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Maternal attitudes towards children and family as a factor in underachievement 1982

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MATERNAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDREN AND FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN UNDERACHIEVEMENT by JANICE MARIE RICHARDSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © J a n i c e Marie Richardson, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 „ ^ October 13, 1982 Date DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT MATERNAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS .CHILDREN AND FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN..UNDERACHIEVEMENT The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e whether there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d r e n and fa m i l y between mothers of a c h i e v i n g c h i l d r e n and mothers of underachieving c h i l d r e n at the grade one and two l e v e l , and what the nature of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e might be. Subjects i d e n t i f i e d as achievers f o r t h i s study were a s e l f - s e l e c t e d i n t a c t group who had achieved a grade l e v e l ' score of 2.5 or higher on the Gates McGinite Reading Test, l e v e l A, i n June, 1982. Underachievers were defined as those who a t t a i n e d a "no score " at t h i s l e v e l . The instrument used i n t h i s study was a r e v i s e d form of the PARI, developed by Schaeffer and B e l l (1958), and i n c o r p o r a t i n g Reversed Scale items developed by Zuckerman (1958). A l e t t e r was sent home to mothers requesting t h e i r v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. No s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was p o s s i b l e due to the l i m i t e d sample s i z e . However, scale.means were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each group. Mothers of male underachievers had high scores.on the s c a l e s f o r F o s t e r i n g Dependency, Excluding Outside I n f l u e n c e s , and Martyrdom. These s c a l e s were examined f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g trends. Mothers of female achievers a t t a i n e d low scores on the s c a l e s , f o r F o s t e r i n g Dependency, Excluding Outside I n f l u e n c e s , Martyrdom, and A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development. These sc a l e s were examined f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g trends i n mothers of female a c h i e v e r s . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Ab s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement . v i CHAPTER I PROBLEM 1 In t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem 1 Statement of the Problem 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem 3 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 Family E t i o l o g y . . . . 7 Pa r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s 13 CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY . : ". 18 Popu l a t i o n 18 Instrumentation 19 Procedure 22 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 27 Trends i n Male Underachievers 29 Trends i n Female Achievers . 32 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY 38 APPENDIX A Copy of F i n a l Form IV PARI 44 APPENDIX B Reversed PARI Scale . 52 APPENDIX C O r i g i n a l Revised Form of PARI 58 APPENDIX D F i n a l Revised Form of PARI .66 APPENDIX E L e t t e r s 70 1. Int r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r to Parents 70 2. Explanatory L e t t e r 71 APPENDIX F Tables 73 1. PARI Scale Numbers and Corresponding Revised Scale Numbers 73 2. PARI Factored Scales 74 3. Scales and Items Used i n Conjunction w i t h Zuckerman's Factors 75 4. Scales and Corresponding Item Numbers . . . 76 5. Number of P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students and Mothers c l a s s i f i e d by Grade, Sex and Achievement L e v e l 77 6. Mean Scores f o r Male Underachievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B 78 7. Mean Scores f o r Female Achievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B 79 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 80 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to me t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. Peggy Koopman, and to the other members of my committee, Dr. S a l l y Rogow and Dr. Frank Echols f o r t h e i r encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e . I would l i k e to thank Dr. Ron LaTorre at the Vancouver School Board, and the many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , teachers and mothers who so w i l l i n g l y cooperated i n my study. I extend my thanks a l s o to my many colleagues, f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s who o f f e r e d c o n t i n u a l support and encouragement, p a r t i c u l a r l y my c h i l d r e n , M i c h e l l e and Dean, and my mother E t h e l . A s p e c i a l thank you goes to my t y p i s t , J u d i e R o u s s e l l e . i v CHAPTER I PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem Many s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e and the achievement l e v e l of the c h i l d r e n concerned. The l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s that f a m i l i e s of c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g problems appear to spend l e s s time i n communicating w i t h each other and take longer to make d e c i s i o n s . Consequently, underachievers experience an emotional c l i m a t e which i s l e s s p o s i t i v e than that of t h e i r normal peers (Owen, Adams, F o r r e s t , S t o l z and F i s h e r 1971, Shaw and Dutton 1962). Although some authors b e l i e v e the source of the problem i s organic (Cruickshank 1967, Johnson and Myklebust 1967, McCarthy and McCarthy 1969), many others consider p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or s o c i a l f a c t o r s as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the e t i o l o g y of under- achievement ( C u l l e n 1969, Elardo 1978, Kronick 1976, M i l l e r and Westman 1964 and 1968, Minden 1978, Owen, Adams, F o r r e s t , S t o l z and F i s h e r 1971, Peck and Stackhouse 1973). In t h e i r paper on maternal c h i l d r e a r i n g s t y l e s , Elardo and Freund (1978) s t a t e : We know nothing of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n methods employed by the parents of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . In l i g h t of the t r a d i t i o n of foc u s i n g on the f a m i l y as the e t i o l o g i c a l f o r c e which produced a l l the myriad of psychopathological s t a t e s , t h i s lacuna i n our knowledge i s sur- p r i s i n g . I t should be remedied. (p.. 145) Often the underachieving c h i l d i s used as a scapegoat or as a s t a b i l i z e r i n the i n t r i c a t e workings of f a m i l y dynamics (Kronick 1 1976, M i l l e r and Westman 1964 and 1968, Peck and Stackhouse 1973, Prugh and Harlow 1962). Some st u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d that parents h o l d d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g problems than they do towards t h e i r s i b l i n g s (Shaw and Dutton 1962, P h i l a g e , Kuna, B e c e r r i l l 1975, G o l d s t e i n , Cary, Chorost and Dalack 1970). In g eneral, more s t r o n g l y negative a t t i t u d e s were expressed towards underachievers than towards a c h i e v e r s . Whether t h i s was a conse- quence or a cause of underachievement was not a s c e r t a i n e d . Support f o r the ca u s a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was suggested by Shaw and McCuen (1960). Other s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y l i f e have been conducted by Cowen, Heuser, Beach and Rappaport (1970), Harmer and Alexander (1978), Goldman and Ba r c l a y (1974), and Shaw and Dutton (1962). With the exception of Harmer and Alexander (1978) whose subjects were parents of underachievers i n grades one to three from a lower socio-economic background, most s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h subjects from i n t a c t m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . The underachieving students ranged i n age from nine to eighteen years. As Shaw and McCuen (1960) disc o v e r e d , a d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement l e v e l can be i d e n t i f i e d as e a r l y as grade one between male achievers and male underachievers. More research i s needed to consider p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y l i f e at t h i s l e v e l . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y that c o n d i t i o n s antecedent to school entrance might have at l e a s t a p a r t i a l bearing on the development of underachievement behavior, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t hat parent a t t i t u d e s might be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a i l u r e to perform e f f e c t i v e l y i n school...From a 2 l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, i t i s e a s i e r to b u i l d a case f o r such a t t i t u d e s as caus a l r a t h e r than r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s . The e a r l y appearance of underachievement among males lends some support to the causal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , (p. 203) Thus many s t u d i e s have i d e n t i f i e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards underachievers. There i s some support f o r the theory that more negative a t t i t u d e s are caus a l r a t h e r than r e s u l t a n t of l e a r n i n g problems. The n e c e s s i t y f o r more research at the primary l e v e l i s i n d i c a t e d . Statement of Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e whether there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y between mothers of a c h i e v i n g c h i l d r e n and mothers of underachieving c h i l d r e n at the grade one and two l e v e l , and what the nature of t h i s d i f f e r - ence might be. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem This paper does not consider the 1 to 3 percent of the popu- l a t i o n described by the N a t i o n a l Advisory Committee on Handicapped C h i l d r e n (1968), " C h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s who [ s i c ] e x h i b i t a d i s o r d e r i n one or more of the b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes i n v o l v e d i n understanding or i n using spoken or w r i t t e n language." Rather, the research reported here i n v e s t i g a t e d the growing number of those described as " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " on the ba s i s of underachievement. Underachievers were defined i n t h i s study as grade two students w i t h i n the range of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e who were unable to a t t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of academic progress 3 during the r e g u l a r school s e s s i o n . Most teachers recognize these students because they u s u a l l y rank the lowest i n reading achievement. They may a l s o demonstrate i n a t t e n t i v e n e s s and may seem withdrawn, or hyperactive and d i s r u p t i v e i n c l a s s . In tasks t e s t i n g short term memory, they do e s p e c i a l l y poorly and seem unable to remember how to perform tasks from one day to the next. Often they do b e t t e r i n math, although t h i s i s not always the case. They seem to be able to manipulate counters, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a d d i t i o n , but sub t r a c - t i o n , w i t h i t s vocabulary of sep a r a t i n g and t a k i n g away, presents more of a problem. In p h y s i c a l education they may be e i t h e r l e t h - a r g i c , h e s i t a n t to take p a r t , or so out of c o n t r o l they have to be sent ten l a p s around the gym to run o f f steam. These c h i l d r e n o f t e n seem immature and do not do w e l l i n f i n e motor s k i l l s , such as re q u i r e d f o r p r i n t i n g , c u t t i n g , p a s t i n g and drawing. T h e i r work h a b i t s are sloppy and they seldom complete assignments. They may have negative a t t i t u d e s towards school. At the primary l e v e l they are o f t e n l a b e l l e d developmentally immature. Th e i r s o c i a l ineptness m i r r o r s that of a much younger c h i l d . These behaviors, o f t e n used to describe l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , are a l s o t y p i c a l of c h i l d r e n whose parents are i n c o n s i s t e n t . I t i s the contention of t h i s w r i t e r that many c h i l d r e n who are l a b e l l e d " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " have no s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r , but are c h i l d r e n i n d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . The a t t i t u d e s t h e i r parents h o l d towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e are d i f f e r e n t and more negative than those of parents whose c h i l d r e n meet w i t h academic success. 4 Between 1979 and 1981, one hundred grade one students e n r o l l e d i n the Vancouver school system were observed, on a d a i l y b a s i s , by a teaching team i n an open area. Twenty-five of these c h i l d r e n were considered underachievers. In s p i t e of average i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s , these c h i l d r e n d i d not meet even the minimum requirements f o r achievement at the grade one l e v e l . These students r e c e i v e d d a i l y remedial a s s i s t a n c e . A school based team which i n c l u d e d the p r i n c i p a l , teacher, l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher, c o u n s e l l o r , p s y c h o l o g i s t , p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse and l i a i s o n s o c i a l worker considered these cases and recommended that the parents r e c e i v e a program a l s o , geared to complement and f a c i l i t a t e the academic remediation the c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g . This program never m a t e r i a l i z e d . Twelve c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d p s y c h i a t r i c care and f i v e of them were u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r r e d to a r e s i d e n t i a l treatment centre. P s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l assessments revealed uneven p r o f i l e s t y p i c a l of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . Parents of the c h i l d r e n i n .residence now r e c e i v e f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . According to the Commission of Emotional and Learning Disorders i n C h i l d r e n (the CELDIC Report): The f a m i l y environment i s the one that i n f l u e n c e s the c h i l d most s i g n i f i c a n t l y during h i s formative years...However, because next to h i s f a m i l y , the school i s the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t of the c h i l d , during h i s important formative years, we f e e l s t r o n g l y that t h i s i s the place where t a c t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n should take place w h i l e the c h i l d w i t h an emotional and l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r remains w i t h i n h i s own peer group. In the above cases, had an a t t i t u d i n a l change i n the parents occurred at an e a r l i e r stage, perhaps some of the tragedy of f a m i l y s t r e s s could have been avoided. 5 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE H i s t o r i c a l l y the e t i o l o g y of l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s has been a t t r i b u t e d to an organic b a s i s (Cruickshank 1967 Johnson and Myklebust 1967, McCarthy and McCarthy 1969). C e r t a i n researchers, however, have begun to recognize the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a m i l y e t i o l o g y as a f a c t o r i n under- achievement ( C u l l e n 1969, Elardo and Freund 1978, Kronick 1976, M i l l e r and Westman 1964 and 1968, Minden 1978, Owen, Adams, F o r r e s t , S t o l z and F i s h e r 1971, Peck and Stackhouse 1973). Such a d i f f e r e n c e i n e t i o l o g y would obviously p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the remediation and amelio- r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g problems. More c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be given to the idea of prevention r a t h e r than remediation. An underachieving c h i l d would no longer be t r e a t e d as an i s o l a t e d u n i t , but as an i n t e g r a l part of a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . Family therapy, such as that described by Phi l a g e (1975) and K l e i n , Altman, Dreizen, Friedman and Powers (1981) would become an accepted part of a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to under- achievement. P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d - r e a r i n g are capable of being changed as demonstrated by S t o t t and Berson (1951) i n t h e i r p r e - n a t a l p a r e n t a l education program. Programs r e s u l t i n g i n more p o s i t i v e ap- proaches to the p a r e n t a l r o l e have been implemented by Berry, Wenger and Donald (1969), Csapo and F r i e s e n (1975), Center f o r F i e l d Research and School S e r v i c e s , New York (1973), Minden (1978) and P h i l a g e , Kuna and B e c e r r i l l (1975), and K l e i n , Altman, Dreizen, Friedman and Powers (1981). A review of the l i t e r a t u r e gave r i s e to the theory of f a m i l y e t i o l o g y as caus a l r a t h e r than r e s u l t a n t of l e a r n i n g problems. Sup- 6 port f o r t h i s theory was found i n the st u d i e s of C u l l e n (1969), Elardo and Freund (1978), Kronick (1976), M i l l e r and Westman (1964 and 1968), Minden (1978), Owen et a l (1971) and Peck and Stackhouse (1973) to mention j u s t a few. Kronick s t a t e s : " I t i s th e r e f o r e p l a u s i b l e that some l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n may at f i r s t have been only temperamentally d i f f i c u l t c h i l d r e n ; and t h a t , exacerbated by f a m i l y d y s f u n c t i o n , created the l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y and the s o c i a l problems... The p o s i b i l i t y should be explored that the f a m i l y pathology could be one of the e t i o l o g i e s of what has been presumed to date to be a primary l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . " (p. 117) In her paper, Kronick i s concerned w i t h the mother's need to d i s - a s s o c i a t e the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y from her own c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s w h ile simultaneously making the c h i l d and h i s l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y the scapegoat f o r f a m i l y malfunction. Family E t i o l o g y This s e c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l d eal w i t h f a m i l y e t i o l o g y as a causal f a c t o r i n underachievement. Included w i l l be asso c i a t e d s t u d i e s on home environment and the development of mental a b i l i t i e s . Family dynamics w i l l be discussed and the i n t e r a c t i o n between mother and c h i l d i n p a r t i c u l a r w i l l be noted, as r e l a t i n g to school achievement and s o c i a l s k i l l s of underachieving c h i l d r e n . Several l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s have been conducted on the r e l a t i o n - ship betwee home environment and the development of mental a b i l i t i e s . Bradley and C a l d w e l l (1976a and 1976b) i n conjunction w i t h Elardo et a l (1975) u t i l i z e d the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment, a measure of the q u a l i t y of the s t i m u l a t i o n found i n the environment. Subjects were observed and data recorded f o r ages s i x , twelve, eighteen, twenty-four, t h i r t y - s i x and f i f t y - f o u r months. The 7 r e s u l t s of the two s t u d i e s suggest that the inventory i s measuring a complex of environmental f a c t o r s which may be p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c o g n i t i v e development and r e l a t i v e to performance on l a t e r t a s k s . I t was observed that c h i l d r e n who improved on the mental t e s t performance were en- couraged by t h e i r mothers t o develop new s k i l l s and provided w i t h the pla y m a t e r i a l s to do so. I t was a l s o noted that the i n f a n t s whose per- formance d e c l i n e d were f u n c t i o n i n g i n an atmosphere l e s s w e l l organized and l e s s conducive to l e a r n i n g than those who improved. They concluded that p a r e n t a l behavior does r e l a t e to i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l during c h i l d - hood. Bayley and Schaefer (1964) evidenced s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w h i l e i n v e s t i - g a t i n g the developmental aspects of the growth of a c h i l d . Subjects of t h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study were sixty-one healthy babies. Over a p e r i o d of eighteen years, t h i r t e e n a g e - l e v e l mental scores were c o r - r e l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y by sex w i t h s i m i l a r l y averaged a g e - l e v e l c h i l d be- h a v i o r r a t i n g s . Maternal behavior was assessed u s i n g the P a r e n t a l A t - t i t u d e Research Inventory developed by Schaefer and B e l l (1958). They found that between one and four years of age boys w i t h e g a l i t a r i a n , p o s i t i v e l y e v a l u a t i n g mothers had higher mental t e s t scores. G i r l s ' mental t e s t scores were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h mothers who were accept i n g , l o v i n g , and who put achievement demands on them. During school years the r f o r the t o t a l sample between i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s at ages four and seventeen was .62, s i m i l a r t o the r of .68 f o r maternal consistency, which i n l o v e - h o s t i l i t y r a t i n g s was found f o r mothers of both boys and g i r l s . R e s u lts i n d i c a t e d a s t a b l e r e l a t i o n between maternal behavior and i n t e l l i g e n c e scores. There i s a growing amount of evidence to i n d i c a t e that dysfunc- 8 t i o n a l f a m i l y l i f e p l a y s an important r o l e as a causal agent i n l e a r n i n g problems. As e a r l y as 1954 Burt s t a t e s : The key t o much i n a t t e n t i v e n e s s i n the classroom l i e s i n the events of the c h i l d ' s d a i l y l i f e at home. The a n x i e t i e s , the q u a r r e l s , and even the g a i t i e s of h i s r e l a t i v e s , are apt to upset h i s own s e l f - c o n t r o l ; and as every teacher can t e s t i f y , a f t e r each weekend and each long h o l i d a y , many a p u p i l comes back to school worn out, u n s e t t l e d , and o f t e n u t t e r l y demoralized, (p. 42) O' S u l l i v a n , i n h i s 1980 study of teachers' views of the e f f e c t s of home l i f e on e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, concurred w i t h Burt. He found that teachers i n working c l a s s areas were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to consider reported v i o l e n c e i n the home, unwashed c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t a l separation or d i v o r c e , d r i n k i n g problems and argumentative parents as p r e d i c t o r s of poor e d u c a t i o n a l response. Teachers i n mid d l e - c l a s s areas viewed mothers very i n v o l v e d i n c h a r i t a b l e work as n e g l i g e n t . Owen, Adams, F o r r e s t , S t o l z and F i s h e r (1971) stud i e d seventy- s i x l e a r n i n g disordered c h i l d r e n and t h e i r same sex s i b l i n g s to disc o v e r whether the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of academically handicapped c h i l d r e n could be more p r e c i s e l y i d e n t i f i e d and t o c l a r i f y f u r t h e r the causes and f a m i l i a l p a t t e r n s of l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s . C o n t r o l s were seventy-six matched academically s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d r e n and t h e i r same sex s i b l i n g s . R e s ults i n d i c a t e d f a m i l i a l l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s were most c l e a r i n the c h i l d r e n w i t h markedly high performance d i s - crepancies on the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children-Revised. S i b l i n g concordance on many v a r i a b l e s , and p a r e n t a l language d i s - a b i l i t i e s emphasized f a m i l i a l f a c t o r s . Emotional antecedents were c r i t i c a l f o r the high i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i a l - d e v i a n t groups. The emotional climate was f r e q u e n t l y more unfavourable f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l l y handicapped c h i l d w i t h i n the t o t a l f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n . The f a m i l y 9 atmosphere tended to be"less w e l l organized and l e s s emotionally s t a b l e than t h a t of the c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s . Owen, Adams, F o r r e s t , S t o l z and F i s h e r wondered why such f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t s one c h i l d more than another. M i l l e r and Westman i n two s i m i l a r s t u d i e s (1964 and 1968) hypothesized that parents and c h i l d r e n r e s i s t changes i n the read- i n g d i s a b i l i t y because i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the f a m i l y ' s s u r v i v a l . In both cases, subjects ranged i n age from ten to f i f t e e n years of age. They were a l l two years behind i n reading and came from white, i n t a c t , middle or working c l a s s homes. A l l had received i n t e n s i v e remedial a s s i s t a n c e . Parents were administered the Thematic Apper- cept i o n Test, a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t of parents' defense mechanisms. They a l s o took part i n an unstructured i n t e r v i e w and a semi-structured i n t e r v i e w about m a r i t a l , p a r e n t a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and home- making r o l e s . R e s u l t s revealed the c h i l d ' s symptoms and s u b i d e n t i t y were compatible w i t h those of the parents. Family members engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s that supported the c h i l d ' s symptoms. Concrete evidence of u n r e a l i z e d l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l was denied by the parents and the c h i l d . Some members of the f a m i l y reacted to improved reading a b i l i t y w i t h emotional disturbance. The parents were unable to take e f f e c t i v e steps to improve the c h i l d ' s reading a b i l i t y because t h i s would change the c h i l d ' s r o l e and thus decrease f a m i l y s t a b i l i t y . Evidence of f a m i l y pathology as a cause f o r f a i l u r e of i n t e l l e c t u a l development and academic achievement was a l s o c i t e d by Prugh and Harlow (1962). They give the example of a boy who was regarded from i n f a n c y as mentally retarded by the mother because of h i s i n i t i a l l a c k of responsiveness. Gradually he conformed to the mother's perceptions of him by h i s complete l a c k of s c h o l a s t i c achievement desp i t e a super i o r 10 i n t e l l e c t u a l endowment. Prugh and Harlow a t t r i b u t e t h i s phenomena to d i s t o r t e d r e l a t e d n e s s . The c h i l d was not viewed as an i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s own r i g h t but as an extension of the mother. Therefore, the c h i l d ' s emotional needs were not adequately met. This viewpoint i s i n accordance w i t h that of Staver (1953) who b e l i e v e d that i n d i s t u r b e d r e l a t e d n e s s , the c h i l d serves as the di s t u r b e d part of the mother. She hypothesized that the mothers have some unconscious need f o r the c h i l d not to l e a r n . Subjects were seventeen i n t a c t upper-lower to upper- middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , e x h i b i t i n g no gross s o c i a l pathology. The c h i l d r e n , e i g h t g i r l s and nine boys ranged i n age from s i x to t h i r t e e n years, had i n t e l l i g e n c e scores below n i n e t y , and were at l e a s t one year behind i n school. A l l expressed f e a r of separation and death and the use of h e l p l e s s ignorance as a method of p r o t e c t i o n . L a t e r i n t r e a t - ment some of the mothers recognized that they would r a t h e r consider t h e i r c h i l d retarded than consider that h i s emotional needs were p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s l a c k of i n t e l l e c t u a l development. Further acknowledgement was granted to the dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n between mother and c h i l d as p l a y i n g a p a r t i n c r e a t i n g or perpetuating the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y . Doleys, C a r t e l l i and Doster (1976) compared pa t t e r n s of mother- c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n i n normal, noncompliant and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d groups. Each group (nine p a i r s i n each group) was observed i n p l a y s i t u a t i o n s : ten minutes f o r the c h i l d ' s game and ten minutes f o r the mother's game. The mothers were then administered an a t t i t u d i n a l s c a l e measuring a t - t i t u d e s to c h i l d - r e a r i n g . In t h e i r summary, the authors suggested that parents of deviant c h i l d r e n are f r e q u e n t l y observed to reward inappro- p r i a t e or undesirable behavior. The a t t i t u d e data suggested that l e a r n - 11 i n g d i s a b i l i t y mothers view t h e i r c h i l d r e n as b e t t e r adjusted than c l i n i c mothers, but as having more problems i n behavior and adjustment than n o n c l i n i c mothers. Doleys and colleagues (1976) f u r t h e r suggested that the r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of c r i t i c i s m i n d i c a t e d a t o l e r a n t a t - t i t u d e towards academic and nonacademic behavior. They s t a t e d : I t i s t h i s same t o l e r a n t and accepting behavior on the mother's part which may account f o r . t h e low r a t e of compliance behavior. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s p a t t e r n of noncompliance to commands i n the home may g e n e r a l i z e to the classroom s i t u a t i o n , and the c h i l d could become a b e h a v i o r a l problem i n the school w i t h the teacher having to spend a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of her time c o n t r o l l i n g the c h i l d ' s behavior, thereby t a k i n g away from i n s t r u c t i o n a l or teaching time. (p. 375) Forehand, King, Peed and Yoder (1974) i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of mother- c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s comparing noncompliant c l i n i c and n o n c l i n i c groups found the c l i n i c mothers s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c r i t i c a l . They a l s o d i s - pensed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more commands and rewards than the n o n c l i n i c mothers. L i k e Doleys and colle a g u e s , the authors a t t r i b u t e d t h i s f a c t to f a m i l i e s of deviant c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y rewarding undesirable behavior. They a l s o reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more noncompliant behavior i n the c l i n i c group. The communication aspect of f a m i l y dynamics was researched by Peck and Stackhouse (1973). Based on the research of M i l l e r and Westman (1964 and 1968), Peck and Stackhouse argued that the reading problem was the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a d i s t u r b e d f a m i l y system. T h e i r subjects were f i f t e e n mothers and f a t h e r s , and sons w i t h reading problems. Con- t r o l s were f i f t e e n normal f a m i l i e s . Each f a m i l y member completed an i n d i v i d u a l o p inion q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f a m i l y members were then brought together to reach a consensus on twenty items of the que s t i o n n a i r e on which they had p r e v i o u s l y disagreed. Results revealed reading problem 12 f a m i l i e s took s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer to reach a d e c i s i o n , spent a greater percentage of t h e i r d e c i s i o n time i n s i l e n c e , and evidenced fewer ex- changes of e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n and more i r r e l e v a n t t r a n s a c t i o n s . These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those of Burgess.and Conger (1978), and Csapo and F r i e s e n (1975). Peck and Stackhouse conclude that reading problem f a m i l i e s have apparently taught the c h i l d how not to l e a r n and the c h i l d has r e c i p r o c a t e d by developing the a r t of being s t u p i d . The act of going to school and ac h i e v i n g places the c h i l d i n c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s f a m i l y ' s process and h i s own i d e n t i t y as a f a m i l y member. Another aspect of f a m i l y l i f e i s the development of s o c i a l s k i l l s . Rosenthal s t a t e s : I n t e n s i v e case s t u d i e s of s o c i a l l y adequate and s o c i a l l y aberrant youngsters have shown that s e l f - c o n c e p t and personal and s o c i a l adjustment may be h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g the t o t a l c o n s t e l - l a t i o n of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . (p. 28) Banas (1972) found that many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n have t r o u b l e w i t h the pe r c e p t i o n o f ' s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which they c o n s t a n t l y f i n d themselves. In t h e i r study, Elardo and Freund (1978) hypothesized that f a m i l y e t i o l o g y i s r e l a t e d to the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d ' s strengths or weaknesses i n s o c i a l s k i l l s . R e s u lts i n d i c a t e d that c e r t a i n maternal behaviors c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s scores on the s o c i a l measures. The researchers suggest that there may be a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between maternal c h i l d r e a r i n g behavior which r e i n f o r c e s i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement and th a t which f a c i l i t a t e s s o c i a l s k i l l s i n l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s In an attempt to throw more l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen home environment and school attainment, Fraser (1959) assessed four aspects 13 of home environment: c u l t u r a l , m a t e r i a l , m o t i v a t i o n a l and emotional. The m o t i v a t i o n a l aspect was one of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and school achievement. Hi g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were revealed at the .01 l e v e l between the parents of ac h i e v i n g and the parents of underachieving students. A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e towards the c h i l d ' s s c h o l a s t i c achievement and the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l was observed (r = .297) and an even c l o s e r one between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e and school achievement (r = .391). This same c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent a t t i t u d e s towards school and achievement measures was found by Cowan, Huser, Beach and Rappaport (1970). T h e i r study i n v o l v e d a b a t t e r y of parent assessment techniques which could broaden the base f o r judging e a r l y d y s f u n c t i o n at the primary l e v e l . The Parent A t t i t u d e Test i n c l u d e d a twenty-five item behavior s c a l e , seven and four item s c a l e s of home and school a t t i t u d e s , and an a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t c o n t a i n i n g seventeen p o s i t i v e and seventeen negative a d j e c t i v e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n rated more maladjusted by the teacher came out w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer scores on a l l s c a l e s of parent r a t i n g s . A study i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and c h i l d r e n ' s reading a b i l i t y was conducted by Harner and Alexander (1978). A short form s e l f report parent q u e s t i o n - n a i r e was administered to one hundred seven sets of parents whose c h i l - dren had been r e f e r r e d to a d i a g n o s t i c centre f o r reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t but low c o r r e l a t i o n was revealed between p a r e n t a l a t - t i t u d e s and reading a b i l i t y . P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l judgments. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between maternal a t t i t u d e scores and both i n t e l l i g e n c e (measured by the PIAT) 14 and reading achievement (measured by the WRAT) i n d i c a t e that maternal a t t i t u d e i s stronger and has greater i n f l u e n c e than p a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e . The authors suggest that much more s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s might have been obtained using the Parent A t t i t u d e Research Instrument (PARI) developed by Schaefer and B e l l (1958). Goldman and Barc l a y (1974) u t i l i z e d the PARI i n an e f f o r t to analyze the i n f l u e n c e of maternal a t t i t u d e s on c h i l d r e n w i t h reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . Subjects were t h i r t y - e i g h t reading d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n w i t h average i n t e l l i g e n c e and a mean age of 10.9 years. Twenty-nine were male and nine female. A l l came from middle c l a s s i n t a c t f a m i l i e s . Controls who had average reading a b i l i t y were matched f o r age and i n t e l l i g e n c e . The r e s u l t s of the maternal a t t i t u d e survey suggest some ba s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n maternal a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e as expressed by mothers of normal c h i l d r e n and mothers of c h i l d r e n w i t h reading problems. D i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e ranged from the .05 to the .001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the sc a l e s on S t r i c t n e s s , E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m , Comradeship and Sharing, Suppression of S e x u a l i t y , Encouraging V e r b a l i z a t i o n , and Approval of A c t i v i t y . Goldman and Barclay i n t e r p r e t t h e i r r e s u l t s as i n d i c a t i n g l a c k of encouragement i n v e r b a l f l u e n c y and the mi n i m i z a t i o n of communication. These f i n d i n g s are i n keeping w i t h the d i s t u r b e d f a m i l y communication patte r n s ob- served by Peck and Stackhouse (1973). High scores on the Approval of A c t i v i t y s c a l e d were seen as need f o r c o n t r o l . M a r i t a l c o n f l i c t was suggested by scores on E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m , Comradeship and Sharing and Suppression of S e x u a l i t y , as were d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the r o l e s of wif e and mother. In summary, Goldman and Barclay noted that the mothers of the c h i l d r e n w i t h reading problems i n t h e i r study demonstrated t r a i t s 15 that were s i m i l a r t o the mothers i n other s t u d i e s . The f i n d i n g s of Shaw and McCuen (1960) suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y that c o n d i t i o n s antecedent to school entrance might have at l e a s t a p a r t i a l bearing on the development of underachieving behavior, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , that parent a t t i t u d e s might be associated w i t h f a i l u r e to perform e f f e c t i v e l y i n school. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study, using male and female subjects e n r o l l e d i n grades eleven and twelve, revealed that male underachievers tended to r e c e i v e lower grades from grade one, becoming s i g n i f i c a n t i n grade three. Female underachievers received higher scores than female c o n t r o l s u n t i l grade f i v e . A drop i n grade po i n t average was observed at grade s i x , becoming s i g n i f i c a n t at grade ni n e . Based on the f i n d i n g s of the above study, Shaw and Dutton (1962) attempted to determine whether or not d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the parents of achievers and the parents of underachievers w i t h respect to a t t i t u d e , and the nature of these d i f f e r e n c e s . From a p o p u l a t i o n of eight hundred and f i f t y grade ten and eleven students e n r o l l e d i n a high school of eighteen hundred students, those w i t h an i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l of one hundred ten and above were considered p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . Those w i t h a cumulative grade p o i n t average of 2.7 were considered under- ach i e v e r s . Those w i t h a grade p o i n t average of 3.0 or above were con- si d e r e d achievers. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s were set up w i t h parents. Several o b j e c t i v e i n v e n t o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g the PARI, were administered. In a n a l y z i n g the data, the F t e s t to determine homogeneity of variance and the t t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e were c a r r i e d out between appropriate groups. Mothers of the female underachievers were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from mothers of achievers on ten s c a l e s at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e or 16 l e s s . These s c a l e s were: F o s t e r i n g Dependency, Martyrdom, Fear of Harming the Baby, D e i f i c a t i o n of the Parent, Suppression of Aggression, Avoidance of Communication, Inconsiderateness of the Husband, Ascendancy of the Mother, A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development, and Dependency on the Mother. These r e s u l t s have been i n t e r p r e t e d to mean that the mothers of the female underachievers appear to be more dependent, dominant and i n need of respect than mothers of female achievers. They are f e a r f u l of t h e i r own h o s t i l i t y and cannot t o l e r a t e aggression i n t h e i r daughters. The mothers of male achievers d i f f e r e d from mothers of male under- achievers on only two s c a l e s : S e c l u s i o n of the Mother and Suppression of S e x u a l i t y . Fathers of female achievers and underachievers d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on four s c a l e s : M a r i t a l C o n f l i c t , Suppression of Sex- u a l i t y , Avoidance of the Expression of A f f e c t i o n , and Change O r i e n t a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s leads to the c o n c l u s i o n that suppression of overt demonstrations of emotion i s accompanied i n these f a t h e r s by a suppression of any behavior which i m p l i e s s e x u a l i t y . Fathers of males d i f f e r e d on Suppression of S e x u a l i t y and I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Father. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that i n g e n e r a l , parents of underachieving c h i l d r e n have more negative a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n than do the parents of a c h i e v i n g c h i l d r e n . Whether or not these a t t i t u d e s were cau s a l or r e s u l t a n t of underachievement was not revealed i n t h i s study. The e a r l y appearance of underachievement amongst males lends support to the causal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 17 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Popu l a t i o n Subject f o r t h i s study were grade one and two students e n r o l l e d i n the p u b l i c school system i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y w i t h a m u l t i e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n . The p u b l i c school d i s t r i c t i s d i v i d e d i n t o four areas w i t h 19 to 24 elementary schools i n each area. The West area, which i n c l u d e s the Greek Community i s ch a r a c t e r i z e d by a predominance of p r o f e s s i o n a l and white c o l l a r workers. F i f t e e n out of twenty-four schools were approached i n the East area. S i x volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, a 40% r e s - ponse. Centre area, a l s o w i t h twenty-four schools had a represen- t a t i o n of nine where the Gates was administered. Of these, three agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, a 33 1/3% response. There were no p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools from the South area during the r e g u l a r school s e s s i o n . However, the one p a r t i c i p a t i n g summer school was l o c a t e d i n the South and drew on c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n surrounding schools from the same area. Subgroups Subjects i d e n t i f i e d as achievers f o r t h i s study were a s e l f - s e l e c t e d i n t a c t group who had achieved a grade l e v e l score of 2.5 or higher on the Gates McGinite Reading Test, Canadian E d i t i o n , l e v e l A, i n June, 1982. They were f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r mothers' w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, and by t h e i r geographical l o c a t i o n i n Centre and East Vancouver. 18 Subjects i d e n t i f i e d as underachievers i n t h i s study were c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n grade two i n 1981-82, and who, i n s p i t e of being i n the normal i n t e l l i g e n c e range, r e q u i r e d a remedial program at summer school having not completed the requirements f o r grade two during the r e g u l a r school s e s s i o n . Instrumentation The data c o l l e c t i o n instrument used i n t h i s study, a modified v e r s i o n of the Parent A t t i t u d e Research Inventory, more commonly r e f e r r e d to as the PARI, was developed by Schaeffer and B e l l i n 1958. The focus of t h e i r study was on the i n f l u e n c e of maternal a t t i t u d e s on the p e r s o n a l i t y development of the c h i l d . They hypothesized that a t t i t u d e measurement would be a supplement to i n t e r v i e w and observation techniques i n the study of maternal behavior, i f objec- t i v e a t t i t u d e measures were shown to be i n d i c e s of c e r t a i n patterns of maternal behavior. Emphasis was placed on a t t i t u d e s contrary to the usual approved methods of c h i l d r e a r i n g . However, d i s s a t i s f a c - t i o n of many mothers l e d to the i n c l u s i o n of three "rapport" s c a l e s i n order to give the mothers questions w i t h which they could agree. R e l i a b i l i t i e s were estimated using Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 f o r the s c a l e s i n T r i a l Format I and I I . The f i v e most r e l i a b l e items were used i n F i n a l Form IV which c o n s i s t e d of 23 s c a l e s arranged i n c y c l i c a l order. The Reversed PARI Scales were developed by Zuckerman (1958) to c o n t r o l f o r acquiescent response. Items 1, 14 and 21 - Encouraging V e r b a l i z a t i o n , E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m , Comradeship and Sharing - were l e f t i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form as they already had a p o s i t i v e focus. A high negative c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the remaining s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d content 19 agreement as a person s c o r i n g h i g h on the PARI would score low on the reversed s c a l e s . Factors A ( A u t h o r i t a r i a n - C o n t r o l ) and B ( H o s t i l i t y - R e j e c t i o n ) were i s o l a t e d by Zuckerman. Subfactors of Factor A i n c l u d i n g Harsh P u n i t i v e - C o n t r o l , Suppression and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Distance, Over- Possessiveness and Excessive Demand f o r S t r i v i n g were e x t r a c t e d by Schaefer and B e l l (1958) as was Zuckerman's Factor B. (See Appendix F ) . Zuckerman's Factor C - Democratic A t t i t u d e - encompassing PARI sc a l e s 1, 14, and 21, d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between mothers of achiev- i n g and mothers of underachieving h i g h school students (Shaw and Dutton 1962) and thus was not in c l u d e d i n t h i s study. The instrument as used i n t h i s study was composed of s i x t y items d i v i d e d among twelve s c a l e s . T h i r t y items from the PARI and t h i r t y items from t h e i r Reversed Scales were used i n order to give the mothers statements w i t h which they could agree, to c o n t r o l f o r acquiescent response, and to e s t a b l i s h content v a l i d i t y . Scales 1, 14, and 21 (Encouraging V e r b a l i z a t i o n , E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m , and Comrade- ship and Sharing) were not i n c l u d e d as they d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between mothers of underachievers and mothers of achievers i n Shaw and Dutton's study. I n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the PARI and the Reversed Scales l e d to the e l i m i n a t i o n of s c a l e s 6, 15 and 19 (Fear of Harming the Baby, Approval of A c t i v i t y , and Ascendency of the Mother). Scales 3, 12, 17 and 23 (S e c l u s i o n of the Mother, Suppression of Aggression, Inconsiderateness of the Husband, and Dependency of the Mother) were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Factors A and B as designated by Zuckerman. Scale 18 (Suppression of S e x u a l i t y ) was e l i m i n a t e d on the advice of the School Board as they were concerned 20 that c e r t a i n items might be o f f e n s i v e to some parents. (See Appendix These twelve s c a l e s are composed of f i v e items each, t o t a l l i n g 60 items, as compared to 115 items on the PARI. The items used were i d e n t i f i e d by renumbering the items of the PARI, eleminating items f o r s c a l e s 1, 3, 6, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23, thus reducing the t o t a l number of items to 65. Equivalent items were chosen from the Reversed Scales and renumbered 66-130. Odd numbered items (e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9...65) from t h i s reduced v e r s i o n of the PARI were a l t e r - nated w i t h even numbered items of the reduced Reverse Scales renum- bered 2, 4, 6...64. At t h i s p o i n t , a l l items were s t i l l c y c l i c a l l y arranged. However, w i t h the e l i m i n a t i o n of the f i v e item s c a l e 18, some adjustment was necessary i n order to maintain the odd PARI and even Reversed Scale p a t t e r n . (See Appendix F ) . This was done to f a c i l i t a t e the s c o r i n g of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A l l odd numbered PARI items were weighted: s t r o n g l y agree (A)=4, m i l d l y agree (a)=3, m i l d l y disagree (d)=2, s t r o n g l y disagree (D)=l. Even numbered items from the Reversed Scales r e c e i v e d opposite weightings: (A)=l, (a)=2, (d)=3, (D)=4. The achievement measure used i n t h i s study was the Gates McGinite, a reading achievement t e s t i n common use i n Vancouver schools whose new e d i t i o n has been normed to Canadian standards. The l e v e l A t e s t , g e n e r a l l y administered at the end of grade one or the beginning of grade two as a group t e s t , has two forms 1 and 2, to c o n t r o l f o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . I t i s administered i n two p a r t s . The vocabulary s e c t i o n shows a p i c t u r e and four words. The c h i l d i s asked to f i n d the word that best accompanies the p i c t u r e . The comprehension s e c t i o n 21 i s comprised of short paragraphs and accompanying p i c t u r e s . The c h i l d must choose the p i c t u r e that best i l l u s t r a t e s the i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed i n the s t o r y . Vocabulary and comprehension are scored s e p a r a t e l y . A separate t o t a l score i s a l s o provided i n the manual. Scores i n a l l parts range from a "no score" to a grade 3.6. Procedure In October, 1981, permission to conduct the study was recei v e d from the U.B.C. Human Subjects Committee and the Vancouver School Board. L e t t e r s were sent out from Program Resources at the school board e x p l a i n i n g the study and requesting v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the p r i n c i p a l s of ten schools. A l l d e c l i n e d to p a r t i c i p a t e on the grounds that too much time had elapsed s i n c e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s . Eight months l a t e r , a second attempt was made to contact schools. During May and June of 1982, names of 31 schools a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Gates at the grade one l e v e l were provided by the school board. I n i t i a l contact was made by covering l e t t e r s sent to p r i n c i p a l s and grade one teachers at these s c h o o l s , e x p l a i n i n g the study and request- i n g v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Packets c o n t a i n i n g an average of twenty Introductory L e t t e r s to Parents (see Appendix E) were sent out to each s c h o o l . A t o t a l of 730 form l e t t e r s requesting v o l u n t a r y par- t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t were sent home to mothers w i t h a c h i e v i n g and underachieving c h i l d r e n at the grade one l e v e l . Follow-up phone c a l l s were made to p r i n c i p a l s and/or teachers approximately ten days a f t e r l e t t e r s were put i n school m a i l to enable time f o r d e l i v e r y , d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e t u r n to schools of form l e t t e r s . Returned forms were picked up from the schools by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Of the 20 22 schools w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e , seven had mothers who o f f e r e d to take p a r t i n the study. A l l were l o c a t e d i n e i t h e r East or Centre Areas. Mothers were contacted by phone to arrange a s u i t a b l e time to d e l i v e r the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s . An Explanatory L e t t e r was provided w i t h each questionnaire (see Appendix E). The mother's v o l u n t a r y p a r t i - c i p a t i o n i n the study and the matter of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were r e a f f i r m e d . Verbal and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s on completing the ques t i o n n a i r e were provided. The i n v e s t i g a t o r returned a f t e r h a l f an.hour to ,pick up the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . In t h i s way, approximately f i v e q uestionnaires were dropped o f f and picked up w i t h i n a two hour p e r i o d . A t o t a l of 18 mothers completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . When teachers were contacted again to e s t a b l i s h sex and academic achievement l e v e l , i t was revealed that s i x t e e n of the mothers had ac h i e v i n g daughters and the other two had a c h i e v i n g sons. The attempt i n t h i s study to c o n t r o l f o r i n v e s - t i g a t o r b i a s , had thus l e d to the e l i m i n a t i o n of a c r i t e r i o n group of underachievers. An attempt to o b t a i n a sample of underachievers was made by sending a l e t t e r to summer school p r i n c i p a l s r e questing Introductory L e t t e r s to Parents by d i s t r i b u t i n g at r e g i s t r a t i o n to parents of grade two students r e q u i r i n g remedial programs. Of the seven v o l u n t e e r s , four spoke no E n g l i s h , two could not be contacted by phone, and one completed the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . A more d i r e c t approach was used at a summer school operating i n August. Questionnaires w i t h Explanatory L e t t e r s were sent home i n s t e a d of Introductory l e t t e r s w i t h 26 students e n r o l l e d i n a grade two remedial program. Mothers of two females and ten males completed 23 the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . (See Appendix E). Treatment of the Data Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e was coded according to the sex, grade and achievement l e v e l of the c h i l d i n v o l v e d . For i n s t a n c e , an a c h i e v i n g female i n grade one would be coded F-l-A, w h i l e an underachieving male i n grade two would be coded M-2-U. The questionnaires were then separated i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : grade one female a c h i e v e r s , grade one male ac h i e v e r s , grade two male underachievers and grade two female underachievers. I t should be noted that there was no response from mothers of underachieving c h i l d r e n i n grade one, male or female, nor from mothers of achi e v i n g students i n grade two. This made a n a l y s i s of the data v i r t u a l l y i mpossible. However, the i n v e s t i g a t o r f e l t i t worthwhile to examine by i n s p e c t i o n the data that were gathered. For each q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the even numbered items were scored f i r s t ; an "A" weighted 1, an "a" 2, a "d" 3 and a "D" 4. Next the odd numbered items were scored i n a reverse order; an "A" weighted 4, an "a" 3, a "d" 2, and a "D" 1. Each s c a l e was d i v i d e d i n t o i t s f i v e items (see Appendix F f o r coded r e s u l t s ) . The questionnaires i n each group were a r b i t r a r i l y numbered 1, 2, 3,.....n to f a c i l i t a t e rechecking of data. The score f o r each item number was then entered i n the appropriate space. Means f o r each s c a l e were computed by t o t a l l i n g the number of items and d i v i d i n g by the number of subjects i n each category. The s m a l l sample of mothers of a c h i e v i n g boys and underachieving g i r l s make the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n -. r i s k y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y . i t impossible to p r e d i c t whether using a l a r g e r and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 24 sample would have produced the same r e s u l t s . No s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Zuckerman's f a c t o r s was p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study as the samples of mothers of male achievers and female underachievers were too s m a l l to permit a n a l y s i s . However, the means obtained are shown i n Appendix F as p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s of trends. Factor C was not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study f o r reasons out- l i n e d e a r l i e r . Factor A i s broken down i n t o four subgroups used by Schaefer and B e l l (1958). Each subgroup i s composed of the r e l e v a n t s c a l e s . The f i r s t subgroup, Harsh P u n i t i v e - C o n t r o l , i s composed of s c a l e s 2, Breaking the W i l l , 7, Excluding Outside I n f l u e n c e s , and 8, D e i f i c a t i o n . Scale 10, Avoidance of Communication comprises subgroup 2, Suppression and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Distance. Subgroup 3 Over-possessiveness c o n s i s t s of s c a l e s 1, F o s t e r i n g Dependency, 3, Martyrdom and 11, I n t r u s i v e n e s s . Scales 5, S t r i c t n e s s , and 12, A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development, make up subgroup 4, Excessive Demand f o r S t r i v i n g . Factor B i s comprised of s c a l e s 4, M a r i t a l C o n f l i c t , 6, I r r i t a b i l i t y , and 9, R e j e c t i o n of the Home-Making Role. As already mentioned, the p o s s i b i l i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s between sex r e l a t e d groups was e l i m i n a t e d due to the sample s i z e and questionable s e l f - s e l e c t i o n problem of male achievers and female underachievers. However, c l o s e r examination of the.data revealed that trends i n two of the groups, male underachievers and female a c h i e v e r s , deserved f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In Shaw and Dutton's (1962) study, a mean d i f f e r e n c e of 2.0 or greater i n v a r i a b l y was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Therefore, a mean d i f f e r e n c e of 2.0 or greater was chosen as an a r b i t r a r y number on which to base an exam- i n a t i o n of s c a l e items. 25 Table 6 (see Appendix F) portrays the mean scores of Zucker- man's (1958) Factors A and B f o r mothers of male underachievers. These mothers had a t t a i n e d high scores on s c a l e s 1, F o s t e r i n g Dependency, 3, Martyrdom, and 7, Excluding Outside I n f l u e n c e s . These s c a l e s , t h e r e f o r e , were the ones chosen f o r c l o s e r examination of p o s s i b l e trends i n t h i s group. Table 7 (see Appendix F) shows the mean scores a t t a i n e d by mothers of a c h i e v i n g females. These mothers a t t a i n e d low scores on s c a l e s 1, F o s t e r i n g Dependency, 3, Martyrdom, 7, Excluding Outside I n f l u e n c e s , and 12, A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development. These s c a l e s were examined f o r p o s s i b l e trends i n a t t i t u d e s of mothers of a c h i e v i n g females. 26 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION There were s e v e r a l shortcomings i n the present study. The major problem encountered was the poor response to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The querying of people's b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s i s a d e l i c a t e matter and permission to c a r r y out the requirements f o r t h i s study came w i t h e t h i c a l concern from the w r i t e r , the u n i v e r s i t y , the school board and the p r i n c i p a l s . When probing f o r the type of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n t h i s study, a personal i n t e r v i e w o f t e n e l i c i t s the necessary response i n a more t a c t f u l manner than does a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The PARI was chosen f o r t h i s study a f t e r c a r e f u l examination of many s i m i l a r instruments. The f a c t o r s i s o l a t e d by the PARI were deemed r e l e v a n t to support the hypothesis. The language used i n the instrument was considered simple and s t r a i g h t forward as com- pared to more s o p h i s t i c a t e d terminology used i n c e r t a i n other i n s t r u - ments. As none of the mothers took exception to any of the questions i n the r e v i s e d form used i n t h i s study, t h i s w r i t e r b e l i e v e s the instrument to be of value i n e l i c i t i n g c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . However, a p r e f e r a b l e method of c o l l e c t i n g data would be to combine t h i s instrument w i t h an i n t e r v i e w schedule using an unstructured response format. The o r i g i n a l PARI, developed by Schaefer and B e l l (1958) was not approved by the school board. Hesitant to give permission the board suggested that items from the Reversed Scales of the PARI developed by Zuckerman (1958) be i n c o r p o r a t e d . This r e s u l t e d i n an 27 instrument which was shortened as described i n Chapter I I I . An i n t e r v i e w schedule might have been used to supplement the a t t i t u d e s c a l e w i t h anecdotal i n f o r m a t i o n but s i n c e t h i s would have breached c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i t was discarded. Previous studies which used the PARI as an a t t i t u d i n a l measure incorp o r a t e d i n t e r v i e w schedules to o b t a i n more complete i n f o r m a t i o n . These are reported i n the b i b l i o - graphy. No other study c i t e d r e l i e d s o l e l y on the PARI to e s t a b l i s h a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d - r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e . One of the o r i g i n a l c r i t e r i a f o r achievement were c h i l d r e n ' s scores on the Gates McGinite Reading Test. This t e s t , administered i n June, 1981, was not given i n a l l schools at the same time, making i t impossible to o b t a i n the sample needed. A c r i t e r i o n a l s o could not be e s t a b l i s h e d because a double b l i n d s i t u a t i o n was used to e l i m i n a t e i n v e s t i g a t o r b i a s . A more v i a b l e means of o b t a i n i n g a c r i t e r i o n group might be based on the r e s u l t s of the Developmental Review Program (DRP), c u r r e n t l y administered d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n Vancouver at the Kindergarten l e v e l . Part of the assessment i n c l u d e s parent i n t e r v i e w s . A f o l l o w - up i n t e r v i e w might be a more e f f i c i e n t way of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . Concern w i t h c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and concern f o r parents' f e e l i n g s created s e v e r a l obstacles i n developing, and pursuing the research reported here. Of 850 Introductory L e t t e r s to Parents d i s t r i b u t e d , there was only a 2% r e t u r n , a l l from mothers of a c h i e v i n g students. Other s t u d i e s had not informed the parents of the nature of t h e i r study and were t h e r e f o r e l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g . One mother commented, " I don't want to volunteer i n case the questions make me look l i k e a bad mother." 28 P r i n c i p a l s were a l s o concerned that parents might be offended. The high percentage of c h i l d r e n of v a r i e d e t h n i c backgrounds coming from homes where E n g l i s h was not the f i r s t language, was the main reason both p r i n c i p a l s and teachers gave f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. One school c i t e d a 99% enrollment of c h i l d r e n w i t h E n g l i s h as a second language. Information concerning sex of the c h i l d and the language spoken at home, was the only i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from the mothers of the underachieving students. These mothers d i d not re c e i v e the I n t r o - ductory L e t t e r to Parents r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r names, addresses and phone numbers. Rather, the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f , accompanied by an Explanatory L e t t e r , was sent home w i t h each c h i l d . The i n v e s t i - gator had no d i r e c t contact w i t h these mothers at any time, e i t h e r by phone or i n person. The questionnaires were returned anonymously and the i d e n t i t y of the mothers was not revealed. Trends of Male Underachievers Mothers of the underachieving boys a t t a i n e d the hi g h e s t scores on F o s t e r i n g Dependency, E x c l u s i o n of Outside I n f l u e n c e s , and Martyr- dom. Answers to the qu e s t i o n n a i r e appeared to i n d i c a t e that these mothers encouraged the l i t t l e boys to be dependent on them. Outside i n f l u e n c e s were not encouraged. A sense of martyrdom sometimes p r e v a i l e d . Sharing time i n c l a s s revealed that many l i t t l e boys were not expected to p i c k up t h e i r toys or perform other age-appropriate tasks i n the home which encouraged independence. Observation of t h e i r classroom behavior revealed that they had to be reminded to clean up a f t e r themselves. Outside i n f l u e n c e s were not encouraged 29 and few boys reported involvement i n a f t e r school community a c t i v i - t i e s . The mothers of the underachieving boys expressed a sense of martyrdom through t h e i r responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o s t e r i n g Dependency An extreme case of f o s t e r i n g dependency i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g . A l i t t l e boy a r r i v e d i n a Vancouver school from out of province. No school records were sent from schools he p r e v i o u s l y attended. As he was p h y s i c a l l y s m all f o r h i s age he was placed i n f i r s t grade. Several weeks l a t e r , when h i s records a r r i v e d , i t was discovered t h a t t h i s c h i l d was nine years o l d and had been r e f e r r e d to a slow l e a r n e r s ' c l a s s . Arrangements to t r a n s f e r him took time, and meanwhile he began l e a r n i n g to read. His r e p o r t card r e f l e c t e d h i s progress and h i s mother d i d not show up f o r her parent- teacher conference. The c h i l d t e a r f u l l y returned to school to report that h i s mother had broken h i s g l a s s e s , without which he could not read. The glasses were not replaced and the c h i l d ' s progress i n reading ended. Excluding Outside Influences A case of extreme e x c l u s i o n of outside i n f l u e n c e s was demon- s t r a t e d by a l i t t l e boy whose mother had chosen to bear him out of wedlock. Having made t h i s d e c i s i o n , she q u i t her job and devoted her whole l i f e to r a i s i n g t h i s c h i l d . A p a t t e r n of martyrdom then seemed to emerge. They appeared to have no f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s w i t h whom they a s s o c i a t e d . She was h i s s o l e companion and waited a l l day outside the classroom door. He was extremely d i s r u p t i v e 30 i n c l a s s and would perseverate on an id e a to the point of obsession. Academically he was achie v i n g w e l l below h i s p o t e n t i a l . Suggestions from the teacher to i n v o l v e the l i t t l e boy i n Beavers, or to enquire i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g a B i g Brother were r e j e c t e d by the mother. A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n , she f i n a l l y agreed to l e t him go on an overnight camp w i t h h i s classmates, but withdrew her permission at the l a s t minute. She was t o t a l l y devoted to t h i s l i t t l e boy to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l others. Martyrdom An example i l l u s t r a t i n g martyrdom was the mother who appeared weekly f o r conferences w i t h the p r i n c i p a l and teacher. The l i t t l e boy i n question was the o l d e s t of three c h i l d r e n and the l e a s t l i k e d by the mother. She came w i l l i n g l y to the school and complained about the hardships t h i s c h i l d had created f o r her. She c o n s t a n t l y compared him, unfavorably, w i t h h i s younger brother. She s t a t e d that her parents l a v i s h e d undeserving a t t e n t i o n on her e l d e s t c h i l d . Her sense of martyrdom was d i s p l a y e d by e x h i b i t i n g c o o l t o l e r a n c e towards t h i s l i t t l e boy. His behavior i n c l a s s was immature and h i s academic work w e l l below the l e v e l he should have achieved. A l l the mothers of these underachieving boys seemed to share c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They f o s t e r e d dependency i n t h e i r sons by performing tasks the l i t t l e boys were capable of doing themselves. They d i d not encourage outside i n f l u e n c e s such as membership i n Beavers, sports or other community a c t i v i t i e s . They e x h i b i t e d a strong sense of duty and put the i n t e r e s t s of the l i t t l e boys ahead of personal i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s to the poi n t where a sense of 31 martyrdom was evidenced. Trends of Female Achievers Mothers of female achievers a t t a i n e d the lowest scores on F o s t e r i n g Dependency, E x c l u s i o n of Outside I n f l u e n c e s , Martyrdom and A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development. I t appeared that the mothers of the l i t t l e g i r l s encouraged them to be independent. Classroom d i s c u s s i o n s revealed that l i t t l e g i r l s were assigned age-appropriate chores around the house to encourage a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Outside i n f l u e n c e s were encouraged and many female youngsters reported a f t e r school a c t i v i t i e s such as piano and dancing l e s s o n s , swimming, gymnastics and a r t s and c r a f t s . The mothers seemed to f e e l t h e i r daughters should be allowed to develop at t h e i r own r a t e . A low score on the Martyrdom Scale p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t e d the outcome of these other s c a l e s . Not f e e l i n g the need to a c c e l e r a t e development, encouraging independence and sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r a i s i n g t h e i r daughters, the mothers d i d not seem to experience a sense of martyrdom. A l l i e d w i t h these a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d - r e a r i n g was that expressed by a high score on Avoidance of Communi- c a t i o n , v i n d i c a t i n g that the mothers d i d not f e e l the n e c e s s i t y to be aware of every thought, idea and f e e l i n g experienced by t h e i r daughters. F o s t e r i n g Dependency An example of a mother who d i d not f o s t e r dependency was a young Japanese widow who held many f e m i n i s t views, annoyed by the s t e r e o - type of the submissive o r i e n t a l woman. She was very proud of her 32 v i v a s c i o u s , gregarious daughter and encouraged her to be a s s e r t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e and s e l f - r e l i a n t . The l i t t l e g i r l was expected to help around the house. This was r e f l e c t e d i n her r e s p o n s i b l e behavior around the classroom as was her p o l i t e but a s s e r t i v e manner of expressing h e r s e l f . Excluding Outside Influences I n c l u d i n g , r a t h e r than excluding outside i n f l u e n c e s , was demonstrated by a mother employed outside the home. The l i t t l e g i r l had been placed i n appropriate daycare s i n c e she had been a t o d d l e r . Her manner was q u i e t and s e l f - a s s u r e d . She d i d not appear to f e e l awkward i n new s i t u a t i o n s , and i n the classroom was the most r e l i a b l e c h i l d f o r running messages or completing a task. She was w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d and p a r t i c i p a t e d . _ i n a f t e r school gymnastics. During the summer, she attended a day camp w i t h enrichment a c t i v i t i e s . Her mother was most open to the suggestion of a c q u i r i n g a mentor f o r the l i t t l e g i r l to encourage her i n t e r e s t i n dance. Martyrdom No sense of martyrdom was d i s p l a y e d by the mother, employed outside the home on a part-time b a s i s , who arranged her day so as to be able to walk the s e v e r a l blocks to school w i t h her c h i l d . The mother's care and l o v e f o r her c h i l d r e n was demonstrated by the s o l i c i t o u s manner t h i s c h i l d e x h i b i t e d towards her younger s i b l i n g s . She enjoyed reading and o f t e n shared her books w i t h her s i s t e r s . The mother took great p r i d e i n her daughter's accomplishments and 33 encouraged extended f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such school a c t i v i t i e s as sports day and concerts. A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development One mother who refused to a c c e l e r a t e development was employed outside the home as a c h i l d care worker. Her daughter was s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , loquacious and out-going. I n i t i a l l y her academic pro- gress was slower than her apparent a b i l i t y i n d i c a t e d . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h the mother revealed that she b e l i e v e d her daughter would pro- gress when she was ready, and though expressing a w i l l i n g n e s s to h e l p , refused to push her c h i l d . As the school year progressed, so d i d t h i s l i t t l e g i r l , and w i t h l i t t l e evidence of a n x i e t y , she took her place as an achiever. A l l the mothers of the achieving females appeared to have s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n common. They a l l l i k e d t h e i r l i t t l e g i r l s , were proud of them and enjoyed being w i t h them. However, they were not obsessed by them, d i d not push them beyond t h e i r a b i l i t y nor f e e l martyred by them. They encouraged a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and independence. They were a l l employed outside the home, at l e a s t on a part-time b a s i s and encouraged outside i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r daughters. A l l the mothers took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school a c t i v i t i e s and were very aware of what went on i n the classroom. 34 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The r e s u l t s from t h i s current study i n d i c a t e that c e r t a i n trends bear f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Further research should be d i r e c t e d at the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : f o s t e r i n g dependency, e x c l u s i o n of outside i n f l u e n c e s , avoidance of communication, martyrdom, and a c c e l e r a t i o n of development. P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards such d e l i c a t e matters must be examined i n as t a c t f u l a manner as p o s s i b l e . A personal i n t e r v i e w i s the most l i k e l y means of achiev i n g t h i s end. Two p o s s i b l e ways of o b t a i n i n g permission to use an i n t e r v i e w schedule are: 1) to approach another school d i s t r i c t which might be l e s s r e t i c e n t about gra n t i n g permission, or 2) to use an i n t e r v i e w schedule, w i t h permission from the Vancouver School Board, as an extension of the i n t e r v i e w schedule used f o r the Developmental Review Program. This l a t t e r suggestion would be a f e a s i b l e way of o b t a i n i n g a c r i t e r i o n group of s u i t a b l e s i z e . More complete r e s u l t s may a l s o be obtained i f f u t u r e research were to be d i r e c t e d at members of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s , daycare mothers, or mothers whose c h i l d r e n are e n r o l l e d i n a t u t o r i n g agency. I f these mothers were s i t u a t e d i n predominantly E n g l i s h speaking l o c a l i t i e s , the problem of sm a l l sample s i z e because of E n g l i s h as a second language would be remedied. An independent i n v e s t i g a t o r c o l l e c t i n g data would e l i m i n a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r a double b l i n d s i t u a t i o n and thus c o n t r o l the v a r i a b l e s of sex, age and grade. A p o t e n t i a l study could be s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at e s t a b l i s h i n g 35 whether a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d - r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e e x i s t s between mothers of ac h i e v i n g males and mothers of underachieving males at the grade one l e v e l . Results from the DRP i d e n t i f y i n g boys a t r i s k at the kindergarten l e v e l could be obtained from the school board. This would e s t a b l i s h a c r i t e r i o n group d i s t r i c t - w i d e . Parents have already signed permission f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be t e s t e d and have already p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e n s i t i v e i n t e r v i e w regarding how they view t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A follow-up i n t e r v i e w and a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e would p o s s i b l y not be as threat e n i n g to these parents as to those never exposed to t h i s type of qu e s t i o n i n g . A c o n t r o l group could be i d e n t i f i e d from the r e s u l t s of the same assessment program. A long term study i n v o l v i n g the same c h i l d r e n could be e s t a b l i s h e d . I t should be p o s s i b l e to set up treatment and c o n t r o l groups of c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as at r i s k . Those i n the c o n t r o l group would r e c e i v e the accepted academic remediation a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t . Those i n the treatment group would a l s o r e c e i v e the academic remediation,, but i n a d d i t i o n , would be i n v o l v e d i n fa m i l y therapy designed by ;the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y team. This p r a c t i c e i s already i n accepted usage i n the United States ( K l e i n et a l . , 1981, and P h i l a g e , 1975). The prevention o f , r a t h e r than remediation of l e a r n i n g problems should be the focus of the e i g h t i e s . A t t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , must be d i r e c t e d at d i f f e r e n t segments of the popu l a t i o n simultaneously. Family therapy f o r school-aged c h i l d r e n has already been mentioned. Preventive c o u n s e l l i n g could be aimed at a younger population such as mothers of c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n pre-school centres and nursery 36 schools. A look at c u l t u r a l aspects and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to l e a r n i n g and achievement would al s o be i n t e r e s t i n g . With the number of a c h i e v i n g Chinese c h i l d r e n reported i n t h i s study, f u r t h e r research could be d i r e c t e d at the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y l i f e h e l d by Chinese mothers as compared w i t h the a t t i - tudes he l d by English-speaking Caucasian mothers. 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY Banas, N., and W i l l s , I . S o c i a l know-how. 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J o u r n a l of Educational Research, 1962, 56, 134-138 ( a ) . 43 APPENDIX A SAMPLE COPY OF FINAL FORM IV (PARI) INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then r a t e them as f o l l o w s : A a d D s t r o n g l y m i l d l y m i l d l y s t r o n g l y agree agree disagree disagree I n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by drawing a c i r c l e around the "A" i f you st r o n g l y agree, around the "a" i f you m i l d l y agree, around the "d" i f you m i l d l y disagree and around the "D" i f you s t r o n g l y disagree. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so answer according to your own o p i n i o n . I t i s very important to the study that a l l questions be answered. Many of the statements w i l l seem a l i k e but a l l are necessary to show s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n . 1. C h i l d r e n should be allowed to disagree w i t h t h e i r A a d D parents i f they f e e l t h e i r own ideas are b e t t e r . 2. A good mother should s h e l t e r her c h i l d from l i f e ' s A a d D l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . 3. The home i s the only t h i n g that matters to a good A a d D mother. 4. Some c h i l d r e n are j u s t so bad they must be taught A a d D to f e a r a d u l t s f o r t h e i r own good. 5. C h i l d r e n should r e a l i z e how much parents have to A a d D give up f o r them. 6. You must always keep t i g h t h o l d of baby during h i s A a d D bath f o r i n a c a r e l e s s moment he might s l i p . 7. People who t h i n k they can get along i n marriage A a d D without arguments j u s t don't know the f a c t s . 8. A c h i l d w i l l be g r a t e f u l l a t e r on f o r s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 9. C h i l d r e n w i l l get on any woman's nerves i f she has A a d D to be w i t h them a l l day. 10. I t ' s best f o r the c h i l d i f he never gets s t a r t e d A a d D wondering i f h i s mother's views are r i g h t . 44 11. More parents should teach t h e i r c h i l d r e n to have A a d D unquestioning l o y a l t y to them. 12. A c h i l d should be taught to avoid f i g h t i n g no matter A a d D what happens. 13. One of the worst things about t a k i n g care of a home A a d D i s a woman f e e l s that she can't get out. 14. Parents should adjust t o the c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than A a d D always expecting the c h i l d r e n to adjust to the parent. 15. There are so many things a c h i l d has to l e a r n i n A a d D l i f e there i s no excuse f o r him s i t t i n g around w i t h time on h i s hands. 16. I f you l e t c h i l d r e n t a l k about t h e i r t r o u b l e s :they A a d D end up complaining even more. 17. Mothers would do t h e i r job b e t t e r w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D i f f a t h e r s were more k i n d . 18. A young c h i l d should be protected from hearing A a d D about sex. 19. I f a mother doesn't go ahead and make r u l e s f o r the A a d D home the c h i l d r e n and husband w i l l get i n t o t r o u b l e they don't need t o . 20. A mother should make i t her business to know A a d D ever y t h i n g her c h i l d r e n are t h i n k i n g . 21. C h i l d r e n would be happier and b e t t e r behaved i f A a d D parents would show an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r a f f a i r s . 22. Most c h i l d r e n are t o i l e t t r a i n e d by 15 months of A a d D age. 23. There i s nothing worse f o r a young mother than being A a d D alone w h i l e going through her f i r s t experience w i t h a baby. 24. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to t e l l t h e i r parents A a d D about i t whenever they f e e l f a m i l y r u l e s are unreasonable. 25. A mother should do her best to avoid any d i s a p p o i n t - A a d D ment f o r her c h i l d r e n . 26. The women who want l o t s of p a r t i e s seldom make good A a d D mothers. 45 27. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y necessary to d r i v e the m i s c h i e f A a d D out of a c h i l d before he w i l l behave. 28. A mother must give up her own happiness f o r that A a d D of her c h i l d . 29. A l l young mothers are a f r a i d of t h e i r awkwardness A a d D i n h andling and h o l d i n g the baby. 30. Sometime i t ' s necessary f o r a w i f e to t e l l o f f her A a d D husband i n order to get her r i g h t s . 31. S t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e develops a f i n e strong character. A a d D 32. Mothers very o f t e n f e e l that they can't stand t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n a moment longer. 33. A parent should never be made to look wrong i n a A a d D c h i l d ' s eyes. 34. The c h i l d should be taught to revere h i s parents A a d D above a l l other grown-ups. 35. A c h i l d should be taught to always come to h i s A a d D parents or teachers r a t h e r than f i g h t when he i s i n t r o u b l e . 36. Having to be w i t h the c h i l d r e n a l l the time gives A a d D a woman the f e e l i n g her wings have been c l i p p e d . 37. Parents must earn the respect of t h e i r c h i l d r e n A a d D by the way they a c t . 38. C h i l d r e n who don't t r y hard f o r success w i l l f e e l A a d D they have missed out on t h i n g s l a t e r on. 39. Parents who s t a r t a c h i l d t a l k i n g about h i s w o r r i e s A a d D don't r e a l i z e that sometimes i t ' s b e t t e r to j u s t leave w e l l enough alone. 40. Husbands could do t h e i r part i f they were l e s s A a d D s e l f i s h . 41. I t i s very important that young boys and g i r l s not A a d D be allowed to see each other completely undressed. 42. C h i l d r e n and husbands do b e t t e r when the mother i s A a d D strong enough to s e t t l e most of the problems. 43. A c h i l d should never keep a s e c r e t from h i s parents. A a d D 44. Laughing at c h i l d r e n ' s jokes and t e l l i n g c h i l d r e n A a d D jokes makes things go more smoothly. 46 45. The sooner a c h i l d l e a r n s to walk the b e t t e r he's A a d D t r a i n e d . \' 46. I t i s n ' t f a i r that a woman has to bear j u s t about A a d D a l l the burden of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n by h e r s e l f . 47. A c h i l d has the r i g h t to h i s own point of view A a d D and ought to be allowed to express i t . 48. A c h i l d should be protected from jobs which might A a d D be too hard f o r him. 49. A woman has to choose between having a w e l l run A a d D home and hobnobbing around w i t h neighbors and f r i e n d s . 50. A wise parent w i l l teach a c h i l d e a r l y j u s t who A a d D i s boss. 51. Few women get the g r a t i t u d e they deserve f o r a l l A a d D they have done f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 52. Mothers never stop blaming themselves i f t h e i r A a d D babies are i n j u r e d i n ac c i d e n t s . 53. No matter how w e l l a married couple love one A a d D another, there are always d i f f e r e n c e s that cause i r r i t a t i o n and l e a d to arguments. 54. C h i l d r e n who are h e l d t o f i r m r u l e s grow up to A a d D be the best a d u l t s . 55. I t ' s a rare mother who can be sweet and even- A a d D tempered w i t h her c h i l d r e n a l l day. 56. C h i l d r e n should never l e a r n things outside the A a d D home that make them doubt t h e i r parents' ideas. 57. A c h i l d soon l e a r n s that there i s no greater A a d D wisdom than that of h i s parents. 58. There i s no good excuse f o r a c h i l d h i t t i n g A a d D another c h i l d . 59. Most young mothers are bothered by the f e e l i n g of A a d D being shut up i n the home than by anything e l s e . 60. C h i l d r e n are too o f t e n asked to do a l l the A a d D compromising and adjustment and tha t ' s not f a i r . 61. Parents should teach t h e i r c h i l d r e n that the. way A a d D to get ahead i s to keep busy and not waste time. 62. C h i l d r e n p e s t e r you w i t h a l l t h e i r l i t t l e upsets A a d D i f you aren't c a r e f u l from the f i r s t . 47 63. When a mother doesn't do a good job w i t h c h i l d r e n A a d D i t ' s probably because the f a t h e r doesn't do h i s p a r t around the home. 64. C h i l d r e n who take part i n sex play become sex A a d D c r i m i n a l s when they grow up. 65. A mother has to do the planning because she knows A a d D what's going on i n the home. 66. An a l e r t parent should t r y to l e a r n a l l her c h i l d ' s A a d D thoughts. 67. Parents who are i n t e r e s t e d i n hearing about t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n ' s p a r t i e s , dates and fun help them grow up r i g h t . 68. The e a r l i e r a c h i l d i s weaned from i t s emotional A a d D t i e s to i t s parents the b e t t e r i t w i l l handle i t s own problems. 69. A wise woman w i l l do anything to avoid being by A a d D h e r s e l f before and a f t e r a new baby. 70. A c h i l d ' s ideas should be s e r i o u s l y considered i n A a d D making f a m i l y d e c i s i o n s . 71. Parents should know b e t t e r than to a l l o w t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n to be exposed to d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . 72. Too many women for g e t that a mother's place i s i n A a d D the home. 73. C h i l d r e n need some of the n a t u r a l meanness taken A a d D out of them. 74. C h i l d r e n should be more considerate of t h e i r A a d D mothers s i n c e t h e i r mothers s u f f e r so much f o r them. 75. Most mothers are f e a r f u l that they may hurt t h e i r A a d D babies i n handling them. 76. There are some th i n g s which j u s t can't be s e t t l e d A a d D by a m i l d d i s c u s s i o n . 77. Most c h i l d r e n should have more d i s c i p l i n e than they A a d D get. 78. R a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s a herve-wracking job. A a d D 79. The c h i l d should not question the t h i n k i n g of the A a d D parents. 48 80. Parents deserve the highest esteem and regard of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A a d D 81. C h i l d r e n should not be encouraged to box or w r e s t l e A a d D because i t o f t e n leads to t r o u b l e or i n j u r y . 82. One of the bad things about r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s A a d D that you aren't f r e e enough of the time to do j u s t as you l i k e . 83. As much as i s reasonable a parent should t r y to A a d D t r e a t a c h i l d as an equal. 84. A c h i l d who i s "on the go" a l l of the time w i l l A a d D most l i k e l y be happy. 85. I f a c h i l d has upset f e e l i n g s i t i s best to leave A a d D him alone and not make i t look s e r i o u s . 86. I f mothers could get t h e i r wishes they would most A a d D of t e n ask that t h e i r husband be more understanding. 87. Sex i s one of the greatest problems to be contended A a d D w i t h i n c h i l d r e n . 88. The whole f a m i l y does f i n e i f the mother puts her A a d D shoulders to the wheel and takes charge of t h i n g s . 89. A mother has a r i g h t to know everything going on A a d D i n her c h i l d ' s l i f e because her c h i l d i s part of her. 90. I f parents would have more fun w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , A a d D the c h i l d r e n would be more apt to take t h e i r a dvice. 91. A mother should make an e f f o r t to get her c h i l d A a d D t o i l e t t r a i n e d at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time. 92. Most women need more time than they are given to A a d D r e s t up i n the home a f t e r going through c h i l d b i r t h . 93. When a c h i l d i s i n t r o u b l e he ought to know he A a d D won't be punished f o r t a l k i n g .about i t w i t h h i s parents. 94. C h i l d r e n should be kept away from a l l hard jobs A a d D which may be di s c o u r a g i n g . 95. A good mother w i l l f i n d enough s o c i a l l l i f e : . i n the A a d D f a m i l y . 96. I t i s sometimes necessary f o r the parents to break A a d D the c h i l d ' s w i l l . 49 97. Mothers s a c r i f i c e almost a l l t h e i r own fun f o r A a d D t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 98. A mother's grea t e s t f e a r i s that i n a f o r g e t f u l A a d D moment she might l e t something bad happen to the baby. 99. I t ' s n a t u r a l to have q u a r r e l s when two people A a d D who both have minds of t h e i r own get married. 100. C h i l d r e n are a c t u a l l y happier under s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 101. I t ' s n a t u r a l f o r a mother to "blow her top" when A a d D c h i l d r e n are s e l f i s h and demanding. 102. There i s nothing worse than a c h i l d h e a r i n g c r i t i - A a d D cism of h i s mother. 103. L o y a l t y to parents comes before anything e l s e . A a d D 104. Most parents p r e f e r a q u i e t c h i l d to a "scrappy" A a d D one. 105. A young mother f e e l s "held down" because there are A a d D l o t s of things she wants to do w h i l e she i s young. 106. There i s no reason parents should have t h e i r own A a d D way a l l the time, anymore than c h i l d r e n should have t h e i r own way a l l the time. 107. The sooner a c h i l d l e a r n s that a wasted minute i s A a d D l o s t f o r e v e r the b e t t e r o f f he w i l l be. 108. The t r o u b l e w i t h g i v i n g a t t e n t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s A a d D problems i s they u s u a l l y j u s t make up a l o t of s t o r i e s to keep you i n t e r e s t e d . 109. Few men r e a l i z e that a mother needs some fun i n A a d D l i f e too. 110. There i s u s u a l l y something wrong w i t h a c h i l d who A a d D asks a l o t of questions about sex. 111. A married woman knows that she w i l l have to take A a d D the l e a d i n f a m i l y matters. 112. I t i s a mother's duty to make sure she knows her A a d D c h i l d ' s innermost thoughts. 113. When you do things together, c h i l d r e n f e e l c l o s e A a d D to you and can t a l k e a s i e r . 50 114. A c h i l d should be weaned away from the b o t t l e or A a d D breast as soon as p o s s i b l e . 115. Taking care of a s m a l l baby i s something that no A a d D woman should be expected to do a l l by h e r s e l f . 51 APPENDIX B Reversed Scale Items f o r the P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e Research Instrument developed by Zuckerman (1958) (This instrument i s scored i n the same manner as the o r i g i n a l PARI) ...1. A good mother l e t s her c h i l d l e a r n the hard way A a d D about l i f e . 2. A good mother should develop i n t e r e s t s o u t s ide the A a d D home. 3. A c h i l d should never be taught to fear a d u l t s . A a d D 4. Parents shouldn't f e e l they have to s a c r i f i c e A a d D f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 5. Mothers worry too much about bathing babies. A a d D 6. There i s no reason f o r arguments i n a happy A a d D marriage. 7. S t r i c t t r a i n i n g w i l l make a c h i l d resent h i s A a d D parents l a t e r on. 8. There i s no reason why a day w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D should be u p s e t t i n g . 9. C h i l d r e n have every r i g h t to question t h e i r A a d D mother's views. 10. L o y a l t y on the part of c h i l d r e n to t h e i r parents A a d D i s something that the parents should earn. 11. C h i l d r e n should be taught to f i g h t so that they A a d D can take care of themselves. 12. Taking care of a home doesn't have to coop a A a d D woman up. 13. A c h i l d needs time j u s t to s i t around and do A a d D nothing i f he f e e l s l i k e i t . 14. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to t a l k about t h e i r A a d D problems. 52 15. Fathers g e n e r a l l y are k i n d and h e l p f u l . A a d D 16. C h i l d r e n should be taught about sex as soon as A a d D p o s s i b l e . 17. I t i s not the mother's place to make the r u l e s A a d D f o r the home. 18. A c h i l d ' s thoughts and ideas are h i s own business. A a d D 19. Very few c h i l d r e n are t o i l e t t r a i n e d by 15 months A a d D of age. 20. A young mother doesn't need any help when going A a d D through her f i r s t experience w i t h a baby. 21. A c h i l d should l e a r n that he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 22. A good mother has an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e . A a d D 23. You can't make a c h i l d behave by c r a c k i n g down A a d D on him. 24. There i s no reason why a mother can't be happy A a d D any make her c h i l d happy too. 25. Most young mothers don't worry much about handling A a d D or h o l d i n g the baby. 26. A good w i f e never has to argue w i t h her husband. A a d D 27. S t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e makes c h i l d r e n grow up to be A a d D mean or r e b e l l i o u s . 28. Most mothers never get to the poi n t where they A a d D can't stand t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 29. I f a parent i s wrong he should admit i t to h i s A a d D c h i l d . 30. A c h i l d should be taught that there are many A a d D other people he w i l l l ove and respect as much or more than h i s own parents. 31. A c h i l d should be taught to f i g h t h i s own b a t t l e s . A a d D 32. Most mothers are content to be w i t h c h i l d r e n a l l A a d D the time. 33. There i s plenty of time f o r c h i l d r e n to s t r i v e A a d D fo r success a f t e r they are o l d e r . 53 34. A c h i l d should always be encouraged to t a l k A a d D about h i s t r o u b l e s . 35. Husbands have a p e r f e c t r i g h t to t h e i r own A a d D i n t e r e s t s . 36. There i s nothing wrong w i t h bathing boys and A a d D g i r l s i n the same bath tub. 37. The fa m i l y i s b e t t e r o f f when the husband s e t t l e s A a d D most of the f a m i l y problems. 38. C h i l d r e n are e n t i t l e d to keep t h e i r own s e c r e t s . A a d D 39. A c h i l d should take a l l the time he wants to before A a d D he walks. 40. Women should handle most of c h i l d - r a i s i n g without A a d D much h e l p from o t h e r s . 41. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to undertake tough A a d D jobs i f they want t o . .42. A mother can keep a n i c e home and s t i l l have plenty A a d D of time l e f t over to v i s i t w i t h neighbors and f r i e n d s . 43. There i s no need f o r c h i l d r e n to look on parents A a d D as t h e i r bosses. 44. Most c h i l d r e n are g r a t e f u l to t h e i r parents. A a d D 45. L i t t l e accidents are bound to happen when c a r i n g A a d D f o r young babies. 46. I f a couple r e a l l y loves each other there are very A a d D few arguments i n t h e i r married l i f e . 47. I f c h i l d r e n are given too many r u l e s they w i l l grow A a d D up to be unhappy a d u l t s . 48. Most mothers can spend a l l day w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 49. A c h i l d should be encouraged to look f o r answers A a d D to h i s questions from other people even i f the answers c o n t r a d i c t h i s parents. 50. Most c h i l d r e n soon l e a r n that t h e i r parents were A a d D mistaken i n many of t h e i r i d e a s . 51. I t ' s q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r c h i l d r e n to h i t one another. A a d D 54 52. Most young mothers don't mind spending most of A a d D t h e i r time at home. 53. C h i l d r e n should have l o t s of time to l o a f and p l a y . A a d D 54. A mother should be concerned w i t h any problem of A a d D a c h i l d no matter how t r i v i a l . 55. In most cases the mother r a t h e r than the f a t h e r i s A a d D r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r o u b l e i n the home. 56. Sex play i s a normal t h i n g i n c h i l d r e n . A a d D 57. A mother should take a back seat to her husband A a d D as f a r as the planning i s concerned. 58. A good parent doesn't t r y to pry i n t o the c h i l d ' s A a d D thoughts. 59. A c h i l d needs to be emotionally c l o s e to i t s A a d D parents f o r a long time. 60. A woman should be on her own a f t e r having a baby. A a d D 61. C h i l d r e n have to face d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s on A a d D t h e i r own. 62. Mothers should get out of the home f a i r l y o f t e n . A a d D 63. I f a c h i l d acts mean he needs understanding r a t h e r A a d D than punishment. 64. C h i l d r e n don't "owe" t h e i r mothers anything. A a d D 65. Most mothers are confident when handling t h e i r A a d D babies. 66. Almost any problem can be s e t t l e d by q u i e t l y A a d D t a l k i n g i t over. 67. Most c h i l d r e n are d i s c i p l i n e d too much. A a d D 68. R a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s an easy j o b . A a d D 69. When a c h i l d t h i n k s h i s parent i s wrong he A a d D should say so. 70. A parent should not expect to be more h i g h l y A a d D esteemed than other worthy a d u l t s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s eyes. 71. C h i l d r e n should be taught ways of defending A a d D themselves i n a f i g h t . 55 72. I f you run your home r i g h t , you have pl e n t y of A a d D time to do the things you l i k e to do. 73. I t i s n ' t good f o r c h i l d r e n to be c o n s t a n t l y A a d D running from one a c t i v i t y to another. 74. A mother should always be concerned about upset A a d D f e e l i n g s i n a c h i l d . 75. Most husbands show good understanding f o r a A a d D mother's problems. 76. Sex i s no great problem f o r c h i l d r e n i f the A a d D parent doesn't make i t one. 77. I t ' s up to the f a t h e r to take charge of the f a m i l y . A a d D 78. Being a mother doesn't give women the r i g h t to know A a d D ever y t h i n g i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . 79. T o i l e t t r a i n i n g should be put o f f u n t i l the c h i l d A a d D i n d i c a t e s he i s ready. 80. A woman should be up and around a short time a f t e r A a d D g i v i n g b i r t h . 81. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to undertake a l l A a d D kinds of jobs no matter how hard. 82. I t i s important f o r a mother to have a s o c i a l l i f e A a d D outside of the f a m i l y . 83. C h i l d r e n have a r i g h t to r e b e l and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 84. Having c h i l d r e n doesn't mean you can't have as A a d D much fun as you u s u a l l y do. 85. Mothers shouldn't worry much about c a l a m i t i e s A a d D that might happen to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 86. Husbands and wives who have d i f f e r e n t views can A a d D s t i l l get along without arguments. 87. S t r i c t t r a i n i n g makes c h i l d r e n unhappy. A a d D 88. A mother should keep c o n t r o l of her temper even A a d D when c h i l d r e n are demanding. 89. A good mother can t o l e r a t e c r i t i c i s m of h e r s e l f , A a d D even when the c h i l d r e n are around. 56 90. L o y a l t y to parents i s an over-emphasized v i r t u e . A a d D 91. Most parents p r e f e r a "scrappy" c h i l d to a q u i e t A a d D one. 92. Most young mothers are p r e t t y content w i t h home A a d D l i f e . 93. A c h i l d should have time to j u s t dawdle or A a d D daydream. 94. Anything a c h i l d wants to t e l l a parent i s A a d D important enough to l i s t e n t o . 95. Most men t r y to take t h e i r wives out as o f t e n A a d D as they can. 96. C h i l d r e n are normally curious about sex. A a d D 97. Most wives t h i n k i t best that the husband take the A a d D le a d i n fa m i l y a f f a i r s . 98. Every c h i l d should have an in n e r l i f e which i s only A a d D h i s business. 99. The longer a c h i l d i s b o t t l e or breast fed the more A a d D secure he w i l l f e e l . 100. Any woman should be capable of t a k i n g care of a A a d D baby by h e r s e l f . 57 APPENDIX C ORIGINAL REVISED FORM INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then r a t e them as f o l l o w s : s t r o n g l y agree m i l d l y agree m i l d l y disagree D s t r o n g l y disagree I n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by drawing a c i r c l e around the "A" i f you s t r o n g l y agree, around the "a" i f you m i l d l y agree, around the "d" i f you m i l d l y disagree and around the "D" i f you s t r o n g l y disagree. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so answer according to your own o p i n i o n . I t i s very important to the study that a l l questions be answered. Many of the statements w i l l seem a l i k e but a l l are necessary to show s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n . 1. A good mother should s h e l t e r her c h i l d from l i f e ' s A a d D l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . 2. Some c h i l d r e n are j u s t so bad they must be taught A a d D to f e a r a d u l t s f o r t h e i r own good. 3. C h i l d r e n should r e a l i z e how much parents have to A a d D give up f o r them. 4. People who t h i n k they can get along i n marriage A a d D without arguments j u s t don't know the f a c t s . 5. A c h i l d w i l l be g r a t e f u l l a t e r on f o r s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 6. C h i l d r e n w i l l get on any woman's nerves i f she has A a d D to be w i t h them a l l day. 7. I t ' s best f o r the c h i l d i f he never gets s t a r t e d A a d D wondering i f h i s mother's views are r i g h t . 8. More parents should teach t h e i r c h i l d r e n to have A a d D unquestioning l o y a l t y to them. 9. One of the worst things about t a k i n g care of a A a d D home i s a woman f e e l s that she can't get out. 58 10. I f you l e t c h i l d r e n t a l k about t h e i r t r o u b l e s they A a d D end up complaining even more. 11. A young c h i l d should be protected from hearing A a d D about sex. 12. A mother should make i t her business to know A a d D everything her c h i l d r e n are t h i n k i n g . 13. Most c h i l d r e n are t o i l e t t r a i n e d by 15 months A a d D of age. 14. A mother should do her best to avoid any d i s - A a d D appointment f o r her c h i l d r e n . 15. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y necessary to d r i v e the mi s c h i e f A a d D out of a c h i l d before he w i l l behave. 16. A mother must give up her own happiness f o r t h a t A a d D of her c h i l d . 17. Sometimes i t ' s necessary f o r a w i f e to t e l l o f f her A a d D husband i n order to get her r i g h t s . 18. S t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e develops a f i n e strong c h a r a c t e r . A a d D 19. Mothers very o f t e n f e e l that they can't stand t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n a moment longer. 20. A parent should never be made to look wrong i n a A a d D c h i l d ' s eyes. 21. The c h i l d should be taught to revere h i s parents A a d D above a l l other grown-ups. 22. Having to be w i t h c h i l d r e n a l l the time gives a A a d D woman the f e e l i n g her wings have been c l i p p e d . 23. Parents who s t a r t a c h i l d t a l k i n g about h i s w o r r i e s A a d D don't r e a l i z e that sometimes i t ' s b e t t e r to leave w e l l enough alone. 24. I t i s very important that young boys and g i r l s A a d D not be allowed to see each other completely undressed. 25. A c h i l d should never keep a s e c r e t from h i s A a d D parents. 26. The sooner a c h i l d l e a r n s to walk the b e t t e r he A a d D i s t r a i n e d . 27. A c h i l d should be pro t e c t e d from jobs which might A a d D be too hard f o r him. 59 28. A wise parent w i l l teach a c h i l d e a r l y j u s t who A a d D i s boss. .29. Few women get the g r a t i t u d e they deserve f o r a l l A a d D they have done f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 30. No matter how w e l l a married couple love one A a d D another, there are always d i f f e r e n c e s that cause i r r i t a t i o n and lead to arguments. 31. C h i l d r e n who are held to f i r m r u l e s grow up to A a d D be the best a d u l t s . 32. I t ' s a r a r e mother who can be sweet and even A a d D tempered w i t h her c h i l d r e n a l l day. 33. C h i l d r e n should never l e a r n t h i n g s o u t s i d e the A a d D home which make them doubt t h e i r parents' i d e a s . 34. A c h i l d soon l e a r n s that there i s no greater A a d D wisdom than t h a t of h i s parents. 35. Most young mothers are bothered by the f e e l i n g A a d D of being shut up i n the home than by anything e l s e . 36. C h i l d r e n pester you w i t h a l l t h e i r l i t t l e upsets A a d D i f you aren't c a r e f u l from the f i r s t . 37. C h i l d r e n who take part i n sex play become sex A a d D c r i m i n a l s when they grow up. 38. An a l e r t parent should t r y to l e a r n a l l her A a d D c h i l d ' s thoughts. 39. The e a r l i e r a c h i l d i s weaned from i t s emotional A a d D t i e s to i t s parents the b e t t e r i t w i l l handle i t s own problems. 40. Parents should know b e t t e r than to al l o w t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n to be exposed to d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . 41. C h i l d r e n need some of the n a t u r a l meanness taken A a d D out of them. 42. C h i l d r e n should be more considerate of t h e i r mothers A a d D si n c e t h e i r mothers s u f f e r so much f o r them. 43. There are some things which j u s t can't be s e t t l e d A a d D by a m i l d d i s c u s s i o n . 44. Most c h i l d r e n should have more d i s c i p l i n e than A a d D they get. 45. R a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s a nerve wracking job. A a d D 60 46. The c h i l d should not question the t h i n k i n g of A a d D the parent. 47. Parents deserve the hi g h e s t esteem and regard A a d D of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 48. One of the bad things about r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s A a d D that you aren't f r e e enough of the time to do j u s t as you l i k e . 49. I f a c h i l d has upset f e e l i n g s i t i s best to leave A a d D him alone and not make i t look s e r i o u s . 50. Sex i s one of the great e s t problems to contend A a d D w i t h i n c h i l d r e n . 51. A mother has the r i g h t to know everything going A a d D on i n her c h i l d ' s l i f e because her c h i l d i s part of her. 52. A mother should make an e f f o r t to get her c h i l d A a d D t o i l e t t r a i n e d a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time. 53. C h i l d r e n should be kept away from a l l hard jobs A a d D which may be disc o u r a g i n g . 54. I t i s sometimes necessary f o r parents to break A a d D a c h i l d ' s w i l l . 55. Mothers s a c r i f i c e almost a l l t h e i r own fun f o r A a d D t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 56. I t ' s n a t u r a l to have q u a r r e l s when two people who A a d D both have minds of t h e i r own get married. 57. C h i l d r e n are a c t u a l l y happier under s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 58. I t ' s n a t u r a l f o r a mother to "blow her top" when A a d D c h i l d r e n are s e l f i s h and demanding. 59. There i s nothing worse than a c h i l d hearing A a d D c r i t i c i s m of h i s mother. 60. L o y a l t y to parents comes before anything e l s e . A a d D 61. A young mother f e e l s "held down" because there A a d D are l o t s of things she wants to do w h i l e she i s young. 62. The t r o u b l e w i t h g i v i n g a t t e n t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s A a d D problems i s they u s u a l l y j u s t make up a l o t of s t o r i e s to keep you i n t e r e s t e d . 61 63. There i s u s u a l l y something wrong w i t h a c h i l d who A a d D asks a l o t of questions about sex. 64. I t i s a mother's duty to make sure she knows her A a d D c h i l d ' s innermost thoughts. 65. A c h i l d should be weaned away from the b o t t l e or A a d D breast as soon as p o s s i b l e . 66. A good mother l e t s her c h i l d l e a r n the hard way A a d D about l i f e . 67. A c h i l d should never be taught to fear a d u l t s . A a d D 68. Parents shouldn't f e e l they have to s a c r i f i c e f o r A a d D t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 69. There i s no reason f o r arguments i n a happy A a d D marriage. 70. S t r i c t t r a i n i n g w i l l make a c h i l d resent h i s A a d D parents l a t e r on. 71. There i s no reason why a day w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D should be u p s e t t i n g . 72. C h i l d r e n have every r i g h t to question t h e i r A a d D mothers' views. 73. L o y a l t y on the part of c h i l d r e n to t h e i r parents A a d D i s something that the parents should earn. 74. Taking care of a home doesn't have to coop a A a d D woman up. 75. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to t a l k about t h e i r A a d D problems. 76. C h i l d r e n should be taught about sex as soon as A a d D p o s s i b l e . 77. A c h i l d ' s thoughts and ideas are h i s own business. A a d D 78. Very few c h i l d r e n are t o i l e t t r a i n e d by 15 months. A a d D 79. A c h i l d should l e a r n that he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 80. You can't make a c h i l d behave by c r a c k i n g down on A a d D him. 81. There i s no reason why a mother can't be happy and A a d D make her c h i l d happy too. 62 82. A good w i f e never has to argue w i t h her husband. A a d D 83. S t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e makes c h i l d r e n grow up mean and A a d D r e b e l l i o u s . 84. Most mothers never get to the point where they A a d D can't stand t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 85. I f a parent i s wrong he should admit i t to h i s A a d D c h i l d . 86. A c h i l d should be taught that there are many other A a d D people he w i l l l o v e and respect as much or more than h i s own parents. 87. Most mothers are content to be w i t h c h i l d r e n a l l A a d D the time. 88. A c h i l d should always be encouraged to t a l k about A a d D h i s t r o u b l e s . 89. There i s nothing wrong w i t h bathing boys and g i r l s A a d D i n the same bath tub. 90. C h i l d r e n are e n t i t l e d to keep t h e i r own s e c r e t s . A a d D 91. A c h i l d should take a l l the time he wants to A a d D before he walks. 92. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to undertake tough A a d D j obs i f they want t o . 93. There i s no need f o r c h i l d r e n to look on parents A a d D as t h e i r bosses. 94. Most c h i l d r e n are g r a t e f u l to t h e i r parents. A a d D 95. I f a couple r e a l l y loves each other there are A a d D very few arguments i n t h e i r married l i f e . 96. I f c h i l d r e n are given too many r u l e s they w i l l A a d D grow up to be unhappy a d u l t s . 97. Most mothers can spend a l l day w i t h the. c h i l d r e n A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 98. A c h i l d should be encouraged to look f o r answers A a d D to h i s questions from other people even i f the answers c o n t r a d i c t h i s parents. 99. Most c h i l d r e n soon l e a r n that t h e i r parents were A a d D mistaken i n many of t h e i r i d e a s . 63 100. Most young mothers don't mind spending most of t h e i r time at home. A a d D 101. A mother should be concerned w i t h any problem of A a d D a c h i l d no matter how t r i v i a l . 102. Sex pla y i s a normal t h i n g i n c h i l d r e n . A a d D 103. A good parent doesn't pry i n t o the c h i l d ' s A a d D thoughts. 104. A c h i l d needs to be emoti o n a l l y c l o s e to i t s A a d D parents f o r a long time. 105. C h i l d r e n have to face d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s on A a d D t h e i r own. 106. I f a c h i l d acts mean he needs understanding r a t h e r A a d D than punishment. 107. C h i l d r e n don't "owe" t h e i r mothers anything. A a d D 108. Almost any problem can be solved by q u i e t l y A a d D t a l k i n g i t over. 109. Most c h i l d r e n are d i s c i p l i n e d too much. A a d D 110. R a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s an easy j o b . A a d D 111. When a c h i l d t h i n k s h i s parent i s wrong he A a d D should say so. 112. A parent should not expect to be more h i g h l y A a d D esteemed than other worthy a d u l t s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s eyes. 113. I f you run your home r i g h t you have p l e n t y of A a d D time to do the things you l i k e to do. 114. A mother should always be concerned about upset A a d D f e e l i n g s i n a c h i l d . 115. Sex i s no great problem f o r c h i l d r e n i f the parent A a d D doesn't make:.it one. 116. Being a mother doesn't give women the r i g h t to know A a d D eve r y t h i n g i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . 117. T o i l e t t r a i n i n g should be put o f f u n t i l the c h i l d A a d D i n d i c a t e s he i s ready. 118. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to undertake a l l k i n d s A a d D of jobs no matter how hard. 64 119. C h i l d r e n have a r i g h t to r e b e l and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 120. Having c h i l d r e n doesn't' mean you can't have as A a d D much fun as you u s u a l l y do. 121. Husbands and wives who have d i f f e r e n t views can A a d D s t i l l get along without arguments. 122. S t r i c t t r a i n i n g makes c h i l d r e n unhappy. A a d D 123. A mother should keep c o n t r o l of her temper even A a d D when c h i l d r e n are demanding. 124. A good mother can t o l e r a t e c r i t i c i s m of h e r s e l f A a d D even when the c h i l d r e n are around. 125. L o y a l t y to parents i s an over-emphasized v i r t u e . A a d D 126. Most young mothers are p r e t t y content w i t h home A a d D l i f e . 127. Anything a c h i l d wants to t e l l a parent i s A a d D important enough to l i s t e n t o ; 128. C h i l d r e n are normally curious about sex. A a d D 129. Every c h i l d should have an i n n e r l i f e which i s A a d D only h i s business. 130. The longer a c h i l d i s b o t t l e or breast fed the A a d D more secure he w i l l f e e l . 65 APPENDIX D FINAL REVISED FORM OF PARI INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then r a t e them as f o l l o w s : A a d D s t r o n g l y m i l d l y m i l d l y s t r o n g l y agree agree disagree disagree I n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by drawing a c i r c l e around the "A" i f you s t r o n g l y agree, around the "a" i f you m i l d l y agree, around the "d" i f you m i l d l y disagree and around the "D" i f you s t r o n g l y disagree. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so answer according to your own o p i n i o n . I t i s very important to the study that a l l questions be answered. Many of the statements w i l l seem a l i k e but a l l are necessary to show s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n . 1. A good mother should s h e l t e r her c h i l d from l i f e ' s A a d D l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . 2. A c h i l d should never be taught to fear a d u l t s . A a d D 3. C h i l d r e n should r e a l i z e how much parents have to A a d D give up f o r them. 4. There i s no reason f o r arguments i n a happy A a d D marriage. 5. A c h i l d w i l l be g r a t e f u l l a t e r on f o r s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 6. There i s no reason why a day w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D should be u p s e t t i n g . 7. I t ' s best f o r the c h i l d i f he never gets to A a d D wondering i f h i s mother's views are r i g h t . 8. L o y a l t y on the part of c h i l d r e n to t h e i r parents A a d D i s something that the parents should earn. 9. One of the worst things about t a k i n g care of a A a d D home i s a woman f e e l s that she can't get out. 10. C h i l d r e n should be encouraged to t a l k about t h e i r A a d D problems. 66 11. Most c h i l d r e n are t o i l e t t r a i n e d by 15 months A a d D of age. 12. A c h i l d ' s thoughts and ideas are h i s own business. A a d D 13. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y necessary to d r i v e the m i s c h i e f A a d D out of a c h i l d before he w i l l behave. 14. A c h i l d should l e a r n t h a t he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 15. Sometimes i t ' s necessary f o r a w i f e to t e l l o f f her A a d D husband i n order to get her r i g h t s . 16. There i s no reason why a mother can't be happy and A a d D make her c h i l d happy too. 17. Mothers very o f t e n f e e l that they can't stand t h e i r A a d D c h i l d r e n a moment longer. 18. S t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e makes c h i l d r e n grow up mean and A a d D r e b e l l i o u s . 19. The c h i l d should be taught to revere h i s parents A a d D above a l l other grown-ups. 20. I f a parent i s wrong he should admit i t to h i s A a d D c h i l d . 21. Parents who s t a r t a c h i l d t a l k i n g about h i s A a d D worries don't r e a l i z e that sometimes i t ' s b e t t e r to leave w e l l enough alone. 22. Most mothers are content to be w i t h c h i l d r e n a l l A a d D the time. 23. A c h i l d should never keep a se c r e t from h i s A a d D parents. 24. A c h i l d should take a l l the time he wants before A a d D he walks. 25. A c h i l d should be pro t e c t e d from jobs which might A a d D be too hard f o r him. 26. There i s no need f o r c h i l d r e n to look on parents A a d D as t h e i r bosses. 27. Few women get the g r a t i t u d e they deserve f o r a l l A a d D they have done f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 28. I f a couple r e a l l y loves each other there are very A a d D few arguments i n t h e i r married l i f e . 67 29. C h i l d r e n who are hel d to f i r m r u l e s grow up to be A a d D the best a d u l t s . 30. Most mothers can spend a l l day w i t h the c h i l d r e n A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 31. C h i l d r e n should never l e a r n t h i n g s outside the A a d D home which make them doubt t h e i r parents' i d e a s . 32. Most c h i l d r e n soon l e a r n that t h e i r parents were A a d D mistaken i n many of t h e i r ideas. 33. Most young mothers are bothered by the f e e l i n g of A a d D being shut up i n the house than by anything e l s e . 34. A mother should be concerned w i t h any problem of A a d D a c h i l d no matter how t r i v i a l . 35. The e a r l i e r a c h i l d i s weaned from i t s emotional A a d D t i e s to i t s parents the b e t t e r i t w i l l handle i t s own problems. 36. A good parent doesn't pry i n t o the c h i l d ' s A a d D thoughts. 37. C h i l d r e n need some of the n a t u r a l meanness taken A a d D out of them. 38. C h i l d r e n have to face d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s on t h e i r A a d D own. 39. There are some things which j u s t can't be s e t t l e d A a d D by a m i l d d i s c u s s i o n . 40. C h i l d r e n don't "owe" t h e i r mothers anything. A a d D 41. R a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s a nerve wracking job. A a d D 42. Most c h i l d r e n are d i s c i p l i n e d too much. A a d D 43. Parents deserve the highest esteem and regard of A a d D t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 44. When ;a c h i l d t h i n k s h i s parents are wrong he should A a d D say so. 45. I f a c h i l d has upset f e e l i n g s i t i s best to leave A a d D him alone and not make i t look s e r i o u s . 68 46. I f you run your home r i g h t you have plenty of time A a d D to do the things you l i k e to do. 47. A mother has the r i g h t to know everything that i s A a d D going on i n her c h i l d ' s l i f e because her c h i l d i s part of her. 48. T o i l e t t r a i n i n g should be put o f f u n t i l the c h i l d A a d D i n d i c a t e s he i s ready. 49. C h i l d r e n should be kept away from a l l hard jobs A a d D which may be di s c o u r a g i n g . 50. C h i l d r e n have a r i g h t to r e b e l and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 51. Mothers s a c r i f i c e almost a l l t h e i r own fun f o r A a d D t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 52. Husbands and wives .who have d i f f e r e n t views can A a d D s t i l l get along without arguments. 53. C h i l d r e n are a c t u a l l y happier under s t r i c t A a d D t r a i n i n g . 54. A mother should keep c o n t r o l of her temper even A a d D when c h i l d r e n are demanding. 55. There i s nothing worse than a c h i l d hearing A a d D c r i t i c i s m of h i s mother. 56. L o y a l t y to parents i s an over-emphasized v i r t u e . A a d D 57. A young mother f e e l s "held down" because there are A a d D l o t s of things she wants to do w h i l e she i s s t i l l young. 58. Anything a c h i l d wants to t e l l a parent i s important A a d D enough to l i s t e n t o . 59. A c h i l d should be weaned away from the b o t t l e or A a d D breast as soon as p o s s i b l e . 60. Every c h i l d should have an i n n e r l i f e which i s A a d D only h i s business. 69 APPENDIX E INTRODUCTORY LETTER Dear Parents: A study i s being undertaken at the- U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia on the a t t i t u d e s of mothers towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and fam i l y l i f e . This study i s an attempt to d u p l i c a t e one conducted twenty years ago to dis c o v e r i f there i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between school achievement and p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . The cooperation of the Vancouver School Board has been e n l i s t e d i n order to contact parents of c h i l d r e n who were e n r o l l e d i n grade one i n the school year ending June, 1981. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y . Not a l l parents w i l l be contacted due to l i m i t e d time and money f o r the p r o j e c t . I f you are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e please s i g n the form and r e t u r n i t to school w i t h your c h i l d . An i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l then contact you by phone to arrange a convenient time to drop o f f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l answers w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i - d e n t i a l . Your cooperation i n t h i s study i s very much appreciated. f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on maternal a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e . I understand that my name w i l l not be used and that a l l answers w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . \ I , , am w i l l i n g to vo l u n t e e r to (Please p r i n t name) (Signature) (Date) (Address) (Phone) 70 APPENDIX E EXPLANATORY LETTER My name i s J a n i c e Richardson. I am a grade one teacher f o r the Vancouver School Board and a graduate student at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. C u r r e n t l y , I am i n v o l v e d i n a research p r o j e c t f o r the u n i v e r s i t y that i s attempting to e s t a b l i s h whether there i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y l i f e and l e a r n i n g problems. As you are aware, some c h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r to l e a r n to read than others. Research i n d i c a t e s that these l e a r n i n g problems begin as e a r l y as grade one. Therefore, we f e l t t hat i n t e r v i e w i n g mothers of c h i l d r e n who had r e c e n t l y completed grade one might give us some i n s i g h t . This i s s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y . You do not have to answer any of the questions and you may withdraw at any time. However, we would r e a l l y appre- c i a t e your cooperation. Your answers w i l l be of great value i n our study. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. Everyone has h i s or her own ideas on how c h i l d r e n should be r a i s e d . We are drawing from a broad spectrum of mothers whose c h i l d r e n have j u s t completed grade one. We have no i d e a how your c h i l d has performed academic- a l l y . Your answers w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Please do not put your name on the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be coded and the o r i g i n a l questionnaires destroyed to pr o t e c t your p r i v a c y . So as not to use too much of your time we have a l i s t of ideas that other mothers have c o n t r i b u t e d . When you are answering the questions please keep i n mind your c h i l d who has r e c e n t l y completed grade one. 71 C i r c l e the l a r g e "A" i f you s t r o n g l y agree w i t h the statement. C i r c l e the s m a l l "a" i f you m i l d l y agree w i t h the statement. C i r c l e the s m a l l "d" i f you m i l d l y disagree w i t h the statement. C i r c l e the l a r g e "D" i f you s t r o n g l y disagree w i t h the statement. I f you have any ideas which you f e e l should be i n c l u d e d , j o t them down at the end. I would appreciate having them. Others who have given me t h e i r ideas say i t i s best to work q u i c k l y . Give your f i r s t r e a c t i o n . I f you read and reread the statements i t gets confusing and you can't f i n i s h i n the amount of time we have. Please do not ask anyone e l s e what they t h i n k w h i l e you.are doing the questions. I t i s your o p i n i o n as a mother th a t I am i n t e r e s t e d i n . I f you complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I w i l l assume that you are w i l l i n g to take p a r t . Thank you f o r your time and opin i o n s . 72 APPENDIX F Table 1 PARI Scale Numbers and Corresponding Revised Scale Numbers PARI Revised Scale Scale 2 1 F o s t e r i n g Dependency 4 2 Breaking the W i l l 5 3 Martyrdom 7 4 M a r i t a l C o n f l i c t 8 5 S t r i c t n e s s 9 6 I r r i t a b i l i t y 10 7 Excluding Outside Influences 11 8 D e i f i c a t i o n 13 9 R e j e c t i o n of the Homemaking Role 16 10 Avoidance of Communication 20 11 In t r u s i v e n e s s 22 12 A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development 73 APPENDIX F Table 2 PARI Factored Scales 1. Encouraging V e r b a l i z a t i o n 2. F o s t e r i n g Dependency 3. S e c l u s i o n of the Mother 4. Breaking the W i l l 5. Martyrdom 6. Fear of Harming the Baby 7. M a r i t a l C o n f l i c t 8. S t r i c t n e s s 9. I r r i t a b i l i t y 10. Excluding Outside Influences 11. I D e i f i c a t i o n of the Parent 12. Suppression of Aggression 13. R e j e c t i o n of Homemaking Role 14. E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m 15. Approval of A c t i v i t y 16. Avoidance of Communication 17. Inconsiderateness of the Husband 18. Suppression of S e x u a l i t y 19. Ascendency of the Mother 20. Int rusivenes s 21. Comradeship and Sharing 22. A c c e l e r a t i o n of Development 23. Dependency of the Mother 74 APPENDIX F Table 3 Scales and Items Used In conjunction With Zuckerman's Factors^ Factor A - A u t h o r i t a r i a n C o n t r o l (Z) 1. Harsh P u n i t i v e - C o n t r o l (S&B) Scale Name PARI Revised Scale Scale (4) (10) (11) 2 7 Breaking the W i l l Excluding Outside Influences D e i f i c a t i o n Revised Item Numbers .2,13,26,37,50 7,20,31,44,55 8,19,32,43,56 2. Suppression and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Distance (S&B) (16) 10 Avoidance of Communication 10,21,34,45,58- Over-possessiveness (S&B) (2) (5) (20) 1 3 11 F o s t e r i n g Dependency Martyrdom Int r u s i v e n e s s 1,14,25,38,49 3,16,27,40,51 12,23,36,47,60 Excessive Demand f o r S t r i v i n g (S&B) (8). (22) 5 12 S t r i c t n e s s A c c e l e r a t i o n of 5,18,29,42,53 11,24,35,48,59 Factor B - H o s t i l i t y - R e j e c t i o n (Z, S&B) (7) (9) (13) 4 6 9 M a r i t a l . C o n f l i c t I r r i t a b i l i t y R e j e c t i o n of the Home-Making Role 4,15,28,39,52 6,17,30,41,54 9,22,33,46,57 (Z) - Zuckerman (S&B) - Schaeffer and B e l l 75 APPENDIX F Table 4 Scales and Corresponding Item Numbers (2) 1 (4) 2 (5) 3 (7) 4 (8) 5: .'(9)' 6: (10) 7 1-P 2-R 3-P 4-R 5-P 6-R 7-P 14-R 13-P 16-R 15-P 18-R 17-P 20-R 25-P 26-R 27-P 28-R 29-P 30-R 31-P 38-R 37-P 40-R 39-P 42-R 41-P 44-R 49-P 50-R 51-P 52-R 53-P 54-R 55-P (11) 8 (13) 9 8-R 9-P 19-P 22-R 32-R 33-P 43-P 46-R 56-R 57-P (16) 10 10-R 21-P 34-R 45-P 58-R (20) 11 12-R 2 3-P 36-R 47-P 60-R (22) 12 11-P 24-R 35-P 48-R 59-P (2) - (22) : PARI Scale Numbers 1 - 1 2 : Revised Scale Numbers P: PARI Scales R: Reversed Scales APPENDIX F Table 5 Number of P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students and Mothers C l a s s i f i e d by Grade, . . Sex and Achievement L e v e l Achievement Students Mothers L e v e l Grade 1 2 Male Achievers 2 0 2 Male Underachievers 0 11 11 Female Achievers 16 0 16 Female Underachievers 0 2 2 77 APPENDIX F Table 6 Mean Scores•for Male Underachievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B FACTOR A - AUTHORITARIAN CONTROL (Z) GRADE TWO MALE UNDERACHIEVERS Harsh P u n i t i v e C o n t r o l (S&B) 2 11;33 7 11.0 8 11.21 T o t a l Means 11.18 Suppression and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Distance (S&B) v 10 • 8.73 Over-Possessiveness (S&B) 1 10.64 3 12.25 11 i 13.93 T o t a l Means 12.27 Excessive Demand f o r S t r i v i n g (S&B) 5 15.10 12 12.50 T o t a l Means 13.8 FACTOR A MEANS 11.50 FACTOR B - HOSTILITY-REJECTION (Z.S&B) 4 13.95 6 11.68 9 12.28 FACTOR B TOTAL MEANS 12.64 78 APPENDIX F Table 7 Mean' "Scores f o r :Female Achievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B FACTOR A - AUTHORITARIAN CONTROL (Z) GRADE ONE FEMALE ACHIEVERS Harsh P u n i t i v e C o n t r o l (S&B) 2 10.63 7 9.0 8 12.0 T o t a l Means 10.54 Suppression and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Distance (S&B) 10 14-56 ; Over-Possessiveness (S&B) 1 8.06 3 10.0 11 12.19 T o t a l Means 10.08 Excessive Demand f o r S t r i v i n g (S&B) 5 14.63 12 9.44 T o t a l Means 12.04 FACTOR A MEANS 11.81 FACTOR B - HOSTILITY-REJECTION (Z,S&B) 4 " 15.81 6 13.25 9 13.69 FACTOR B TOTAL MEANS 14.25 79

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