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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Early childhood : special education McKenzie, Patricia Jay 1987-12-31

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EARLY CHILDHOOD : SPECIAL EDUCATION By PATRICIA JAY MCKENZIE B. Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1987 <£) Patricia Jay McKenzie, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of j£/^J^^^^Z^T?/!^ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6G/81) ABSTRACT This study examines the growth and development of a program for the preparation of special education teachers in Early Childhood Education, Following an overview of historical perspectives in Early Childhood and Special Education, including international influences, models which would aid in the development of such a program are discussed. The Provincial Child Care Facilities Licensing Board and the Ministry of Education, of British Columbia expressed a wish for the development of post-basic special education programs in Early Childhood Education and their willingness to fund several programs in the province. Their critieria and support is included in a description of the development, implementation and evaluation of the Early Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education Program at Vancouver Community College? Langara Campus. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to provide information on the development of such a program and to examine the needs and possible future directions of teacher preparation in special education for Early Childhood Education. 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii LIST OF FIGURES iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v CHAPTER 1. HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION: A REVIEW 1 2. EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER PREPARATION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION: INFLUENCES FROM GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES 11 3. ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION IN CANADA 44 4. LEGISLATION, ISSUES AND MODELS IN TEACHER PREPARATION SO 5. POST BASIC COMPETENCIES AND THE PRACTICUM 133 6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM IN EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 146 CONCLUSION 212 BIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDICES A 227 B 236 iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Distribution of Centre Spaces, and Family Day Care Spaces by Year 71 2. An Integrative Model for Training Teachers of the Severely and Profoundly Retarded 123 3. Proficiency Modules in Multi-Level Preparation of Special Education Personnel.... ... 125 h. Cumulative Competency Development 129 5. Flow Chart 130 6. Skills Perceived to be Required for Teachers of Trainable Retarded Persons 136 7. Proposed Schedule of Courses for Early Childhood: Special Education 208 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to Dr. Glen Dixon, Dr. Vince D'Oyley and especially to Dr. Denis Milburn for his advice, assistance and enthusiasm during the course of this project. For their encouragement and their insights into the abilities of students and young children, I would like to thank Margery L. Thompson and Wanda Justice. I would also like to thank family and friends, especially Craig, Colin, Clark and Tracey for their encouragement and pat i ence. v CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION: A REVIEW The importance of education of the very young child is expressed as early as 400 B.C. by Plato. He states: "You know also that the beginning is the most important part of any work, especially in the case of the young and tender thing; for that is the time at which the character is being formed and the desired impression is more readily taken." (Ulich, 1971). John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) suggests, in The Great Didact ic in Chapter 17, 'Requisites for Easy Teaching and Learning', that instruction must begin early and before the mind is corrupted. Comenius believed: "It is the nature of everything that comes into being that while tender it is easily bent and formed, but that when it has grown hard, it is not easy to alter". (Ulrich, 1971) Braun and Edwards (1972) state that John Locke (1632-1704) has long been associated with the idea of the newborn child as 'tabula rasa' (empty slate), to be written on by training and circumstance. He imagines 'the minds of children to be as easily turned this way or that as water itself. Locke admonishes parents about being remiss in educating their children at the proper season, 'when the minds of their children were most tender, most easily bowed'. (Ulich, 1971). Modern Piagetians would not agree with Locke. Jean Jaques Rousseau (171E-1778) believed that the child should be neither treated as an irrational animal, nor as a man, but simply as a child. Nature requires children to be children before they are men. "...the education of a man commences at his birth: before he can speak, before he can understand, he is already instructed. Experience is the forerunner of precept; the moment he knows the features of his nurse, he may be said to have acquired considerable knowledge." (Ulich, 1971). Rousseau dignifies the first five years of life as a stage in child development. His writings influenced society to begin thinking of childhood as a separate stage of development and children as children not merely as miniature adults. Austin (1976) states that Rousseau identified the period of childhood as special, not just an 'unimportant and wasteful stage through which the child must pass as quickly as possible on his way to becoming an adult.' Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was greatly influenced by the writings of Rousseau. His work represents a real beginning for Early Childhood Education. He actually taught young children. He described his methods of teaching in his books Leonard and  Gertrude (1781), How Gertrude Teaches Her Children (1801) and the Book for Mothers (1886). He practiced his methods in schools/ a orphanages at Neuhof (1774), Stanz (1798), Burgdorf (1800-1805) and Yverdun (1805-1825).(Braun and Edwards, 1972). Many educators from other countries in Europe came to observe Pestalozzi's schools and his methods of teaching young children. One of the many observers was Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel (1782-1852). Froebel is regarded as the founder and father of the Kindergarten. Ulich(1971) states that Froebel believed that 'childhood was not just a transition toward adulthood, and child's play not just a preparation for the activities of a mature person, but in themselves something complete and organic'. Froebel designed curriculum and methods of teaching specifically for the young child. His influence throughout Europe, the United States and Canada are well documented in Braun and Edwards (1972); Morrison, (1984); Spodek, (1973); and Austin<1976). Many of the Early Childhood educators of the 19th and early 20th Centuries were social reformers as well as educators. They were concerned with the physical and social deprivation of young children as well as their intellectual stimulation. Robert Owen(1771—1858), an English industrialist, became concerned with the plight of working children in the mines, mills and factories in Great Britain. Spodek(1973) states that Robert Owen originated the infant school, the institution of primary education in England. In the United Statesj Horace Mann was known as the 'Father of the Common School'. He believed that 3 'education, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men, the balance wheel of the social machinery'. (Braun and Edwards, 197S). Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) was a crusader in promoting health and education legislation for young children in Great Britain. She fought for medical inspection of school children. She was convinced that young children's health problems were often already too advanced to be remedied by the time they reached six years, the age of entry to the public school. Commited to a social responsibility for poor, unfortunate children, Margaret and her sister Rachel founded an open-air nursery school in the Deptford section of London. Rachel died three years after the opening of the nursery school but Margaret continued their work, training teachers, promoting nursery schools and writing political tracts in the defense of the welfare of young children until her own death in 1931. (Mansbridge, 1932). Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was the first female to graduate in and practice medicine in Italy. Early in her career as a physician, she began to study the diseases of the handicapped and became progressively more interested in the education of the handicapped young child. At odds with most of her professional contemporaries, she believed that mental deficiency was more of an educational than a medical one. (Costelloe, 1967). Montessori's ideas on education of the feeble-minded became widely known throughout Europe and North America. A state institution was established in Rome for the education of the 4 mentally retarded and Dr. Montessori served as its director for two years. From the very beginning of her work with mentally handicapped children? Montessori felt that her methods contained educational principles that were universal and could be applied to the teaching of normal children. She was very impressed and greatly influenced by the works of Itard and Seguin before her. Montessori states: "For two years...I carried on my experiments in educating defective children in Rome. I followed the suggestions I found in Seguins book and also discovered that Itard's admirable experiments were a veritable treasure. In addition to this, following the lead of these authors, I had a rich stock of teaching material made for my use. This material, which I did not see complete in any other institution, proved to be of excellent assistance in the hands of anyone who knew how to use it, though left by itself it was passed over unnoticed by deficient children." (Costelloe, 1967). Montessori set out very definite criteria for those who would teach young children by the 'Montessori Method'. She states in her, The Discovery of the Child, (Costelloe, 1967) that the principle agent in the education of children, is the object itself and not the instruction given by the teacher. It is the child who is active, and not the teacher. She is convinced the competent teacher must have a good knowledge of child development and she must be well acquainted with the materials. The teacher is primarily an observer and a student of human development, rather than a lecturer and shaper of behaviour. 5 Interest in Montessori's successful innovative program for young children spread through Europe and ultimately to North America. She extended her school and began to develop teacher training programs in the 'Montessori Method'. An international movement developed, with Montessori schools established throughout the world and teacher training programs offered in many countries under the direct supervision of Maria Montessori and/or the international and national Montessori associations. The extreme interest in Montessori's methods and materials in the United States was short lived with the peak between 1909 and 1915. Hunt (1964) gives an in depth accounting of the reasons for the sudden interest in the 'Montessori Method' and the reasons for its equally sudden rejection by professional educators and child psychologists in the United States. However controversial Montessori's ideas, methods, materials, curriculum and teacher training have been for three quarters of a century, they have helped to establish the importance of Early Childhood Education, opened the possibilities for the education of handicapped children and emphasized the need for education and training of those who would work with young ch i1dren. From the 18th well into the 20th Century these philosophers, medical professionals, psychologists, educators and social reformers were interested in the physical, social and mental well being of young children. Although they were often diverse in 6 their methods of study and reasons for commitment to the welfare of the young child, they all have contributed to the birth of Early Childhood Education curriculum, methods of teaching, and teacher training as legitimate fields of study and practice. Montessori'5 work with exceptional children reflected attitudes that had been developing for more than a century. By the early 18th Century attitudes toward the handicapped were beginning to change, Hardman et.al. (1984) state that John Locke (1632-1704) an English philosopher, distinguished between mental retardation and mental illness and Phillipe Pinel (1724-1825), a French physician, believed that idiocy could be treated through educational intervention. He advocated individualized intervention, sensory stimulation and systematic instruction of the mentally retarded. Jean Mark Itard (1175-1838) a French physician, who was an authority on diseases of the ear and the education of the deaf, undertook treatment to alter the behavior of a fourteen year old boy who had been found near Aveyron, France. His work was one of the first documented efforts of treatment for a 'special' child. The sensory stimulation techniques he used gave impetus to a movement toward the education and training of the mentally hand i capped. 7 Itard advocated a developmental approach to instruction, individual instruction, sensory stimulation, a systematic progression from concrete to abstract concepts and a development of self-help skills to enable the individual to function independently. (Hardman et.al., 1984; Berdine and Blackhurst, 1981). His methods of education are recognized as the basis for the education of exceptional children today. Suran and Rizzo (1983) suggest that Itard's account is, perhaps, the first documentation in history in which we experience an adult's attempt to understand the mind and emotions of a handicapped child. Edouard Seguin (1818 - 1880) was a student of Itard's at the National Institute for the Deaf in Paris. Cole (1959) states that Seguin's main concern was those 'sad creatures at the bottom of the human scale, the idiots'. He opened a small school for the retarded in Paris and after he had worked for five years with the mentally retarded, a commission of the Parisian Academy of Sciences examined his pupils and reported that he had 'solved' the problems of educating the mentally retarded. Professionals from many countries came to visit his centre and stayed to be trained by Seguin as teachers of the mentally retarded. Seguin's text, Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological Method, was published in 1842. His methods included first motor education, then tactile experiences to train the three senses of touch, taste and smell? then hearing through music and finally sight. In 1848 he emigrated to the United States where, in Syracuse, New 8 York in 1854* he assisted in establishing the first residential facility for the mentally retarded in America. (Hardman et.al., 1984). He worked with Samuel Gridley Howe, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and other American educators, and wrote several books describing his methods and the materials he used. He worked with mentally retarded children continuing to refine his methods until his death in 1880 (Suran, Rizzo, 1983). Alfred Binet, born in Nice in 1857, studied law, medicine and psychology in Paris. In 1904, he began to investigate improvements for the teaching of the deaf and the mentally retarded. From this endeavour he devised his first scale for the measurement of intelligence. Binet's main objective in his research was to determine individual differences in all areas of human development. In controlled laboratory situations he was able to standardize his intelligence tests. Although he used the tests to measure intelligence, he emphasized the belief that no test could take the place of accurate individual observations. He insisted the more complete and direct observations of a child should be the main method of assessment. (Cole, 1959). His scale of intelligence measurement and his testing methods have been the models for later individual and group testing and have had a profound influence on the testing and assessment of children in the EOth Century especially in North America. Louis Braille (1809 - 185S) lost his vision through an accident as a young child. As a result he was enrolled as a 9 student at the National Institute for the Blind in Paris and after he graduated, he stayed on at the Institute as an instructor. It was at this time that he developed his system of embossed six dot code cell writing to enable the blind to read. Braille's literary code for the blind was published in 1854. Itard, Seguin, Binet and Braille lived and practiced in Paris. Cole (1959) states, "It should be noted that the French contributed more to the education of handicapped children than any other country. One Frenchman invented the sign language, another the raised alphabet; a third devised the only successful method for training extreme defectives, and a fourth constructed the first scale of intelligence by which mental defect could be proved and its degree measured. The first successful schools for deaf, blind, and defective children were all opened in Paris." Such examples of 'cultural borrowing' are not unusual and, as will be seen in Chapters II and III, have been very influential in the development of Education in Canada. 10 CHAPTER S EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER TRAINING IN SPECIAL EDUCATION: INFLUENCES FROM GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA So much of the educational heritage of Canada has been influenced by the British and American systems that we shall look in general at some of those influences which have affected the development of education, training practices for teachers, programs for young children and legislation pertaining to the young and/or special child. For the thousand years before the Reformation, the Church controlled absolutely and was, almost exclusively, the provider of all organized education in Britain. All teachers were licensed by the bishops, and with few exceptions the teachers were also clerks in the orders of the Church. Dent (1977) states that the Church claimed a monopoly in education, and though its power was occasionally disputed from the twelfth century onward, in practice it was most effectively maintained. Near the close of the eighteenth century, philanthropic organizations began to fund the teaching of the poor to read. Dent (1977) suggests that at least in and about London each parish had its own school. These weekday, charity schools faced two obstacles: lack of sufficient funding and a scarcity of competent teachers. The schools tried to overcome the obstacles by employing one or two adult teachers who were paid from monies raised by the voluntary 11 societies. Most of the classes were supervised by 'monitors' who were older children charged with the teaching of younger children. Some of these ' monitors' were as young as thirteen and had as many as sixty children under their care. (Hyndman, 1978). Although many new schools were established and maintained under the 'monitorial system'? there were never enough schools to satisfy the needs of the population. Demands were raised again and again for financial aid from public funds. "Finally, with success, in 1833 the House of Commons was induced to grant the sum of 20,000 to assist the National and British Societies to build schools. The grant...in 1839 was increased to 30,000. In that year the Government created an Education Committee of the Privy Council to supervise the distribution and use of what had become an annual grant, and the newly-formed committee at once claimed the right to inspect all grant-aided schools. Such were the modest beginnings in England of State intervention in public schools." (Dent, 1977). Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, the first secretary of the new committee, tried to expand the curriculum of the schools beyond the 3 R's and provided subsidies to teacher training colleges. The first state grants towards teacher training and the building of normal schools were made available in 1835 on the condition that the committee would have the right of inspection. Hyndman (1978), suggests that Kay-Shuttleworth created a continuous, state-financed process by which a thirteen year old in an inspected school could become a pupi1-teacher for five years, then attend college for one, two or three years subsidized by government funds. However, as late as 1898 less than half of the 12 female teachers and less than three quarters of the male teachers in the nation had any college training. The Elementary Education Act of 1870 did not guarantee a state supported education system, but it did empower the government to support and maintain schools in areas where philanthropic societies were not involved in providing schools. By 1880 attendance at elementary school was compulsory, and by 1891 the government was paying compensatory grants to schools that had discontinued charging fees. Total abolition of fees in elementary schools was not realized until 1918. (Dent, 1977). Day training colleges were funded by the Education Department for the first time in 1890. At first the day colleges were criticized, but it was soon realized that these colleges had many advantages for the future teacher. The plan was that students would be able to pursue their studies within a university or college and the segregation of student teachers that had been a part of the residential college programs, would no longer be a factor. It was felt that the universities had a wider concept of teacher training. Curtis and Boultwood (1960) suggest that they (the universities) attached great value to forming the outlook of the student, and they realized that the study of the philosophy, history, and psychology of education offered great possibilities in extending the teachers' understanding of their pupils. 13 A.J. Balfour was elected Prime Minister in 190E. Under his direction Robert Morant planned the Education Act of 1902. The act made monies from local tax assessments available to 'voluntary' schools and created Local Education Authorities (LEA's) who were responsible to County Councils who were, in turn, responsible to a central authority under the Board of Education. The L.E.A.'s were given the power to establish county and municipal teacher training colleges. By 1921, a four year course became the norm for university training departments. The first three years were spent in degree studies and the fourth year in a professional training year. The colleges offered one, two or three year training programs. By 1938 there were twenty-eight colleges supported by local authorities.(Curtis & Boultwood, 1960). The Beginning of Early Childhood Education in Great Britain From the early 1800's the infant school in Britain had been a reality, partly due to the pressures of the Industrial Revolution on both parents in a family to work, and partly due to legislation which regulated the ages when children might start to work. The concept of Early Childhood Education in Britain originated with Robert Owen (1771-1858), who established the first infant school in New Lanark, Scotland in 1816.(Spodek, 1973) His school enrolled children from the ages of two to twelve. Owen was especially concerned with the work of children under the age of six and he stressed the importance of the early 14 years of life in the education of the child. Lawrence (1961) states that through his efforts and those of his supporters infant schools were opened in London and elsewhere. These schools, specifically for infants, were established first by charitable organizations, and by the middle of the 19th Century, with the help of government aid. The Home and Colonial Society was founded in 1837 for the purpose of training infant-school teachers. The Society felt that the teaching of young children required a different approach than the teaching of older children. The influence of Froebel's Kindergarten Methods began to be felt in Britain in the 1850's. There were many pioneers in the Froebelian movement in Britain amongst whom were: Johann and Bertha Ronge, Baroness von Maren-ho1tz-Bulow and the Reverend Muirhead Mitchell who was convinced that infant school teachers should be differently selected and have a different training than the teachers of older children. (Smith, 1961). As a result of the pioneers lecturing on the positive aspects of the new kindergarten movement and establishing infant schools and training programs for young women to teach in the schools, Froebelian methods began to spread throughout Britain. The Froebel Society was formed in 1874-75 and through its members influenced the training and certification of Kindergarten teachers and the development of the Kindergarten movement. (Austin, 1976). In 1857 the Council of the Home and Colonial 15 Society? that was responsible for certifying infant school teachers, invited a noted Froebelian, Heinrich Hoffman, to direct the studies of two of their institutions for training teachers in Froebelian Methods. In light of the child study movement led by B. Stanley Hall and the influence of such educators as John Dewey, progressive Froebelians began to reform their methods with regard to the new discoveries and theories in child psychology and learning theory. Dr. Maria Montessori first visited Britain in 1912 and received a great deal of attention from the press. Smith (1961) states that teachers learned to combine the group work of the Froebe1-Dewey school with the greater attention to the individuality of each child insisted upon by Dr. Montessori, and the knowledge that, in sense training and in acquiring basic skills, children should be left to make their own individual progress. Rachel and Margaret McMillan were the two educators most closely associated with the development of the nursery school in Britain. Margaret, as an elected member of the Bradford School Board, campaigned for school baths, medical inspection and a scheme for feeding school children. She undertook the establishment of the Rachel McMillan Training College in 1917. The college offered a one year training course for already certified teachers and a three year program for women wishing to specialize as nursery school teachers. The students had many opportunities to work with children in nursery schools and the infant departments of elementary schools. The academic 16 curriculum was patterned after Froebelian training. Her work with underprivileged children was known and respected internationally. The international importance of the training school was indicated by the fact that since its inception) students from India, Egypt, America, Sweden and Poland had been in residence. (Mansbridge, 193E). Her advocacy for young children was politically influential. As an example Robert Morant had a clause inserted in the Education Bill of 1907 which became law the same year. The Bill made medical inspection of children in the public supported elementary schools a duty of the local authorities and it also gave the L.E.A.'s the power of treatment of these children. It was the beginning of the school medical service and opened the possibility for early detection of children in need of 'special' education. <Eaglesham, 1967). Rachel McMillan's involvement in the training of teachers of young children and in the provision of centres for young children influenced other educators to follow suit and develop training specifically for Early Childhood educators. "With the growth of the (nursery school) movement, other colleges made provision for training specifically for nursery schools. The National Froebel Union examined for a Nursery School Diploma between 193E and 1939, after which, provision was made in the ordinary Teacher's Certificate for examining candidates trained for nursery school work." (Lawrence, 1961). In 19E5, an Education Departmental Committee, under the chairmanship of Lord Burnham, reported on the training of 17 teachers. Although trained certified teachers now formed the majority of practicing teachers, there were still non-trained certificated teachers, uncertificated and supplementary teachers who were officially recognized. The committee suggested that uncertificated teachers who wished to continue teaching take a course of academic study and professional training for at least one year and the appointment of supplementary teachers should cease. Most of the recognized supplementary teachers were women who were employed in infant schools in rural areas. Their only qualifications were that they had reached the age of eighteen, possessed a good moral character and had been vaccinated. (Curtis & Boultwood, 1960). Although the major concerns of legislation passed in the Education Acts of the British Parliament in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries had not been concerned specifically with the Early Childhood Education of the exceptional child, the legislation did influence indirectly the status of the education of young and exceptional children and their teachers. Special Education in Britain Some progress toward a universal education system with equality for all children was made during the first forty years of the twentieth century, but it was the appointment of the McNair Committee by the Board of Education in 194E and the Committee's report, which became the basis for the Education Act 18 of 1944 that proposed and supported drastic changes in the British education system. Previous to the 1944 Act the L.E.A.'s were responsible to make special provision only for those children who were unable to attend the public schools because of some mental or physical defect. Their responsibility applied only to children who were five years or older and was limited to five groups of handicapped children: the blind, the deaf, the physically handicapped, the mentally defective and the epileptic. (Dent, 1977). There were provisions in the new Act that were specifically directed to the preschool child and to all children with special needs. Compulsory education was to begin at the age of five, but the L.E.A.'s were required to give special attention to the need for nursery schools and centres for children under the age of five. They were required to secure free medical and dental treatment for all children between the ages of two and eighteen. They were required to give particular attention to the needs of children suffering from any disability of mind or body. They must ascertain which children in their districts required special educational treatment, because of disabilities, and provide appropriate educational treatment for them. Quince (1958) suggests that in 1944 probably no one thought that the section of the community that would profit the most from the new education act would be young children with physical and mental handicaps, but such in fact has been the case. 19 In 1954 it became national policy that: "handicapped children shall be educated in the ordinary schools unless their disability renders this impractical or undesirable. So far as possible, handicapped children are to be educated along with ordinary children, so that they may participate in the normal life of society. Special education and treatment in Britain is provided in: ordinary schools, special day schools, residential schools, special classrooms in hospitals and on a one to one basis to some children in hospital or at home...Just as it is national policy that, wherever practicable a handicapped child shall be educated in an ordinary school, so it is policy that, where a special school is necessary, a day school is preferable if it offers a satisfactory and practical solution. Whenever possible handicapped children are not to be deprived of home life. Boarding special schools and boarding homes for handicapped pupils are to be 'reserved for those cases where there is no satisfactory alternative solution'." (Circular E7, Provision of Special Schools, June E5, 1954). From 1944 to 1971, (when education of the severely sub-normal children was included in the responsibilities of the L.E.A.'s), the number of special schools in Britain had doubled. The range of educational delivery had broadened to include from Dinnington Lodge the first residential Nursery school for the deaf, to the first residential training unit for severely sub-normal spastic children at Berkshire and Meldreth Training School in Cambridge, to wholly integrated classes in the public school system. (Dent, 1977). EO There was a great increase in the school population in Britain following World War II and a shortage of teachers to fill the classroom spaces. The teacher shortage affected the expansion of educational facilities for children under the age of five. Austin (1976) quotes Circular E80 of the Ministry of Education) "the Ministry will expect the admission of children under five to be restricted or prohibited where their admission would stand in the way of a reduction in the size of over-large classes (for children over 5)". This policy was formalized in 1960 when the Ministry imposed almost a total ban on the expansion of maintained or direct grant nursery education. The reasons given for this ban were twofold; the shortage of teachers and the concentration of attention} money and educational talent on extending the school leaving age form 15 to 16 years. The Plowden Report: Children and Their Primary Schools (1967) was in opposition to the stance of the Ministry of Education. Austin (1976) states that one of the key recommendations of the report was to have a large expansion of nursery education for two thirds of all the 3 and 4 year olds. It also recommended that at least fifteen per cent of these children should be attending full day programs, and that there should be priorities set as to the number and location of new places available based on a policy of 'positive discrimination'. "As a matter of national policy, 'positive discrimination' should favour schools in neighbourhoods where children are most severely handicapped by home conditions. The El program should be phased to make schools in the most deprived areas as good as the best in the country. For this, it may be necessary that their claim on resources should be maintained." (Plowden Report, 1967, p .66) In 1972 a Department of Education and Science White Paper was published that stated that the concept of 'positive discrimination' would be seriously implemented. The government changed its policy to greatly increased its support for the expansion of Early Childhood Education especially in deprived areas of the country. Austin (1976) suggests that the major benefit of the new policy lay in the early identification of the needs of young children predominantly in the social, psychological and medical areas. In 197S the Department of Education and Science White Paper on Special Educational Needs (The Warnock Report) made some far reaching recommendations. It recommended the law be changed to abolish the system of special educational treatment for children on a categorical basis and that all initial teacher training have a special education component. It underlined the need for more resources to be spent on the expansion of nursery education for children with special needs, more parent input into and control over their exceptional child's program and placement, and that a National Advisory Committee on Children with Special Educational Needs be formed. Although the Education Act of 1981 was the first legislation wholly concerned with the range of special education in England and Wales and many of the Warnock recommendations became law, the Government did not support the 22 legislation with the required funds to implement all the areas effectively. There were no extra funds for expanding nursery education or monies allocated to teacher training institutions to expand or introduce new courses for teachers of children with special needs. Warnock was reported as commenting that unless provision were made for extra teacher training the rest of the Report 'would not be worth tuppence'. (Peter, 1980). Warnock is not so critical of the Government's lack of financial support as she is of the training institutions to revamp and reorganize their programs. "It is impossible for the Government to put money in now and in a sense they do not need to do so if only the colleges and other training bodies would galvanize themselves. They could do a great deal if they would interest themselves more and there are signs that many of them are." (Warnock in Peter, 1980). Early Childhood Training Requirements and Certification in Br i ta i n In common with non-graduate teachers of other levels, the initial course for non-graduate nursery teachers, at present, consists of three years training in the theory and practice of education. College of education requirements are that students have reached the age of eighteen and have completed a minimum of five ordinary level high school courses, but the approach to teacher training in England since World War II has been to move, E3 as far as possible, to training for a degree in education. This process has applied equally in Early Childhood Education, and in the past decade increasingly so in courses dealing with exceptional children. Nevertheless, the policy for teacher training for the nursery school has not run parallel to teacher education in general. A repeated criticism of the Plowden Report has been that although it helped to revolutionize the approach to Primary Education in England and Wales, it virtually ignored the place of the Nursery schools in the educational system. Nursery training, courses are often combined with infant or infant/junior courses and as a result nursery teachers often have had experience in teaching older children. The students are required to take courses in theory and philosophy of education, administration, curriculum studies and at least one other area of study. They spend at least one block practicum a year, lasting several weeks, in the schools and they have added opportunities for one day observations of children and teachers in the field. Other teacher education options offered by training institutions include a four year Bachelor of Education Degree and a one year professional training course for post graduates. The majority of nursery school assistants are nursery nurses who have earned the Certificate of the National Nursery Examination Board (NNEB). These certificates are awarded when the students have completed a two year training course that includes the care of children from birth to seven years of age, courses in child growth and development, curriculum, health and academic electives related to E4 the field such as home and society? man and his environment? communications and the creative arts. Practicum placements are spent in L.E.A. or Social Service establishments. Students have opportunities to visit and observe the practical side of the care of children in hospitals as well. Colleges offer in service and refresher courses? and courses designed to train nursery school assistants to encourage the language of young children? to care for children with special needs? and to work with children of ethnic minority groups. <Clift et.al.? 1980). In Britain? the role of the nursery school teacher is seen as one in which the teacher is responsible for encouraging healthy growth and development of children between the ages of two and five? of identifying and alleviating (through referral to specialists where necessary) physical and psychological impairments and as supporting and counselling parents. Many nursery teachers are the leaders of teams? and in addition to their work with children in their care? they must also have skills in diagnoses? counselling and leadership. Early Childhood Education in the United States Early Childhood Education in the United States? from its beginnings in the 19th Century? has been considered a means toward social change. When the Kindergarten was introduced? it survived mainly supported by philanthropic organizations long E5 before it became a part of the public school systems. The great influx of immigrants in the 1800's found it difficult to assimilate and were slow to accept and be able to afford American ideals and standards of living. Each ethnic group that arrived tended to gravitate to people with similar backgrounds in the large cities where jobs were more available. Because of the poverty and close living quarters? the densely populated areas became sources of disease, crime, delinquency and centres for problems which America was not prepared to meet. Braun and Edwards (1972) suggest that society turned to the young child as the one great hope for America's future and kindergartens were opened under religious and philanthropic support in many centres in the United States. Some of the kindergartens were located in the worst slums of the cities 'where young well educated women taught with enthusiasm and commitment to the cause of social change'. "Both kindergarteners and philanthropic boards soon saw the need of the ministrations of the physician, the nurse , the social worker or the visiting teacher. Funds were so low that the kindergartener taught in the morning and spent her afternoons as a socia 1-we1fare worker ... seeking work for the unemployed parents, space in hospitals for ill mothers, sisters or brothers, searching for physicians who would remove adenoids and tonsils or dentists who would extract diseased teeth free of charge...at this period the kindergarten was frequently the only social agency offering a helping hand in the rapidly-increasing slums." (Braun and Edwards, 1972). 26 Because the philanthropic organizations always had a struggle financially supporting the kindergartens, they began to put pressure on public school boards to accept the kindergartens into the public school systems. First they requested the use of vacant rooms in the public schools rent free, then they persuaded many boards of education to accept responsibility for the full operating expenses of the programs. The kindergartens soon became an accepted member of the public school system. As the kindergarten became a part of the public school system, the ratio of children to teacher was greatly increased and to reduce costs and reach a greater number of children the double session was introduced. Braun and Edwards (1972), state that this plan eliminated all welfare work formerly done by the kindergartener in the afternoon such as home visiting, medical and clinical cooperation, and various other forms of parental guidance and assi stance. Early Childhood began as an accepted field of study in the United States in the 1920's. Researchers such as G. Stanley Hall, J. McVicker Hunt, William H. Kilpatrick, Lawrence Frank, and Arnold Gesell emphasized and created interest in the growth and development of the young child. Practitioners such as Patty Smith Hill, Abigail Elliot, Susan Blow, Harriet Johnson, Eva McLin and many others from a variety of disciplines were interested in the care and education of the young child, and were helpful in raising the concern of the public at large. 27 The first recorded nursery school in the United States was started by a group of faculty wives at the University of Chicago at the turn of the century. The second was directed by Eva McLin in New York city in 1915. In 1919, Harriet Johnson, a nurse, established the Bank Street Nursery School and Patty Smith Hill helped to initiate a laboratory nursery school at Columbia Teacher's College. In 1922 in Boston, The Ruggles Street nursery school was started by Abigail Elliot, a social worker. In the same year Edna Noble White began a nursery school in Detroit, Michigan which had as its primary objective the training of young women in the art of child care. In spite of the efforts of the pioneer researchers and practitioners the growth of the nursery school movement was slow. In 1924 a list compiled in the Twenty-eight Yearbook of the National Society for the study of education, showed only twenty-eight nursery schools in eleven states. (Braun and Edwards, 1972, Morrison, 19S4). There were three spurts of growth in the field of Early Childhood in the U.S., one in the 1930's, one in the 1940's and one in the 1960's. Support for Early Childhood has been given to fill the needs of society as a whole not always to further the education of young children alone. During the depression many public school teachers were out of work and to secure jobs for these teachers the federal government provided funding through the Work Projects Administration to start nursery schools throughout the United States. As well as providing jobless teachers with work, it was hoped that nursery schools would help 28 to combat physical and mental handicaps being imposed upon young children because of the conditions of poverty caused by the depression. Through the W.P.A. efforts nursery schools became widely recognized in the U.S., and by 1933 there were in excess of 2,000 nursery schools throughout the country. (Braun & Edwards, 1972). In the 1940's many day cares and nursery schools were established with federal funding to support mothers who were working in ship and airplane building factories. The Kaiser Child Care Centres were excellent examples of the programs available for children and their families during World War II. It was hoped by Early Childhood educators like James Hymes that the war time centres would be an example for Early Childhood centres in the post war period. "But perhaps most buoying is the hope each teacher has here in Portland, ground is being broken for a vast postwar development in nursery education. There is the vision that perhaps the Kaiser answer to a wartime problem can show the way to a country's answer to similar peacetime needs. This experiment in cooperation may lead other industries, other communities to provide similar facilities." (Hymes, 1944). However following the war many of the centres were closed and federal funding diminished drastically. In the 1960's, once again there was a general interest in Early Childhood Education. This time it was felt that Early Childhood Education could help alleviate the great discrepancies 29 between children of families suffering from poverty and middle class children in America. The premise was that if the cognitive abilities of disadvantaged children could be stimulated there would be much stronger possibilities for their success in the public schools of the nation, and hopefully the poverty cycle could begin to disappear. In 1964 the United States Federal Government passed the Economic Opportunity Act. Under the Act the Office of Economic Opportunity was created and out of this office came Project Head Start. Once again the federal government directed funds to Early Childhood Education, this time through the Head Start Program. The program was officially announced in January of 1965 and was in operation on a nation wide basis by the summer of that year. Head Start Programs in order to receive funding, were required to have health services, an educational component, social services, parent involvement on a salaried or volunteer basis, the use of volunteers and a training component. These services were delivered in five half-day or whole -day programs, planned, developed and implemented by local agencies to fit the needs of children and parents of the community they served. In spite of the amount of money spent and the effort put forth by the many Early Childhood Educators in the program, James Hymes (1969) suggests that of the estimated 1,193,000 young children at each age level who come from poor families and are 30 presumably stunted in their development because of the wretched conditions of their home and community? only about half are reached by some kind of Early Childhood program. The belief in the ability of Early Childhood Education to make an important difference in the lives of young children resulted ultimately in the creation of the Head Start Program as a part of the War of Poverty in 1964 and 1965. It was hoped by the original authors of the legislation that important changes in the ability of poor children to succeed in the primary grades would take place as a result of Early Childhood intervention. In the 20 years from 1965 onward there has been a substantial growth in preschool programs and a large proportion of the growth has been for children with special needs. Special needs in the American context encompasses children who because of their poverty may suffer from delayed growth in all areas of development not only those children who are unable to manage in the school system because of a genetic physical or mental hand icap. Special Education in the United Sates of America The education of exceptional children began in the early 19th Century in the United States. Although much of the initial work with exceptional children was accomplished in Europe? American educators studied the progress being made there and many of them travelled to Europe to study the new methods first hand. 31 Reynolds and Birch (1977) suggest that formal arrangements for the education of exceptional children in the United States can be divided into four periods of progress: 19th Century residential care, early EOth Century community day schools, 1940's to 1970's special classes in the public schools, 1970's to the present education in the 'least restrictive environment'. The first educational institution in the United States for exceptional children, the American School for the Deaf, was established in 1817 under the direction of Thomas H. Gallaudet (1787-1851). Samuel G. Howe (1801-1876) was responsible for the establishment of the first residential school for blind students in Waterton, Massachusetts in 1829. In 1848 Sequin emigrated to the United States and he was appointed director of the Pennsylvania Training School for Idiots. Later he moved to New York to continue teaching and refining his methods and materials for working with the mentally retarded. These institutions were narrowly categorical in focus modelled after their predecessors, the residential schools and asylums of Europe. As there were no training programs for teachers of exceptional children in the universities or colleges at this time, the institutions trained their employees on the job or set up training schools as adjuncts to the institutions. Many states opened residential schools for the deaf, blind and mentally retarded but there were never enough spaces for all the children who needed special education and care. 32 Institutionalized care often presented as many if not more problems than it was solving. Families were distressed at the long separations from their children that attendance at the residential schools demanded and mu1tihandicapped children were not eligible for the narrowly categorical programs offered in the institutions. The results the pioneers achieved were remarkable but: "...despite the energy, optimism and achievement of these early leaders, special education lost its momentum in America during the last part of the nineteenth century. Humane and effective treatment turned to ineffective institutionalization and human warehousing; hope turned to despair." (Hallahan and Kauffman, 1982) In the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, community based programs were initiated for exceptional children in day schools and in self contained special classes within the public schools for the blind, the deaf, and the mentally retarded. Residential institutions began to train specialized teachers for community day schools and special classes. In 1904 the Vineland Training School in New Jersey began to offer summer training sessions for teachers of retarded children. (Hill, 1945). During the first half of the 20th Century the growth of community programs was very slow. The neglect of the educational needs of exceptional children was due largely to the public's lack of understanding about abilities and disabilities of these children and a lack of local funds to support expansion of expensive programs. This was especially true during the 1930's. 33 During the twenty-five years from 1945-1970, there was a great surge of interest in, and commitment to programs for exceptional children. In 1948 less than 500,000 children were enrolled in special education programs. By 1972, almost 3,000,000 children were being served. There was a great increase in programs to train teachers in methods of teaching and curriculum and material development appropriate for the needs of the children enrolled in the new and expanding programs. In 1948 there were fewer than 80 colleges and universities providing teacher training in one or more special education categories. By 1976, it was estimated that there were more than 600 post secondary institutions providing special education courses or programs for teachers. The financial involvement of the federal government encouraged the rapid increases in college and university programs. (Reynolds and Birch, 1977). A milestone in the history of special education in the United states was the enactment of the 926th law of the 85th Congress, specifically P.L. 85-926. The law paved the way for a growing commitment of the federal government to the care and education of the mentally handicapped. The bill authorized grants to universities and colleges for the training of teachers and other involved professionals. Even before the passage of P.L. 85-926 there was pressure within the Senate and the House of Representatives to extend the law to include all categories of exceptionality. In 1963 the bill was extended by the passage of P.L. 88-164 to include: "Mentally retarded, hard of hearing, 34 deaf, speech impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed, crippled or health impaired children who by reason thereof require special education." (Burke, 1976). Subsequent bills and amendments have reinforced and expanded the commitment of the federal government to exceptional children and created the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (P.L. 98-750) with its three divisions : training, research and services. The field of special education in the United States has depended heavily for its support on funding from the federal government. Initially, most funding was based on narrowly categorical lines. The largest amount was designated for the training of professionals to work with the mentally retarded followed by the areas of speech and hearing. Universities and colleges who wished to move from the categorical approach to training to a less structured non-categorical approach with more emphasis on the moderately handicapped ran the risk of receiving less funding. (Burke, 1976). In the early 1970's the federal government began to award funding for non-categorical multi-year programs. The result of this policy change has been to encourage longer term planning. Non-categorical planning is addressed at the local level, and when priorities change university and co1 lege dep artments are able to shift federal funds easily. Because of increased funding many programs have been able to develop effective evaluation procedures to support the development of future training objectives. 35 With the landmark legislation in 1975 of amendments to the Education of the Handicapped Act <P.L. 94-142), the date for providing a public supported appropriate education for all handicapped children was moved ahead to September of 1978. The amendment also provided that special education services be for every handicapped child (3-21) years of age in the 'least restrictive environment' and that each child be assured of an individualized educational program that would best suit his/her needs. Meeting the full service mandate of P.L. 94-142 means serving an estimated 7,800,000 handicapped children. Harvey (1976) suggests that 250,000 additional personnel will be required and of the 250,000 already employed in the education of the handicapped as high as 40 per cent require additional training to qualify for professional certification. The Division of Personnel Preparation of the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped has as its priority an assurance of the provision of appropriately trained teachers and other professionals to improve and extend programs for the handicapped. A critical objective of the BE H is to assure "that all handicapped children in the schools have a trained teacher or other resource person competent in the skills required to aid children in reaching their full potential." (Harvey, 1976). The BE H priorities also include personnel preparation projects in the area of preschool handicapped children and infants. To satisfy the amendment P.L. 94-142, the United States Federal Government has commited itself 36 and its monies to a massive program for the training of personnel. In 1960 the federal funding earmarked for personnel training was $985,222. Appropriations in the year 1976 were $40,375,000. (Burke, 1976). "...the years have been tumultuous, but they have also been marked by a feeling of great accomplishment. The period from 1958 to 1976 has witnessed a spectacular growth of personnel preparation programs, from fewer than 40 to more than 400. The number of full time professionals in the field, a total of 28 in April 1957, has grown to the point that today some university preparation programs have this many faculty alone. Most of the current special education faculty members, moreover, have been the recipients of BEH fellowship support." (Burke, 1976). Saettler (1976) suggests that the successful implementation of the new law (P.L. 94-142) will depend upon the ability of state, federal and local education officials to work together in developing effective personnel preparation programs the crucial element in making sure that all handicapped children do receive the free appropriate education to which they are entitled. Spodek and Saracho (1982) suggest that any discourse, about the preparation and certification of Early Childhood personnel, should address qualifications personnel should have, methods of training, and who should be responsible for training of Early Childhood personnel. They insist that with such basic issues in conflict there is no agreement as to the preparation persons in the field ought to have or the minimum qualifications that should be established. There exists a great range of programs involving 37 practitioners who work with young children from programs that emphasize cognitive development to programs where social-emotional development is the prime focus. The different emphasis in programs leads to controversy over whether the practitioners are teachers or care givers or both. James Bryant Conant (1963) suggests that it is possible to identify four components of the intellectual equipment that are prerequisites to the development of teaching skills to work with children. The first he calls, a 'democratic social component', the second is an interest in the way behavior develops in groups of children, the third is a sympathetic knowledge of the growth and development of children, by which he means much more than physical growth alone, and the fourth he suggests is the principles of teaching which apply when working with one child as much as with a group of children when attempting to help children develop an intellectual skill. He stresses that the 'one indisputable essential element in professional education is the practice teaching'. He goes on to recommend that the professor from the college or university who is to supervise and assess the practice teaching should have had extensive practical experience. The instructor's status should be 'analogous to that of a clinical professor in certain medical schools'. He also suggests that the program for teachers of kindergarten and grades one, two, and three should prepare students in content and methodology of all subjects taught in these early years. Depth in a single subject or cluster of subjects is not necessary. Most colleges 38 and universities do follow the four tenets that Conant has suggested in their teacher preparation programs. Early Childhood preparation programs tend to place more stress on the aspects of child growth and development and a heavier emphasis on practicum experience. Principles of teaching and content of subject areas usually receive less semester hours and are considered secondary to knowing the individual child. In the United States kindergarten and primary grade teachers are required to have a degree in education earned at a college or university. Primary teachers are required to have certification by the state in which they choose to teach. Usually certification is earned upon completion of a recognized program of teacher education and the recommendation of the teacher training institution that the graduating student is qualified as a beginning teacher. Most states require Kindergarten teachers to be certified as well. Qualifications for practitioners working in nursery schools and day care centres are established under centre licensing standards under local or state regulations. If agencies and/or centres want to receive federal funding they must hire staff that meets criteria demanded by federal government regulations. Boodlad et. al. (1973), in a three year study of nursery schools in nine cities in the United States, found that directors of centres usually possessed a degree, sometimes a graduate degree, teaching staff had a college degree or at least some college 39 training, assistant teachers were high school graduates with possibly some college courses but very little teaching experience. There were paid and unpaid aides most of whom had no training to work with young children. They recommended in their report that states should develop criteria for the licensing and conduct of nursery schools to ensure appropriate education for staff in child development, curriculum planning, and evaluation and that states should provide special funding for preparing personnel to work in nursery schools. The department of Health, Education and Welfare of the federal government has suggested criteria for regulations governing training for staff working in licensed day cares that states should consider. The suggested qualifications are that staff have a Bachelor or Associate of Arts degree with at least twelve semester hours of child development, child health or directly related fields of study, or a high school diploma with at least three years of experience working with young children, or certification as a Child Development Associate. (Spodek &< Saracho, 1982). The Child Development Associate Consortium (CDAC), a private nonprofit organization with half a million members, was established as a credentia1ing agency, without the responsibility for training, and is funded by the federal Department of Health and Human Services. A CDAC Credential is national, and practitioners wishing to work in federally funded programs such 40 as Head Start must have earned the credential. Candidates for the CDAC Credential submit examples of material and work they have done with children. They are observed working with children and parents by an assessment team. At an assessment meeting, the team judges the materials collected and the observations of the candidate's performance and determines whether the candidate should be awarded a credential. The credential is granted for three years. To date, over 6,00 candidates have received credentials from the CDAC. (Klein, 19S0). Accreditation of institutions that prepare Early Childhood educators helps to regulate programs that prepare practitioners for the field. The accreditation agency in the area of teacher education in the United States is the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). Although accreditation is on a voluntary basis more and more colleges and universities are seeking accreditation to gain credibility with other institutions and to ensure the employability of their graduates. Through the accreditation process it is possible to assess the training of individuals who work with young children if they have been educated and trained in the teacher education model, but many Early Childhood practitioners have received their education in other models of training and it is not so easy to assess their competencies or the standard of their training. "The accreditation of institutions that prepare teachers has been seen as an important vehicle for maintaining the quality of teacher education programs, but its application to early childhood education is 41 unclear. The National Association for the Education of Young Children has only recently become involved in the NCATE accreditation process. Programs that prepare early childhood teachers may exist in institutions subject to NCATE accreditation. However, many of the persons employed in preschool centres are not graduates of teacher education programs in four-year colleges but are prepared in child development programs or in two-year colleges which are not subject to NCATE accreditation. Still others are prepared in high school programs or have no formal preparation at all. There is at present no system of accreditation that oversees the quality of programs preparing early childhood practitioners outside the framework of teacher education." (Spodek and Saracho, 1982) As a result of the passage of Public Law 94-142, there is a growing need for specially trained and certified professionals who work with preschool children with special needs. The qualified preschool teacher, although educated in normal patterns of development of young children, is not necessarily knowledgeable about various learning styles and highly unique abilities and disabilities characteristic of handicapped preschoolers. In a questionnaire sent to the departments of education of all 50 states, Enzinna and Polloway (1982) found that only 14 states issue certificates specifically for teachers of preschool handicapped children and only 15 more were considering certification in the near future. In seven of the states reporting specific credentials for the teaching of preshcool children with special needs, the credentials were mandatory for employment in the field. The results of the survey suggest that many personnel working with preschool children with special needs have training in other areas of teaching and as at 42 least half of the states have no plans for requiring certification in the area of Early Childhood: Special Education) it is probable that the employment of untrained personnel will continue indefinitely. This is a problem* which we will find is also apparent in Canada. We may therefore now begin a review of universal public education, Special Education, Early Childhood Education and teacher preparation in our own country. 43 CHAPTER 3 ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION AND TEACHER PREPARATION IN CANADA Before examining programs for teacher preparation in Early Childhood: Special Education, we must first examine the growth of universal public education and special education in Canada. In the early years of Canada's history, first as a colony of France, later a colony of England and then as a Dominion, education of the young child took place in the home, the church, and finally within the public school system. Johnson (1968) suggests that as settlements spread and parishes were established, it became the responsibility of the parish priests or cures to establish a 'petit ecole' in each parish where children might learn the three R's of reading, writing and religion. Such parish schools seem to have been relatively common. With the British conquest of the colony and later the influx of English speaking settlers from across the border, as a result of the American War of Independence in 1776, demands for schools increased. The new settlers set up their own schools as was the custom in the New England States, and recruited teachers from across the border. In 1829, a bill for the 'Encouragement of Elementary Education' was passed by the Assembly of Upper Canada. It gave parishes and townships the right to local control of 44 their schools and grants from the government to allay costs of buildings and teachers' salaries. By 1835, there were approximately 1500 schools established in Upper Canada. (Johnson, 1968). Unrest in Upper and Lower Canada forced the British Parliament to appoint Lord Durham as Governor General under a special commission to investigate and report on the causes of discontent in both colonies. He gave considerable attention to the state of Canadian education and concluded that the British Government had done little for the promotion of general education in Canada. There was a great deal of support to pattern the public school system in the new colonies after the British system. The Anglican Church had the most influence in this area and John Strachan, the first Anglican Bishop of Toronto, was a leader in the movement. In 1822, when the legislature created a General Board of Education, Strachan became the first chairman. The Board was to exercise supervision over the colony's schools and Strachan, as its chairman, became the first Superintendent of Schools for Upper Canada. Strachan's strong commitment to an Anglican controlled education system for Upper Canada and his questioning of the loyalty of the province's large Methodist population led to strong opposition to his policies by the populace, and to the emergence of a new leader in education, a young Methodist preacher, Egerton Ryerson. (Phillips, 1957). 45 In the Act of Union of 1841, it was decreed that there should be one united colony of Canada and that Upper and Lower Canada would become merely administrative divisions of the Colony. At the first session of the new parliament, The Common School Act of 1841 was passed to give the Colony a uniform school system. "Administratively the foundations for a state school system were laid when the Act of 1841 created the office of Superintendent of Education and when subsequent legislation gave each province its own superintendent. The establishment of this office was clearly based on precedents in the adjoining of the influence of the Unites States of Canadian thought and practice." (Johnson, 1968). Upper Canada began to establish one of the best common school systems of the period and much of the credit for this progress goes to Egerton Ryerson. In 1841 he was chosen to be principal of the Methodist Academy as it was awarded university status and became the new Victoria College. In 1844, he was appointed Assistant Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada. Before assuming his new office, he travelled in more than twenty countries to study a variety of school systems. While in Europe, he studied Pestolzzian and Froebellian methods and philosophies. He admired Irish text books and took Irish Normal Schools as models when he established the first Normal school in Toronto. On his return to Canada, he prepared a report which was the basis for the Common School Act of 1846. Under this act, a provincial school system in Upper Canada was established which was supported by provincial grants that must be matched by local funds through 46 fees from parents of students. The Common School Act of 1850 was an improvement over the Act of 1846 in that, it allowed districts to raise revenues by taxing all the properties in their jurisdictions, therefore, establishing free common schools for all . "For nineteenth-century Ontario, the central theme in the history of childhood is the emergence of schooling as a dominant experience of growing up. The speed of this development is remarkable. In 1800, formal education was generally limited to a small number of youths from families who had the money and interest to arrange privately for instruction on an individual basis or in small groups. One hundred years later, the vast majority of children received at least several years of schooling in a public system and many attended class consistently between the ages of five and sixteen. School had begun to rival the family as a determining influence of the formative years." (Gaffield, 1982). The Maritime and Western Provinces struggled with many of the problems experienced in Ontario in establishing free common schools for all and establishing training programs for teachers. The first schools were opened by church sponsored missionaries and religious orders or on a private basis by anyone who felt inclined to become a teacher of the young. Prince Edward Island passed the Free Education Act of 1852, New Brunswick the Parish School Act of 1858 and Nova Scotia followed with the Encouragement of Education Act of 1865. With the passage of these acts, most children of the Maritimes were offered a free public school education. (Phillips, 1957). 47 The first educational grants in Western Canada came from the Hudson's Bay Company. The grants were bestowed impartially on Roman Catholic and Protestant missions alike. The paternalistic direction and financial support by the churches and fur trading companies in the latter part of the 19th Century in Western Canada were similar to that in Eastern Canada before the 1850's. However, by 1871 a year after Manitoba had joined Confederation, a system of public education with central and local authorities had been introduced in that province. In British Columbia, although the government had passed the Common School Act of 1865 promising to assume the cost of education in the colony, it was not until the passing of the Public Schools Act of 1869 and British Columbia's entrance into Confederation in 1871 that public supported education began to become a reality. Alberta and Saskatchewan passed bills making provisions for local school boards and public funding of the schools when they entered Confederation in 1905. (Phillips, 1957). Despite the fact that the British North America Act 1867 assigned the responsibility for education to the individual provinces, it is possible to discuss coast-to-coast educational development after the 1870's. At that time, public elementary education for Canadian children brought an expansion in the number of children served, and also a questioning of the very purpose of public education. From the late 1900's to the present day, few innovations in education have been initiated in one province alone. Educational developments in Ontario were similar 48 to those in the Maritimes and both Ontario and Quebec educational progress have had an impact on the development of education systems in the Western Provinces. By the beginning of the 20th Century there was publicly financed elementary education in all the provinces? but it was not until the 1920's most provinces (not Quebec and Newfoundland) offered a free secondary education to Canadian children. (Phillips, 1957). During the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, Canadian educators were influenced by new theories and methods from Europe and the United States. Writers and educators such as Rousseau, Pestalozzii, Froebel, Montessori and Dewey were advancing new ideas on teaching and learning processes that eventually would influence changes in the emphasis is that Canadian educators place on the growth and development of the child over the subject matter the child is to learn. Canadian educators continue to be influenced by innovations in Europe and the United States. The influence of the United States system of junior colleges was strong in the 60's with the proliferation of Community Colleges throughout Canada. The British Infant School System has been the model for many of the family grouping classes in the elementary schools in Canada in the past twenty years. But public education in Canada has come of age as it were. Excellent research is being carried out on learning theory, child growth and development and methods of teaching in all Canadian universities. Recently the State of California has been 49 recruiting teachers from Canada to help alleviate its current teacher shortage. Recent reports in Vancouver newspapers suggest that school administrators in California are very impressed with the quality of teachers produced by Canadian universities. Third world countries especially those in South East Asia and Africa have enjoyed the benefit of Canadian professional expertise in designing and implementing education programs. Canada has become an exporter as well as an importer of educational ideas and innovat ions. Special Education in Canada The education and care of exceptional children in Canada in the early 1800's took place either in the home where the family was responsible for any training the child might receive and\or in a local school where the child would repeat grade after grade until he/she grew too large for the desks in the classroom or caused so many disruptions that the teacher or principal insisted the child be removed from the school. As public school systems in Canada became established and education for children became mandatory in the provinces, some care and education of the exceptional child was initiated. 50 "Typical of early efforts was a petition asking the government of Upper Canada in 1836» to vote a sum to provide for the education of two deaf and dumb children, and a report in the same year of a special committee of the legislature recommending the establishment of schools for the deaf and the dumb...In 1858, a Society of the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was opened in Bellevi1le...this Ontario development had been preceded by the foundation in 1857, of the Halifax Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. The Halifax School for the Blind was opened in 1871...New Brunswick established its own institution for the deaf and dumb at Fredericton in 1872...(and the ) Ontario Institute for the Education of the Blind was established at Brantford in 1871." (Phillips, 1957). In British Columbia, as early as 1890 the Department of Education assumed limited responsibility for providing education for some handicapped children. In 1890, a small appropriation was made by the legislature to cover the expenses of children attending the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb in Winnipeg, Manitoba which had been opened in 1889. (Blake, 1956). Jericho Hill School for the Deaf and Blind was established in Vancouver, in 1913. In Alberta and Saskatchewan deaf and blind children were sent to Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia and some United States centres for care and education. The costs incurred were funded by the two provinces. Children lived away from their families during the school year and received care but very few program in the residential schools could be classed as intellectually stimulating. 51 By the early years of the 20th Century there was an increasing concern on the part of the larger city school boards for the education of children whose physical and mental handicaps had kept them outside the public schools, previously. "After about 1910, and in the largest cities first, there began to appear open air and forest classes for tubercular and sickly children, schools and classes for crippled children, speech correction classes, visiting teachers for stay-at-homes, and a great many other special services..." (Phillips, 1957). Under the influence of James Hughes, Inspector of Schools for the City of Toronto, special classes for tubercular, severely undernourished, and mentally handicapped children were offered by the city by 1914. In British Columbia, the cities of Victoria and Vancouver began day programs for exceptional children by 19E0. Sittens (1980) states that the Vancouver School Board provided needed leadership in establishing a program for the deaf in 1915, followed by a program for the blind in 1916, and a program for mentally defective children in 1919. In 1914 the Ontario Auxiliary Classes Act was passed and an Inspector of Auxiliary Classes was appointed by the Ontario Department of Education. That same year, summer classes were offered to teachers who would be teaching the auxiliary classes. The number of programs for children with special needs grew very slowly throughout Canada. The neglect of the educational needs of exceptional children during the first half of the EOth Century was primarily due, as in the United States, to the lack 52 of understanding of the public at large about abilities and disabilities of children with special needs and the lack of local funds to support expensive programs especially during the 1930's. Phillips (1957) notes a survey done by Russel and Tyler in 1941-42 that indicated there were only 525 spaces in Canada for children of the 50-75 I.Q. range. Of these 323 were in Toronto, 66 in Montreal, 48 in Winnipeg, and 29 in Vancouver. The remainder were in other cities of all provinces except Prince Edward Island. Newfoundland was not a province at that time. These services included open-air classes for tubercular and sickly children, schools and classes for crippled children speech correction classes, visiting teachers for the home bound, sight saving classes, classes for 'slow' learners, trainable mentally retarded and educable mentally retarded. In 1938, a fully mature young woman of 15 years was enrolled in an elementary school in Burnaby, B.C. in a split grade one/two class. She sat at the back of the room, and when the younger children were finished their work ahead of the rest of the class, they would sit with 'Mary' and help her weave paper mats. Mary's mother had to work and could not care for her at home. When Mary was 16, she was committed to Woodland School, where she remained for the rest of her life.1 In 1942 'Bill' a very tall 16 year old was in a grade six class in New Westminster. He was not able to do any of the regularly assigned class work, and spent his days disrupting the class by setting an alarm clock to go off in 53 his desk periodically during the day, and bringing white mice or toys to school. When the class moved on to the Junior High School the following year, Bill left school. He worked at odd jobs that never lasted more than a day or two. He turned to hot wiring cars, and driving by the school to impress his old classmates. He stole one too many cars, was arrested and sent to 'reform' school for two years. These two examples of the plight of 'slow learners' in the public school system were probably the norm rather than exceptions in Canada before the 1950's. In the post war era from 1945 into the 1960's school boards throughout the nation focused their attention and finances on relieving the shortage of teachers, managing overcrowded schools and reducing class size. In the 50's it was not uncommon to have a class of 50 children in the elementary schools. An example was one grade three class of 50, ten of whom should have had some type of special education, taught by an eighteen year old teacher 3 with one year of Normal school training. There were few itinerant teachers with 'special' training and few learning resource centres even in the large cities. In the rural centres resources were non-existent. If a child was severely impaired there might be a special class in a local school but usually the child would be sent to a residential school, sometimes a great distance from his/her home. Laycock (1963), found, in a comparison of the provinces that there were wide discrepancies in provisions of special education services for the exceptional child. He found that in Ontario 54 there were close to 800 special classes for educable mentally retarded children while in Quebec comparable facilities did not exist. He found that there were distinct differences in the opportunities for adequate education of the hearing and visually impaired? speech handicapped and emotionally disturbed children in the various provinces. He suggests that with the increased recognition of the vast importance of the preschool years in a child's development i.e. the normal preschool child learns a language and a foundation of experiences for learning to read) to handle number relationships and begins to understand the world of nature about him as well as learning to live with adults and children that 'if any youngster, handicapped or otherwise, is deprived of a reasonable measure of these experiences in the preschool period, the loss is almost irreparable.' Laycock (1963) goes on to stress the importance of the teacher: "...if a province or a school system has special services for the mentally retarded, the gifted, the crippled, the hard of hearing, or the emotionally disturbed means little in itself. Even impressive buildings and equipment may not be sufficient. It is the quality of the teacher and her relationships with her class that count." In February 1966, a National Commission on Emotional and Learning Disorders in Children was established in Canada, sponsored by six national voluntary organizations. They were: The Canadian Association for Retarded Children The Canadian Council for Children and Youth 55 The Canadian Education Association The Canadian Mental Health Association The Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled The Canadian Welfare Council 56 The Commission selected and appointed a committee composed of a panel of specialists from across Canada representing the professional disciplines concerned with children with emotional and learning disorders. The scope of the study was left to the Committee to define. It was given the freedom to formulate its principles? determine its course of action? and evolve its methods of study. The study was a very expensive undertaking and financial support was solicited and received from the Government of Canada? the Provincial Departments of Education? and many volunteer organizations. The product of the Committee's work was One  Million Children: A National Study of Canadian Children with  Emotional and Learning Disorders. (The C.E.L.D.I.C. Report). One of the fist problems the Committee tackled was to try to estimate the number of children in Canada that should be included in the study. They found that the question of which and how many children should be regarded as having emotional and/or learning disorders had no easy answers. If they agreed? after studying many surveys that had been done in Canada and other countries? on an incidence figure of ten to fifteen percent then between 840,000 and 1,260?000 children and youth had learning and emotional disorders? and would be the concern of the Commission's study. 57 During their field visits the Committee found ample evidence that a well-trained teacher, who was provided with adequate supportive assistance, and was permitted to function within a flexible imaginative curriculum, was able to develop the strengths of even the most handicapped child. They found that to be effective, preschool programs must be based on specifically prepared plans not just 'downward versions of regular grade one programs'. The programs must involve personnel with special training and understanding of the needs and abilities of preschool children and they must be designed to provide, for children who are physically, socially or emotionally handicapped who have learning difficulties, experiences and opportunities that will narrow the gap that exists between these children and their peers. The Committee recommended three main requirements of special education services: 1) trained professional personnel possessing special competencies, E) special curriculum, 3) special facilities. The report suggests that the traditional role of the teacher as distributor of knowledge is much too narrow to encourage the total development of exceptional children and it be expanded to the teacher as catalyst. If the role of the teacher is to change, the report insists there must be changes in the professional preparation of teachers and other professionals both in professional preparation institutions and in-service exper iences. 58 The Committee made almost 150 recommendations regarding policy and planning, coordination of services, services for all children, operation of services for children with special needs, coordination and support of personnel, regional services, federal and provincial roles in organization of services, standards, funding, juvenile court operations, training of personnel, professional roles and responsibilities, citizen's roles, voluntary associations and research. The recommendations particularly pertinent to preschool children and the preparation of preschool personnel to work with exceptional children were: that health authorities provide for the collection and indexing of pertinent information regarding the pre-school child which with appropriate safeguards regarding confidentiality can be made available to those who require this information to plan to meet the continuing needs of the child. 34 p.174 that educational authorities make nursery and kindergarten programs available to all children who are likely to benefit from these pre-school experiences and that in the development of these services priority be given to children who are physically educationally or socially handicapped. a p.143 that communities give priority to the development of a variety of day car programs for infants pre-school and school age children. 38 p.175 that health authorities cooperate with education and welfare authorities in the development of standards for licensing of public and private day care centres and nursery schools and that such standards include reference to personnel qualifications and appropriate programs and that periodic inspection to ensure the maintenance of standards be mandatory. 39 p.176 That provincial governments prepare materials to stimulate recruitment and cooperate in the development of training 59 opportunities for careers in child care, day care and health related services that work with children with emotional and learning disorders. 46 p.176 that institutions training personnel to work with children develop a curriculum designed to provide the student with an understanding of the normal child and his work as a pre-requisite to the more specialized understanding of the child as student, patient, ward and offender. 187 p.488 that educational institutions develop interdisciplinary and inter-professional seminars and learning experiences for students preparing to work with children. 128 p.422 that teacher training institutions redesign their curricula to include courses and practical experiences to increase the teacher's understanding of individual differences, the affective life of the child, the meaning of major social institutions - family, school, community- in the life of the child, the characteristic causes and treatment of emotional and learning disorders, group processes, and the role of the teacher as a person in the group 23 p.150 that teacher training institutions and school systems experiment and develop improved methods of providing practical experiences for teachers in training. 24 p. 150 60 That teacher training institutions design inter-discip1inary educational experiences that will assist the teacher to fulfill his professional role in partnership with other helping services in the community 25 p.151 that universities and professional schools in partnership with field setting develop interdisciplinary training programs for the professions to assist them to increase their capacity to serve as consultants. 129 p.423 that educational institutions providing training for the helping professions place emphasis on techniques of interviewing and communication with parents 139 p.443 •nee the CELDIC Report had been published and distributed, the major concerns across Canada were how to implement its recommendations and how to finance the implementation of the recommendations. The British Columbia CELDIC Committee, working as an adhoc committee of SPARC of B.C. (Social Planning and Review Council of B.C.), with funding from the B.C. Medical Services Foundation undertook a study with objectives to establish a dialogue with the Provincial Government about the study and implementation of the CELDIC Report in B.C., to stimulate communities to establish committees for the study of local needs and resources, to provide resource people and resources to the local committee, to examine the training and availability of professionals to staff the services needed for children, and to study the coordination of services for children in the province. The Committee made recommendations to citizens and citizen organizations, the Provincial Government, to SPARC of B.C. and to professionals and professional organizations. The recommendations included the need for comprehensive planning, time to do the planning, the need for training of professionals 61 to work with children? that the training should follow interdisciplinary model, that parents be considered as partners in planning programs for their children, and that the government make a clear and public statement of its commitment to citizen planning and control and provide funds for built in evaluation of planning and operation of services. The committee stated that interdisciplinary cooperation and training is the most widely agreed upon, yet UNMET need in the delivery of services to all people with emotional and/or learning disorders. (The Application of the CELDIC Report in B.C., 1973). Before the publication of the CELDIC Report in 1970, Ballance and Kendall (1969) discussed and compared regulations governing services to exceptional children in Canada. All provinces have mandatory school attendance laws. Some provinces require children to start school at six years of age others at seven years of age. All provinces had exemption clauses of one kind or another. These clauses exempt children who 'by sickness or unavoidable cause', 'are mentally defective', 'have a mental or physical defect', cannot profit from instruction by a skillful teacher. All provinces provide funding for residential schools for blind and/or deaf children or subsidize their education in other provinces. All provinces have enabling legislation that allows school districts to provide services for exceptional children or to financially subsidize such organizations as the Association for the Mentally Handicapped to provide such services. They found few specific provisions for exceptional 62 children that were mandatory. In comparing Canada to the United States and Great Britain they state: "No where do we find any statement as clear as that in the English Education Act of 1944, or in some of the Acts in the United States, which require a school system to ascertain or identify those children in need of special educational treatment." (Ballance and Kendall, 1969). Eleven years after the publication of the CELDIC Report, Murray-Register(19S1), in a survey of legislation assuring programs for children with special needs, found that four provinces in Canada, namely Nova Scotia , Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland have mandatory legislation guaranteeing appropriate education for all children. The legislation in these provinces is not as detailed as U.S. P.L. 94-14S and is mainly concerned with whether handicapped children should be mainstreamed rather than with quality education for each individual child. The other provinces had permissive legislation which gives school districts the option to establish special programs for exceptional children. She suggests that the variability in policy statements and funding patterns within and across provinces results in a wide variation in the quantity and quality of special education services and practices in Canada. We may now examine Early Childhood Education and teacher preparation in Canada. 63 Early Childhood Education In Canada, very young children have been cared for outside their homes as early as 1658. In that year, Marguerite Bourgeoy, in a converted stone stable, opened the doors of her first school. Chalmers (1974) states that when she found herself caring for abandoned or neglected native infants on the Island of Montreal, it was inevitable that she would develop a nursery school and kindergarten for the children of French colonist families whose women worked as hard in the field as the men did. Through the 18th and 19th Centuries, church and philanthropic organizations offered care for young children of the poor in creches and day nurseries. The primary focus of these programs was cusotidal care and very few, if any educational aspects, except in the areas of hygiene and health care, were considered important for children of preschool age. In the late 19th and early SOth Centuries, Early Childhood Education became more popular, first as a priviledge for children whose families could afford to pay for it then as a means to help children of the poor get a better start. Preschool for children of poor immigrant families was seen as a means to help them adjust more quickly to the ways of Canadian society. James L. Hughes, an outstanding superintendent of the Toronto School System and devoted proponent of the methods of 64 Froebel, introduced the first public school knidergarten in Canada in the year 1885. Ada Mareau, who later became Mrs. Hughes, had been sent to St. Louis, Missouri to observe the Froebelian Kindergarten methods being used in that district. She returned to Toronto to become the first public school Kindergarten teacher in Canada. By the year 1900 there were ISO kindergartens in Ontario serving 11,000 chilren under age of six. (Patterson et.al., 1974). In 1888 the Kindergarten program was on the agenda of an education conference held in the Maritimes. "At the convention of the Dominion Education Association in 1894 there was a kindergarten section in which papers were given by the Inspector of Kindergartens of Ontario and by a teacher of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The kindergarten had been accepted." (Phillips, 1957). Froebel7s influence was felt throughout the system in the adoption of manual training, domestic science, and nature study but most strongly supported in the kindergartens. In Canada legislation passed concerning the care and education of preschoolers is usually permisssive rather than namdatory. The problem of funding is usually the strongest deciding factor in whether individual provinces and school districts will or will not provide centres for young children that are supported by public monies. Although Kindergartens became part of the public school system in Ontario in 1885, the 65 legislation passed to open the way for their further development was permissive not mandatory. Other provinces slowly followed Ontario's lead but it was not until after World War II that kindergarten programs became available on a wider basis in some provinces. In British Columbia, kindergartens have been possible since 1922 but as late as 1959 there were fewer than 4,000 children in public school kindergartens in the province. As in the other provinces, there were, however, many five year olds attending private kindergartens sponsored by church, parent and community organizations. Wycherley (1974), states that at the beginning of World War II many private kindergartens and preschools began to spring up. Because many women took jobs outside the home to help with the war effort, there was a great neeed for child care. In 1942 the Federal Govenment passed the Dominion-Provincial Agreement which made provision for federal funds to be used to help with the cost of setting up and operating preschool centres. In 1946 when the war plants were closed, and it was anticipated women would leave their jobs and return to their homes to care for their own children, the Dominion-Provincial Agreement was terminated. Parents protested the termination and the Day Nurseries Act came into effect on June 30, 1946, the day the initial Agreement ended. The gains made during World War II, in the number of centres available to preschoolers and the funding required from govenment 66 sources to keep these centres in operation were all but lost in the 15 years following the war. The Education Report of the Senate Committee on Poverty published in 1971 concludes that: "The basic sad facts remain: there are between 85,000 and 100,000 poverty children in Canada who are four years of age and only ten percent at the very most are in some sort of pre-kindergarten training situation either public or private...Add to these 75,000 excluded poverty four-year-olds, about 90,000 excluded poverty three-year-olds, and at least 50,000 five-year-olds, and the magnitude of Canada's public policy failure during the 1950's and 1960's at the pre-kindergarten level becomes starkly apparent."<p.29). Canada has had many Royal Commissions focusing on children/poverty/education at the federal and provincial levels. In all of these Commission Reports responsibility of Canadian society to the young child is recommended. The Royal Commission on Education in the Province of Ontario (1945-50) recommended that educational authorities be permitted to establish nursery schools and classes for 3 and 4 year old children, attendance should be voluntary and on a half-day basis, the full cost of the classes would be the responsibility of local districts, and that districts should charge fees for such classes. In British Columbia, the Chant Commission (1960) found evidence in its inquiry to support the establishment of public school kindergartens as being of 'educational and social advantage to pre-primary school children'. The Chant Commission recommended that kindergartens be established at the discretion of individual school boards throughout the province on a shared cost basis with 67 the provincial government, attendance be voluntary and not longer than half a day, no fees should be charged and no transportation be provided. The Commission also recommended that the Department of Education be responsible for setting policies and regulations for supervisors of private kindergartens and that the College of Education at the University of British Columbia provide more specialized teacher training and encourage research into the education of young children. It was felt that better qulaified teachers would do the most to raise the standards and enhance the status of the profession of Early Childhood Education. Kindergartens did not become mandatory in the Province of British Columbia until 1975. At present, kindergarten programs supported by public funds are offered in only six of the provinces. (Royal Bank Newslatter, October, 1986). In most cases programs are offered only to five-year-olds. However, in a few instances such as some districts in Ontario and Quebec, programs are offered to four-year-olds. Junior kindergarten programs began in Ottawa and then Toronto in the 1940's. Logan and Logan (1974) suggest that these classes were set up as a result of the need for care of children caused by the number of women employed in the work force during World War II. After the War some four-year-old programs were continued and made available to children from disadvantaged backgrounds but they have now been extended, where they are offered, to include all four-year-olds whose families wish them to attend. Although school attendance in Canada is not 68 compulsory until the age of six or seven? some provinces have mandatory legislation that requires school boards to offer five-year-old programs? some have permissive legislation and some provide very little funding for five-year-old kindergarten programs. A growing number of districts in Ontario and Quebec provide junior kindergarten programs for four-year-olds? but for the most part? provincial ministries of education have left the care and education of the pre-kindergarten child to the private sector. Federal and provincial governments do? however? provide subsidies to individual families to help them pay the costs of day care and nursery school. Regan (1978)? found that in spite of the fact that school districts in the Province of Ontario were not financially responsible for providing programs for pre-kindergar ten children? many districts had programs operating in the schools. The programs were administered by community or parent organizations in unused school space. These programs included daycares? nursery schools? French immersion programs and programs for preschoolers with special needs. In British Columbia? some school districts have leased vacant classrooms to nursery schools? daycares? kindercares? E.S.L. programs? programs for children with special needs? and to the University of British Columbia Child Study Centre. Low enrollments across Canada in the elementary schools mean that there are vacant classrooms. These classrooms are being made available to preschool programs but they are usually not administered or financed by public 69 school boards except for senior kindergartens (5 year-olds) and in a few instances junior kindergartens <4 year-olds). Growth in day care programs in Canada has been uneven in the past fifty years. During the early 1930's the worst times of the Depression, there was an almost complete lack of funding to support any preschool programs for young children. Centres that did exist at this time were provided for the disadvantaged in the large cities by church sponsored groups and other community charitable organizations. Most programs had to rely on donations to meet their budgets. There was very little money for salaries and less for equipment and materials. The centres were often housed in church basements with poor lighting, less than adequate ventilation, limited indoor space and often no outdoor play areas. Since the 1970's the increase in the number of women working outside the home has emphasized the importance of day care services in Canada. In 1971, Health and Welfare Canada conducted +++ational survey to gather information on day care services in Canada. The information gathered in the 1971 survey has served as a baseline from which 'to compare future growth in day care and to evaluate the impact of any new initiative of the federal government in the day care field'. The surveys have been published yearly from 1973 to the present under the title, Status  of Day Care in Canada. 70 During the early 1970's the number of available day care spaces increased remarkably. (See Figure 1). The growth continued until 1976. In 197S the number of spaces decreased by almost 4,000. The decrease in the demand for centre based day care over the two year period was attributed, at least partially, to the increased cost of providing services and inability of families to pay the high costs. March .•31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 March 31 Increase Over 1982 1973 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1983 No. % Number of Centre Spaces 26 811 50 996 78 153 74 516 98 238 109 535 123 292 13 757 12.56 Number of Family Day Care Spaces 1 562 4 185 5 367 7 763 10 903 14 427 15 778 1 351 9.36 Total Spaces 28 373 55 181 83 523 82 279 109 141 123 962 139 070 15 108 12.19 Figure 1 - Distribution of Centre Spaces, and Family Day Care Spaces by Year. (Status of Day Care in Canada, 1983). 71 In 1979 the demand for services increased once again and has continued to rise. "Many day care people associate the increase, starting in 1979, with the constant pressures and demands for day care by community groups across the country that have appeared to be escalating since 1978." (Status of Day Care in Canada, 1983). Early Childhood Programs in Canada include group and family day care, private kindergartens, nursery schools, E.S.L. centres, French immersion preschools, kindercare, after school care, drop-in-centres, and centres for children with special needs. Programs may be operated by a province, municipality, church, social agency, community group, parents, or profit making organizations. Programs are financed through parent's fees, community agency funds, provincial subsidies to centres and to families, and the Canada Assistance Plan through which the federal government shares in the cost to the provinces and municipalities of providing day care for low-income families. "Certain strengths are associated with different types of sponsorship of centres. With community representatives involved in the direction of some centres, understanding and support of the needs of early childhood are broadened. Franchise and privately owned centres increase the numer of spaces available to middle and upper socio-economic families." (Status of Day Care in Canada, 1983). On Tuesday, November 27, 1985, the Minister of Health and Welfare, Jake Epp, announced the creation of the Parliamentary Task Force on Cild Care. The Task Force was charged with 7E 'examining and reporting on the future of child care in Canada in the context of the changing needs of the Canadian family in today's society'. The Task Force is to give particular reference to: the requirements of children for care, the role of the federal government in child care, alternatives for future action by the federal government, the special circumstances of various families, and financial implications for the federal government of any initiatives which may be proposed.<Day Care Advocate, January, 1986). The Task Force Committee has been travelling across the country holding public meetings and soliciting briefs from concerned organizations and individuals. Teacher Training in Canada In the years before 1850, persons entering the teaching profession were often ignorant and of low moral character who chose to teach because they could not find other employment. Teachers were required to accept part of their salaries in 'board' and to live with families of their students. They were often expected to do chores before they went to school in the morning and again when they returned from school in the late afternoon. They had no privacy and for many the life of a teacher in early Canada was a degrading experience. Most teachers had little education and used only the methods by which they had been taught as models to carry out their own teaching dut ies. 73 There were several methods of training teachers used in the beginning of formal education in Canada. The 'monitor' system was adopted from Great Britain for a time. The 'model' school system allowed young teachers to begin their teaching careers after some high school courses and three months training in a 'model' school. The 'model' school would have a principal with a first class certificate (senior matriculation and four to ten months at normal school), and teachers with second class certificates (normal school training). With this minimum training the students would receive a third class certificate upon the completion of the 'model' school program. These teachers were suppposed to upgrade their credentials with additional high school courses and later a five month normal school course. However, few bothered to continue their training and as a result there was an oversupply of poorly trained teachers. The 'model' school system of training teachers was most widespread in Ontario. "...the effect of the model schools upon the status of the profession was devastating. They (the model schools) succeeded in handing over the vast majority of the schools to the half-trained and immature." (Althouse, 1949). In the Maritimes and the Western Provinces, some professional courses were offered as well as academic courses in the secondary schools. In Nova Scotia, until 1893, professional courses were required of all students as a part of the regular high school diploma program and until 1933, temporary licenses were issued to applicants without training. In the Northwest 74 Territories (later the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan), many high schools offered a teacher training department and in British Columbia before 1900, high school training was the only type of teacher education available. (Phillips, 1957). In the latter half of the 19th Century, normal schools designed specifically for the education and training of teachers were established in Eastern Canada. In the first normal school programs, content was considered of a higher priority than methods of instruction. As more of the student teachers had some secondary education before attending the normal schools, the emphasis of the curriculum began to shift from purely academic courses and began to include in their programs: psychology, general principles of education, history of education and methods of teaching, and individual subjects such as reading, arithmetic, writing, art, music, etc. By the late 19S0's, all provinces had established normal schools. The minimum prerequisites were raised from two years to three years of secondary education. In 1940, standards for teacher training in Canada ranged from Grade S and one year of professional training in Prince Edward Island to Grade XIII and one year of professional training in Ontario and British Columbia. These standards were low compared to Great Britian which required two years of professional training after completion of secondary school and the United States which 75 required in many states three and four years of post secondary education even for elementary teachers. (Phillips, 1957). Alberta, in 1945, was the first province to cease operation of its Normal schools and transfer the responsibility for the education and training of teachers to the University of Alberta. Elementary teachers were required to finish the first two years of a Bachelor of Education program before they commenced teaching and continue course work at summer sessions until they completed their degrees. Through the 1950's most provinces followed Alberta's lead. Early Childhood Education Training in Canada Training for Early Childhood Educators across Canada varies as much as the types of centres available to young children. Where the Kindergarten is a part of the public school system the teachers are required to have the same training and certification as teachers of primary grades. In nursery schools, parent participation preschools, and daycares the range of teachers/supervisors includes those with training and education in psychology, nursing, religious orders and social work to those with no training at all who 'like children' and decide to open a baby sitting service in their own homes or an unstructured morning program in the neighbourhood church basement. 76 The patterns of development of training programs for Early Childhood Educators have followed similar lines to those of the professional education of teachers in the public school system, although 40 - 50 years later in time. In the 1940's and 1950's centres for young children were operated by supervisors who often had little or no training in Early Childhood. As the demand for quality daycare increased in the 1960's, there was pressure from parents to have better qualified staff, pressure from Day Care Boards and other operators to upgrade training for future employees and pressure from workers themselves for more and better training. Community Colleges have led the cause for better and more training for those who work with young children in preschool situations. At the present time there are many routes to follow to receive Early Childhood training. The student may find employment in a centre as an aide while taking courses through the many Continuing Education programs in Early Childhood offered across the country. Community Colleges, in all provinces, offer one to four semester programs that are very similar to the programs offered to prospective elementary school teachers in the Normal schools of the 1950's. Some universities offer a Bachelor of Education with a major in Early Childhood. However, most university programs tend to concentrate on the currriculum and methods of teaching kindergarten and primary children rather than the preschool child in daycare or nursery school. 77 All programs offered in Early Childhood Education will have some courses in psychology (child growth and development), history and philosophy, curriculum for young children, methods of teaching and child management, nutrition, health and safety, observation and practicum experiences, and may or may not include: adminstration of preschool centres, working with children under three, and an introduction to working with the child with special needs. Although most provinces have standards for certification in place or are in the process of setting provincial standards for certification of Early Childhood personnel, many unqualified aides continue to fill positions for which they have little or no training. Employers must take some of the responsibility for the continuing market for untrained and sometimes highly inappropriate personnel. They are either ignorant of provincial standards and the needs of young children and/or more interested in hiring staff at the lowest pay possible than on insisting on well trained quality suprevisors. However, as professionals and the public in general have become more aware of children's needs and more convinced of the importance of the preschool years they have become more insistent on the upgrading of the qualifications of staff responsible for the care and education of, young children. Parent participation groups and non-profit centres are insisting on well qualified staff. University and college 78 laboratory and demonstraion preschool centres are leading the field in expecting all staff to have a Bachelor's degree in psychology or Early Childhood Education as a minimum requirement for employment in their centres. There is a need for Provincial governments to continue to upgrade standards for entry into the field by refusing to allow any additional untrained staff to work in the field in the future. Also, they should to insist that the untrained personnel working in the field at the present time become qualified as soon as possible, and support research into the best possible way to train and educate personnel who will staff Early Childhood centres in the future. 79 CHAPTER 4 LEGISLATION, ISSUES AND MODELS IN TEACHER PREPARATION It may be possible to ascertain, from a review of the current literature by Early childhood educators and researchers in the field, 'the best educational practice' when offering post basic special education to Early Childhood practitioners. From recommendations in the literature, priorities in knowledge and skills required by professionals who work with young children with special needs will be set. In the survey of the literature, legislation, policies and present practices that influence the care and education of young exceptional children are noted. The issues of mainstreaming, noncategorica1 training, and specific training for practitioners working with preschool children with special needs are explored. Models for the training of special education personnel are described with particular emphasis on noncategorica1, interdisciplinary, and competency-based models. The conclusion that, no matter which system is followed as a model for training, there are specific competencies required of staff who work with exceptional young children, is recommended. The literature suggests what these competencies should be. Included in the literature review are the materials and technological equipment that are available to enhance the practitioners care and 80 education of exceptional young children and enable the children to cope with their environments. Because there is limited research and literature concerning the training of professionals who work with the young child with special needs, the review includes training of special educators who work with older children and Early Childhood practitioners in regular preschool centres. Until there is more research in the field of Early Childhood Special Education, it is necessary to review and adapt methods from related fields. Richert (19SE), discusses the direction of the education of exceptional children in the European Communities and notes the following trends: "1. To relate responsibility for education of the handicapped to other education E. To make pedagogical psychological guidance and special education available without cost to the family, the financial and administrative responsibility being established by legislation 3. To see the environment and service measures that are essential for meaningful education as an inseparable part of education and thus of the education budget. This includes bu i1d i ngs, 4. To offer special pedagogical assistance at nursery school age as soon as the need is recognized and to make this assistance the responsibility of the school authorities, who in this context cooperate with social health services 5. To insure specialist training and in-service training for staff giving pedagogical psychological guidance in special education 6. To school leavers the education system will offer assistance and guidance to the handicapped with the cooperation of the 81 labour market authorities. 7. To provide funds for special pedagogical research and development, including the production of technical aids." He suggests that the European Communities have taken responsibility for the education of exceptional children at the poli tical level. In the United States, Seefeldt and Barbour (1986), state four major purposes included in the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142): "1. To insure all handicapped children a free, appropriate public education. 2. Protection of the rights of handicapped children and parents 3. To assist to states and localities in providing services for handicapped ch i1dren. 4. To insist on the effectiveness of efforts to educate handicapped children." Gilkerson et.al. (1981), surveyed three states with varying legislation that they felt were representative of the different practices in Early Childhood special education in the United States. They found that there was not a ground swell of support in the field of Early Childhood and that when preschool education for children with special needs was not mandatory and it had to compete for funding there were not enough monies to generate the needed resources. When funds must be found from the community at large, programs will not evolve easily. The authors found that there was strong support among professionals for a full time Early Childhood; special education consultant to demonstrate the 82 state's support and to oversee a common collection point for the most recent research and data in the field. They found that the best estimates in some states of the timing for complete state responsibility would not be for ten years. Therefore, they suggest that the states need to encourage local education authorities to initiate programs while at the same time maintain a working relationship with private agencies who presently are providing necessary services to children. In one state with mandatory legislation, there was only one training program that offered an Early Childhood:Specia 1 Education degree. The other two states did not provide in-service training in Early Chi1dhood:Specia1 Education. Although the authors did not recommend generalization, from the small sample in their survey they did suggest that mandatory provision of Early Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education programs, adequate funding for such programs, and specialized training for professionals who work with children with special needs should be high priorities for state authorities now and in the future. Recommendations of the Warnock Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Special Education in England and Wales were the basis for the Education Act 1981. Some of the more important areas covered in the legislation are as follows: 1. the categorization of children with special needs 8. parents must be consulted before special education provisions can be made for a child otherwise than in a school 83 3. parents must be notified in writing of their right of appeal if they are dissatisfied with LEA's decision to make or not to make special education provision for their child 4. LEA's have the power to assess children under the age of five with consent of the parents and are obliged to make an assessment if parents request it 5. LEA's should move toward integration of children with special needs into the 'mainstream' of education in Britain (Petrie, 1981, 1984, Blythman 1984, and Hermelin, 1981). Mary Warnock suggest that 'unless provisions are made for extra teacher training the rest of the report would not be worth tuppence'. (Peter, 1980). The Education Act in 1981 did not make recommendations for financial provisions for teacher training in the field of Special Education. However, Hermelin (1981), suggests that considerable progress could be made in implementing the act if teachers were given opportunities to extend their knowledge and experience by a great variety of courses and training programs designed to include as many different forms of special educational needs as possible. He goes on to emphasize that unless teacher training programs for those working now in ordinary schools are quickly developed throughout the country integration will remain a meaningless phrase. Hermelin (1981) is positive about the future. He hopes attitudes will change because of the 1981 Act and that when the financial abilities of the government improve more recommendations of the Warnock report will be implemented. 84 In Canada although the Federal Government only lends financial support to the provinces for post secondary and preschool education, Csapo (1981), recommends that the government should be more involved in the care and education of children with special needs. She feels it is admissible to set some federal objectives for handicapped children in order to guarantee their basic human rights nationwide. She suggests these objectives could include: every handicapped child should receive an appropriately designed education from the public treasury, on leaving school every handicapped child should have some relevant training for the job markets and every handicapped child should have access to a teacher specially trained and competent in the skills required to promote effective learning. She suggests that in a country as broad and with as many regional disparities as is found in Canada, the task of accomplishing the objectives is not easy but under a federal office of special education long range planning the objectives could be accomplished. As the federal government shares the financial responsibility for preschool child care and post secondary education at the present time, the areas of Early Childhood Education for exceptional children and the training of professionals to provide programs for these children may be an opportune area in which the government can set federal policies in special education. If the government in Ottawa were to implement and support financially the recommendations of the Report of the Task Force on Child Care (1986) made concerning 85 exceptional children, involvement of the federal making and implementing policies on education children could begin with a comprehensive Canadian government and care policy. i n for In the United States where mandatory legislation has been in place for ten years, the implementation of quality programs for all children who need special attention is not always available. Where programs are offered there is often a lack of qualified staff with specific training in the field of Early Childhood:Special Education. In Canada where most legislation pertaining to the public care and education of children with special needs is permissive, programs are offered at the pleasure of provincial and local authorities. In times of restraint when there is not enough funding required to provide programs for school age children there is very little ear marked for the needs of preschool children. Whether policies and practices are set by mandatory legislation as in the United States and to a lesser degree in Great Britain or permissive legislation as in Canada, the direction of the western world is to a better understanding of the needs of exceptional children and the realization of the minimum standards and opportunities for care and education which should be provided for children. The recession of the 1980's and the resultant cutbacks in all social expenditures have slowed the progress that otherwise might have been made toward the goal of meeting the needs of exceptional children. 86 Issues in Early Childhood: Special Education By 1978-79 the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped was funding 23 states through State Implementation Grant (S.E.G.) programs to assist them in the implementation of Early Childhood State Plans to develop statewide networks of services for young handicapped children. Carter et.a1.(1980), in summarizing the observations of five State Implementation Directors, suggest that there are few traditions or precedents regarding public responsibility for children under kindergarten age. Therefore, there is an uneven commitment to Early Childhood programming at the state and local levels. S.I.G. Directors are realizing the necessity to provide public information as to the benefits of early intervention and have become strong advocates for young children with special needs. The authors recommend that state support for programs is needed to guarantee consistency and accessibility of programs to all children in need of services. They state that professionals agree that intervention during the crucial early years of development yields greater returns for the child than later intervention. They suggest that existing programs have often been implemented by staff who are not specifically trained in Early Childhood special education and many teachers of young children do not have a depth of knowledge of child growth and development in the early years. Courses in this area should be provided and updated in tune with the most recent research through in-service training. One of the most 87 important areas financed by S.I.B.'s is the training and retraining of personnel. O'Connell (1983) reports on a survey of teacher certification directors in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia in the U.S.A. One of the objectives of the survey was to assess the progress of state education authorities in developing handicapped preschool certification standards. State standards were reviewed to verify that handicapped preschool certification was a separate and recognized category within the overall state certification guidelines. She found that 18 states have established standards and regulations for certifying teachers of handicapped preschool children, IE states were in the process of establishing certification and 21 states reported no specific standards regulating teachers of young handicapped children. She recommends that educational personnel must begin interacting with other child care professionals and that the general public must be informed of the effectiveness of early intervention as an educational approach in helping young children to learn. Unless the general public and other professionals understand the function of early education for the handicapped and are shown positive results they will not support the appropriation of needed funding for children's programs and the training of Early Childhood special educators. Dr. Bricker, (Thomas, 1980) states that cutbacks (in educational spending) have and will continue to have a decided 88 effect on the delivery systems for young children with special needs. She views 'restraint' programs as having positive influences on the field. The cut backs, in her opinion, will cause educators to be cost effective, develop effective organizational strategies for reaching future goals and force organized pooling of data and resources. She states, very emphatically, that restraints can have positive effects only if the professionals who are implementing new programs know what they are doing. The success of programs for young children can be brought about only, by the thoughtful planning and rigorous execution of program plans by professionals who have ''training and experience in working with young children and understand the growth and development and nature of the needs of young exceptional children. If the right of handicapped children to an 'appropriate education' means more than just access to buildings and programs, then teachers of young children must demonstrate that children are receiving appropriate educational programs and not just reasonable custodial care. Raphael Simches (Soeffing, 1975) suggests that the concerns of the public must be aroused to the importance of early intervention programs if the public is to give its financial support. The programs and the professionals involved have to have means of evaluating services and proving to the public that they are making a difference to the children they serve. Individual teachers may not be able to provide the programs alone. They need skills to influence other 89 professionals to see that children are evaluated effectively so they receive the most appropriate care, treatment and education. There must be methods to measure professionals' abilities to evaluate their effectiveness with children. In the same article, (Soeffing, 1975), Edward W. Martin suggests that if attitudes are not raised by evaluative proof of progress for the young child, 'then colleges will be slow to modify their teacher training to include Early Childhood and severely handicapped course work'. The unique and diverse population of young exceptional children may not be adequately served either by Early Childhood educators of non-handicapped children or by teachers trained in another area of special education, (Hirshoren and Umansky, 1977). Consequently, there is a rapidly growing recognition of the need for specially trained and certified teachers of preschool handicapped children. The teacher of the preschool child should be knowledgeable in the area of normal child growth and development, and must be concerned with the establishment of basic fundamental skills in areas such as language, social, emotional, cognitive and motor development. The teacher of the preshcool handicapped child must have additional knowledge about various learning styles and the highly unique abilities and disabilities, characteristic of individual handicapped preschoolers. The teacher of older handicapped children may have knowledge of the abilities and disabilities of handicapped children but have very little background in the area of normal growth and development of the 90 preschool child. Therefore, it may be unreasonable to assume that a teacher, trained in another area of special education or as an Early Childhood educator of typical children can be expected to meet the diverse needs of preschool handicapped children without additional training in the area. (Hirshoren, Umansky, 1977). The results of a survey done by Enzinna and Polloway (1982) suggest that many teachers working with preschool handicapped children are trained in other areas of teaching. The employment of teachers uncertified in preschool special education may be a necessary step in the transitional phase between the decision of a state (or province) to require special certification in the field and, the time personnel need to acquire the prescribed education. Departments of Education in the United States and Canada have been slow to establish criteria for specific certification of teachers of the preschool exceptional child, and where criteria have been established have not required personnel to meet standards as a condition of employment. Enzinna and Polloway, (1982) state that the quality of service provided for handicapped preschool children would seem to be enhanced by training professionals specifically to work with this population. However, unless regulations, requiring personnel to have special training are enforced by regulatory bodies the employment of untrained personnel will continue. 91 Mainstreaming in Early Childhood Education One of, if not the major issue in the care and education of young children with special needs is that of mainstreaming. Mainstreaming is educational programming that integrates exceptional and typical children into regular preschool settings. Meisels (1977), states that: "The goal of mainstreaming is to provide a favorable and 'normalized' learning environment for special needs children and to provide this experience in the least restrictive environment possible: the regular classroom" (pg.4) He goes on to suggest that all children vary in their backgrounds, abilities and interests and that the integrated centre should be designed to provide an educational experience that attempts to meet the differing needs of all the children. He justifies mainstreaming on legal, moral, socia 1-cu1tura1 and educational opportunity grounds morally, it should provide opportunities to reduce isolation and prejudice, social -culturally, it should increase the potential contribution of handicapped children, and educationally, mainstreaming should provide exceptional children with positive peer models and reinforcements in their learning experiences. Early Childhood Education programs for exceptional children fall on a continuum from full integration to complete segregation. In fully integrated preschools, one or two children 9E with special needs will be enrolled. The children in these programs may need some special attention in educational programming but for the most part manage in the mainstream with very little extra help. Integration includes social, physical and intellectual activities. Many centres have integrated children with diverse handicaps and abilities. Usually in these centres the staff child ratio will be higher and the entire staff will have responsibility for the exceptional children as well as the typical children. There may be other professionals in the program who will remove individual children for short periods during the day for special help in such areas as language, psychomotor activities etc. Some programs enroll one or two children with severe and/or multi handicaps. These programs will have an extra staff member who will work on a one-to-one basis with the children. This specially trained staff member will assess the child's abilities, plan independent educational programs, consult with parents and other professionals and attend to the child's physical needs. Preschools that began for exceptional children with handicaps ranging from mild developmental delay to severe multi-handicaps have practiced 'reverse' mainstreaming in integrating typical children into a program that was originally set up to serve exceptional children. There are also preschool centres that have separate classrooms for the children with special needs. The exceptional children are integrated for parts of each day for specific activities. At other times, they are educated and cared for on a segregated basis. Each program has its own specific rewards and problems in 93 the integration process. The needs for in service and post basic training of staff, the necessary support personnel, special materials and equipment may be quite individual depending on the primary focus of each integrated program. In the past fifteen years the numbers of preschool children with special needs who have been 'mainstreamed' into regular preschool centres has increased dramatically. The practice of mainstreaming has become acceptable in the field of Early Childhood at least on an intellectual basis. In practice, how to ensure that integrated centres provide quality care and education for typical and exceptional children, is where the controversy over the practice of mainstreaming lies. Widerstrom (1982) suggest that in any integrated program professionals and parents need to discuss what the effects of mainstreaming will be on the handicapped child, what the effects of mainstreaming will be on the typical child and how the parents and staff feel about integrating handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children. Balcher and Turnbull (1983), suggest that how parents of nonhandicapped children view mainstreaming could also affect the implementation of preschool mainstreaming and the quantity and quality of parent-to-parent interactions. Some professionals still oppose the integration of handicapped children into regular programs on the grounds that handicapped children learn more in a segregated program and that 94 handicapped children will be isolated in integrated programs. Vincent et.al.(1981) state that they could locate no research to support these assumptions. Falvey (1980), compared the progress of two matched groups of handicapped kindergarteners. One group was in a segregated classroom with limited integration on an individual basis. One group was in a segregated class situation. He found that the two groups of handicapped made equal developmental and social gains. He also found that the children in the integrated program showed higher levels of appropriate observing behaviour and lower levels of inappropriate manipulation of materials. Vincent et.al. (1986) suggest that if the two groups had made equal gains the second program should be the program of choice because of the less restrictive nature of the program. Chr i stoph erson (1978) found that three , four and five year olds were the most accepting of handicapped playmates of all ages through elementary school and that mainstreaming was a generally favourable experience for all children at the preschool level. Odom et.al. (1984) examined the results of placing nonhandicapped children in classes primarily containing handicapped children and found there were no significant differences in the performance of the nonhandicapped children and concluded that the placement did not interfere with the normal development of the children. In Madison, Wisconsin, a group of parents of typical children were concerned that the school their children were to attend did not include special education programs. They believed the situation 95 would limit their children's education. Vincent et.al. <1981) suggest that these parents believe that handicapped children and their typical children have the right to be involved in programs with handicapped children. Even if educators and parents believe that integrated programs provide the only relevant environments for the education and care of young childrenj it is not enough to insist 'thou shalt integrate' and expect staff, with little or no training in meeting the needs of the children they are expected to integrate into their centres to do it well. Staff must be given opportunities to participate in inservice or post basic programs to learn skills in the assessment of exceptional children planning individual education programs, for exceptional children in successfully integrated centres, and to practice their newly learned skills under the supervision of trained special educators. Although there is agreement about the need for additional training and some agreement about the competencies to be learned there is very little agreement about how Early Childhood:Specia1 Education training should be designed and implemented. Non-Categorical vs. Categorical Teacher Preparation Historically, special education courses for elementary school teachers have been designed along categorical lines and in the United States and in Britain certification by education 96 authorities has been offered for specific categories. Wherever certification has been offered for separate categories of expertise such as teaching the visually impaired? the hearing impaired? mentally retarded etc.? colleges and universities tend to offer programs and courses in a categorical model to meet the requirements of the certifying agencies. (Blackhurst? 1981). Blackhurst (1981) suggests there are many drawbacks to categorical special education training. He states that categories are educationally irrelevant. Simply knowing the diagnostic category into which a child has been placed provides little helpful information to teachers. He feels categorical groupings usually overlap one another? categories label children and labelling results in stereotyping and negative expectations in people who work with labelled children. Instructional materials? available for use with children who have special needs? are not category specific except in a few cases such as close captioned films and braille books. He suggests that preparation of teachers along traditional categorical lines results in redundancy of course offerings at universities and colleges particularly evident in categorical courses dealing with methods of teaching. Categorical training programs encourage barriers within the profession at the student level and are hard to break down once personnel enter the work force. Blackhurst (1981) discusses problems that will face program designers who plan programs in the non-categorical mode. The 97 first is, which handicaps should be included in a non-categorical definition, the second relates to the issuance of credentials by educational authorities which are category explicit. (In the United States and in Great Britain may credentials are issued on a categorical basis.) Until graduates can earn certification on a non-categorical basis, colleges and universities will continue to approach special education teacher training on a categorical basis. Earning credentials in special education on a categorical basis is not the case in Canada. Bachor (1983) suggests that there has been no history of categorical certification in Canada. In British Columbia, teachers do not receive any special teaching certificates. Specializations may be noted on degrees granted by the three universities but they are not always indicated. He goes on to state that, in Ontario, after completing a program leading to teacher certification, extra training may be taken which results in Special Education endorsements. These endorsements only indicate that a teacher has reached a beginning, intermediate or specialist level. They do not stipulate any diagnostic category. Blackhurst (1981) raises other issues that relate to the functions performed by those trained in a non-categorical model. The competencies required of those trained to carry out a quality program for young exceptional children must be spelled out. Staffing of teacher education faculties becomes an issue in a 98 non-categorical approach. Should faculty members have non-categorical training in order to be employed by Early Childhood :Special Education training programs? Practicum placements often become difficult as many centres are bound to diagnostic categories. Often, these programs do not provide good models for students to emulate in their student teaching and other practicum experiences. Most Early Childhood training programs offer courses based on a very broad view of what teaching and education of the preschool child entails. Basic programs usually include courses in child growth and development, sociology of the family, history and philosophy of Early Childhood Education, curriculum planning and strategies for teaching, child management, health, and nutrition. The student is expected to become competent in all areas but always with the view of teaching the 'whole' child in such a way that his/her individual emotional, social, physical, intellectual and creative growth will be encouraged at the optimum rate for the particular child, all within the group context where the needs of one child may be quite different and separate from the needs of another child. A noncategorica1 approach to special education training seems to be more logical and relevant than categorical approaches, especially, in the area of Early Childhood teacher training. Models for the Training of Special Education Teachers 99 Sheperd (1975) describes a model as 'a representational system' for structuring and predicting relationships between symbolic and real events: He suggests that through this process it is possible to formulate the critical ingredients of an operational model for teacher preparation programs. Models prescribe directions for design, implementation and evaluation of programs and enable the users to retrace the steps, understand the process and duplicate the actions involved in the process. Glasser (1962), suggests four parameters of an instructional model. The four components are: instructional goals, entering behavior, instructional procedures and performance assessment. Stamm <1975), in structuring his training model, uses Mitzel's (1960) parameters for training model building which are presage, process and product. Stamm (1975) suggests that any model being devised for the training of special educators should have: 1) a complete description of the major aspects of the program and the interrelationships 2) logically stated terminal competencies 3) training strategies and support systems 4) an instructional management system to monitor the program 5) provision to respond to the needs of students and future emp1oyers 6) processes to enable adaptation to the changing context of educat ion Shepherd (1975), cautions that whenever a system is designed and implemented those involved must start with the basic assumption that they can accurately predict the future environment of the system and that the model will run at a pace commensurate with their predictions. There is always the danger that once a training program becomes committed to a certain 100 model) the participants become so tied not respond to issues and needs raised in the program or practitioners in the to the model that they do by students participating field. There has been a rapid growth in personnel preparation courses in special education in the United States in the past twenty-five years. Numbers have grown from less than 40 in the 1950's to more than 400 in the 1970's. (Burke, 1976). However, Lampner (1979), suggests that very little literature has been devoted to developing models of comprehensive education designs leading to a special education degree and/or certification. Few models have been based on the learning needs of the preservice teacher and methods of teaching college and university student teachers effectively. Four-D-Model Thiagarjan et.al. (1974), describe the Four-D-tiodel systems approach to the training of special educators. The instructional development process of the model is divided into four stages: Definition, Design, Development and Dissemination. 1) Definition: The purpose of this stage is to stipulate processes and define instructional requirements for: a) raising the performance levels of special education teachers b) assessing entering competencies and background experience of entering students c) identifying skills to be acquired by students 101 d) identifying major concepts to be learned by students e) specifying instructional objectives 2) Design: The purposes of the second stage are: a) to construct criterion-referenced tests b) to identify and select the most appropriate media to be used The authors identify twenty-one formats for designing instruction and instructional materials for teacher training. The initial design will contain strategies for presenting essential instruction through appropriate media in the most relevant sequence. 3) Development: This stage involves putting the design into practice. Feedback is received from faculty and experts in the field. Formative evaluation is carried out and instructional strategies and materials are revised. Material is tested on students? feedback is encouraged and materials are modified. The cycle of testing? revising and retesting is repeated until materials works consistently and effectively. 4) Dissemination: The fourth stage involves the distribution of the revised design. Instructional strategies and materials (lesson plans? instructional objectives? overheads? films videos etc.) are implemented by faculty after a summative evaluation is undertaken and when developmental testing yields consistent results and 102 expert appraisal yields positive comments and acceptance. The Non-Categorical Approach Model Anderson et.al. (1976) describes one approach to dealing with the non-categorical model at Memphis state University. They suggest that there are some traditional courses which can be retained in a generic program. The most universal one of these is the introduction course on exceptional children. At Memphis, it was in the areas of the characteristics, methods, materials and practicum courses specifically related to certain categorical areas that extensive changes were being made. The first course in the new program was 'Characteristics of Children and Adults with Cognitive and Affective and Psychomotor Handicaps'. The emphasis of the course is on the interrelatedness of handicaps on the processes of maturation, learning and social adaptation. The second requirement is a generic methods course, 'Clinical Teaching of Exceptional Children'. The focus of this course is on the competencies required by teachers to produce desired academic and social behaviors in children with various exceptionalities. The curriculum of the course includes observation, diagnosis, intervention, evaluation and the use of instructional materials. Anderson et.al (1976) have attempted to develop a rational for non-categorical course presentation in their description of several key courses which might serve as the nucleus for a 103 program to prepare teachers of mildly handicapped children who have traditionally been categorized as educable mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed or learning disabled. Heward et.al. (1981) describe a non-categorical training program at Ohio State University that consists of introductory courses covering categories of exceptionality, historical foundations of special education, legal aspects and various models of delivering educational services to handicapped children. Students acquire competencies in assessment, curricular needs, instructional alternatives and evaluation procedures. There are two courses devoted to instructional skills. One is a curriculum/methods course that concentrates on direct instructional techniques for curriculum areas. The second course deals with modules of instruction in dai1y-1iving, personal, social and occupational guidance and preparation skill areas. The student teaching practicum is an important facet of the program. In the practicum assignment, students must instruct a child in an academic activity irrespective of the child's diagnostic category. This approach challenges the premise that separate areas of exceptionality require different teaching techniques. The students start working with a small group of children and move to taking the responsibility for planning, implementing and evaluating a whole program. Feedback from the cooperating teacher and faculty members is considered a key 104 ingredient of the practicum program. The non-categorical approach has had positive feedback from students, cooperating teachers and faculty. As professionals are expected to play a more active role in working with parents and the skills necessary to work effectively with parents of mildly handicapped children are non-categorical in nature, Heward et.al. (1981) view the move to the new model as a welcome, long overdue change within the field. They state that the possibility (or reality) of reduced resources is not sufficient reason for combining teacher education programs. However, in the mildly handicapped area where research and current practice indicate that essentially identical methods of instruction are effective regardless of a child's subcategory, non-categorical teacher training programs, at least in the area of the mildly handicapped, will be the common model for the future. Smith and Neisworth (1975) have outlined their reasons for support of a non-categorical approach in special education teacher training programs. They agree with Blackhurst (1981) in suggesting that categories are educationally irrelevant, categorical groupings overlap, materials are not category specific, and labelling children leads to stereotyping. Preparation of supervisors along categorical lines results in redundancy of course work and the setting of barriers within the profession. They suggest that although communication may be facilitated within categorical groups, specialization serves as a barrier to communication between groups. 105 A concern for the field of Early Childhood:Special Education in category based preparation programs is that although it may be feasible to place children in centres according to a diagnostic category and hire supervisors trained in the specific category in large urban centres) it would be prohibitively expensive and impossible to service all centres with Early Childhood supervisors/teachers trained in specific categories to meet the needs of each and every preschool child in less densely populated areas. < Blackhurst (1981) suggests that there is a trend to noncategorica1 certification in the United States with at least 40'/. of the states currently committed to the concept an university and college faculties are redesigning programs to fit the trend to noncategorical credentials. He sees potential benefits in the trend but he does suggest some problems involved in noncategorica1 training and certification. The concerns that he feels must be addressed in moving to or designing a noncategorica1 program are: 1) the basic assumptions underlying the development of the program) 2) functions graduates must be able to performj 3) the competencies associated with each function, 4) content to be included, 5) the structure of the program in terms of courses and practicum, 6) resources available to support the program) 7) programs management procedures, and 8) formative and summative evaluation questions to be addressed. The major difficulty he predicts is the difficulty in locating praticum sites that capture the 'essence' of noncategorica1 106 programming. Inappropriately structured programs or programs bound to diagnostic categories do not provide good models for students to emulate in their student teaching and other practicum exper iences. Interdisciplinary Training Model The policy statement of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) regarding the preparation of professionals for educating handicapped children indicates that changes in professional roles require that educators be: "Trained as a member of a differentiated instructional team, able to utilize both human and technological resources, able to function as a team member - sometimes in a leadership role, other times a s a supportive observer, sometimes as a catalyst, and other times as a consumer of technical assistance." (AACTE, 1978). The team approach as applied to Early Childhood settings ranges from an educational team serving mildly impaired children in an integrated setting to an institutiona1-based team working with severely, mu1ti-handicapped children. Swanson and Taylor (198S) insist that sound programs for the handicapped often fail to come together because professionals do not work together to the best advantage of the child. In the past the main focus of interdisciplinary teams has been assessment in order to make placement recommendations. They suggest that current teams must not only make placement 107 recommendations but also develop useful educational management plans (IEP.'s) to include short and long term instructional objectives. If exceptional children are to have appropriate quality care and education then teamwork among related professions working to common goals for the child is a key ingredient to success. Teaming models from the past may not be sufficient for the added responsibilities of present day needs and professionals must understand and appreciate the contributions of professionals from other disciplines. Interdisciplinary experiences in real life settings will enhance students' knowledge of the members from different disciplines and give them practice in working as members of a team for the education and care of the 'whole' child. Freund et.al. (1988) report on a required course for all special educators) 'Medical Problems in Child Development', offered at the University of Arkansas. The course introduces teachers to medical aspects of problems and related treatments for exceptional children, and includes procedures used in making referrals to medical and other health related professionals. The student teacher has an opportunity to develop skills for engaging in productive consultation with medical professionals. It. is hoped that through experiences in this course students will gain knowledge about medical problems, their causes, manifestations and treatment. Regular and special education teachers need to have a better understanding of drugs prescribed for exceptional children. As pharmacological treatment is the most common area 108 of medical management required of teachers, element in the course content. it is an important Students will be able to refer parents to the correct professionals for counselling and will gain knowledge of the medical approach to exceptional children that will help them to work more effectively on an interdisciplinary team. Freund et.al. conclude that: "Certainly, students benefit by obtaining information about medical areas essential to their daily work. Moreover, effective educational plans and instructions for many handicapped children require input from different disciplines. For this process to work, a common framework of communication is essential. Educating teachers with respect to medical aspects of educational disabilities is one means of improving the level of communication. An additional benefit accrues to faculty members themselves, who thought these collaborative efforts are improving their own interdisciplinary teamwork and referral ski 1 Is." Swanson and Taylor (198E) suggest that some courses in special education and related fields should incorporate field experiences that build upon shared professional goals and that field sites should be selected carefully in order to expose students to the best models available in effective instructional team operations and educational alternatives for children with special needs. Students need to be prepared in the classroom prior to field experiences through discussions, reading assignments and information about the setting they will visit. 109 Follow up in the classroom reinforces the experiences in field settings. The authors, suggest that through the field experiences the students will gain understandings of the continuum of services that exist for exceptional children, understand better the role responsibilities of each interdisciplinary team member, and appreciate how effective interdisciplinary team decision making can improve the development and implementation of educational programs for exceptional children. Golin and Duncanis (1981), describe a special education teacher preparation program at the University of Pittsburgh. The objectives for the students of the course involve learning to identify competencies and possible contributions of others who might bring their expertise to solving the problems of the visually handicapped, learning to utilize community resources, and learning to function as a member of a team serving preschool and school-age visually handicapped children. Students are assigned to a class team of six to eight members from a variety of related professional backgrounds. They study a team in operation in the community, attend meetings of the team, interview individual team members and submit a final report on their project which has to be a team effort. The students are given class time weekly to work with their team. The instructors serve as resource persons in problems of team functioning and directions reports should take. The theory 1 10 section of the course covers characteristics of teams and how teams function. There are lectures, readings, and discussion aids on strategies for carrying out team research. Students were positive about their team experiences in the course and in follow up evaluations of the course, it was apparent that the experience helped graduates to be effective in working with colleagues in the field. There are institutional and student barriers to such a program. Decisions have to be made as to how the program will be budgeted and who should be responsible for the courses. Professional training programs are often so crowded with required courses that unless the interdisciplinary course is strongly supported by the administration both in philosophy and in funding, the course will not be a priority. Students from various disciplines may have different expectations of the course and may not have had enough experience to have established a strong professional identity of their own. There are many difficulties in implementing an interdisciplinary team approach to the care and education of an exceptional child. The problems within the process include differing levels of participation by different occupational groups, problems in implementing team recommendations lack of training and guidance in the team process for team members, and the inability of professionals to work together in an integrative fashion and 11 1 arrive at a consensus on recommendations for procedures to follow to meet the needs of individual children. Bailey (1984) describes a 'triaxlial model of the interdisciplinary team and group process' in which he tries to conceptualize the team process and dysfunction in teams. He suggests that the interdisciplinary team is a complex entity thats prime purpose is to develop an integrated plan for educational and therapeutic services to meet the needs of exceptional children. He feels that these teams often do not function well because of problems associated with team development, team subsystems, and with the team as a whole. In his discussion of reasons for team dysfunction he suggests that the study of theories and models of teams, and how they function or do not function efficiently, should be a key ingredient in any training program for professionals who will work with children with special needs. Bennet (1988) suggests that there are some problems that need to be over come in the interdisciplinary approach. He feels that definition of and protection of professional 'turf is a major issue. Parents may become confused rather than enlightened by the interdisciplinary process if sufficient care is not taken to coordinate and synthesize the numerous professional evaluations. Often no member of the team takes the responsibility of the leadership role, or as in the historical medical model, the physician expects or is expected to assume the 118 team leader role. The problems that cause an interdisciplinary team to be ineffectual must be understood and combatted for the good of the exceptional children and their families. Bennet <198S) suggests that problems which are common to most teams are not insurmountable but that solutions require sensitive, secure, flexible professionals who are able to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of the interdisciplinary process. Members of teams must take personal as well as group responsibility for assessment and placement decisions as well as long term follow up. All members of teams must have the experience and maturity to function as team leaders, as well as team members, depending on the particular focus of individual cases. In large universities or colleges the administration barriers will be great in implementing an interdisciplinary model. Faculties and professional schools are large and communication between faculties may be almost nonexistent. In small colleges some disciplines may not exist and it may be difficult to simulate interdisciplinary teams. In less populated centres it may be difficult to find models of effective interdisciplinary teams in the field. If as Allen (1978) suggests for preschool children it is often the early Childhood professional who is the most appropriate team member to work as an interdiscip1inarian and synthesize the professional jargon which can impede communication on interdicip1inary teams, then 113 Early Childhood Educators need to be introduced to the interdisciplinary approach and theories of team development and dysfunction in classroom lectures and practicum settings during their training. Historically, parents have had too little input into decisions affecting the care and education of children with special needs as major decisions concerning their children were left to the 'experts'. More recently parents have demanded through the legal system a greater say in the placement of their children, and parents have been encouraged to become involved in preschool education for their children. In the United States during the 1930's the Federal Work Projects Administration funded emergency nursery schools and parent education programs to try 'to combat the deplorable conditions caused by the depression'. (Braun and Edwards, 197E). In the 1960's the Federal government poured millions of dollars into preschool education to fund and monitor Project Head Start under the Office of Economic Opportunity. There were over 100,000 adults (parents, teachers, physicians, psychologists, other professionals and volunteers) involved in this massive project. The quality of work and the amount of involvement with parents varied. Osborn (1965) stated that if the program was to be more than just 'first aid' parents must be brought into centres and included in all aspects of the ^ programs. The mandatory legislation in the United States of P.L. 94-142 ensures parent participation in the assessment procedures, placement and program planning for their children and guarantees 114 the rights and protection for parents as well as exceptional children. The Education Act of 1981 in Great Britain ensures parents' right of appeal in decisions made in assessment and placement of their children. The parents have a right to be present at an examination for assessment of their children, the right of appeal of the assessment i.e. the assurance that when health officials have formed the opinion that a child under the age of five has, or may have, special educational needs, they must inform the parents and give the parents an opportunity for input and then bring the matter to the attention of the appropriate LEA. The legislation is proof of the growing influence of parents in decisions made for the education and care of exceptional children. (Hermelin, 1981). Although legislation in Canada tends to be more permissive than mandatory, present practice shows a growing influence of parents in decisions made concerning exceptional children. Recent court cases have been fought by parents regarding the rights of their children for appropriate care and education and the rights of the parents to be part of the decision making teams that recommend the placement and educational plans for the their children. Frith and Kelly (1981), when commenting on training paraprofessionals to work with parents, suggest the ability of paraprofessionals to contribute to parent involvement in their children's programs in directly related to their professional preparation of the paraprofessionals. The authors feel training should include an emphasis on the team concept and a discussion 1 15 of the roles and responsibilities of various team members. Direct parental contact through practicum experiences and seminars/workshops for parents should be required of any training program. If Early Childhood special educators are to be successful in working with children with special needs and their families they need interpersonal skills to deal with the highly complex human interactional patterns that exist in special education settings) the identification and assessment of children with special needs and the consultative process of arriving at the best possible placement, design, implementation and evaluation of their care and education. Acceptance and consideration of parents as full team members in the process can only lead to more effective programming for children. Sol in and Duncanis (1981) suggest that development and implementation of interdicip1inary programs require a continued high commitment from faculty, students, parents and field personnel. They recommend that anyone undertaking such a program should include students from a variety of human service personnel, faculty with diverse expertise and backgrounds, theoretical course work, opportunities for students to practice the theories, administrative funding to ensure the continuation of the course, and formative and summative evaluation as integral parts of the course. They conclude that research on the effectiveness of the team approach to the instructional needs of 116 exceptional children is limited and that further research is needed for the effective and relevant implementation of programs that would train professionals to become effective team members. Competency-Based Teacher Education Model A competency-based teacher education program has been defined as a program which specifies the competencies to be demonstrated by the student, makes explicit the criteria to be applied in assessing the student's competencies and holds the student accountable for meeting those criteria. (Butler, 1978). Competency-based education is derived from and organized around an agreed upon set of competencies and provides the learning experiences designed to lead to the attainment of those competencies. Stanley Elam (1971) describes the elements of a competency-based teacher education (CBTE) program. He describes competencies as being: derived from conceptualizations of the teacher's role, described explicitly in behavioural terms, made public in advance, and are to be demonstrated by individual students. Assessment should be congruent with the specified competencies, explicitly stated in terms of mastery levels, made public in advance, negotiable and designed to measure performance. The student's rate of progress is determined by demonstrated competency rather than by time spent in program or courses taken. The instructional program provides an appropriate framework for the development and assessment of specific competenc i es. 117 Elam(1971) also implies in his conceptual model that programs will have certain additional characteristics. The program should include individualized and personalized instruction and formative feedback to students assessing their progress. The primary instructional1, component is the modules a set of learning activities intended to facilitate the students' achievement in demonstrating a competency or set of competencies. Payne et. al. (1980), after reviewing the teacher certification of all fifty states, suggest that the minimum competencies required to work with mentally retarded children should be the following: The student should: 1) possess an extensive knowledge of the content appropriate to the field of mental retardation (etiology), history, characteristics, treatments, litigation legislation etc: 8) interact humanely with the retarded learner 3) manage the teaching environment so that retarded learners work efficiently 4) produce positive and observable change in the retarded learner's academic performance The four basic instructional areas they suggest are: basic knowledge of the subject matter related to mental retardation, techniques and methods for teaching the retarded, knowledge of appropriate curriculum for mentally retarded students and demonstration of teaching competency with mentally retarded ch ildren. Assessment as to whether competencies have been attained will be made through paper and pencil tests, oral responses to questions, and direct observation of the student in a field 118 placement. The evaluation of the student's competency will depend on the judgement of the faculty and centre supervisors that the student has a sufficient grasp of ideas, concepts and skills. The authors suggest that the programs for teacher preparation can be measured by making sure of the following three steps: the specific content topic is included in one of the four competency instructional areas; the specific content topic fits one of the certification criteria; the specific content topic is assessed by one of the assessment options. They recommend the preceding format could be used to evaluate existing programs well as to develop new programs. Gentry (1976) suggests that it is premature to suggest that CBTE programs are 'better than' conventional teacher training programs. He states that while there exists among educators a variety of interpretations and definitions of CBTE, we can assume that there are certain 'minimal characteristics' on which all can agree and given that assumption any program lacking the 'minimal characteristics' cannot be considered competency-based. He goes on to suggest that it is questionable whether any of the larger teacher training programs in the United States attempting CBTE have yet developed all the 'minimal characteristics, that is to say, that although many programs may purport to be, there are probably no truly and completely competency-based programs. Lorber (1979) describes an eight year 'experiment' at Illinois State University in CBTE. He concludes that the 119 single-format, self-paced, competency-based program did not adequately meet the varying instructional needs of students. He cautions other educators, and particularly those considering the implementation of competency standards to 'look7 before they 'leap' into competency-based education. He found that the majority of the students in the program displayed varying self-pacing abilities when such alternatives were available. Initial faculty support was enthusiastic but has come to virtual agreement that changes are needed. "Faculty discontent stems from limitations (both real and imagined) on academic freedom, from honest differences of opinion concerning basic instructional content and strategies, and from the virtual impossibility of reaching consensus on standards for the level called for in the teaching and evaluation of skills at the higher cognitive level called for in the teaching and evaluating of lessons." (Lorber, 1979). In a rebuttal to Lorber (1979), Smith and Nagel (1979) list the positive results that have been realized through a CBTE program at San Deigo State University. They compared students of the CBET program to students of the conventional program at SDSU. They found that the CBTE students had a significantly greater knowledge about teaching and learning, better verbal interaction with children, greater use of individualized instruction, and greater ratings of their performance from children they taught. They are convinced that opposition to CBTE arises from the resistance to change in mode of instruction by instructors, and that CBTE programs require a greater commitment of time and ieo effort and avai1abi1i1ty to the students than does the conventional lecture format of presenting material. Accountability Model Stainbach et. al . (1977) discuss a model for training that 'incorporates a high degree of accountability for the training program as well as for the potential teachers'. The model incorporates the components needed by teachers of the severely and profoundly retarded with a practicum based orientation. The program consists of an Introductory Sequence and four Phases. The introductory sequence is plannned to acquaint the student with the population to be served through lectures on basic theoretical understandings and issues in special education, some exposure to children who are severely retarded with various handicapping conditions and visits to various community agencies serving handicapped children. In Phase I the student learns the basic skills of behaviour modification, educational organization and evaluation. The student will learn about task presentation techniques, curricular materials, skill sequencing and content determination and have an opportunity to put information into practice with a child in a practicum setting. Stainbach et. al. (1977) state that the practium experience serves as the core of the program fed by the instructional course. In Phase II the teaching emphasis moves to a group of children. In Phase III the practicum experience requires the student to serve the needs of the children by interdisciplinary communtiy teamwork. Phase IV 121 involves total management of a classroom situation and all the skills and competencies that are required. There is an advanced seminar that completes the practicum. (Figure 2). Multi-Level Teacher Preparation Model De Hoop (1973), describes a model for the development of an instructional system to prepare special education personnel. The criteria for the instructional system are: utilize existing educational settings, provide for the most effective services to the largest number of practitioners, analyze the instructional tasks in each component of the program, identify the tasks and contributions of all personnel involved, provide for continuous evaluation of personnel and students, and use evaluation as feed back for continued improvement in program and participants. 122 Introductory Sequence Exceptional Children Human Growth and Development Physiology Y7 Familiarization Practicum Studies in Special Educat ion Y Phase I-Tutorial Introductory Management "Tutorial Practicum Introductory Curriculum Phase II-Croup Advanced Management N Preacademic Curriculum Group Practicum Self Help Curriculum Phase III-Interdisciplinary Home-School Relations Seminar Interdisciplinary Practicum Community Resources Phase IV-Classroom Advanced Seminar Severe and Profound Classroom Practicum Figure 2 - An Integrative Model for Training Teachers of the Severely and Profound 1y Retarded.(Stainbach et.al., 1977) 123 The faculty is divided into field instructors and academic instructors. Field instructors observe students in practicum placements, evaluate performance and supply feedback to students and academic instructors about areas of weakness. Academic instruction provides information relevant to the education of exceptional children. Academic and field instructors, and personnel in affiliated centres in the field cooperate closely, there are five instructional phases for which there are several individual instructional modules. Students, depending on their individual abilities and experience, may move through the different phases at their own pace. At the end of each phase the students are expected to be proficient in the knowledge and the skills required to master the particular phase. (Figure 3). The program draws from the knowledge and the skills of a broad group of the university faculty, allows for student influence in the direction of the program, and facilitates assistance to students at all levels of the program. The author suggests that this model can be applied to structurally and functionally different programs i.e. special education, education, speech pathology, etc. 124 Instructional Activities Instructional Phases Exceptional Individuals Setting Methods and Materials Educational and/or Peutic management Undergraduate I: Acquainted 1. Observe first hand and audiovisually. 2. Read literature. 3. Attend lectures, discus sions, and demonstrations. 1. Observe: preschool, ele mentary, high school, voca tional, workshops, home, and residential institutions; fund drives and similar endeavors. 1. Observe: Instructional Resource Center at EKU, SE1MC at UK, and Title III Satellite Center. 1. Observe: educational man agement, speech and play thera pists, behavior modification and observation techniques. II: Involved 1. Identify. 2. Interact. 3. Study systematically. 4. Attend lectures, discus sions, and demonstrations. 1. Observe setting in rela tion to developmental differ ences of exceptional individ uals. 1. Analyze then experi ment with materials in simu lated or real setting. 2. Make a comparative study of materials in use. 1. Apply reinforcement and reward techniques for preference: behavior modification. 2. Construct instructional se quence based on task analysis. Ill: Proficient 1. Identify and record be havioral changes. 2. Read and interpret re search reports (use library). 3. Attend lectures, discus sions, and demonstrations. 1. Choose setting relevant to occupational goal. 2. Describe pupil perfor mance. 1. Select then develop ap propriate materials for a speci fic instructional objective. 1. Supervised student teaching or therapy. Graduate IV: Professional 1. Study case studies. 2. Study psychological techniques. 3. Study independently. 4. Develop attitudes or critical evaluation. 1. Study social-psychologi cal and educational aspects of setting. 2. Study case studies. 1. Study educational and psychological foundations for methods and materials. 2. Study case studies. 1. Study educational founda tions of education. 2. Study case studies. V: Specialized 1. Study characteristics relative to specialization in teaching, administration, psychoeducational diagnosis, and counseling. 1. Study setting relevant to area of specialization: school, education system, workshop, residential institution, etc. 1. Evaluate methods and materials relative to specializa tion on validity, utility, and generality as evidenced by re search findings. 1. Develop short term and long term goals. Figure 3 - Proficiency Modules in Multi-Level Preparation of Special Education Personnel (de Hoop, 1973). The model is designed to remedy some of the restraints often imposed on instructional categories by administrative departments. The model enables students at differing levels of college credit to work on the same phases in special education and students at the same levels in college to participate in the phase of special education they can manage. The author suggests an evaluation system of students, faculty, content and materials that supplies constant feedback to support changes in the program that will ensure the relevance and credibility of the program and the professionals involved in it. Although the program seems to be more appropriate for a large post secondary institution, there are tenets of the program that could be adapted to fit the needs of a small college program. Students entering a post basic Early Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education program with several years experience working with exceptional children probably could move through the phases at a faster pace than those students entering the field of special education for the first time. The close cooperation suggested between college faculty and professionals in the field would offer students in a small program opportunities for exposure to, and experiences with professionals in related disciplines that would not be available within the college. The evaluation system that is suggested is a very extensive one and is carried out on a regular basis. Often, when funding is made available to institutions for new programs there is little if any funding for 1E6 effective evaluation of course content, materials, instruction or field placements. Although it may be too costly to implement as formalized evaluations as recommended, the procedures in the model could be used as guidelines for less formal and less expensive evaluations. A Cumulative Development Model Lampner (1979), describes a cumulative development model that strives to: a) promote in student teachers retention and transfer of acquired competencies from semester to semester b) teach preservice teachers in developmental stages that mirror the ways they will be teaching children. The model is viewed as a program rather than a set of required courses. "The program is organized on levels of development in which competencies are acquired cumulatively from level to level, growing and intensifying at each succeeding level. Each level is subdivided into three tracks which cover the competencies for teaching psychological, developmental and cognitive skills to exceptional children. (Lampner, 1979). The cumulative development of students is supported through three phases. Phase I covers basic understandings and concepts of teaching exceptional children, Phase II, assessment principles, methods and instruments. Phase III which includes levels 3 -6 concentrates on curriculum development, methods and materials. 127 The model requires students to move through the six highly-sequenced levels of competency development. each level is a prerequisite for all succeeding levels. (Figures 4 and 5). In the final stage of competency development the students are expected to apply all previously acquired competencies in studying and designing comprehensive instructional programs and strateg i es. In addition to the specialized courses as outlined in the model students are required to take courses from other departments to round out their knowledge in educational psychology, child psychology sociology, recreation etc. Field experiences are an integral part of the program and as instruction increases in depth and scope, field experiences become more complex. Lampner(1979) suggests that the track system permits extensive faculty specialization within the program and allows continuous relationships between students and faculty which facilitates monitoring of student competency development. 128 TRACK 2 Figure <4 - Cumulative Competency Development. (Lampner, 1979) 129 \ LEVEL\ \ LEVEfX LIS \ LEVEL\ LP \LEVEC\ WVEL\ SPECIAL EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE & PERFORMANCE COMPETENCIES^ TRACK 1 X f TEACHINC ' 1 V PSYCHOSOCIAL ; V SKILLS _y II U BASIC CONCEPTS ASSESSMENT 4 PRINCIPLES OF . TEACHINC n SELF CONCEPT. DEVELOPMENT n THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION PROCESSES n n APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 1 1 [ APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS II INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS TRACK 2 TEACHINC \ DEVELOPMENTAL SKILLS BASIC CONCEPTS . 1 [ ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES :i ( DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE 1 f DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE II DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE III r INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS BASIC CONCEPTS f ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES ;i {' COGNITIVE SEQUENCE 1 i 1] COGNITIVE SEQUENCE 11 •1 1 COGNITIVE SEQUENCE III *i f EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES (PARALLEL 'N PROGRAM J PROFESS IONAL DE VELOPMENT ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES o PRESCRIP TIVE PRINCIPLES SCHOOL <& COMMUNITY RELATIONS RIGHT TO EDUCATION o wRrriNG lEPs Figure 5 - Flow Chart of Program Structure and Content. (Lampner, 1979) 130 If quality programs for preschool exceptional children are to become a priority and receive the share of public funding they require, then the public at large needs to be made aware of the importance of early intervention in the future development of exceptional children. If the rights of exceptional children to equal opportunities for education in 'the least restrictive environment' are to be realized personnel specifically trained in Early Chi1dhood:Specia1 Education must be available to offer integrated programs that satisfy the needs of exceptional children and their families and the typical children and their fami 1i es. In the design of new programs it is beneficial to review models that have been employed successfully in the past and to choose those facets that will meet the needs of the new program within the limits of time, space and funding of the institution that will operate the program. In all teacher preparation programs, putting theory into practice presents many concerns. The competencies the graduating student should be expected to display and the most effective procedures the program can follow to ensure all students acquire the competencies are of major importance. Suggested competencies and practicum methods by which the student may display his/her competency are discussed in Chapter V. 131 PAGE 13 2 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING PAGE 13 2 OMISE DANS LA PAGINATION CHAPTER 5 POST BASIC COMPETENCIES REQUIRED TO CARE FOR AND EDUCATE EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN Whether the designers of of training programs for special educators choose to follow a 'CBTE' model, a more traditional or conventional model or a humanistic person centered approach (Lickona, 1976), they will all expect some 'competencies' of their students before the students receive credit for the program. If there is to be improvement in the quality of service for young children with special needs, there has to be a focus on what competencies Early Childhood educators require to provide quality service in the care and education of young and special children. One problem regarding the development of such competencies is that stated competencies often lack empirical validity. Relatively few studies have been conducted within special education to identify specific characteristics, strategies, tactics, or other teaching variables that are more desirable than others. Blackwell (1972) investigated the differences between good and poor teachers of trainable mentally retarded children, and found that having positive attitudes, being a woman, and teaching at the preschool level were related to better teachers. 133 Westling et.al. (1981) set out in their research to answer two questions: What characteristics, strategies, and tactics describing current classroom activities and related experiences would be identified by a majority of superb special educators and how these would differ significantly (p < .05) from those identified by a contrast group of average special educators. Although the authors do admit to limitations in their research, they do feel that there were various specific findings that could provide for extensive discussion. They concluded that experience and graduate training are more typical of the superior (Westling's wording) teacher. They found that superior teachers used more small group instruction, and felt that it was possible that average teachers used large group instruction more frequently because they have difficulty managing the bahaviour of the children not in the targeted instructional group. They recommend student teachers be provided with better management techniques and concluded that more extensive preservice practicum experiences are associated with a greater number of superior teachers. They found that effort was being made by 'superior' teachers to document children's progress during the year with preyear and postyear testing. Westling et.al. suggest that it is the responsibility of training programs to present this evaluation format to all preservice teachers. Using the data from the research depicting most 'superior' teachers and differentiating them from those of average teachers, perservice 134 and inservice teacher training programs may be designed that will improve the overall quality of all special educators. Foos, (1976) conducted a survey of teachers of the trainable mentally retarded. The teachers were asked to evaluate expected competencies and their training in the light of their experiences in teaching trainable mentally retarded. results of the survey are contained in Figure 6. The teachers felt that there needed to be more participation in practicum beginning as early in the program as possible. They emphasized the need for adequate preparation in assessment and diagnostic teaching. Frequent mention of history, philosophy and theory; measurement, evaluation and research; and learning, growth and maturation as needing stronger emphasis indicates interest and a perceived need for more academic content. The teachers were nearly unanimous in their pleas for practical help in learning how to communicate with parents and skills to enlist the cooperation and participation of parents and volunteers in the educational program. 135 Areas of Competency Extensively Required 1 Seldom Required2 Method2 I. General Skills 1. List basic skills needed for semi-independent living. 86% 3% Lett u re 2. Learning characteristics of TMR persons. 87% 4% Lecture 3. Utilize parents in curriculum planning. 89% 4% Lecture II. Learning, Growth, and Maturation 4. Early direct experience with TMR children. 88% 4% Lecture-observation 5. Adequate supervision during and after work with TMR children. 80% 5% Lecture-observation 6. Pinpoint individual differences in levels of functioning. 82% 4% Lecture-observation 7. Sequence motor activities to overcome or lessen physical deficiencies. 83% 4% Lecture-observation III. Measurement, Evaluation, and Research 8. Assess physical and menial readiness for tasks. 92% 1% Lecture-practicum 9. Outline remediation steps for individual learning problems. 89% 2% Lecture-praclicum 10. Record systematically the academic, social, and physical progress of child. 87% 3% Lecture-practicum IV. Instruction: Curriculum and Methodology 11. Organize and modify teaching aids and materials. 98% 1% Practicum-observation 12. Devise tasks to insure some success for each child. 96% 1% Practicum-observation 13. Break tasks into small, sequential steps from simple to complex. 95% \ 1% Practicurri-observation 14. Build learning on real-life experiences. 97% 1% Practicum-observation 15. Use concrete materials and concepts. 94"% ' < 0 Praciicum-observation 16. Develop techniques to enliven drill. 87% 1% Practicum-observation V. Self, Society, and Family 17. Help child accept himself as a person of worth. 96% 1% Lecture-seminar 18. Interact with parents on professional level 91% 1% Lecture-seminar 19. Recognize problems of parents in accepting their handicapped child. 94% 1% Lecture-seminar VI. Community Resources and Relationships 20. Use allied services for support in programming for TMR. 91% 3% Independent studv-scminar Figure 6 - Skills Perceived to be Required for Teachers of Trainable Retarded Persons. (Foos, 1976). 136 Areas of Competency Extensively Seldom Required' Required2 Method3 21. Suggest recreation and leisure activities available 92% 4% to TMRs. 22. Work with other disciplines in assessment and 87% 2% follow-up of trainable persons. VII. Speech and Language Skills 23. Plan developmental speech and language lessons. 75% 5% 24. Recognize specific patterns of certain groups of 72% 5% children. VIII. Vocational Preparation 25. Structural experiences to develop desirable work 97% 0 habits. 26. List jobs feasible for TMRs. 91% " 2% 27. Enlist community support in providing work 86% 4% experiences. IX. Behavior Management 28. Identify behaviors which interfere with child's 93% 2% learning. 29. Determine what is most rewarding for each child. 94% 1% 30. Administer rewards and punishments to obtain 93% 0 changes in pupil behavior. 31. Record on-task and off-task behaviors to identify 80% 2% patterns of behavior. Independent study-seminar Independent study-seminar Lecture-observation Lecture-observation Practicum-seminar Practicum-seminar Practicum-seminar Practicum-observation Practicum-observation Practicum-observation Practicum-observation 1 This figure represents the percentage of teachers who indicated this skill was extremely or considerably required. 2 This figure represents the percentage of teachers indicating this skill was seldom or never required. 3 This column indicates the majority opinion as to the preferred method of teaching specific skills. Figure 6 (continued) 137 Qstanski (1975) suggests that changes are needed in the training of special educators. He suggests there should be thorough rethinking of changes to be made and that educators must be careful not to lose what they have already learned about special education, but on the other hand they must not be so cautious about change that they continue to reinforce the mistakes that have already been made. He feels that some of the new dimensions and considerations in the training of special education teachers should be: 1) cease training 'special class' teachers: but rather train teachers more broadly S) make certain that student teachers have much more contact with exceptional children 3) change the focus of methods courses to aim at competency 4) prepare future teachers to read and put new research ideas into practice Smith (1969) suggests that the important aspect of training special educators is constant contact with exceptional children. He insists that if educators are going to produce quality programs children will need to be exposed to behavioural managers who are competent and can explain and justify what they are doing. They must also be able to demonstrate a minimal level of competence in diagnosis, prescription and evaluation. Dr. Susan Stainbach (Thomas, 19S0) comments that teaching the severely and profoundly retarded is no longer an 'uncharted frontier' because educators can now recognize and better 138 understand areas of personnel preparation although they are still functioning at a very basic level. She feels attitudes and competencies students must have to be effective teachers of severely retarded children are dependent on their recognition that these children are capable of learning. The student must be reinforced with small changes in the child's progress and should be able to program objectively for these children while being positive in their teaching approach. Students must have opportunities to be involved in cooperative relationships with community individuals and agencies that work for severely and profoundly retarded as strong interpersonal relationships are extremely helpful in working with other professionals. Faculty and students can gain from working with and understanding the competencies of personnel from a variety of disciplines. She insists that "without such resources available, training programs cannot be expected to prepare teachers who are knowledgeable and proficient in changing children's behaviour or in working with professionals beyond the surface level' Stainbach feels that teachers of the severely and profoundly retarded should have intensive initial training, should be required to engage in continuous inservice training, and should not be given permanent certification without the stipulation that they must engage in ongoing inservice learning experiences. To earn the Early Childhood Supervisors Credential in the Province of British Columbia graduating students, after 500 hours of work experience, are required to be competent in eight 139 areas of Early Childhood Education (Competencies for Early Childhood Education, 1984). The first general area of competency is Knowing the Individual Child. One of the major competencies in this area is: the student will be able with the support of others to recognize, assess and integrate special needs children.' Under this competency cluster are included skills in identification, procedures for assessment, program modifications to facilitate maximum participation of individual children, and communication with parents and other professionals. This is a new area that has been added to the basic level of training in Early Childhood Education Programs in the province must address this topic and add to the already demanding training programs. Stennet (1980) in a survey commissioned by the Executive of the Ontario Federation of Chapters of the Council for Except ional Children (CEC), set out to investigate the training needs of special education teachers. He indicated various features which made the participants past training 'excellent' or very good'. The following aspects were considered the most i mpor tant: 1) skilled highly trained instructors who were 'in touch' wi th children 8) material relevant and practical for immediate app 1 icat ion 3) active, participant small group approach to i nstruct i on 4) opportunities for for supervised practice 5) special learning situations that were provided (field trips and field observations) 140 The three most stated features which made their training 'below average' or 'poor' were: 1) too theoretical, abstract, technical, several (as opposed to Foos see page —. 2) poor instructor, distant, no well qualified 3) material was neither new nor appropriate, poorly organi zed From this survey it can be concluded that if a program is to be effective and relative to students needs, materials (text books, films, videos, journal articles, research findings) must be current. Small group discussion/instruction, rather than large lecture classes, with highly skilled instructors who have recent work experience with exceptional children is recommended. Practicum and field based observations must be an integral part of the program as well. The Practicum The traditional importance of practicum for student teachers has been well established. Few universities or colleges would consider awarding a degree or diploma to any students that had not completed* at least one successful stint of student teaching even if the student had received honours academically. Noar and Milgram (1980), compared 'two preservice strategies for preparing regular class teachers for mainstreaming'. Each program consisted of 15 weekly sessions. In the traditional program, the 90 minute weekly lecture, discussion and case analyses were aimed at increasing the 141 student's knowledge and understanding of exceptional children. The experiential program covered the same material in nine weekly sessions but spent six of the sessions on field trips to special needs centres. The field experiences provided the student with opportunities to observe the centres and the children enrolled in them. The authors tested the students at the end of the two courses and from the results concluded that preservice training that provides for student contact with a variety of exceptional children as well as for lecture/discussion about them was found to be more effective than training limited to the college classroom. They suggest that in the light of the growing trend toward mainstreaming, a preservice course in exceptional children appears to be essential for the preparation of teachers of regular classroom. The findings of their research suggest that the addition of on site observations of special education centres enables students to feel more satisfaction with the course and with their personal attitude change toward children with special needs. Berdine et.al. (1977) suggest that the movement toward competency-based training for special educators in the 1970's gave rise to concerns about evaluation of performance. Consideration must be given to what competencies to rate, how often, over what periods of time and in what settings, who should do the ratings and what uses should be made of them. They discuss an evaluation system that is in use at the University of Kentucky. It is comprised of a Daily Rating Form, 142 a Final Rating Form, a Performance Profile and a Narrative Summary. The competencies included in the daily form and the final form are the same. They contain competency statements including five performance areas: a)planning and preparation, b) classroom management, c) professional adequacy, d) personal characteristics, e) instructional areas. The final evaluation is based on the combined judgement of the college supervisor and the centre supervisor. The competencies are rated on a five point scale and the student must receive an average of three or above for each area of competency. If students do not pass the practicum they are not permitted to graduate and will be asked to repeat the practicum or withdraw. The authors suggest that the comprehensive and continuous evaluation of students' progress helps the students to become more realistic in their self-evaluation. The authors have included suggested competenc i es. Shane and Van Osol (1974) suggest that an integrated practicum in a special education training program is essential to prepare well trained personnel and is the most practical way, universities and colleges have to 'bridge the gap' between theory and practice. Practicum is essential early in the student's program to enable the students to decide if the field of special education is a proper career choice, and to give students the opportunity to observe and work with other professionals, and to introduced students to the interdiscp1inary team approach. The experience will encourage 143 students to explore potential contributions other professionals can make to the well being of the 'whole; child. The authors suggest that practicums can help to implement a more noncategorical approach. If placements are chosen with care the students will have opportunities to work with a wide variety of exceptional children. The actual involvement with children gives students opportunities to put theory into practice as they are able to apply the skills they have learned and to test a variety of approaches which they have studied in the classroom. Practicum may be implemented in various ways. It may be a block practicum5 an observation placement, an individual study, an internship or it may be scheduled as one of the hours in a three hour a week course. The authors strongly recommend that the practicum be implemented as an integral part of the total training program. Stamm (1980), states that there are many professional competencies which cannot be taught or which cannot be taught well from the class room. He suggests, that the closer training occurs to the environment in which its results will be judged as acceptable or unacceptable by consumers, the greater the probability that the trainees will acquire and use appropriate competenc i es. Practicum should be a time when theory and practice are merged together and teaching skills and competencies are developed. There are never two practicum experiences that are 144 the same but each experience seems to add to the personal and professional growth of students. Newburger (1982)> has constructed a very comprehensive evaluation form to be used in assessing the competencies of student teachers in practicum placements. He makes the interesting observation that 'use of the practicum form will identify both supervising teachers and teacher trainees who have not mastered the currently popular mainstream teaching techniques'. Making decisions about appropriate placements for students is a perennial problem. Using the practicum evaluation from to make decisions when choosing sponsor teachers in the field may help college instructors to ensure that students have better opportunities to practice in the field the competencies which are considered most important by the faculty and staff of the training program. Finallyj the place of the practicum in teacher preparation programmes can not be over emphasized. 145 CHAPTER 6 A TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early Childhood Education preparation courses have been available in British Columbia for more than 30 years. The first courses were part-time continuing education courses offered by some school boards and the University of British Columbia's Extension Department. There were ten basic courses that those who wished to work with young children were required to take to be eligible for an Early Childhood Supervisor Credential from the Provincial Childcare Facilities Licensing Board. The ten courses required were: Principles and Practices) Curriculum Planning? Working with Parents) Child Growth and Development) Observing and Recording) Language Arts, Art) Music and Movement) Health) Safety and Nutrition? and Practicum I and Practicum II. Some school districts continue to offer part-time programs and several colleges offer extended day programs on a part-time basis. The first British Columbia College program in Early Childhood began in January of 1968 at Vancouver Community College (at that time Vancouver City College). Margery L. Thompson planned and implemented the program and was appointed coordinator of the new program. During the 1970's Early Childhood Programs were established in 18 additional provincial 146 colleges and one private institution and in the 1980's two additional private institutions applied for and received a mandate to offer programs in Early Childhood Education. Initially all the programs were designed around the original 10 basic courses. In British Columbia there are as many methods of delivering Early Childhood programs as there are institutions which offer the programs. Courses differ in duration - there are full and part time programs. Required courses, lecture hours and practicum hours are not the same in any two programs. Although all the programs began with the 10 courses as their basis, several programs working with children with special needs, teaching English as a second language, the family in society etc. Programs that were not able to extend the duration of their courses managed to touch on these additional areas in the courses they were already offering. Practicum hours were extended in most programs, and some colleges required students to complete as many as five practicums, sometimes including under three, special needs kindergarten and E.S.L. placements. There are many discrepancies between programs. Courses required in some colleges were not in others. In the Continuing Education programs there are no requirements for English or Communication courses. Instructors ranged from highly qualified academically with little practical experience in the field to instructors with many years of practical experience and minimal academic qualifications. These two examples are the extremes of the continuum from which instructors in Early Childhood programs are drawn. The only approach to 147 standardization of training in the province was the 10 basic courses the British Columbia Provincial Child Care Facilities Licensing Board (B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B.) demanded for certification. The B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. under the chairmanship of Dr John Blatherwick expressed a growing concern for the lack of consistency in Early Childhood programs and the unequal range of competencies required of students completing programs in the province. In 1977, at the request of the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. the Program Research and Development Branch of the Ministry of Education commenced a program development project in Early Childhood Education using the DACUM approach to competency deve1opment. The DACUM approach to curriculum design is a systematic model of development based on the underlying assumption that in order to develop a program in a logical manner, the outcomes of the students' learning processes must be clearly spelled out. The objectives of the program must, therefore, include the competencies that students will demonstrate when working in their chosen vocation. A cross section of Early Childhood Educators in the province was recruited to participate in a DACUM workshop to specify the competencies expected of practitioners entering the field of Early Childhood. Participants included daycare supervisors, nursery school teachers, Early Childhood Educators 148 from the colleges, the University of British Columbia, the University of Victoria and Simon Fraser University and other professionals from the areas of health and human resources. The competencies that were identified in the workshop included general categories. The general areas of competence recognized were Knowing the Individual Child, Program Planning, Guiding and Caring for Children, Health, Communications, Interpersonal Skills, Interacting with Families, Administration, Professional Conduct and Attitude. Each general area of competence was divided into several Competency Clusters. In total there were 44 Competency Clusters. In the clusters there were 162 major competencies with from 1-24 skills that were required to meet each one of the 162 competencies. The working draft produced by workshop participants was distributed to a random sampling of 300 professionals involved in the field of Early Childhood care and education throughout the province. The field professionals were asked to indicate if the 'functions were carried out by assistants and ascribe a level of importance to each function'. Based on the input from the field and from the Provincial Early Childhood Articulation Committee the working draft was revised. In March of 1979, the Ministry of Education published the document, COMPETENCIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, and distributed it to all training programs in the province. When students have mastered the competencies and successfully completed five hundred hours of work experience in the field under the direction of a qualified supervisor, they are eligible for a B.C. Early Childhood Supervisor Credential. 149 Some Early Childhood Supervisor Credentials are still awarded on the completion of the initial 10 basic course, but the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. is committed to moving to competency-based programs in all of the institutions in the province that offer Early Childhood Programs except those offered at the three universities. In the late 1970's all college programs began to restructure their courses and practicum to enable students to meet the competencies required for certification. In 1985, the Ministry of Education printed and distributed the document, PART-TIME EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAM CURRICULUM GUIDE, (Watson, 1985). The material in the curriculum guide is based upon the COMPETENCIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, (1979). It provides a guide for ensuring consistency and commonality in Continuing Education courses and programs offered on a part-time basis throughout the province. Many programs have found difficulty in trying to move to a Competency-Based Model. The 1980's have been times of fiscal restraint and cutbacks in education in British Columbia. Instead of receiving additional funding to provide for the more individualized nature of instruction, self pacing, and additional hours of practicum supervision, Early Childhood Programs were being asked to cutback on budgets.In the spring of 1985 all Early Childhood College Programs were declared Provincially Designated Programs. Individual colleges could no longer add to or delete from Early Childhood Programs without the consent of the Ministry of Education. In the days of 150 overall severe budget cuts the new designation did offer some protection to existing programs. However? the Ministry of Education advised all college programs to roll back their Early Childhood programs to fit the 10 month Vocational Training Model. Before 1985 there were several two year programs in the province, and there were several others, hoping to expand their programs to more fully prepare their students to meet the competencies required by the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. In the past ten years, greater provincial attention has been given to the young child with special needs and preschools for children with a variety of abilities and disabilities have been opened both in the more populated urban areas and later, in smaller centres. Most of these programs enroll children with a variety of special needs and endeavour to recruit caregivers who are able to approach the care and education of these preschoolers on a non-categorical basis. Some centres are specifically planned for the hearing impaired, sight impaired, language delayed or mentally retarded. In the past five years many exceptional children have been integrated into regular preschools and daycares. If the supervisors in these centres are to provide quality care and education, they will require additional knowledge and skills to design programs that meet the needs of all children in their programs. By the spring of 1984, the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. was becoming concerned about the growing need for trained personnel in Early 151 Childhood: Special Education. The demand for trained and certified supervisors to fill positions in the special education preschools in the province and the growing need for staff to educate and care for exceptional children who were being integrated into regular daycares and preschools, had greatly increased over the previous five years. The B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. offers an Early Childhood Post Basic Special Education Credential, but fewer than 30 Early Childhood Educators in the province had received the credential. The few professionals that had been awarded the Post Basic Credential had received their training through many different avenues, within and outside the province. Some of them had met the rather broad criteria by receiving a B.Ed in Special Education, Infant Stimulation seminars, and courses outside the province from full degrees in Special Education to a set of correspondence courses. Because it was difficult to gain the credits necessary within the province, many supervisors had no post-basic training. They learned their skills on-the-job and through in-service workshops. In May of 1984, the Ministry of Education representative on the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. approached the faculties of several of the college Early Childhood Programs and suggested they submit proposals to the Ministry for implementation of Post Basic Programs in Early Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education. Funding would be made available by the Ministry for several colleges to offer the training to qualified Early Childhood supervisors. Vancouver 152 Community College, Langara Campus was one of the colleges that was approached and decided to consider submitting a proposal. Rationale The students enrolled in the Basic Early Childhood Program at Vancouver Community College, Langara Campus have been required to take one course in Special Education since the summer of 1981. The course is Psychology 318: Psychology of the Exceptional Child. The emphasis of the course is placed on observing, understanding, and promoting the psychological and educational welfare of exceptional children. The course is oriented to the requirements of the Early Childhood Education (E.C.E.) Program. (Langara Calendar 1986-87). Since the early 1970's all students enrolled in the E.C.E. Program have been required to complete one practicum in a special education facility. Because of their practicum supervisory duties the faculty of the program became very aware of the lack of training available to supervisors working with exceptional preschool children. The supervisors were concerned about the minimal training they had received and were requesting that some post-basic special education courses be made available to them, Directors of the Special Education preschool centres were concerned about the lack of qualified supervisors (who had some special education training), to staff their centres. Agencies sponsoring and monitoring special education preschools, daycares, and integrated centres were interested in having the 153 best trained staff possible for their programs. Parents of children with special needs were insisting that their children have quality care and education that only trained staff could offer. Boards of directors and staff of preschools and daycares were being approached to integrate children with special needs into their centres but were very hesitant to do so unless they were able to hire additional staff with the knowledge and skills to provide relevant care and education to the young children they were being asked to enroll in their programs. Other professionals (e.g. public health nurses, pediatricians, social workers, psychologists, speech therapists, etc.) were uneasy about placing exceptional children in centres where staff had little if any experience and/or training in the field of special education. Because the need for post basic training in special education was apparent and the Ministry had strongly indicated that funding would be made available for the training program the Early Childhood Faculty at Langara decided to submit a proposal. Assessment of Needs in the Community The college requires that faculty proposing any new Career Program carry out an assessment of the needs in the community for such a program and predict the number of students the college can expect to participate in the program. 154 Faculty carried out five one-hour taped personal interviews with special needs Preschool Directors, and in excess of thirty short personal interviews with practitioners in the Early Childhood centres they visited during their regular practicum supervisions for the Early Childhood Program. Forty Early Childhood centres in the lower mainland were chosen at random and telephoned by faculty to ascertain staff support for the program, and if the program was offered would the head supervisors or staff of these centres register for the program in September of 1985. The present class attending the Early Childhood Program was surveyed to ascertain how many of them would be interested in registering for the new program. The comment most often offered by all of the practitioners surveyed was that post-basic courses in special education for young children were long overdue. The practitioners who were working with exceptional children wanted to know if courses they had taken in the past would be accepted as advance credit in the proposed program. Many of the participants had suggestions of the content they thought should be included in the program and most insisted that a 'practical' rather than an 'academic' program i.e. 'what should we do?' and 'how should we do it?' was the only type of program that would be of interest to them. The overwhelming support from practitioners for the college to offer the program was apparent. Several of the practitioners followed the interview with written letters of support for the program. 155 The Process Although the Ministry had assured Vancouver Community College that any 'reasonable' program proposal within the limits of time and budget would be accepted and funded, it was necessary to present a twenty-one point proposal < a requirement of all new college programs in the province) through the usual college channels for approval. The proposal must be presented to the Advisory Committee for the program (composed of a broad spectrum of field professionals). The recommendation and proposal are then presented to the appropriate Department and Division Chairmen, Dean of Careers, Academic Council and Principal of Langara Campus and then forwarded to Regional Office of Vancouver Community College for recommendation of its approval to the Vancouver Community College Board of Directors. The proposal is then returned to the Dean of Instruction of Langara Campus and is submitted to the Ministry of Education for approval and designation of funding. Proposed Early Childhood Programs must have approval of the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. before final approval can be obtained from the Ministry of Education, if the graduates of the program are to qualify for Early Childhood Supervisor Credentials in the Province of British Columbia. A special meeting of the Program Advisory Committee for Early Childhood Education was called for November 8, 1984. Members attending represented daycares, an Under Three Centre, 156 an E.S.L. preschool, a nursery school, and the Langara Child Development Centre. Others present were the Director of the Bob Berwick Preschool, a former provincial child care consultant, the Division Chairman, the Dean of Career Programs and the faculty of the Early Childhood Program. The faculty informed the committee of the Ministry's indication of support for Early Childhood: Special Education post-basic programs. It also expressed its desire to offer a Special Education Program, and asked the Committee for its input, recommendations and support. There was discussion about the need for such a program, the direction the program might take, the need to present the program at a time convenient for practitioners, the need for practical experience to be part of the program and the need for participants to have relevant and quality placements for practicum. The Committee unanimously recommended that a proposal be made to the Ministry of Education and that the title of the proposed program be Early Chi1dhood:Specia1 Education. The Design In the survey of the literature (see Chapter 4) it was apparent that special education programs a non—categorical curriculum. The emphasis should be on the childrens' abilities rather than on their disabilities. This latter approach has historically placed them in certain categories (blind, deaf mentally retarded, physically handicapped) and continued the practice of labelling a child because of his/her disabilities 157 rather than his/her abilities. The Faculty decided on a noncategorical approach because of the nature of Early Childhood centres in the province (i.e. preschools and daycares that may iintegrate one or two exceptional children and place them in classes on the basis of their stages of development), the move to integrate as many exceptional children as possible into regular centres, and the progress in integrating regular children into established special needs preschools and in the community and hospitals the Faculty was convinced that a non-categorical approach to the planning was the appropriate approach. All lecture/seminar and practicum courses were structured with an interdisciplinary approach. To provide a quality post basic program in Early Childhood: Special Education with an interdisciplinary approach is a challenge within a small college where personnel and resources are limited. The expertise and resources within the Physical Education and Recreation, Special Education Teacher Assistant, Early Childhood, Nursing and Social Services Programs were surveyed. Instructors from the programs were asked for their input and support. Present library and audio visual materials were assessed. It was clear that resources within the college would have to be supplemented to ensure the students the availability of current research materials. Additional materials were purchased and students were advised to procure a University of British Columbia Community Library Card. 15S The lecture/seminar sessions were planned to include professionals from the community who would bring expertise to the program that was not available within the college. Contacts were made with practitioners in the field, advocacy groups, parents, and faculty from the universities. It was planned that the contacts with the community would foster an expansion of professional relationships and public relations. Positive results for the college were expected to be an awareness in the community of the existence and goals of the program, and an appreciation of the college's effort to implement the new program. From the literature (Conant 1953; Leycock 1963;, Blackhurst 1981; Sanche et.al. 1988; Swanson and Taylor 1988), interviews with directors of preschool special needs centres, discussions with practitioners and other professionals, as well as observations of supervisors working with exceptional children, a basis for the content of the program (knowledge and skills required to work with exceptional children) was formed. There were four major areas of study and practice that were considered to be priorities. The major areas were: 1. A knowledge of the field of Early Childhood:Specia 1 Educat ion a) historical and philosophical perspectives in Special Education b) current issues and trends in Early Childhood:Special Education 8. A knowledge of the child 159 a) child growth and development b) conditions and characteristics which place a child in need of special care and education c) assessment techniques and materials 3) Curriculum planning and teaching strategies a) role of the supervisor b) group program planning c) individual program planning d) techniques of classroom management e) assessment of prescriptive teaching f) valuation of curriculum materials 4) Working with families and other professionals in the field a) the interdisciplinary team approach b) communicating with parents c) communicating with other professionals d) available resources in the community The importance of practicum in any teacher preparation program is well established. Opportunities for the student to observe exceptional children, programs, and teaching techniques were planned for Practicum I. Practice in planning curriculum and in implementing specific learning activities with young exceptional children was planned for Practicum II. These practicum placements would give the students the opportunities to put 'theory into practice'. The following courses: Psychology 318, Early Childhood:Specia1 Education 415, 417, 418 and 419 were designed to meet the needs of practitioners in the 160 field and the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. requirements of the provincial Early Childhood Post-Basic Credential. One of the courses required within the program is Psychology 318 which is already in place within the Psychology Department at the college. A brief overview of the course is as f o11ows: Psychology 318: Psychology of the Exceptional Child This course examines the antecedents, consequences and educational challenges of the preschool child with unusual needs and capabilities. Material will include both general and specific conditions and characteristics which make a child different, or in need of special consideration. Emphasis will be placed on observing, understanding, and promoting the psychological and educational welfare of exceptional children. This course is oriented to the requirements of the Early Childhood Program. (Langara Calendar, 1985-86). For a detailed outline of Psychology 318 see Appendix I. The three lecture/seminar courses Early Childhood Education 415, 417 and 418 were planned in detail with the purpose of introducing students to the issues and trends in Early Childhood:Special Education, and the skills required to plan, implement and evaluate curriculum for young exceptional children. Students will be exposed to other professionals and 161 parents with whom they will be required to work using an interdisciplinary approach to providing quality care and education to exceptional children. The three courses were designed with reference to a review of the literature in the field (see Chapter 4), established Early Chi1dhood:Specia 1 Education preparation programs, input from interviews held with field practitioners and observations of special needs preschool supervisors and children in order to record what supervisors actually do 'on the job'. The design of the three courses included: a course description; major content areas; general course objectives; major competencies in the knowledge/cognitive and the attitudes/affective areas; as well as a list of specific competencies for each course. E.C.E. 419 (Practicum I and II) would give students the opportunity to put theory into practice. The course designs were distributed to professionals in the field for comments. Comments were received and appropriate revisions were made. The final designs of Early Childhood 415, 417, 41S and 419 are as follows: 162 E.C.E. 415 - INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION I. Course Description This course is designed to orient students to the field of Early Chi1dhood:Specia1 Education. An overview of the historical and philosophical roots of contemporary programs for exceptional children will be presented. The importance of early intervention, and integration in contemporary programs will be surveyed in the care and education of the young child. The issues of early intervention and integration as they affect contemporary programs will be discussed. There will be an introduction to assessment procedures and materials, the importance of observation and recording, and the relationship of these assessment to quality program planning. Three Credits II. Major Content Area 1. Perspectives on teaching special children a) history and philosophy of working with exceptional ch i1dren b) early intervention c) integration d) parent movement e) legislation 2. Contemporary programs a) home based programs b) infant stimulation programs 163 c) special preschools d) integrated preschool and day care programs e) least restrictive environment 3. Appropriate procedure, assessment, and materials a)Assessment i. appropriate choice of assessment batteries ii. importance of objective observation iii. records and written communication iv. relationship of assessment to program development 4. Program planning i. goal sett ing ii. task analysis iii. program planning iv. prescriptive teaching III. General Course Objectives 1. Overview of special education -history/philosophy a) ph i1osophy b) delivery of services c) present services available 2. Study of developmental assessment a) survey of assessment batteries available 164 b) selection rationale c) procedures and techniques for use (observat ion-record ing-scor ing) d) interpretation of assessment results 3. Goal setting - prioritizing needs - utilizing strengths a) utilizing consultant help b) incorporating parent's goals c) selecting primary goals 4. Task analysis (understanding the steps) 5. Individual program plans 6. Communication and coordination of information and plans with parents a) written b) conference 7. Prescriptive teaching - incorporating the I.E.P. into the program 8. Library and other resources for information Major Competencies 1. Knowledge/Cognitive area - student should be able to: 165 a) describe history of special education service,de1ivery and philosophy b) describe present range of special education services and parent involvement c) describe programs currently providing service to young children with special needs in this area d) outline the need for assessments in a preschool or daycare society e) describe procedures and techniques employed in using assessments f) outline the relationship of developmental assessments to program development g) discuss the need to distinguish primary and secondary goals for individual program development h) define and describe task analysis i) describe the individual program plans j) discuss the involvement of the child's parents in the development of I.E.P.'s k) define and describe prescriptive teaching 1) describe four different means of gaining on going and current information relevant to the education of young children with special needs E. Attitudes/Affective area - the student should be able to : a) demonstrate positive interest in working with 166 exceptional children b) display the attitudes, values, and observable qualities of a committed, caring teacher of exceptional children c) present a point of view of him/herself (self awareness) and its implications for working with exceptional children d) develop a professional awareness of the need for developmental assessment, behavioral objectives and an educational plan V. Specific Competencies - The student should be able to: 1. Define special education a) explain and discuss the relationship between past practice and philosophies (in regard to education and care of handicapped persons to present practices and philosophies b) describe the traditional role of the special educator c) discuss the new broader role of the special educator and its implications for career possibilities in this field 167 E. Describe the role of the parents of handicapped children in the initiation and provision of services presently available a) discuss why integration is important: empirical and value reasons b) discuss approaches to integration for children ranging from severely to mildly handicapped c) identify the major considerations when integrating handicapped children into regular pre-school c1assrooms 3. Explain the limitations involved in labelling handicapped children 4. Discuss the rationale behind Early Childhood integration a) prevention b) elimination of many problems c) enable handicapped children to function at a higher level 5. State and explain the prevalence of young handicapped children needing educational intervention a) describe current trends in practice and philosophy regarding the provision of service to young 168 children with handicaps as those trends affect the private and public provision of child care and education services 6. Discuss the major, positive trends in early educational intervent ion a) lowering of age b) non-categorical approach c) re-ordering of priorities of services to the hand icapped d) ongoing evaluation and early identification e) interdisciplinary approach to the care and education of young children with special needs 7. Define the term integration explain the concept of integration as a continuum ranging from non-participation to full participation in a regular classroom 8. Name, locate and describe at least 2 programs currently providing service to young children with special needs that are: a) segregated 169 b) integrated c) delivered in the child's home d) delivered in a treatment centre 9. Define the term assessment 10. Differentiate between assessment and testing with special references to exceptional children 11. List and discuss why assessment is important in special educat ion a) development of instructional objectives b) sequential organization c) group i ng d) awareness of individualism e) developing an individual educational plan 12. List and discuss the advantages of teacher assessment in contrast to formal testing. 13. Develop an awareness of major terms related to formal standardized testing 14. Develop an awareness of the flexibility of the testing i nstruments a) name and describe at least 4 assessment batteries 170 that are currently available and which would be useful in a preschoo1/daycare setting. Describe differences between these batteries b) utilize an assessment battery to describe the present functioning level of a preschool child with one or more handicapping conditions c) meet with child's parents and determine parent's goals for child d) prioritize primary and secondary goals using information from functional assessment and parent's stated goals e) analyze tasks (steps) requisite to child reaching goals f) write individual program plan (prescription for "teaching") g) communicate I.E.P. to parent of child h) incorporate I.E.P. for child into general program plan for group of children i) locate information relevant to program development for a child with: i. a vision problem ii. an audito~ry deficit iii. global aphasia iv. ataxic cerebral palsy v. severe mu1ti-handicap vi. Williams syndrome 171 15. Discuss how and why parents' understanding of the function and importance of their child's program can influence its continuation and success 16. Discuss and understand importance of constant open communication with families 17. Discuss and share feelings concerning the role of teachers working with parents 172 E.C.E. 417 - HUMAN RELATIONS I. Course Description This course is designed to present the techniques and skills required for the Early Childhood Educator to work effectively with 'special' children and their families. Emphasis will be placed on team and interdisciplinary approaches to child care and guidance. There will be an overview of the community resources available to lend support to the 'special' child and his/her family and the early childhood educator. Prerequisite: E.C.E. E17 (or equivalent) Three Credits II. Major Content Areas 1. Communication skills. E. Working with families a) individuality and uniqueness of each family b) parents as equal members of team 173 c) rights of parents d) empathetic understanding of families' strengths and 1imi tat ions 3. The team approach in guiding and caring for the young child 4. Working with other professionals a) the interdisciplinary approach.to planning for the child's individual needs b) professional support for planning, implementing and evaluating integration 5. Community resources and support groups 6. Current legislation and funding which affects 'special' children and their families 7. Working with volunteers 8. Professional organizations 9. Professional development 10. Advocacy for 'special' children and their families 174 III. General Course Objectives Major objective of this course include the development of: 1. An understanding of families in Canadian Society S. An understanding of the importance of quality parent-teacher relations in the optimum development of a 'special' chiId 3. Skills and understanding of the team approach in the care and education of the young child 4. Skills in cooperating with other professionals a) doctors b) public health personnel c) language therapists d) physiotherapists e) audiologists f) others 5. Knowledge of community resources available for the support of the young 'special' child) his/her family and the Early Childhood Educator IV. Major Competencies 175 1. Knowledge/Cognitive Area - The student should be able to : a) discuss the family in the context of a changing Canadian society b) describe the significance of quality family-teacher relat ions c) identify and describe community resources available to 'special' children and their families d) explain the importance of the interdisciplinary team approach to the care and education of the young 'special' child 2. Attitudes/Affective Area - The student should be able to : a) demonstrate interest in working with families of 'special' children b) identify attitudes, values and observable qualities of good teacher-family relations c) appreciate the value of the interdisciplinary team approach to working with young 'special' children and their families V. Specific Competencies - The student should be able to: 1. Identify and discuss the indicators of change in the 176 contemporary family 2. Discuss the 'special' family in the context of a changing Canadian society 3. List and discuss the uniqueness of families a) individualities b) problems c) talents d) resources e) limitations 4. Discuss and understand possible feelings of parent who have special children a) confusion b) quiet feelings c) disappointment d) concern e) embarrassment f) guilt g) blame h) family conflicts i) hopelessness j) sorrow k) anger 177 5. Discuss how and why parents understanding of the function and importance of their child' program can influence its continuation and success 6. Discuss the importance of the family-teacher relationship fon the 'special' child. Discuss the difference between an effective professional relationship and a personal friendship 7. Discuss and share feelings concerning the role of teachers working with parents. 8. Discuss the necessity for honesty and integrity in fami 1y-teacher communication 9. Communicate with parents in an objective, precise, and constructive manner in jargon-free language using: a) oral communication b) written reports 10. Work through and suggest a program which might be helpful to parents of handicapped children 11. Discuss with parents approaches to integration 18. Discuss with parents the major considerations when 178 integrating handicapped children into regular pre-school centres 13. List and discuss the advantages of the interdisciplinary teams approach to the care and education of the 'special' child a) setting goals b) planning programs c) implementing curriculums d) evaluating progress 14. Describe a practical approach to the care and education of the exceptional child for the teacher who does not have access to an interdisciplinary team 15. Describe the various roles members of the interdisciplinary team may have in fostering the optimum physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of the 'special' child 16. Identify and describe community support resources currently available to the 'special' child and his/her family 17. Describe and try to understand problems parents sometimes have in dealing with large agencies 179 18. Plan and implement a home visit 19. Plan and implement a parent-teacher conference 20. Plan programs for the education and support of parents 21. Give verbal and/or written daily reports on children to their parents 22. Write an assessment of a child's developmental progress and describe how child's needs and strengths related to parent's goals for child 23. Explain advocacy for exceptional children 24. List and discuss ways early childhood educators can start and/or become involved in an advocacy program for exceptional children. 180 E.C.E. 418 - SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM PLANNING 1. Course Description This course covers early childhood program planning, use of materials and equipment, the role of the supervisor, techniques of classroom management, learning phenomena in children and methods of meeting needs of individual special ch i1dren. It is designed to acquaint the student with early childhood education curriculum planning and implementation including behavioural objectives, lesson plans, resource units, and long term planning for 'special' children, with emphasis on the child in a integrated setting. Prerequisites: E.C.E. 415 (or equivalent) Three Credits I I Major Content Areas 1. The role of the supervisor of special children a) required teaching skills b ) understanding behaviour of teacher/supervisor and chi Id c ) guidance and discipline 181 d) health and safety - special diets, medication, allerg ies - positioning for feeding - supervision for safety Behaviour Management a) interior discipline, exterior discipline b) discipline problems and strategies c) the role of attention (positive/negative) d) the role of communication (description, acknowledgement, response) Curriculum planning and development a) educational plan (individual education plan) based on developmental assessment b) instructional design - present function - long term goal (behavioural ob ject ive) - incremental steps to goal - procedural description - completion and evaluation c) group activities to include the exceptional child d) specific activities and procedures to encourage interaction between handicapped/nonhandicapped ch i1dren 182 4. Curriculum materials exceptional children and i n: activities to assist a) motor coordination, balance and agility b) self-help skills i.e. dressing, toileting, eating, naptime procedures c) sensory motor acuity and dexterity d) soc ial skills e) behavioural control f) communication - receptive/expressive g) imaginative play - motor/aura1/visua1/tacti1e h) cognitive development - memory, concept development, sequencing assessments 5. Planning indoor and outdoor environments for young exceptional children a) appropriate design of physical facilities b) specific equipment for use by the visually impaired/hearing impaired etc. c) age-appropriate materials d) economic usefulness e) recreation and expressive activities f) quantitative concepts 183 Ill GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. The student will develop an understanding of the limits and responsibilities of the teacher of young children with special needs 8. The student will display a range of methods and management techniques for working with young children with special needs 3. The student will develop appropriate material for ensuring active participation in a preschoo1/childcare program for a child with difficulties in: a) mob i1i ty b) cognition c) communication d) fine muscle control e) v i s ion f) hearing g) behav i our 4. The student will develop materials and activity plans specific to the various handicapping conditions - to assist children to develop: a) cognitive skills 184 b) communication skills c) manual dexterity d) useable vision e) listening skills f) control of behaviour g) balance and mobility The student will learn to develop appropriate and realistic long term (one year) and short term goals for a specific child with special needs? and will learn to prioritize goals into primary and secondary categor ies. The student will design and implement two individual programs based on information gained from developmental assessments? incorporating - activity plans and materials appropriate to the child's age? functioning levels? primary and secondary goals? (one of which will include a change of behaviour as a pr imary goal.) The student will implement an activity plan that supports and actively encourages constructive interaction between handicapped and nonhandicapped children in an integrated setting. 185 8. The student will involve him/herself in a play situation with a handicapped child and by his/her actions enhance the learning taking place in the si tuat ion. Major Competencies 1. Knowledge/Cognitive Area - The student should be able to : a) define and discuss the role of the supervisor with handicapped children b) describe factors related to discipline for young handicapped children c) design and develop materials and activities for handicapped children's active participation in several curriculum areas d) design individualized programs based on developmental assessments e) design complete lesson plans using behavioural ob ject ives f) plan a safe and healthy indoor and outdoor environment for young handicapped children Specific Competencies Behaviour Management 186 1. Explain the relationship between behaviour and its consequences E. Explain the different categories of consequences of behaviour: a) presentation of pleasant consequences b) presentation of unpleasant consequences c) removal of pleasant consequences d) removal of unpleasant consequences e) withholding any consequences 3. Discuss several guidelines for changing behaviour. 4. Explain what is meant by positive and negative reinforcement. 5. Describe ways of preventing problems before they actually begin. 6. Explain how you get and hold attention. 7. Explain how to deal with minor inattention and misbehaviour. 8. Explain how to deal with prolonged or disruptive behaviour. 187 Learni nq 9. Explain how an environment might be inappropriately overstimulating and understimulating at the same time. 10. Describe what is meant by pacing of activities. 11. Explain the importance of concrete play and manipulation in developing the cognitive capacity of the young child. IS. Explain the function of adult verbalization with children who learn mostly by doing. 13. Explain the major role of the adult while children 1earn. Physical Environment 14. Describe factors that are most important in designing a successful physical environment for young handicapped children. 15. Plan a special learning center. 188 16. Explain how the physical environment determines in large measure the frequency and quality of independent play activities that children can engage in. 17. Design a plan for an indoor and outdoor play area. Planning Programs 18. Explain the process of how children learn: perceivingi thinking, doing. 19. Differentiate between instruction and curriculum. 20. Explain and use the six steps in the instructional design process in preparing a lesson: a) determine focus of lesson b) determine instructional objectives c) assess pre-instructiona1 behaviour d) determine learning activities e) determine reinforcement procedures f) evaluate instructional outcomes 21. Determine the instructional objectives a) write successful behavioural objectives including 189 the three major elements, b) identify and explain each of the three elements of a behavioural objective: 1. the desired observable behaviour 2. under what conditions the behaviour is expected to be performed? and 3. how will the child be expected to perform (cr i ter i a). Determine appropriate learning activities for a child or small group of children. Explain the relationship teaching: i.e., child ac t i v i t i es. Demonstrate in lesson plans Show, Discuss, Apply and Rei Determine appropriate learni and materials) to be used process for a child or small between learning and activities and teacher the teaching activities of nforce. ng activities (procedures during the instructional group of children in: a) physical and motor development b) self-help skills c) social development 190 d) communication skills e) recreation and expressive activities f) quantitative concepts g) safety and health 26. Utilize an effective model in evaluating the outcomes of instruction. 27. Plan the integration of a child with special needs into a 'normal' preschool or daycare centre. 28. Evaluate the integration process. 191 E.C.E. 419 - PRACTICUM I and II I. Course Description The purpose of this course is to provide practical experience in early childhood centres integrating 'special' children and a special needs preschool centre. Opportunities will be provided for observation of children, programs and teaching techniques and practice in planning and carrying out specific learning activities with young 'special' children, individually and in groups. II. General Course Requirements 1. Practicum I a) orientation experiences b) directed observations c) guided participation under the supervision of sponsor teachers E. Pract icum 11 a) orientation experiences b) directed observations 19E c) guided participation under the supervision of sponsor teachers d) planning and implementation of student designed activi ties III. Major Competencies 1. Knowledge/Cognitive - the student should be able to: a) recognize and discuss the differences in programs integrating 'special' children and Special Needs Preschoo1s b) exemplify positive attitudes and good working relations with co-workers* parents and children c) develop an awareness of parent-teacher relat ionsh ips d) develop and carry out planned activities in as many curriculum areas as possible e) evaluate the effectiveness of the presentation of self-developed lesson plans (strengths and weaknesses) f) develop and implement a change in planning and/or working with children in response to constructive criticism from the sponsor teacher or college i nstruc tor S. Ski1ls/psychomotor - the student should be able to: 193 a) objectively observe and comment about various types of centre for 'special' children b) verbalize objectively observations on the behaviour of 'special' children c) develop and use materials and equipment appropriate for the developmental level of individual children d) identify disruptive behaviour e) respond effectively to disruptive behaviour f) effectively carry out self-developed activities g) arrange classroom for quality experiences for all children h) effectively supervise children in indoor and outdoor activities i) effectively carry out instruction from the sponsor teacher j) develop and implement plans to involve 'special' children in the program in an integrated situation Length of Practicum 1. Pract icum I - IS half-day placements <48 hours) During this practicum it is hoped the student will have the opportunity to see as many different settings as possible that enroll 'special' children 194 The student will have several directed observation assignments and carry out sponsor teacher directed activities with the child The Ministry of Education requires the completion of a twenty-one point proposal before any new career program in the colleges of British Columbia will be considered. The proposal as submitted to the Ministry is as follows: Proposal for Early Childhood Special Education at Vancouver Community College, Langara Campus. 1. TITLE OF PROGRAM: Early Childhood: Special Education 2. College Certificate: Early Childhood Special Education Certificate PURPOSE: The program is designed to present the knowledge techniques and skills required by Early Childhood Supervisors to plan quality programs for and work effectively with 'special ' children and their families. Special attention will be given to team and interdisciplinary approaches to child care and guidance. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early Childhood Supervisor in: 195 a) Preschool centres functioning expressly for 'special' children b) Integrated preschool centres and/or c ) Centres considering the integration of 'special' children The EARLY CHILDHOOD: SPECIAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATE would meet the criteria for the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. SPECIAL NEEDS PRESCHOOL SUPERVISOR CREDENTIAL. Length of Program: The program will be equivalent to one full semester 5 Courses 15 Credits It is intended that two courses will be offered in each of the Fall and Spring Semesters. Students may choose to take E courses (6 credits) each semester and complete the program in two semesters Students may choose to take 1 course (3 credits) each semester and complete the program in 20 months. E.C.E. 415 and PSYCHOLOGY 318 will be offered in the Fall. or 196 E.C.E. 418 and E.C.E. 417 will be offered in the Spring Semester. Courses will be offered two days a week in the late afternoon, to enable as many Early Childhood Supervisors as possible who are working the the field to attend classes without disruption of their work schedules. E.C.E. 419 will consist of 48 hours of observation and practice and 140 hours of practice in a block placement. The program is designed for Early Childhood Supervisors who wish to meet the criteria for obtaining the: Provincial Child Care Facilities Licensing Board: SPECIAL NEEDS PRESCHOOL SUPERVISOR CREDENTIAL -that is: a) Early Childhood Supervisors working in Special Needs Preschoo1s. b) Early Childhood Supervisors working in integrated E.C. Centres. c) Early Childhood Supervisors considering integrating 'special3 children into their programs. d> Early Childhood Supervisors working in Hospital Preschoo1s. 197 Early Childhood Supervisors working with specia children in group home settings. Child Care Workers working on a one-to-one basis wi young 'special' children. Volunteers working with young 'special' children. Parents of young 'special' children. ESTIMATED COSTS OF THE PROGRAM: Start Up Budget Faculty release time for one semester h time $ 3,383.60 (planning program, interviewing students and faculty, implementing, staffing, library searches) (20 x $169.18) Library Materials (books and audio visual) 1,000.00 Classroom materials (Curriculum, Learning Kits, Testing Materials) 400.00 $ 4,783.60 $ 4,783.60 OPERATING BUDGET: Salaries Fall Semester one half-time instructor Step 6, per diem - $154.76 x 2 x 13 4,023,76 Spring Semester one h time instructor Step 6, per diem - $154.76 x 2 x 13 4,023.76 Practicum supervisor - two half-time instructors for 20 days, Step 6, per diem.- >j x 2 x 20 x $154.76 3,095.20 Classroom Materials 400.00 Library & Audio Visual Materials 400.00 $11,942.72 $11,942.72 TOTAL cost September 1, 1985 - May 31, 1986 $16,725.32 198 8. ENROLLMENT PREDICTIONS: Enrollment predictions for the first year: EO to 30 students. The program will attract qualified Early Childhood Supervisors from all areas of Early Childhood Education -e.g.. Under Three Centres, Day Care Centres, Nursery Schools, Parent Participation Centres, E.S.L. Preschoo1s,Specia1 Needs Preschools, Integrated Preschools and Day Cares etc., Courses will be open, where space allows, to parents of 'special' children and community volunteers working with 'special' children. New regulations recently passed by the Provincial Child Care Facilities Licensing Board requiring Early Childhood Supervisors to upgrade their qualifications every three years in order to maintain a valid Early Childhood Credential will encourage many supervisors to upgrade their qualifications in the area of Special Education. 9. N/A 10. Proposed Implementation Date: 199 It would be possible to begin the program January 1, 1985. Because of budget considerations a more realistic target start up date is September 5, 1985. Field Placements: Presently, students enrolled in the E.C.E. Program spend one of their five field placements in a Preschool for 'special' children or an integrated Early Childhood Centre. Centre that have cooperated with placements for students repeatedly are: Bob Berwick Preschool (UBC) Bob Berwick integrated class Burnaby Child Development Centre Richmond Preschool for Special Children Step by Step (Coquitlam) Rainbow Day Care (New Westminster) N G. F. Strong Preschool Sunnyhill Hospital Preschool St. John The Divine Day Care Bobolink Day Care integrated centres Mt. Pleasant Day Care The Directors and supervisors of these programs have been supportive in our efforts to plan and implement the program. They have assured the instructors that they would 800 welcome students on practicum and observation placements in their centres. 12. The program is designed as post-basic training for graduates of the Early Childhood Programs throughout the province. It will provide much needed training for those supervisors already working with 'special' children and for those contemplating a move into the field of Special Education for young children. It will also provide an avenue for those qualified Early Childhood Supervisors to renew or upgrade their present credentials. 13. Consultations with Appropriate Reference Groups: Needs Assessment (see page —) Instructors -Advisory Committee Early Childhood Education Langara -14. Educational Institutions Consultations: 201 Literature from other institutions providing similar programs in other provinces and in the United States has been surveyed. Douglas College's proposal to the Ministry of Education has been studied. Concerns the B.C.P.C.C.F.L.B. expressed about the Douglas Program have been addressed in the planning for the Langara Program. Recommendations from the Ministry of Education: "Further to our conversation on May 3, 1984, I am writing to affirm the Ministry of Education's support of the development at Vancouver Community College of a post basic specialty to the Early Childhood Education program, in the area of special needs certification training. This support is based on a request from the Provincial Child Care Facilities Licensing Board that the Ministry endeavour to establish training programs that can be accepted by the Board for the issuance of a license for people to serve as special needs supervisors...I represent the Ministry of Education on the Licensing Board. I would expect to take your program, after it received program approval, to the Board with a motion that the board accept 808 the program for licensing purposes. I can say that the Board is favourably disposed to a proposal from V.C.C." 16 & 17 Job Placement Opportunities: Special Needs Preschool Supervisors Supervisors in Integrated Day Care and Preschool Programs Child Care Workers In-Hospital Preschool Supervisors Supervisors of Group Homes for young 'special' children. 18. One other College Program (Douglas College) has been or is in the process of being approved and implemented. 19. Not Applicable at this time, however, the College Early Childhood Articulation Committee has a standing committee studying the possibilities of transferability of College Early Childhood credits to U.B.C, Simon Fraser University and the University of Victoria. EO. Informal formative evaluation (survey questionnaire) to students, directors, supervisors, sponsor teachers and instructors at the completion of the first year. El. N/A 203 The proposal was presented to the Academic council at Langara in December of 1984. The council reviewed and accepted the proposal and recommended that it be sent to Regional Office for acceptance. On December 18, 1984 the College Executive Committee met with Ministry of Education representatives to discuss the 1985-86 budget for Vancouver Community College. The meeting was held to inform college officials that the next year's budget would be less than the present year's budget and the there would be no funding for additional programs or courses. The proposal was put on hold. From the clear message the college was receiving from the Ministry of Education the development and approval process was stopped. In January of 1985 the Ministry insisted the funding for the program was 'in' the budget. The program would begin in September, 1985. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM Pub 1ic i ty The Langara 1985-86 Calendar was in the process of being printed before the new program had been approved so it was not planned to appear in the calendar until the Spring semester of 1986. The program was advertised in the Vancouver Sun in May of 1985 but the advertisement was incorrect in that the program was advertised as part of a continuing education program rather than a college credit program. The faculty decided that the best way to advertise the program was to mail an announcement to all the 804 Early Childhood centres in the city and to all the special needs and integrated centres in Richmond, Burnaby and North Vancouver. The faculty personally contacted the directors of most of the special needs centres in the Vancouver area. A dinner was held for all the sponsor teachers that have students from the basic program throughout the year. The new program was announced and the faculty asked the Director of the Bob Berwick Preschool to speak about the necessity for special education teacher preparation for staff who were working with or planning to work with exceptional children. The newspaper publicity was the most expensive and the least effective method of reaching practitioners in the field. Personal contact and direct mail accounted for information getting to twenty-four of the twenty-eight students who registered for the program in September of 1985. Faculty From the review of the literature, (Stennet 1980; Connant 1980; Foos 1976; Browder 198E) past experiences of present faculty of the Early Childhood Program, and recommendations made by directors and supervisors of preschool centres the most important criterian for selecting faculty for the new program should be that the faculty must have recent hands-on experience in working directly with young exceptional children. Two additional instructors were hired from a local school district. One of these teaches a special needs kindergarten class. The 205 six children in her class are integrated into a regular kindergarten class for short periods of the day on an individual basis. In the afternoons she is a school psychologist who is responsible for screening the preschool exceptional children who are about to enter the public school system. She is well qualified with a B.Ed. in Special Education and an M.A. in Psychology and Early Childhood. She is employed to teach E.C.E. 415 in the Fall Semester and E.C.E. 418 in the Spring Semester. The other instructor is a psychologist with the same school district who has the responsibility of working with the families of exceptional children throughout the district. He is a counselor who is a candidate for a PhD in Educational Psychology at the University of British Columbia. He would be responsible for E.C.E. 417 in the Spring Semester. The faculty of the Early Childhood Program was convinced that the two instructors were knowledgeable in the field» and had the commitment required to spend the number of extra hours needed to start a new program. The coordinator of the Early Chi1dhood:Basic Program will co-ordinate the Early Childhood: Special Education program as wel 1 . As Psychology 318 was already in place, rescheduling of the course to a convenient time for the students of the post-basic program was all that was necessary. 806 Scheduling of Courses It was hoped that students would enroll in Psychology 318 and Early Childhood 415 in the Fall Semester and in E.C.E. 417 and E.C.E. 418 in the Spring Semester. However) the faculty considered the possibility that some prospective students who were employed in very demanding full time positions would consider two courses of three units too heavy and would choose to take one course per semester. It was decided that the courses would be scheduled to make allowances for students to finish the course in two semesters or in four semesters. Students would enroll in Psychology 318 and/or E.C.E. 415 in the Fall Semester. If they chose to take both courses in the Fall and completed them successfully then they would be eligible to take E.C.E. 417. As E.C.E. 415 is a prerequisite to E.C.E. 418 they must complete E.C.E. 415 before enrolling in E.C.E. 418.(Figure 6) E07 FALL SEMESTER 1985 Psychology 318 Early Childhood 415 or FALL SEMESTER 1985 Psychology 318 SPRING SEMESTER 1986 Early Childhood 417 Early Childhood 418 Early Childhood 419 SPRING SEMESTER 1986 Early Childhood 417 FALL SEMESTER 1986 SPRING SEMESTER 1987 Early Childhood 415 Early Childhood 418 Early Childhood 419 Figure 7 - Proposed Schedule of Courses for Early Childhood: Special Education Programs Practicum Scheduling As most of the students enrolled in the program would be working in full time positions, many of them in special needs preschools or in integrated daycares, it was decided that the timing for Practicum II of E.C.E. 419 would be arranged by students and the coordinator on an individual basis. The practicum would occupy a minimum of five hours a day and four weeks. It could be arranged to fit with students' personal working schedules as long as the students have successfully completed Psychology 318 and E.C.E. 415, and were in the process 808 of successfully completing E.C.E. 417 and E.C.E. 418. Therefore, it would be possible for some students to complete the program in eight months. Others might choose to complete the program in two years. A class of 28 students had enrolled in the program by the end of July 1985. Over one half of the enrolling students had completed Psychology 318 or an equivalent course previously. As a result, only twelve students would be required to take the Psychology course. The Psychology Department, because of budget restraints, was not prepared to offer a course for only twelve students. The Early Childhood faculty decided that the students would be allowed to enroll in the program and complete the Psychology course in the summer semester of 1986, when it would next be offered. Five of the students who did not have credit for Psychology 318 completed the course in the summer semester of 1986. With the help of the Dean of Careers, the Early Childhood Faculty was able to convince the Psychology Department to offer a section of the course in the fall semester of 1986. Students enrolling in the program in September of 1986 and the remaining seven students of the 1985 class were able to enroll in Psychology 318 in September of 1986. The psychology course will not be offered in the fall semester of 1987 but students wishing to enroll in the Early Chi1dhood:Specia1 Education program at that time will be advised to take the course in the summer semester of 1987 before they enter the program. 209 EVALUATION At the initial lecture in Early Childhood 415, the students were advised of the importance that their assessments of the program would have in any restructuring and redesigning of the program in the future. The coordinator of the Early Childhood Program, the faculty sought students' suggestions throughout the fa 11 semester. In December of 1985, the Director of the Bob Berwick Centre, the Early Childhood coordinator and the instructor of E.C.E. 415 participated in a formative evaluation of the program thus far, with the 28 students. The class was divided into three groups and each group discussion/evaluation was facilitated by one of the professionals. Comments and concerns about content, faculty, and scheduling were solicited. The students were very open in the discussion groups. The comments were positive about scope, and relevance of material presented, but did express concerns about the problems they had in understanding some of the research articles they were required to review. They felt the instructor was supportive in her understanding of their difficulties and spent sufficient time in individual conferencing to give additional help to those students who needed it. The students who had the most difficulty in this area were those who had not completed the psychology course or its equivalent. 210 Most students expressed positive comments about the instructor's teaching strategies, the professionals from the community who were involved in some of the lectures, the excellent videos from the Young and Special Series, and the assignments they were required to complete. They assessed the instructor as being highly motivated, and serious about her commitment to quality care and education of exceptional children. They also commented that they felt that she expected the same commitment from them. They were impressed with her knowledge of children her involvement with other professionals in the field, and her ability to relate to their concerns about their work situations because of her daily contacts with exceptional children and their families. An additional formative assessment of the program was carried out in April of 1986, and similar positive comments were expressed. There were many concerns expressed about the amount of material the students needed to cover in E.C.E. 418. Planning curricula for individual exceptional children seems to be the top priority with students in the program. They want to have as many resources as possible for planning and implementing curricula for children, and for designing evaluation procedures for assessing individual children's progress. 211 CONCLUSION With the advent of universal public education in most European and North American countries by the beginning of this century, the attention of educators increasingly was focused on Early Childhood Education and Special Education. By the 1970's, research began to show the positive results of early intervention. In many instances, parents were winning cases in the law courts to confirm the human rights of children, including exceptional children, to an appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. With the growing demands of parents and Early Childhood professionals that exceptional children should have the right of access to quality programs with trained practitioners, there has been continued pressure on public officials to provide such programs. The literature suggests that the Early Childhood practitioner who cares for exceptional children may need more specialized training than he/she will have received in a basic Early Childhood teacher preparation program. It is with this in mind and with the support of the Ministry of Education that the faculty of the Early Childhood Program, Vancouver Community college, Langara Campus, undertook S12 to design, implement and evaluate the Early Childhood: Special Education Program Chapter VI offers suggestions for methods of designing a program that can draw professional expertise and other resources from the community that will broaden the focus of such a program. Maintaining credibility in the field and within the academic community is axiomatic. Credibility can be maintained, however, through constant communication with other institutions and practitioners. It is always difficult to suggest that a program designed for one institutions may be appropriate to fit the needs of others. However, the following recommendations may be of interest to other institutions considering offering similar programs for Early Childhood practitioners. Recommendations: The Design of an Early Childhood : Special Education Teacher Preparation Program 1. A program for Early childhood Educators of exceptional children should include four major areas of study. a) child growth and development as well as the general and specific conditions and characteristics which place exceptional children in need of special care and education 213 b) programs, curriculum planning, materials, equipment, and teaching strategies for work with exceptional children c) the interdisciplinary approach to working with professionals and families to provide quality programs for exceptional children d) the legislation, policies and practices to ensure the rights of all children, the need-- for continued professional development and the Early Childhood Educator The staff who are responsible for teaching, supervising and assessing the students should have relevant and recent experience with exceptional childr en. Staff should be well qualified in their disciplinary field and be committed to their own continued professional development. The program should maintain with other academic and within the institution, offering similar programs centres in the community. close, positive relations professional departments with other institutions and with the preschool 214 4. The program should have up-to-date resources in print, video, film and community personnel. Frequent contact with knowledgeable professionals in the community cannot be over emphasized. 5. The program needs to monitor the students' choice of practicum placement if the students are to observe and participate in the most up-to-date and acceptable methods. 6. Plans for the formative and summative evaluation need to be a part of the design of the program. Areas for possible future research and study could well be: further investigation into competencies that all practitioners who work with young exceptional children should have; evaluation methods and instruments that will assist field supervisors in more certain assessments of student competency; the development of courses that would introduce students of Early Childhood at the basic level to exceptional children; decisions as to which noncategorica1 courses could be added to the core program that are more categorical in nature; research into the most effective programs, courses, inservice-seminars, and resources that colleges could offer to support the continuing growth and professional development of Early Childhood Supervisors of young children with special needs. E15 BIBLIOGRAPHY 216 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldrich, R. 1982. An Introducation to the History of  Educat ion. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Althouse, H.G.j 1949. Structures and Aims of Canadian Educat ion. Toronto: W.J. 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A Program for Field-based Interdisciplinary Training in Special Education. Journa1  for Special Educators. 18: 4:11-15. Thiagarajan, S., D. Semmel, and M. Semmel. 1974. Instructional  Development for Training Teachers of Exceptional Children.  A Source Book. Reston, Virginia. The Council for Exceptional Children. Thomas, M.A., 1980. Current Trends in Preparaing Teachers of the Severely and Profoundly Retarded: A Conversation with Susan and William Stainback. Education and Training of the  Mentally Retarded. 15: 1:43-49. . 1980. Current Concerns of Early Childhood Educators: A Conversation with Diane Bricker. Education and Training of  the Mentally Retarded. 15: 2:46-58. Ulich, R. 1971. Three Thousand Years of Educational Wisdom: Selections from Great Documents. (2nd ed.). Mass: Harvard University Press. Verzaro-Lawrence, M.A. 1980. Early Childhood Education: Issues for a New Decade. Childhood Education. 57: 2:104-109. Vincent, L.J., L. Brown, and M. Sheffel. 1981. Integrating Handicapped and Typical Children During the Preschool Years: The Definition of Best Educational Practice. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 225 Warnock Report. 1978. Special Education Needs. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Watson, B. 1985. Part-time Early Childhood Education Program  Curriculum Guide. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Education. Westling, D.L., M.R. Koorland, and T.L. Rose. 1981. Characteristics of Superior and Average Special Education Teachers. Exceptional Children. 47: 5:357-363. Widerstrom, A. 1988. Mainstreaming Handicapped Preschoolers: Should We or Shouldn't We? Childhood Education. 57: 3:178-177. Wilson, J. <ed.), D. Stamp, R.M. Audet. Louis-Phi11ipe. 1970. Canadian Education: a History. Toronto: Prentice-Hall. Wison, J.D. and D.C. Jones. 1980. Schooling and Society in  Twentieth Century British Columbia. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited. Whorton, J. 1975. A Follow up Study of Personnel Trained in Special Education. Education and Training of the Mentally  Retarded. 10:180-183. Wycherley, K. 1959. A Brief History of the Preschool Movement  in Vancouver. Vancouver: B.C. Preschool Educators Assoc i at ion. Young and Special Series. Victoria: P.E.M.C. 886 APPENDIX A 227 PSYCHOLOGY 31S - PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EXCEPTIONAL CHILD I. Course Description A review of the physical, cognitive-intellectual, emotional and social development of the normal child from birth to five years. Individual differences in development of young children are examined. Orientation to the characteristics and possible causes of the problems of exceptional children. Prerequisite; Psychology 118 and 218 (or equivalents) Three Credits 11 . Major Content Areas 1. Normal Growth Patterns a) Factors influencing early development i. hered i ty ii. environment b) Factors related to specific areas of development i. Physical development 1) growth rate 2) motor skills (gross and fine) ii. Intellectual development 1) levels of development 2) cognitive theories iii. Emotional development 1) affective characteristics 2) personality and feelings 2. Orientation to the cause, nature and characteristics of the following exceptional children Neurologic, Orthopedic and other Health Impairments The Visually Impaired Children The Hearing Impaired Children Mentally Handicapped Children Speech Delays and Disorders Specific Learning Disabilities Children with Behaviour Disorders The Intellectually Gifted Children 3. An understanding of the inter- and intra-individual differences found in children who are classified as except ional. 4. Assessment procedures used in determining individual levels of development a) review of observing and recording procedures b) administration of formal and informal developmental 228 screening devices - Denver, Memphis, Performance Ob ject ives c) determining areas of strengths and weaknesses as evidenced by the assessment d) determining appropriate objectives based on assessment results e) analysis of assessment in areas of visual perception, auditory perception, language, and motor (fine/gross) skills. 5. an appreciation of each child's uniqueness III. General Course Objectives Major objective of this course include the development of: 1. An understanding of the relationship of the basic principles of growth and development of the young child to special education, and its importance in working with the handicapped child 8. An understanding of the causes, nature, and characteristics of children who are commonly classified as special 3. An understanding of the abilities and disabilities of children who are commonly classified as special 4. An understanding of the inter- and intra-individual differences found in children who are classified as spec i a 1. 5. Competency in the administration and utilization of informal assess device(s) 6. Competency in determining appropriate behavioural objectives based on proper assessment procedures 7. Ability to compare and evaluate various assessment i nstruments 8. An understanding of the major terms related to formal standardized testing IV. Major Competencies 1. Knowledge/cognitive area - the student should be able to : a) explain the relationship of the basic principles of growth and development of the young child to special education and the handicapped child b) describe the abilities and disabilities (major characteristics) for the following handicaps: 889 speech, mental retardation, auditory, visual, neurologic, orthopedic, health, behavioural c) explain the probable causes of the above handicaps (hereditary factors, prenatal conditions, birth injury, post-natal environmental conditions) d) explain the inter- and intra-individual differences found in children who are classified as exceptional e) compare and contrast the ways in which the exceptional child is like and different from the normal child in: i. sensory abilities ii. physical characteristics iii. mental characteristics iv. communicative abilities v. social emotional behaviour f) determine a child's area of strengths and weaknesses based on the results of developmental assessment g) determine appropriate objectives based on the results of developmental assessment h) compare and evaluate various developmental assessment instruments 2. Attitudes/Affective area - The student should be able to : a) develop an appreciation of the relationship of growth and development of the young child to special education and its importance in working with the handicapped child b) demonstrate a consistent attitude of interest in the problems of exceptional children c) develop an appreciation of the impact of educational and psychological handicaps upon an i nd i v i dua1 d) develop an interest in the welfare of the handicapped and a recognition of society's challenge to help them realize their potential e) develop an awareness of the need for developmental assessment, behavioural objectives and an education p 1 an V. Specific Competencies - The student should be able to: 1. Identify and describe sources of development a) internal growth factors b) external growth factors (environmental elements) 2. Identify and describe the significant hereditary terms: a) chromosomes b) genes c) zygo tes 230 d) embryonic period of prenatal development e) fetal period of prenatal development 3. Explain the nature of 1earninq 4. Explain the pertinent generalizations of development a) development is an orderly process b) direction of growth: cephalo-caudal, proximo-distal c) a basic pattern and sequence of development d) the inconstancy of developmental rate e) different parts have their own individual patterns and sequences of development f> processes of different i at ion, inteqrat ion, hierarchization 5. Explain the notion of critical periods of learning and its significance to development 6. Explain the scope of the professional area of education commonly referred to as "education of exceptional children" or "special education" 7. State general characteristics of each type of except ionali ty 8. Differentiate/distinguish between inter- and intra-individua1 differences with special reference to exceptional children 9. Identify the prevalence of exceptional children in Canada 10. Define the term cerebral palsy 11. Name and differentiate among the various forms of cerebral palsy a) spastic b) athetoid c) ataxic 18. State a definition of epilepsy 13. Define the motor disorder condition spina bifida 14. Define the term orthopedically handicapped 15. Define the term visual impairment lb. Differentiate between the term "visual impairment", "b1indness", and "visual perception problem" 17. Explain learning implications which result from absent or limited visual input 831 18. Explain common observable behaviour among children which may indicate visual handicaps 19. Identify the more common visual handicaps found among school children 20. Define the following terms: a) deaf b) deafened c> hearing impaired 81. Name several means of informal testing for children with auditory handicaps 88. Identify the common causes of hearing defects and their general implications for education: a) prenatal causes b) condition at birth c) postnatal causes 83. Distinguish between the two major types of hearing def ec ts: a) conductive b) sensori-neura1 84. Identify factors which influence educational development of deaf children; intelligence, degree of deafness, age of onset 25. Explain the implications for training of different degrees of hearing loss 26. Identify the educational problems which a mild-to-moderate hearing loss imposes upon a child 27. Identify correct approaches to teaching speech and language to the deaf (oral and manual method) 28. State a definition of mental retardation 29. Explain the common classifications of MR children: a) medical-bio1ogical b) socia 1-psycho 1ogica1 c) educational classification 30. Identify the disadvantages of the classification of ch i1dren 31. Explain the importance of cultural factors as an influence in retarding intellectual development 32. Describe and identify genetic causes of MR: a) biochemical disorders b) chromosomal abnormalities 232 33. Identify and describe prenatal causes of MR: a) rubel1 a b) rh factor 34. Identify and describe perinatal causes of MR: a) asphyxia 35. Identify and describe postnatal causes of MR: a) encephalitis b) meningitis 36. Define the field of specific learning disabilities includ ing: a) the professional language essential to an understanding of the field, and b) the theoretical basis for the several approaches and the related remedial procedures 37. Explain the range of limitations classified as specific learning disabilities 38. Describe how speech disorders occur among children commonly classified in other handicapped groups, such as CP, the hearing handicapped, and the retarded 39. Explain the nature of stuttering, its probable causes, and therapeutic approaches to lessen its impact 40. Identify and describe the most prevalent articulatory d i sorders: a) substitutions b) omissions c ) distortions d) additions 41. Identify and describe the most prevalent vocal d i sorders: a) phonation b) resonance c) voca1 pitch d) loudness of voice 4E. 43, 44 , Explain the multisensory approaches Define and differentiate categories of adjustment a) emotional disturbance b) social maladjustment between the prob1ems: and two broad Identify the broad range of adjustment problems classified as behaviour disorders 45. Identify major behavioural characteristics in complex emotional behaviour disorders: E33 a) autism b) schizophrenia c) anxiety Understand the behavioural characteristics of children with such disorders Identify major factors which contribute to behaviour disorders and ways in which the school may assist in reducing the impact of these factors E34 Knowledge of the more promising educational strateg for special training of children with behaviour disorders E35 APPENDIX B E36 VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE LANGARA CAMPUS EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION SPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICUM ASSESSMENT NAME REG. NO DATE OF PRACTICUM EARLY CHILDHOOD CENTRE NO. OF CHILDREN AGE OF CHILDREN This evaluation form attempts to identify the characteristics of student teacher bahaviour that are considered fundamental to the care and education of young children. Please indicate on the following pages those competencies that you feel the student has/hasnot acquired in his/her parcticum in your centre (specific expamles where possible). It would be helpful if you could discuss the students progress on an on—going basis throughout the practicum. E37 I. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION SKILLS 1. Shows the ability to construct and evaluate informal diagnostic tests in basic-skill areas M VS S F NP a) perceptual-motor development b) social emotional development c) language development d) intellectual development E. Shows knowledge of and is able to interpre formal standardized and formal diagnostic tests in basic skill areas M VG G F NP a) perceptual-motor b) spoken language c) receptive language d) intellectual development COMMENTS: E38 PROFESSIONALISM Motivates exceptional children by providing a model who is actively involved in their educational exper ience. Is dependable and trustworthy and relies on others for professional advice and assistance -M- -VG G-3. Is receptive to criticism and suggest ions 4. Exhibits personal qualities such as a sense of humor and emotional stability and maturity 5. Assumes initiative in program planning materials 6. Develops creativity in working with exceptional children 7. Provides for a positive classroom environment by interacting and comm unicating successfully with children COMMENTS: (please include any specific recommendations or suggestions that you have regarding the professional status of the practicum student) 239 III. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE M VG G F NP 1. Controls and modifies the bahaviour of individual children in acting out si tuat ions E. Uses selected reinforcement techniques effectively 3. Applies a variety of problem-solving strategies in changing inappropriate bahaviour to more acceptable child responses 4. Uses alternative behavioural strategies in reducing disruptive behav i our 5. Plans and carries out activities to increase the self-concepts of exceptional children h. Promotes positive peer rea1tionships by intervening when social deficits are apparent COMMENTS: (please briefly describe the competence of the student in managing conflict classroom situations. Use specific examples where appropriate) E40 IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT, PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION M VG G F NP 1. Knows the components of an individualized education plan (IEP) and sees that the goals and objectives are implemented s. Helps organize and plan activities based upon IEP recommended strategies and procedures 3. Writes behavioural objectives and plans accordingly 4. Plans and carries our activities appropriate to individual developmental levels a) ART (creative and age appropr i ate) b) MUSIC c) MOVEMENT (outdoor and indoor) d) LITERATURE (stories, books, poems, ETC.) e) LANGUAGE (oral, vocabulary, listening, reading, readiness, print, etc . > f) SCIENCE, SOC.ST. and MATH (activities appropraite to developmental levels and in congruence with centre themes and plans 5. Plans as part of the centre team 6. Communicates plans for activities in advance 7. Accepts constructive suggestions for planning from sponsor teacher COMMENTS: (please discuss and evaluate students activities re: appropriateness, thoroughness of planning, teaching strategies, E41 delivery^ motivational skills and management of the group during the activity) 242 ASSESSMENT OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES PLANNED AND IMPLEMENTED BY THE STUDENT ART: MUSIC: PSYCHO-MOTOR: LANGUAGE: SPECIFIC STRENGTHS OF STUDENT: E43 SPECIFIC LIMITATIONS (IF ANY) OF STUDENT: OTHER COMMENTS: Sponsor Teacher Pract icum Superv i sor Student LEGEND M - Mastery VG- Very Good G - Good F - Fair NP- Needs Practice 24» 


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