sequence of development d) the i n c o n s t a n c y o f deve lopmental r a t e e) d i f f e r e n t p a r t s have t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s and sequences o f development f> p r o c e s s e s o f d i f f e r e n t i at i o n , i n t e q r a t i o n , h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n 5. E x p l a i n the n o t i o n o f c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s o f l e a r n i n g and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e to development 6. E x p l a i n the scope of the p r o f e s s i o n a l area o f e d u c a t i o n commonly r e f e r r e d to as "educat ion o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n " or " s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " 7. S t a t e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each type o f except i o n a l i ty 8. D i f f e r e n t i a t e / d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t e r - and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a 1 d i f f e r e n c e s wi th s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 9. I d e n t i f y the p r e v a l e n c e o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n Canada 10. D e f i n e the term c e r e b r a l p a l s y 11. Name and d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the v a r i o u s forms of c e r e b r a l p a l s y a) s p a s t i c b) a t h e t o i d c) a t a x i c 18. S t a t e a d e f i n i t i o n o f e p i l e p s y 13. D e f i n e the motor d i s o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s p i n a b i f i d a 14. D e f i n e the term o r t h o p e d i c a l l y handicapped 15. D e f i n e the term v i s u a l impairment lb. D i f f e r e n t i a t e between the term " v i s u a l impairment", "b1indness", and " v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n problem" 17. E x p l a i n l e a r n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s which r e s u l t from absent or l i m i t e d v i s u a l input 831 18. E x p l a i n common o b s e r v a b l e behav iour among c h i l d r e n which may i n d i c a t e v i s u a l hand icaps 19. I d e n t i f y the more common v i s u a l hand icaps found among s c h o o l c h i l d r e n 20. De f ine the f o l l o w i n g terms: a) deaf b) deafened c> h e a r i n g impa ired 81 . Name s e v e r a l means o f i n f o r m a l t e s t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n with a u d i t o r y handicaps 88. I d e n t i f y the common causes o f h e a r i n g d e f e c t s and t h e i r g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n : a) p r e n a t a l causes b) c o n d i t i o n at b i r t h c) p o s t n a t a l causes 83. D i s t i n g u i s h between the two major types o f h e a r i n g def ec t s : a) c o n d u c t i v e b) s e n s o r i - n e u r a 1 84. I d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l development o f deaf c h i l d r e n ; i n t e l l i g e n c e , degree o f d e a f n e s s , age o f onset 25. E x p l a i n the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r a i n i n g o f d i f f e r e n t degrees o f h e a r i n g l o s s 26. I d e n t i f y the e d u c a t i o n a l problems which a m i l d - t o - m o d e r a t e h e a r i n g l o s s imposes upon a c h i l d 27. I d e n t i f y c o r r e c t approaches to t e a c h i n g speech and language to the deaf ( o r a l and manual method) 28. S t a t e a d e f i n i t i o n o f mental r e t a r d a t i o n 29. E x p l a i n the common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f MR c h i l d r e n : a) m e d i c a l - b i o 1 o g i c a l b) s o c i a 1-psycho 1ogica1 c) e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 30. I d e n t i f y the d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ch i 1 d r e n 31. E x p l a i n the importance o f c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s as an i n f l u e n c e i n r e t a r d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l development 32. D e s c r i b e and i d e n t i f y g e n e t i c causes o f MR: a) b i o c h e m i c a l d i s o r d e r s b) chromosomal a b n o r m a l i t i e s 232 33. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e p r e n a t a l causes o f MR: a) rube l1 a b) rh f a c t o r 34. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e p e r i n a t a l causes o f MR: a) a s p h y x i a 35. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e p o s t n a t a l causes o f MR: a) e n c e p h a l i t i s b) m e n i n g i t i s 36. D e f i n e the f i e l d of s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g : a) the p r o f e s s i o n a l language e s s e n t i a l to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f i e l d , and b) the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the s e v e r a l approaches and the r e l a t e d r e m e d i a l p r o c e d u r e s 37. E x p l a i n the range o f l i m i t a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d as s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s 38. D e s c r i b e how speech d i s o r d e r s occur among c h i l d r e n commonly c l a s s i f i e d i n o ther handicapped g r o u p s , such as CP, the h e a r i n g h a n d i c a p p e d , and the r e t a r d e d 39. E x p l a i n the n a t u r e o f s t u t t e r i n g , i t s p r o b a b l e c a u s e s , and t h e r a p e u t i c approaches to l e s s e n i t s impact 40. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the most p r e v a l e n t a r t i c u l a t o r y d i s o r d e r s : a) s u b s t i t u t i o n s b) o m i s s i o n s c ) d i s t o r t i o n s d) a d d i t i o n s 41. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the most p r e v a l e n t v o c a l d i s o r d e r s : a) p h o n a t i o n b) resonance c) voca1 p i t c h d) loudness o f v o i c e 4E. 43, 44 , E x p l a i n the m u l t i s e n s o r y approaches D e f i n e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e c a t e g o r i e s o f adjustment a) emot iona l d i s t u r b a n c e b) s o c i a l maladjustment between the prob1ems: and two broad I d e n t i f y the broad range o f adjustment problems c l a s s i f i e d as behav iour d i s o r d e r s 45. I d e n t i f y major b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n complex emot iona l behav iour d i s o r d e r s : E33 a) autism b) s c h i z o p h r e n i a c) a n x i e t y Understand the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n with such d i s o r d e r s I d e n t i f y major f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to behaviour d i s o r d e r s and ways i n which the school may a s s i s t i n reducing the impact of these f a c t o r s E34 Knowledge o f the more p r o m i s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g f o r s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g o f c h i l d r e n with behav iour d i s o r d e r s E35 APPENDIX B E36 VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE LANGARA CAMPUS EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION SPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICUM ASSESSMENT NAME REG. NO DATE OF PRACTICUM EARLY CHILDHOOD CENTRE NO. OF CHILDREN AGE OF CHILDREN T h i s e v a l u a t i o n form at tempts to i d e n t i f y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s tudent teacher bahav iour that are c o n s i d e r e d fundamental to the c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e on the f o l l o w i n g pages those competencies that you f e e l the s tudent has /hasnot a c q u i r e d i n h i s / h e r p a r c t i c u m i n your c e n t r e ( s p e c i f i c expamles where p o s s i b l e ) . It would be h e l p f u l i f you c o u l d d i s c u s s the s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s on an on—going b a s i s throughout the p r a c t i c u m . E37 I . ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION SKILLS 1. Shows the a b i l i t y to c o n s t r u c t and e v a l u a t e i n f o r m a l d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s i n b a s i c - s k i l l areas M VS S F NP a) p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r development b) s o c i a l emot iona l development c) language development d) i n t e l l e c t u a l development E . Shows knowledge o f and i s a b l e to i n t e r p r e formal s t a n d a r d i z e d and formal d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s i n b a s i c s k i l l areas M VG G F NP a) p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r b) spoken language c) r e c e p t i v e language d) i n t e l l e c t u a l development COMMENTS: E38 PROFESSIONALISM M o t i v a t e s e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n by p r o v i d i n g a model who i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l exper i e n c e . Is dependable and t rus tworthy and r e l i e s on o t h e r s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e -M- -VG G- 3. Is r e c e p t i v e to c r i t i c i s m and suggest ions 4 . E x h i b i t s p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s such as a sense o f humor and emot iona l s t a b i l i t y and m a t u r i t y 5 . Assumes i n i t i a t i v e i n program p l a n n i n g m a t e r i a l s 6. Deve lops c r e a t i v i t y i n working with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n 7. P r o v i d e s f o r a p o s i t i v e c la s sroom environment by i n t e r a c t i n g and comm- u n i c a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y with c h i l d r e n COMMENTS: (p l ease i n c l u d e any s p e c i f i c recommendations or s u g g e s t i o n s that you have r e g a r d i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s o f the p r a c t i c u m s tudent ) 239 I I I . CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE M VG G F NP 1. C o n t r o l s and m o d i f i e s t h e b a h a v i o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n i n a c t i n g o u t s i t u a t i o n s E. U s e s s e l e c t e d r e i n f o r c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s e f f e c t i v e l y 3. A p p l i e s a v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n c h a n g i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e b a h a v i o u r t o more a c c e p t a b l e c h i l d r e s p o n s e s 4. U s e s a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l s t r a t e g i e s i n r e d u c i n g d i s r u p t i v e b e h av i o u r 5. P l a n s and c a r r i e s o u t a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n h. P r o m o t e s p o s i t i v e p e e r r e a 1 t i o n s h i p s by i n t e r v e n i n g when s o c i a l d e f i c i t s a r e a p p a r e n t COMMENTS: ( p l e a s e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e s t u d e n t i n m a n a g i n g c o n f l i c t c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . Use s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s where a p p r o p r i a t e ) E40 IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT, PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION M VG G F NP 1. Knows the components o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n p l a n (IEP) and sees that the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s are implemented s. Helps o r g a n i z e and p l a n a c t i v i t i e s based upon IEP recommended s t r a t e g i e s and p r o c e d u r e s 3 . W r i t e s b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and p l a n s a c c o r d i n g l y 4. P l a n s and c a r r i e s our a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to i n d i v i d u a l deve lopmenta l l e v e l s a) ART ( c r e a t i v e and age appropr i a te) b) MUSIC c) MOVEMENT (outdoor and indoor) d) LITERATURE ( s t o r i e s , books , poems, E T C . ) e) LANGUAGE ( o r a l , v o c a b u l a r y , l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g , r e a d i n e s s , p r i n t , e tc . > f ) SCIENCE, S O C . S T . and MATH ( a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o p r a i t e to deve lopmental l e v e l s and i n congruence with c e n t r e themes and p l a n s 5. P l a n s as p a r t o f the c e n t r e team 6. Communicates p l a n s f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n advance 7. A c c e p t s c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g from sponsor teacher COMMENTS: (p l ease d i s c u s s and e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s a c t i v i t i e s r e : a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , thoroughness o f p l a n n i n g , t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , E41 d e l i v e r y ^ m o t i v a t i o n a l s k i l l s and management of the group during the a c t i v i t y ) 242 ASSESSMENT OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES PLANNED AND IMPLEMENTED BY THE STUDENT ART: MUSIC: PSYCHO-MOTOR: LANGUAGE: SPECIFIC STRENGTHS OF STUDENT: E43 SPECIFIC LIMITATIONS ( I F ANY) OF STUDENT: OTHER COMMENTS: Sponsor Teacher P r a c t icum Superv i sor Student LEGEND M - Mastery VG- Very Good G - Good F - F a i r NP- Needs P r a c t i c e 2 4 »

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