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Maternal attitudes towards children and family as a factor in underachievement Richardson, Janice Marie 1982

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MATERNAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDREN AND FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN UNDERACHIEVEMENT by JANICE MARIE RICHARDSON B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © Janice Marie Richardson, 1982 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 „ ^ October 13, 1982 Date DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT MATERNAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS .CHILDREN AND FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN..UNDERACHIEVEMENT The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in attitude towards children and family between mothers of achieving children and mothers of underachieving children at the grade one and two level, and what the nature of this difference might be. Subjects identified as achievers for this study were a self-selected intact group who had achieved a grade level' score of 2.5 or higher on the Gates McGinite Reading Test, level A, in June, 1982. Underachievers were defined as those who attained a "no score" at this level. The instrument used in this study was a revised form of the PARI, developed by Schaeffer and Bell (1958), and incorporating Reversed Scale items developed by Zuckerman (1958). A letter was sent home to mothers requesting their voluntary participation in the study. No statistical analysis was possible due to the limited sample size. However, scale.means were established for each group. Mothers of male underachievers had high scores.on the scales for Fostering Dependency, Excluding Outside Influences, and Martyrdom. These scales were examined for the possibility of existing trends. Mothers of female achievers attained low scores on the scales, for Fostering Dependency, Excluding Outside Influences, Martyrdom, and Acceleration of Development. These scales were examined for the possibility of existing trends in mothers of female achievers. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract ii Acknowledgement . vi CHAPTER I PROBLEM 1 Introduction to the Problem 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Significance of the ProblemCHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 Family Etiology .... 7 Parental Attitudes 13 CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY . : ". 18 Population 18 Instrumentation 9 Procedure 22 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 7 Trends in Male Underachievers 29 Trends in Female Achievers . 32 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY 38 APPENDIX A Copy of Final Form IV PARI 44 APPENDIX B Reversed PARI Scale . 52 APPENDIX C Original Revised Form of PARI 58 APPENDIX D Final Revised Form of PARI .66 APPENDIX E Letters 70 1. Introductory Letter to Parents 72. Explanatory Letter 71 APPENDIX F Tables 73 1. PARI Scale Numbers and Corresponding Revised Scale Numbers 72. PARI Factored Scales 4 3. Scales and Items Used in Conjunction with Zuckerman's Factors 75 4. Scales and Corresponding Item Numbers ... 76 5. Number of Participating Students and Mothers classified by Grade, Sex and Achievement Level 77 6. Mean Scores for Male Underachievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B 78 7. Mean Scores for Female Achievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B 79 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 80 iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my appreciation to me thesis advisor, Dr. Peggy Koopman, and to the other members of my committee, Dr. Sally Rogow and Dr. Frank Echols for their encouragement and assistance. I would like to thank Dr. Ron LaTorre at the Vancouver School Board, and the many administrators, teachers and mothers who so willingly cooperated in my study. I extend my thanks also to my many colleagues, friends and relatives who offered continual support and encouragement, particularly my children, Michelle and Dean, and my mother Ethel. A special thank you goes to my typist, Judie Rousselle. iv CHAPTER I PROBLEM Introduction to the Problem Many studies have investigated the relationship between parental attitudes towards child rearing and family life and the achievement level of the children concerned. The literature reports that families of children with learning problems appear to spend less time in communicating with each other and take longer to make decisions. Consequently, underachievers experience an emotional climate which is less positive than that of their normal peers (Owen, Adams, Forrest, Stolz and Fisher 1971, Shaw and Dutton 1962). Although some authors believe the source of the problem is organic (Cruickshank 1967, Johnson and Myklebust 1967, McCarthy and McCarthy 1969), many others consider psychological and/or social factors as contributing to the etiology of under-achievement (Cullen 1969, Elardo 1978, Kronick 1976, Miller and Westman 1964 and 1968, Minden 1978, Owen, Adams, Forrest, Stolz and Fisher 1971, Peck and Stackhouse 1973). In their paper on maternal child rearing styles, Elardo and Freund (1978) state: We know nothing of the socialization methods employed by the parents of learning disabled children. In light of the tradition of focusing on the family as the etiological force which produced all the myriad of psychopathological states, this lacuna in our knowledge is sur prising. It should be remedied. (p.. 145) Often the underachieving child is used as a scapegoat or as a stabilizer in the intricate workings of family dynamics (Kronick 1 1976, Miller and Westman 1964 and 1968, Peck and Stackhouse 1973, Prugh and Harlow 1962). Some studies have indicated that parents hold different attitudes towards children with learning problems than they do towards their siblings (Shaw and Dutton 1962, Philage, Kuna, Becerrill 1975, Goldstein, Cary, Chorost and Dalack 1970). In general, more strongly negative attitudes were expressed towards underachievers than towards achievers. Whether this was a conse quence or a cause of underachievement was not ascertained. Support for the causal interpretation was suggested by Shaw and McCuen (1960). Other studies considering the relationship between parental attitudes towards children and family life have been conducted by Cowen, Heuser, Beach and Rappaport (1970), Harmer and Alexander (1978), Goldman and Barclay (1974), and Shaw and Dutton (1962). With the exception of Harmer and Alexander (1978) whose subjects were parents of underachievers in grades one to three from a lower socio-economic background, most studies dealt with subjects from intact middle-class families. The underachieving students ranged in age from nine to eighteen years. As Shaw and McCuen (1960) discovered, a difference in achievement level can be identified as early as grade one between male achievers and male underachievers. More research is needed to consider parental attitudes towards children and family life at this level. The findings of this study suggested the possibility that conditions antecedent to school entrance might have at least a partial bearing on the development of underachievement behavior, and more specifically, that parent attitudes might be associated with failure to perform effectively in school...From a 2 logical point of view, it is easier to build a case for such attitudes as causal rather than resultant factors. The early appearance of underachievement among males lends some support to the causal interpretation, (p. 203) Thus many studies have identified a difference in parental attitudes towards underachievers. There is some support for the theory that more negative attitudes are causal rather than resultant of learning problems. The necessity for more research at the primary level is indicated. Statement of Problem The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in attitudes towards children and family between mothers of achieving children and mothers of underachieving children at the grade one and two level, and what the nature of this differ ence might be. Significance of the Problem This paper does not consider the 1 to 3 percent of the popu lation described by the National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children (1968), "Children with special learning disabilities who [sic] exhibit a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language." Rather, the research reported here investigated the growing number of those described as "learning disabled" on the basis of underachievement. Underachievers were defined in this study as grade two students within the range of normal intelligence who were unable to attain a satisfactory level of academic progress 3 during the regular school session. Most teachers recognize these students because they usually rank the lowest in reading achievement. They may also demonstrate inattentiveness and may seem withdrawn, or hyperactive and disruptive in class. In tasks testing short term memory, they do especially poorly and seem unable to remember how to perform tasks from one day to the next. Often they do better in math, although this is not always the case. They seem to be able to manipulate counters, particularly for addition, but subtrac tion, with its vocabulary of separating and taking away, presents more of a problem. In physical education they may be either leth argic, hesitant to take part, or so out of control they have to be sent ten laps around the gym to run off steam. These children often seem immature and do not do well in fine motor skills, such as required for printing, cutting, pasting and drawing. Their work habits are sloppy and they seldom complete assignments. They may have negative attitudes towards school. At the primary level they are often labelled developmentally immature. Their social ineptness mirrors that of a much younger child. These behaviors, often used to describe learning disabled children, are also typical of children whose parents are inconsistent. It is the contention of this writer that many children who are labelled "learning disabled" have no specific learning disorder, but are children in dysfunctional family situations. The attitudes their parents hold towards child rearing and family life are different and more negative than those of parents whose children meet with academic success. 4 Between 1979 and 1981, one hundred grade one students enrolled in the Vancouver school system were observed, on a daily basis, by a teaching team in an open area. Twenty-five of these children were considered underachievers. In spite of average intelligence levels, these children did not meet even the minimum requirements for achievement at the grade one level. These students received daily remedial assistance. A school based team which included the principal, teacher, learning assistance teacher, counsellor, psychologist, public health nurse and liaison social worker considered these cases and recommended that the parents receive a program also, geared to complement and facilitate the academic remediation the children were receiving. This program never materialized. Twelve children required psychiatric care and five of them were ultimately referred to a residential treatment centre. Psychological and educational assessments revealed uneven profiles typical of learning disabled children. Parents of the children in .residence now receive family counselling. According to the Commission of Emotional and Learning Disorders in Children (the CELDIC Report): The family environment is the one that influences the child most significantly during his formative years...However, because next to his family, the school is the natural habitat of the child, during his important formative years, we feel strongly that this is the place where tactical intervention should take place while the child with an emotional and learning disorder remains within his own peer group. In the above cases, had an attitudinal change in the parents occurred at an earlier stage, perhaps some of the tragedy of family stress could have been avoided. 5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Historically the etiology of learning disorders has been attributed to an organic basis (Cruickshank 1967 Johnson and Myklebust 1967, McCarthy and McCarthy 1969). Certain researchers, however, have begun to recognize the possibility of family etiology as a factor in under-achievement (Cullen 1969, Elardo and Freund 1978, Kronick 1976, Miller and Westman 1964 and 1968, Minden 1978, Owen, Adams, Forrest, Stolz and Fisher 1971, Peck and Stackhouse 1973). Such a difference in etiology would obviously play a significant role in the remediation and amelio ration of learning problems. More consideration would be given to the idea of prevention rather than remediation. An underachieving child would no longer be treated as an isolated unit, but as an integral part of a family situation. Family therapy, such as that described by Philage (1975) and Klein, Altman, Dreizen, Friedman and Powers (1981) would become an accepted part of a multi-disciplinary approach to under-achievement. Parental attitudes toward child-rearing are capable of being changed as demonstrated by Stott and Berson (1951) in their pre-natal parental education program. Programs resulting in more positive ap proaches to the parental role have been implemented by Berry, Wenger and Donald (1969), Csapo and Friesen (1975), Center for Field Research and School Services, New York (1973), Minden (1978) and Philage, Kuna and Becerrill (1975), and Klein, Altman, Dreizen, Friedman and Powers (1981). A review of the literature gave rise to the theory of family etiology as causal rather than resultant of learning problems. Sup-6 port for this theory was found in the studies of Cullen (1969), Elardo and Freund (1978), Kronick (1976), Miller and Westman (1964 and 1968), Minden (1978), Owen et al (1971) and Peck and Stackhouse (1973) to mention just a few. Kronick states: "It is therefore plausible that some learning disabled children may at first have been only temperamentally difficult children; and that, exacerbated by family dysfunction, created the learning disability and the social problems... The posibility should be explored that the family pathology could be one of the etiologies of what has been presumed to date to be a primary learning disability." (p. 117) In her paper, Kronick is concerned with the mother's need to dis associate the child's learning disability from her own childrearing practices while simultaneously making the child and his learning disability the scapegoat for family malfunction. Family Etiology This section of the literature review will deal with family etiology as a causal factor in underachievement. Included will be associated studies on home environment and the development of mental abilities. Family dynamics will be discussed and the interaction between mother and child in particular will be noted, as relating to school achievement and social skills of underachieving children. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted on the relation ship betwee home environment and the development of mental abilities. Bradley and Caldwell (1976a and 1976b) in conjunction with Elardo et al (1975) utilized the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment, a measure of the quality of the stimulation found in the environment. Subjects were observed and data recorded for ages six, twelve, eighteen, twenty-four, thirty-six and fifty-four months. The 7 results of the two studies suggest that the inventory is measuring a complex of environmental factors which may be prerequisite to cognitive development and relative to performance on later tasks. It was observed that children who improved on the mental test performance were en couraged by their mothers to develop new skills and provided with the play materials to do so. It was also noted that the infants whose per formance declined were functioning in an atmosphere less well organized and less conducive to learning than those who improved. They concluded that parental behavior does relate to intelligence level during child hood. Bayley and Schaefer (1964) evidenced similar findings while investi gating the developmental aspects of the growth of a child. Subjects of this longitudinal study were sixty-one healthy babies. Over a period of eighteen years, thirteen age-level mental scores were cor related separately by sex with similarly averaged age-level child be havior ratings. Maternal behavior was assessed using the Parental At titude Research Inventory developed by Schaefer and Bell (1958). They found that between one and four years of age boys with egalitarian, positively evaluating mothers had higher mental test scores. Girls' mental test scores were positively correlated with mothers who were accepting, loving, and who put achievement demands on them. During school years the r for the total sample between intelligence tests at ages four and seventeen was .62, similar to the r of .68 for maternal consistency, which in love-hostility ratings was found for mothers of both boys and girls. Results indicated a stable relation between maternal behavior and intelligence scores. There is a growing amount of evidence to indicate that dysfunc-8 tional family life plays an important role as a causal agent in learning problems. As early as 1954 Burt states: The key to much inattentiveness in the classroom lies in the events of the child's daily life at home. The anxieties, the quarrels, and even the gaities of his relatives, are apt to upset his own self-control; and as every teacher can testify, after each weekend and each long holiday, many a pupil comes back to school worn out, unsettled, and often utterly demoralized, (p. 42) O'Sullivan, in his 1980 study of teachers' views of the effects of home life on educational achievement, concurred with Burt. He found that teachers in working class areas were significantly more inclined to consider reported violence in the home, unwashed children,parental separation or divorce, drinking problems and argumentative parents as predictors of poor educational response. Teachers in middle-class areas viewed mothers very involved in charitable work as negligent. Owen, Adams, Forrest, Stolz and Fisher (1971) studied seventy-six learning disordered children and their same sex siblings to discover whether the characteristics of academically handicapped children could be more precisely identified and to clarify further the causes and familial patterns of learning disorders. Controls were seventy-six matched academically successful children and their same sex siblings. Results indicated familial learning disorders were most clear in the children with markedly high performance dis crepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Sibling concordance on many variables, and parental language dis abilities emphasized familial factors. Emotional antecedents were critical for the high intelligence and social-deviant groups. The emotional climate was frequently more unfavourable for the educationally handicapped child within the total family constellation. The family 9 atmosphere tended to be"less well organized and less emotionally stable than that of the control families. Owen, Adams, Forrest, Stolz and Fisher wondered why such family situation affects one child more than another. Miller and Westman in two similar studies (1964 and 1968) hypothesized that parents and children resist changes in the read ing disability because it contributes to the family's survival. In both cases, subjects ranged in age from ten to fifteen years of age. They were all two years behind in reading and came from white, intact, middle or working class homes. All had received intensive remedial assistance. Parents were administered the Thematic Apper ception Test, a projective test of parents' defense mechanisms. They also took part in an unstructured interview and a semi-structured interview about marital, parental, occupational, social and home-making roles. Results revealed the child's symptoms and subidentity were compatible with those of the parents. Family members engaged in activities that supported the child's symptoms. Concrete evidence of unrealized learning potential was denied by the parents and the child. Some members of the family reacted to improved reading ability with emotional disturbance. The parents were unable to take effective steps to improve the child's reading ability because this would change the child's role and thus decrease family stability. Evidence of family pathology as a cause for failure of intellectual development and academic achievement was also cited by Prugh and Harlow (1962). They give the example of a boy who was regarded from infancy as mentally retarded by the mother because of his initial lack of responsiveness. Gradually he conformed to the mother's perceptions of him by his complete lack of scholastic achievement despite a superior 10 intellectual endowment. Prugh and Harlow attribute this phenomena to distorted relatedness. The child was not viewed as an individual in his own right but as an extension of the mother. Therefore, the child's emotional needs were not adequately met. This viewpoint is in accordance with that of Staver (1953) who believed that in disturbed relatedness, the child serves as the disturbed part of the mother. She hypothesized that the mothers have some unconscious need for the child not to learn. Subjects were seventeen intact upper-lower to upper-middle class families, exhibiting no gross social pathology. The children, eight girls and nine boys ranged in age from six to thirteen years, had intelligence scores below ninety, and were at least one year behind in school. All expressed fear of separation and death and the use of helpless ignorance as a method of protection. Later in treat ment some of the mothers recognized that they would rather consider their child retarded than consider that his emotional needs were primarily responsible for his lack of intellectual development. Further acknowledgement was granted to the dynamic interaction between mother and child as playing a part in creating or perpetuating the child's learning difficulty. Doleys, Cartelli and Doster (1976) compared patterns of mother-child interaction in normal, noncompliant and learning disabled groups. Each group (nine pairs in each group) was observed in play situations: ten minutes for the child's game and ten minutes for the mother's game. The mothers were then administered an attitudinal scale measuring at titudes to child-rearing. In their summary, the authors suggested that parents of deviant children are frequently observed to reward inappro priate or undesirable behavior. The attitude data suggested that learn-11 ing disability mothers view their children as better adjusted than clinic mothers, but as having more problems in behavior and adjustment than nonclinic mothers. Doleys and colleagues (1976) further suggested that the relatively low level of criticism indicated a tolerant at titude towards academic and nonacademic behavior. They stated: It is this same tolerant and accepting behavior on the mother's part which may account for.the low rate of compliance behavior. Unfortunately, this pattern of noncompliance to commands in the home may generalize to the classroom situation, and the child could become a behavioral problem in the school with the teacher having to spend a disproportionate amount of her time controlling the child's behavior, thereby taking away from instructional or teaching time. (p. 375) Forehand, King, Peed and Yoder (1974) in an investigation of mother-child interactions comparing noncompliant clinic and nonclinic groups found the clinic mothers significantly more critical. They also dis pensed significantly more commands and rewards than the nonclinic mothers. Like Doleys and colleagues, the authors attributed this fact to families of deviant children consistently rewarding undesirable behavior. They also reported significantly more noncompliant behavior in the clinic group. The communication aspect of family dynamics was researched by Peck and Stackhouse (1973). Based on the research of Miller and Westman (1964 and 1968), Peck and Stackhouse argued that the reading problem was the manifestation of a disturbed family system. Their subjects were fifteen mothers and fathers, and sons with reading problems. Con trols were fifteen normal families. Each family member completed an individual opinion questionnaire. The family members were then brought together to reach a consensus on twenty items of the questionnaire on which they had previously disagreed. Results revealed reading problem 12 families took significantly longer to reach a decision, spent a greater percentage of their decision time in silence, and evidenced fewer ex changes of explicit information and more irrelevant transactions. These findings are consistent with those of Burgess.and Conger (1978), and Csapo and Friesen (1975). Peck and Stackhouse conclude that reading problem families have apparently taught the child how not to learn and the child has reciprocated by developing the art of being stupid. The act of going to school and achieving places the child in conflict with his family's process and his own identity as a family member. Another aspect of family life is the development of social skills. Rosenthal states: Intensive case studies of socially adequate and socially aberrant youngsters have shown that self-concept and personal and social adjustment may be heavily influenced by child-rearing practices, including the total constel lation of parent-child interactions. (p. 28) Banas (1972) found that many learning disabled children have trouble with the perception of'social situations in which they constantly find themselves. In their study, Elardo and Freund (1978) hypothesized that family etiology is related to the learning disabled child's strengths or weaknesses in social skills. Results indicated that certain maternal behaviors correlated highly with the children's scores on the social measures. The researchers suggest that there may be a fundamental difference between maternal child rearing behavior which reinforces intellectual achievement and that which facilitates social skills in learning disabled children. Parental Attitudes In an attempt to throw more light on the relationship betwen home environment and school attainment, Fraser (1959) assessed four aspects 13 of home environment: cultural, material, motivational and emotional. The motivational aspect was one of parental attitudes towards children and school achievement. Highly significant differences were revealed at the .01 level between the parents of achieving and the parents of underachieving students. A positive relationship between parental attitude towards the child's scholastic achievement and the child's intelligence level was observed (r = .297) and an even closer one between parental attitude and school achievement (r = .391). This same consistent relationship between parent attitudes towards school and achievement measures was found by Cowan, Huser, Beach and Rappaport (1970). Their study involved a battery of parent assessment techniques which could broaden the base for judging early dysfunction at the primary level. The Parent Attitude Test included a twenty-five item behavior scale, seven and four item scales of home and school attitudes, and an adjective checklist containing seventeen positive and seventeen negative adjectives. Results indicated that children rated more maladjusted by the teacher came out with significantly poorer scores on all scales of parent ratings. A study investigating the relationship between parental attitudes towards child rearing and children's reading ability was conducted by Harner and Alexander (1978). A short form self report parent question naire was administered to one hundred seven sets of parents whose chil dren had been referred to a diagnostic centre for reading disabilities. A significant but low correlation was revealed between parental at titudes and reading ability. Parental attitudes were consistently associated with parental judgments. Significant correlations between maternal attitude scores and both intelligence (measured by the PIAT) 14 and reading achievement (measured by the WRAT) indicate that maternal attitude is stronger and has greater influence than paternal attitude. The authors suggest that much more significant results might have been obtained using the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) developed by Schaefer and Bell (1958). Goldman and Barclay (1974) utilized the PARI in an effort to analyze the influence of maternal attitudes on children with reading disabilit ies. Subjects were thirty-eight reading disabled children with average intelligence and a mean age of 10.9 years. Twenty-nine were male and nine female. All came from middle class intact families. Controls who had average reading ability were matched for age and intelligence. The results of the maternal attitude survey suggest some basic differences in maternal attitudes towards child rearing and family life as expressed by mothers of normal children and mothers of children with reading problems. Difference in attitude ranged from the .05 to the .001 level of significance for the scales on Strictness, Equalitarianism, Comradeship and Sharing, Suppression of Sexuality, Encouraging Verbalization, and Approval of Activity. Goldman and Barclay interpret their results as indicating lack of encouragement in verbal fluency and the minimization of communication. These findings are in keeping with the disturbed family communication patterns ob served by Peck and Stackhouse (1973). High scores on the Approval of Activity scaled were seen as need for control. Marital conflict was suggested by scores on Equalitarianism, Comradeship and Sharing and Suppression of Sexuality, as were dissatisfaction in the roles of wife and mother. In summary, Goldman and Barclay noted that the mothers of the children with reading problems in their study demonstrated traits 15 that were similar to the mothers in other studies. The findings of Shaw and McCuen (1960) suggest the possibility that conditions antecedent to school entrance might have at least a partial bearing on the development of underachieving behavior, and more specifically, that parent attitudes might be associated with failure to perform effectively in school. The results of this study, using male and female subjects enrolled in grades eleven and twelve, revealed that male underachievers tended to receive lower grades from grade one, becoming significant in grade three. Female underachievers received higher scores than female controls until grade five. A drop in grade point average was observed at grade six, becoming significant at grade nine. Based on the findings of the above study, Shaw and Dutton (1962) attempted to determine whether or not differences existed between the parents of achievers and the parents of underachievers with respect to attitude, and the nature of these differences. From a population of eight hundred and fifty grade ten and eleven students enrolled in a high school of eighteen hundred students, those with an intelligence level of one hundred ten and above were considered potential subjects. Those with a cumulative grade point average of 2.7 were considered under achievers. Those with a grade point average of 3.0 or above were con sidered achievers. Individual interviews were set up with parents. Several objective inventories, including the PARI, were administered. In analyzing the data, the F test to determine homogeneity of variance and the t test of significance were carried out between appropriate groups. Mothers of the female underachievers were differentiated from mothers of achievers on ten scales at the .05 level of significance or 16 less. These scales were: Fostering Dependency, Martyrdom, Fear of Harming the Baby, Deification of the Parent, Suppression of Aggression, Avoidance of Communication, Inconsiderateness of the Husband, Ascendancy of the Mother, Acceleration of Development, and Dependency on the Mother. These results have been interpreted to mean that the mothers of the female underachievers appear to be more dependent, dominant and in need of respect than mothers of female achievers. They are fearful of their own hostility and cannot tolerate aggression in their daughters. The mothers of male achievers differed from mothers of male under achievers on only two scales: Seclusion of the Mother and Suppression of Sexuality. Fathers of female achievers and underachievers differed significantly on four scales: Marital Conflict, Suppression of Sex uality, Avoidance of the Expression of Affection, and Change Orientation. Interpretation of these findings leads to the conclusion that suppression of overt demonstrations of emotion is accompanied in these fathers by a suppression of any behavior which implies sexuality. Fathers of males differed on Suppression of Sexuality and Irresponsibility of the Father. The results indicated that in general, parents of underachieving children have more negative attitudes toward their children than do the parents of achieving children. Whether or not these attitudes were causal or resultant of underachievement was not revealed in this study. The early appearance of underachievement amongst males lends support to the causal interpretation. 17 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Population Subject for this study were grade one and two students enrolled in the public school system in Vancouver, British Columbia, a large metropolitan city with a multi ethnic population. The public school district is divided into four areas with 19 to 24 elementary schools in each area. The West area, which includes the Greek Community is characterized by a predominance of professional and white collar workers. Fifteen out of twenty-four schools were approached in the East area. Six volunteered to participate in the study, a 40% res ponse. Centre area, also with twenty-four schools had a represen tation of nine where the Gates was administered. Of these, three agreed to participate in the study, a 33 1/3% response. There were no participating schools from the South area during the regular school session. However, the one participating summer school was located in the South and drew on children enrolled in surrounding schools from the same area. Subgroups Subjects identified as achievers for this study were a self-selected intact group who had achieved a grade level score of 2.5 or higher on the Gates McGinite Reading Test, Canadian Edition, level A, in June, 1982. They were further identified by their mothers' willingness to participate in the study, and by their geographical location in Centre and East Vancouver. 18 Subjects identified as underachievers in this study were children enrolled in grade two in 1981-82, and who, in spite of being in the normal intelligence range, required a remedial program at summer school having not completed the requirements for grade two during the regular school session. Instrumentation The data collection instrument used in this study, a modified version of the Parent Attitude Research Inventory, more commonly referred to as the PARI, was developed by Schaeffer and Bell in 1958. The focus of their study was on the influence of maternal attitudes on the personality development of the child. They hypothesized that attitude measurement would be a supplement to interview and observation techniques in the study of maternal behavior, if objec tive attitude measures were shown to be indices of certain patterns of maternal behavior. Emphasis was placed on attitudes contrary to the usual approved methods of child rearing. However, dissatisfac tion of many mothers led to the inclusion of three "rapport" scales in order to give the mothers questions with which they could agree. Reliabilities were estimated using Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 for the scales in Trial Format I and II. The five most reliable items were used in Final Form IV which consisted of 23 scales arranged in cyclical order. The Reversed PARI Scales were developed by Zuckerman (1958) to control for acquiescent response. Items 1, 14 and 21 - Encouraging Verbalization, Equalitarianism, Comradeship and Sharing - were left in their original form as they already had a positive focus. A high negative correlation for the remaining scales indicated content 19 agreement as a person scoring high on the PARI would score low on the reversed scales. Factors A (Authoritarian-Control) and B (Hostility-Rejection) were isolated by Zuckerman. Subfactors of Factor A including Harsh Punitive-Control, Suppression and Interpersonal Distance, Over-Possessiveness and Excessive Demand for Striving were extracted by Schaefer and Bell (1958) as was Zuckerman's Factor B. (See Appendix F). Zuckerman's Factor C - Democratic Attitude - encompassing PARI scales 1, 14, and 21, did not differentiate between mothers of achiev ing and mothers of underachieving high school students (Shaw and Dutton 1962) and thus was not included in this study. The instrument as used in this study was composed of sixty items divided among twelve scales. Thirty items from the PARI and thirty items from their Reversed Scales were used in order to give the mothers statements with which they could agree, to control for acquiescent response, and to establish content validity. Scales 1, 14, and 21 (Encouraging Verbalization, Equalitarianism, and Comrade ship and Sharing) were not included as they did not distinguish between mothers of underachievers and mothers of achievers in Shaw and Dutton's study. Insignificant correlation between the PARI and the Reversed Scales led to the elimination of scales 6, 15 and 19 (Fear of Harming the Baby, Approval of Activity, and Ascendency of the Mother). Scales 3, 12, 17 and 23 (Seclusion of the Mother, Suppression of Aggression, Inconsiderateness of the Husband, and Dependency of the Mother) were not representative of Factors A and B as designated by Zuckerman. Scale 18 (Suppression of Sexuality) was eliminated on the advice of the School Board as they were concerned 20 that certain items might be offensive to some parents. (See Appendix These twelve scales are composed of five items each, totalling 60 items, as compared to 115 items on the PARI. The items used were identified by renumbering the items of the PARI, eleminating items for scales 1, 3, 6, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23, thus reducing the total number of items to 65. Equivalent items were chosen from the Reversed Scales and renumbered 66-130. Odd numbered items (e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9...65) from this reduced version of the PARI were alter nated with even numbered items of the reduced Reverse Scales renum bered 2, 4, 6...64. At this point, all items were still cyclically arranged. However, with the elimination of the five item scale 18, some adjustment was necessary in order to maintain the odd PARI and even Reversed Scale pattern. (See Appendix F). This was done to facilitate the scoring of the questionnaires. All odd numbered PARI items were weighted: strongly agree (A)=4, mildly agree (a)=3, mildly disagree (d)=2, strongly disagree (D)=l. Even numbered items from the Reversed Scales received opposite weightings: (A)=l, (a)=2, (d)=3, (D)=4. The achievement measure used in this study was the Gates McGinite, a reading achievement test in common use in Vancouver schools whose new edition has been normed to Canadian standards. The level A test, generally administered at the end of grade one or the beginning of grade two as a group test, has two forms 1 and 2, to control for test-retest reliability. It is administered in two parts. The vocabulary section shows a picture and four words. The child is asked to find the word that best accompanies the picture. The comprehension section 21 is comprised of short paragraphs and accompanying pictures. The child must choose the picture that best illustrates the information conveyed in the story. Vocabulary and comprehension are scored separately. A separate total score is also provided in the manual. Scores in all parts range from a "no score" to a grade 3.6. Procedure In October, 1981, permission to conduct the study was received from the U.B.C. Human Subjects Committee and the Vancouver School Board. Letters were sent out from Program Resources at the school board explaining the study and requesting voluntary participation from the principals of ten schools. All declined to participate on the grounds that too much time had elapsed since the administration of the tests. Eight months later, a second attempt was made to contact schools. During May and June of 1982, names of 31 schools administering the Gates at the grade one level were provided by the school board. Initial contact was made by covering letters sent to principals and grade one teachers at these schools, explaining the study and request ing voluntary participation. Packets containing an average of twenty Introductory Letters to Parents (see Appendix E) were sent out to each school. A total of 730 form letters requesting voluntary par ticipation in the project were sent home to mothers with achieving and underachieving children at the grade one level. Follow-up phone calls were made to principals and/or teachers approximately ten days after letters were put in school mail to enable time for delivery, distribution and return to schools of form letters. Returned forms were picked up from the schools by the investigator. Of the 20 22 schools willing to participate, seven had mothers who offered to take part in the study. All were located in either East or Centre Areas. Mothers were contacted by phone to arrange a suitable time to deliver the questionnaires. An Explanatory Letter was provided with each questionnaire (see Appendix E). The mother's voluntary parti cipation in the study and the matter of confidentiality were reaffirmed. Verbal and written instructions on completing the questionnaire were provided. The investigator returned after half an.hour to ,pick up the questionnaires. In this way, approximately five questionnaires were dropped off and picked up within a two hour period. A total of 18 mothers completed the questionnaires. When teachers were contacted again to establish sex and academic achievement level, it was revealed that sixteen of the mothers had achieving daughters and the other two had achieving sons. The attempt in this study to control for inves tigator bias, had thus led to the elimination of a criterion group of underachievers. An attempt to obtain a sample of underachievers was made by sending a letter to summer school principals requesting Introductory Letters to Parents by distributing at registration to parents of grade two students requiring remedial programs. Of the seven volunteers, four spoke no English, two could not be contacted by phone, and one completed the questionnaire. A more direct approach was used at a summer school operating in August. Questionnaires with Explanatory Letters were sent home instead of Introductory letters with 26 students enrolled in a grade two remedial program. Mothers of two females and ten males completed 23 the questionnaires. (See Appendix E). Treatment of the Data Each questionnaire was coded according to the sex, grade and achievement level of the child involved. For instance, an achieving female in grade one would be coded F-l-A, while an underachieving male in grade two would be coded M-2-U. The questionnaires were then separated into four categories: grade one female achievers, grade one male achievers, grade two male underachievers and grade two female underachievers. It should be noted that there was no response from mothers of underachieving children in grade one, male or female, nor from mothers of achieving students in grade two. This made analysis of the data virtually impossible. However, the investigator felt it worthwhile to examine by inspection the data that were gathered. For each questionnaire, the even numbered items were scored first; an "A" weighted 1, an "a" 2, a "d" 3 and a "D" 4. Next the odd numbered items were scored in a reverse order; an "A" weighted 4, an "a" 3, a "d" 2, and a "D" 1. Each scale was divided into its five items (see Appendix F for coded results). The questionnaires in each group were arbitrarily numbered 1, 2, 3,.....n to facilitate rechecking of data. The score for each item number was then entered in the appropriate space. Means for each scale were computed by totalling the number of items and dividing by the number of subjects in each category. The small sample of mothers of achieving boys and underachieving girls make the interpretation -. risky. Unfortunately.it impossible to predict whether using a larger and more representative 24 sample would have produced the same results. No statistical analysis of Zuckerman's factors was possible in this study as the samples of mothers of male achievers and female underachievers were too small to permit analysis. However, the means obtained are shown in Appendix F as possible indicators of trends. Factor C was not included in this study for reasons out lined earlier. Factor A is broken down into four subgroups used by Schaefer and Bell (1958). Each subgroup is composed of the relevant scales. The first subgroup, Harsh Punitive-Control, is composed of scales 2, Breaking the Will, 7, Excluding Outside Influences, and 8, Deification. Scale 10, Avoidance of Communication comprises subgroup 2, Suppression and Interpersonal Distance. Subgroup 3 Over-possessiveness consists of scales 1, Fostering Dependency, 3, Martyrdom and 11, Intrusiveness. Scales 5, Strictness, and 12, Acceleration of Development, make up subgroup 4, Excessive Demand for Striving. Factor B is comprised of scales 4, Marital Conflict, 6, Irritability, and 9, Rejection of the Home-Making Role. As already mentioned, the possibility of statistical analysis between sex related groups was eliminated due to the sample size and questionable self-selection problem of male achievers and female underachievers. However, closer examination of the.data revealed that trends in two of the groups, male underachievers and female achievers, deserved further investigation. In Shaw and Dutton's (1962) study, a mean difference of 2.0 or greater invariably was significant at the .05 level. Therefore, a mean difference of 2.0 or greater was chosen as an arbitrary number on which to base an exam ination of scale items. 25 Table 6 (see Appendix F) portrays the mean scores of Zucker man's (1958) Factors A and B for mothers of male underachievers. These mothers had attained high scores on scales 1, Fostering Dependency, 3, Martyrdom, and 7, Excluding Outside Influences. These scales, therefore, were the ones chosen for closer examination of possible trends in this group. Table 7 (see Appendix F) shows the mean scores attained by mothers of achieving females. These mothers attained low scores on scales 1, Fostering Dependency, 3, Martyrdom, 7, Excluding Outside Influences, and 12, Acceleration of Development. These scales were examined for possible trends in attitudes of mothers of achieving females. 26 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION There were several shortcomings in the present study. The major problem encountered was the poor response to the questionnaire. The querying of people's beliefs and attitudes is a delicate matter and permission to carry out the requirements for this study came with ethical concern from the writer, the university, the school board and the principals. When probing for the type of information required in this study, a personal interview often elicits the necessary response in a more tactful manner than does a questionnaire. The PARI was chosen for this study after careful examination of many similar instruments. The factors isolated by the PARI were deemed relevant to support the hypothesis. The language used in the instrument was considered simple and straight forward as com pared to more sophisticated terminology used in certain other instru ments. As none of the mothers took exception to any of the questions in the revised form used in this study, this writer believes the instrument to be of value in eliciting certain information. However, a preferable method of collecting data would be to combine this instrument with an interview schedule using an unstructured response format. The original PARI, developed by Schaefer and Bell (1958) was not approved by the school board. Hesitant to give permission the board suggested that items from the Reversed Scales of the PARI developed by Zuckerman (1958) be incorporated. This resulted in an 27 instrument which was shortened as described in Chapter III. An interview schedule might have been used to supplement the attitude scale with anecdotal information but since this would have breached confidentiality it was discarded. Previous studies which used the PARI as an attitudinal measure incorporated interview schedules to obtain more complete information. These are reported in the biblio graphy. No other study cited relied solely on the PARI to establish attitudes towards child-rearing and family life. One of the original criteria for achievement were children's scores on the Gates McGinite Reading Test. This test, administered in June, 1981, was not given in all schools at the same time, making it impossible to obtain the sample needed. A criterion also could not be established because a double blind situation was used to eliminate investigator bias. A more viable means of obtaining a criterion group might be based on the results of the Developmental Review Program (DRP), currently administered district-wide in Vancouver at the Kindergarten level. Part of the assessment includes parent interviews. A follow-up interview might be a more efficient way of obtaining information on parental attitudes. Concern with confidentiality and concern for parents' feelings created several obstacles in developing, and pursuing the research reported here. Of 850 Introductory Letters to Parents distributed, there was only a 2% return, all from mothers of achieving students. Other studies had not informed the parents of the nature of their study and were therefore less threatening. One mother commented, "I don't want to volunteer in case the questions make me look like a bad mother." 28 Principals were also concerned that parents might be offended. The high percentage of children of varied ethnic backgrounds coming from homes where English was not the first language, was the main reason both principals and teachers gave for not participating in the study. One school cited a 99% enrollment of children with English as a second language. Information concerning sex of the child and the language spoken at home, was the only information available from the mothers of the underachieving students. These mothers did not receive the Intro ductory Letter to Parents requesting their names, addresses and phone numbers. Rather, the questionnaire itself, accompanied by an Explanatory Letter, was sent home with each child. The investi gator had no direct contact with these mothers at any time, either by phone or in person. The questionnaires were returned anonymously and the identity of the mothers was not revealed. Trends of Male Underachievers Mothers of the underachieving boys attained the highest scores on Fostering Dependency, Exclusion of Outside Influences, and Martyr dom. Answers to the questionnaire appeared to indicate that these mothers encouraged the little boys to be dependent on them. Outside influences were not encouraged. A sense of martyrdom sometimes prevailed. Sharing time in class revealed that many little boys were not expected to pick up their toys or perform other age-appropriate tasks in the home which encouraged independence. Observation of their classroom behavior revealed that they had to be reminded to clean up after themselves. Outside influences were not encouraged 29 and few boys reported involvement in after school community activi ties. The mothers of the underachieving boys expressed a sense of martyrdom through their responses to the questionnaire. Fostering Dependency An extreme case of fostering dependency is illustrated by the following. A little boy arrived in a Vancouver school from out of province. No school records were sent from schools he previously attended. As he was physically small for his age he was placed in first grade. Several weeks later, when his records arrived, it was discovered that this child was nine years old and had been referred to a slow learners' class. Arrangements to transfer him took time, and meanwhile he began learning to read. His report card reflected his progress and his mother did not show up for her parent-teacher conference. The child tearfully returned to school to report that his mother had broken his glasses, without which he could not read. The glasses were not replaced and the child's progress in reading ended. Excluding Outside Influences A case of extreme exclusion of outside influences was demon strated by a little boy whose mother had chosen to bear him out of wedlock. Having made this decision, she quit her job and devoted her whole life to raising this child. A pattern of martyrdom then seemed to emerge. They appeared to have no friends or relatives with whom they associated. She was his sole companion and waited all day outside the classroom door. He was extremely disruptive 30 in class and would perseverate on an idea to the point of obsession. Academically he was achieving well below his potential. Suggestions from the teacher to involve the little boy in Beavers, or to enquire into the possibility of obtaining a Big Brother were rejected by the mother. After much discussion, she finally agreed to let him go on an overnight camp with his classmates, but withdrew her permission at the last minute. She was totally devoted to this little boy to the exclusion of all others. Martyrdom An example illustrating martyrdom was the mother who appeared weekly for conferences with the principal and teacher. The little boy in question was the oldest of three children and the least liked by the mother. She came willingly to the school and complained about the hardships this child had created for her. She constantly compared him, unfavorably, with his younger brother. She stated that her parents lavished undeserving attention on her eldest child. Her sense of martyrdom was displayed by exhibiting cool tolerance towards this little boy. His behavior in class was immature and his academic work well below the level he should have achieved. All the mothers of these underachieving boys seemed to share certain characteristics. They fostered dependency in their sons by performing tasks the little boys were capable of doing themselves. They did not encourage outside influences such as membership in Beavers, sports or other community activities. They exhibited a strong sense of duty and put the interests of the little boys ahead of personal interests and activities to the point where a sense of 31 martyrdom was evidenced. Trends of Female Achievers Mothers of female achievers attained the lowest scores on Fostering Dependency, Exclusion of Outside Influences, Martyrdom and Acceleration of Development. It appeared that the mothers of the little girls encouraged them to be independent. Classroom discussions revealed that little girls were assigned age-appropriate chores around the house to encourage a sense of responsibility. Outside influences were encouraged and many female youngsters reported after school activities such as piano and dancing lessons, swimming, gymnastics and arts and crafts. The mothers seemed to feel their daughters should be allowed to develop at their own rate. A low score on the Martyrdom Scale possibly reflected the outcome of these other scales. Not feeling the need to accelerate development, encouraging independence and sharing responsibility for raising their daughters, the mothers did not seem to experience a sense of martyrdom. Allied with these attitudes towards child-rearing was that expressed by a high score on Avoidance of Communi cation, vindicating that the mothers did not feel the necessity to be aware of every thought, idea and feeling experienced by their daughters. Fostering Dependency An example of a mother who did not foster dependency was a young Japanese widow who held many feminist views, annoyed by the stereo type of the submissive oriental woman. She was very proud of her 32 vivascious, gregarious daughter and encouraged her to be assertive, responsible and self-reliant. The little girl was expected to help around the house. This was reflected in her responsible behavior around the classroom as was her polite but assertive manner of expressing herself. Excluding Outside Influences Including, rather than excluding outside influences, was demonstrated by a mother employed outside the home. The little girl had been placed in appropriate daycare since she had been a toddler. Her manner was quiet and self-assured. She did not appear to feel awkward in new situations, and in the classroom was the most reliable child for running messages or completing a task. She was well-coordinated and participated._in after school gymnastics. During the summer, she attended a day camp with enrichment activities. Her mother was most open to the suggestion of acquiring a mentor for the little girl to encourage her interest in dance. Martyrdom No sense of martyrdom was displayed by the mother, employed outside the home on a part-time basis, who arranged her day so as to be able to walk the several blocks to school with her child. The mother's care and love for her children was demonstrated by the solicitous manner this child exhibited towards her younger siblings. She enjoyed reading and often shared her books with her sisters. The mother took great pride in her daughter's accomplishments and 33 encouraged extended family participation in such school activities as sports day and concerts. Acceleration of Development One mother who refused to accelerate development was employed outside the home as a child care worker. Her daughter was self-confident, loquacious and out-going. Initially her academic pro gress was slower than her apparent ability indicated. Discussion with the mother revealed that she believed her daughter would pro gress when she was ready, and though expressing a willingness to help, refused to push her child. As the school year progressed, so did this little girl, and with little evidence of anxiety, she took her place as an achiever. All the mothers of the achieving females appeared to have several factors in common. They all liked their little girls, were proud of them and enjoyed being with them. However, they were not obsessed by them, did not push them beyond their ability nor feel martyred by them. They encouraged a sense of responsibility and independence. They were all employed outside the home, at least on a part-time basis and encouraged outside interests in their daughters. All the mothers took an active interest and participation in school activities and were very aware of what went on in the classroom. 34 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The results from this current study indicate that certain trends bear further investigation. Further research should be directed at the following factors: fostering dependency, exclusion of outside influences, avoidance of communication, martyrdom, and acceleration of development. Parental attitudes towards such delicate matters must be examined in as tactful a manner as possible. A personal interview is the most likely means of achieving this end. Two possible ways of obtaining permission to use an interview schedule are: 1) to approach another school district which might be less reticent about granting permission, or 2) to use an interview schedule, with permission from the Vancouver School Board, as an extension of the interview schedule used for the Developmental Review Program. This latter suggestion would be a feasible way of obtaining a criterion group of suitable size. More complete results may also be obtained if future research were to be directed at members of the Association for Learning Disabilities, daycare mothers, or mothers whose children are enrolled in a tutoring agency. If these mothers were situated in predominantly English speaking localities, the problem of small sample size because of English as a second language would be remedied. An independent investigator collecting data would eliminate the necessity for a double blind situation and thus control the variables of sex, age and grade. A potential study could be specifically aimed at establishing 35 whether a difference in attitude towards child-rearing and family life exists between mothers of achieving males and mothers of underachieving males at the grade one level. Results from the DRP identifying boys at risk at the kindergarten level could be obtained from the school board. This would establish a criterion group district-wide. Parents have already signed permission for their children to be tested and have already participated in a sensitive interview regarding how they view their children. A follow-up interview and attitude questionnaire would possibly not be as threatening to these parents as to those never exposed to this type of questioning. A control group could be identified from the results of the same assessment program. A long term study involving the same children could be established. It should be possible to set up treatment and control groups of children identified as at risk. Those in the control group would receive the accepted academic remediation available in the district. Those in the treatment group would also receive the academic remediation,, but in addition, would be involved in family therapy designed by ;the multi-disciplinary team. This practice is already in accepted usage in the United States (Klein et al., 1981, and Philage, 1975). The prevention of, rather than remediation of learning problems should be the focus of the eighties. Attention, therefore, must be directed at different segments of the population simultaneously. Family therapy for school-aged children has already been mentioned. Preventive counselling could be aimed at a younger population such as mothers of children enrolled in pre-school centres and nursery 36 schools. 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Journal of Social  Psychology, 1951, 34, 191-202. The Vancouver Association for Children with Learning Disabilities VACLD). Statistics Regarding the Learning Disabled Child. Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 1977. 42 Wulbert, M., Inglis, S., Kriegsmann, E. , and Mills, B. Language delay and associated mother-child interactions. Developmental  Psychology, 1975, 2, 61-70. Zuckerman, Marvin. Revised scales to control acquiescence response set in the parental attitude research instrument. Child  Development, 1959, 30, 523-532. Zunich, Michael. The relation between junior high-school students' problems and parental attitudes toward child rearing and family life. Journal of Educational Research, 1962, 56, 134-138 (a). 43 APPENDIX A SAMPLE COPY OF FINAL FORM IV (PARI) INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then rate them as follows: A a d D strongly mildly mildly strongly agree agree disagree disagree Indicate your opinion by drawing a circle around the "A" if you strongly agree, around the "a" if you mildly agree, around the "d" if you mildly disagree and around the "D" if you strongly disagree. There are no right or wrong answers, so answer according to your own opinion. It is very important to the study that all questions be answered. Many of the statements will seem alike but all are necessary to show slight difference of opinion. 1. Children should be allowed to disagree with their A a d D parents if they feel their own ideas are better. 2. A good mother should shelter her child from life's A a d D little difficulties. 3. The home is the only thing that matters to a good A a d D mother. 4. Some children are just so bad they must be taught A a d D to fear adults for their own good. 5. Children should realize how much parents have to A a d D give up for them. 6. You must always keep tight hold of baby during his A a d D bath for in a careless moment he might slip. 7. People who think they can get along in marriage A a d D without arguments just don't know the facts. 8. A child will be grateful later on for strict A a d D training. 9. Children will get on any woman's nerves if she has A a d D to be with them all day. 10. It's best for the child if he never gets started A a d D wondering if his mother's views are right. 44 11. More parents should teach their children to have A a d D unquestioning loyalty to them. 12. A child should be taught to avoid fighting no matter A a d D what happens. 13. One of the worst things about taking care of a home A a d D is a woman feels that she can't get out. 14. Parents should adjust to the children rather than A a d D always expecting the children to adjust to the parent. 15. There are so many things a child has to learn in A a d D life there is no excuse for him sitting around with time on his hands. 16. If you let children talk about their troubles :they A a d D end up complaining even more. 17. Mothers would do their job better with the children A a d D if fathers were more kind. 18. A young child should be protected from hearing A a d D about sex. 19. If a mother doesn't go ahead and make rules for the A a d D home the children and husband will get into trouble they don't need to. 20. A mother should make it her business to know A a d D everything her children are thinking. 21. Children would be happier and better behaved if A a d D parents would show an interest in their affairs. 22. Most children are toilet trained by 15 months of A a d D age. 23. There is nothing worse for a young mother than being A a d D alone while going through her first experience with a baby. 24. Children should be encouraged to tell their parents A a d D about it whenever they feel family rules are unreasonable. 25. A mother should do her best to avoid any disappoint- A a d D ment for her children. 26. The women who want lots of parties seldom make good A a d D mothers. 45 27. It is frequently necessary to drive the mischief A a d D out of a child before he will behave. 28. A mother must give up her own happiness for that A a d D of her child. 29. All young mothers are afraid of their awkwardness A a d D in handling and holding the baby. 30. Sometime it's necessary for a wife to tell off her A a d D husband in order to get her rights. 31. Strict discipline develops a fine strong character. A a d D 32. Mothers very often feel that they can't stand their A a d D children a moment longer. 33. A parent should never be made to look wrong in a A a d D child's eyes. 34. The child should be taught to revere his parents A a d D above all other grown-ups. 35. A child should be taught to always come to his A a d D parents or teachers rather than fight when he is in trouble. 36. Having to be with the children all the time gives A a d D a woman the feeling her wings have been clipped. 37. Parents must earn the respect of their children A a d D by the way they act. 38. Children who don't try hard for success will feel A a d D they have missed out on things later on. 39. Parents who start a child talking about his worries A a d D don't realize that sometimes it's better to just leave well enough alone. 40. Husbands could do their part if they were less A a d D selfish. 41. It is very important that young boys and girls not A a d D be allowed to see each other completely undressed. 42. Children and husbands do better when the mother is A a d D strong enough to settle most of the problems. 43. A child should never keep a secret from his parents. A a d D 44. Laughing at children's jokes and telling children A a d D jokes makes things go more smoothly. 46 45. The sooner a child learns to walk the better he's A a d D trained. \' 46. It isn't fair that a woman has to bear just about A a d D all the burden of raising children by herself. 47. A child has the right to his own point of view A a d D and ought to be allowed to express it. 48. A child should be protected from jobs which might A a d D be too hard for him. 49. A woman has to choose between having a well run A a d D home and hobnobbing around with neighbors and friends. 50. A wise parent will teach a child early just who A a d D is boss. 51. Few women get the gratitude they deserve for all A a d D they have done for their children. 52. Mothers never stop blaming themselves if their A a d D babies are injured in accidents. 53. No matter how well a married couple love one A a d D another, there are always differences that cause irritation and lead to arguments. 54. Children who are held to firm rules grow up to A a d D be the best adults. 55. It's a rare mother who can be sweet and even- A a d D tempered with her children all day. 56. Children should never learn things outside the A a d D home that make them doubt their parents' ideas. 57. A child soon learns that there is no greater A a d D wisdom than that of his parents. 58. There is no good excuse for a child hitting A a d D another child. 59. Most young mothers are bothered by the feeling of A a d D being shut up in the home than by anything else. 60. Children are too often asked to do all the A a d D compromising and adjustment and that's not fair. 61. Parents should teach their children that the. way A a d D to get ahead is to keep busy and not waste time. 62. Children pester you with all their little upsets A a d D if you aren't careful from the first. 47 63. When a mother doesn't do a good job with children A a d D it's probably because the father doesn't do his part around the home. 64. Children who take part in sex play become sex A a d D criminals when they grow up. 65. A mother has to do the planning because she knows A a d D what's going on in the home. 66. An alert parent should try to learn all her child's A a d D thoughts. 67. Parents who are interested in hearing about their A a d D children's parties, dates and fun help them grow up right. 68. The earlier a child is weaned from its emotional A a d D ties to its parents the better it will handle its own problems. 69. A wise woman will do anything to avoid being by A a d D herself before and after a new baby. 70. A child's ideas should be seriously considered in A a d D making family decisions. 71. Parents should know better than to allow their A a d D children to be exposed to difficult situations. 72. Too many women forget that a mother's place is in A a d D the home. 73. Children need some of the natural meanness taken A a d D out of them. 74. Children should be more considerate of their A a d D mothers since their mothers suffer so much for them. 75. Most mothers are fearful that they may hurt their A a d D babies in handling them. 76. There are some things which just can't be settled A a d D by a mild discussion. 77. Most children should have more discipline than they A a d D get. 78. Raising children is a herve-wracking job. A a d D 79. The child should not question the thinking of the A a d D parents. 48 80. Parents deserve the highest esteem and regard of their children. A a d D 81. Children should not be encouraged to box or wrestle A a d D because it often leads to trouble or injury. 82. One of the bad things about raising children is A a d D that you aren't free enough of the time to do just as you like. 83. As much as is reasonable a parent should try to A a d D treat a child as an equal. 84. A child who is "on the go" all of the time will A a d D most likely be happy. 85. If a child has upset feelings it is best to leave A a d D him alone and not make it look serious. 86. If mothers could get their wishes they would most A a d D often ask that their husband be more understanding. 87. Sex is one of the greatest problems to be contended A a d D with in children. 88. The whole family does fine if the mother puts her A a d D shoulders to the wheel and takes charge of things. 89. A mother has a right to know everything going on A a d D in her child's life because her child is part of her. 90. If parents would have more fun with their children, A a d D the children would be more apt to take their advice. 91. A mother should make an effort to get her child A a d D toilet trained at the earliest possible time. 92. Most women need more time than they are given to A a d D rest up in the home after going through childbirth. 93. When a child is in trouble he ought to know he A a d D won't be punished for talking .about it with his parents. 94. Children should be kept away from all hard jobs A a d D which may be discouraging. 95. A good mother will find enough socialllife:.in the A a d D family. 96. It is sometimes necessary for the parents to break A a d D the child's will. 49 97. Mothers sacrifice almost all their own fun for A a d D their children. 98. A mother's greatest fear is that in a forgetful A a d D moment she might let something bad happen to the baby. 99. It's natural to have quarrels when two people A a d D who both have minds of their own get married. 100. Children are actually happier under strict A a d D training. 101. It's natural for a mother to "blow her top" when A a d D children are selfish and demanding. 102. There is nothing worse than a child hearing criti- A a d D cism of his mother. 103. Loyalty to parents comes before anything else. A a d D 104. Most parents prefer a quiet child to a "scrappy" A a d D one. 105. A young mother feels "held down" because there are A a d D lots of things she wants to do while she is young. 106. There is no reason parents should have their own A a d D way all the time, anymore than children should have their own way all the time. 107. The sooner a child learns that a wasted minute is A a d D lost forever the better off he will be. 108. The trouble with giving attention to children's A a d D problems is they usually just make up a lot of stories to keep you interested. 109. Few men realize that a mother needs some fun in A a d D life too. 110. There is usually something wrong with a child who A a d D asks a lot of questions about sex. 111. A married woman knows that she will have to take A a d D the lead in family matters. 112. It is a mother's duty to make sure she knows her A a d D child's innermost thoughts. 113. When you do things together, children feel close A a d D to you and can talk easier. 50 114. A child should be weaned away from the bottle or A a d D breast as soon as possible. 115. Taking care of a small baby is something that no A a d D woman should be expected to do all by herself. 51 APPENDIX B Reversed Scale Items for the Parental Attitude Research Instrument developed by Zuckerman (1958) (This instrument is scored in the same manner as the original PARI) ...1. A good mother lets her child learn the hard way A a d D about life. 2. A good mother should develop interests outside the A a d D home. 3. A child should never be taught to fear adults. A a d D 4. Parents shouldn't feel they have to sacrifice A a d D for their children. 5. Mothers worry too much about bathing babies. A a d D 6. There is no reason for arguments in a happy A a d D marriage. 7. Strict training will make a child resent his A a d D parents later on. 8. There is no reason why a day with the children A a d D should be upsetting. 9. Children have every right to question their A a d D mother's views. 10. Loyalty on the part of children to their parents A a d D is something that the parents should earn. 11. Children should be taught to fight so that they A a d D can take care of themselves. 12. Taking care of a home doesn't have to coop a A a d D woman up. 13. A child needs time just to sit around and do A a d D nothing if he feels like it. 14. Children should be encouraged to talk about their A a d D problems. 52 15. Fathers generally are kind and helpful. A a d D 16. Children should be taught about sex as soon as A a d D possible. 17. It is not the mother's place to make the rules A a d D for the home. 18. A child's thoughts and ideas are his own business. A a d D 19. Very few children are toilet trained by 15 months A a d D of age. 20. A young mother doesn't need any help when going A a d D through her first experience with a baby. 21. A child should learn that he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 22. A good mother has an active social life. A a d D 23. You can't make a child behave by cracking down A a d D on him. 24. There is no reason why a mother can't be happy A a d D any make her child happy too. 25. Most young mothers don't worry much about handling A a d D or holding the baby. 26. A good wife never has to argue with her husband. A a d D 27. Strict discipline makes children grow up to be A a d D mean or rebellious. 28. Most mothers never get to the point where they A a d D can't stand their children. 29. If a parent is wrong he should admit it to his A a d D child. 30. A child should be taught that there are many A a d D other people he will love and respect as much or more than his own parents. 31. A child should be taught to fight his own battles. A a d D 32. Most mothers are content to be with children all A a d D the time. 33. There is plenty of time for children to strive A a d D for success after they are older. 53 34. A child should always be encouraged to talk A a d D about his troubles. 35. Husbands have a perfect right to their own A a d D interests. 36. There is nothing wrong with bathing boys and A a d D girls in the same bath tub. 37. The family is better off when the husband settles A a d D most of the family problems. 38. Children are entitled to keep their own secrets. A a d D 39. A child should take all the time he wants to before A a d D he walks. 40. Women should handle most of child-raising without A a d D much help from others. 41. Children should be encouraged to undertake tough A a d D jobs if they want to. .42. A mother can keep a nice home and still have plenty A a d D of time left over to visit with neighbors and friends. 43. There is no need for children to look on parents A a d D as their bosses. 44. Most children are grateful to their parents. A a d D 45. Little accidents are bound to happen when caring A a d D for young babies. 46. If a couple really loves each other there are very A a d D few arguments in their married life. 47. If children are given too many rules they will grow A a d D up to be unhappy adults. 48. Most mothers can spend all day with the children A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 49. A child should be encouraged to look for answers A a d D to his questions from other people even if the answers contradict his parents. 50. Most children soon learn that their parents were A a d D mistaken in many of their ideas. 51. It's quite natural for children to hit one another. A a d D 54 52. Most young mothers don't mind spending most of A a d D their time at home. 53. Children should have lots of time to loaf and play. A a d D 54. A mother should be concerned with any problem of A a d D a child no matter how trivial. 55. In most cases the mother rather than the father is A a d D responsible for trouble in the home. 56. Sex play is a normal thing in children. A a d D 57. A mother should take a back seat to her husband A a d D as far as the planning is concerned. 58. A good parent doesn't try to pry into the child's A a d D thoughts. 59. A child needs to be emotionally close to its A a d D parents for a long time. 60. A woman should be on her own after having a baby. A a d D 61. Children have to face difficult situations on A a d D their own. 62. Mothers should get out of the home fairly often. A a d D 63. If a child acts mean he needs understanding rather A a d D than punishment. 64. Children don't "owe" their mothers anything. A a d D 65. Most mothers are confident when handling their A a d D babies. 66. Almost any problem can be settled by quietly A a d D talking it over. 67. Most children are disciplined too much. A a d D 68. Raising children is an easy job. A a d D 69. When a child thinks his parent is wrong he A a d D should say so. 70. A parent should not expect to be more highly A a d D esteemed than other worthy adults in their children's eyes. 71. Children should be taught ways of defending A a d D themselves in a fight. 55 72. If you run your home right, you have plenty of A a d D time to do the things you like to do. 73. It isn't good for children to be constantly A a d D running from one activity to another. 74. A mother should always be concerned about upset A a d D feelings in a child. 75. Most husbands show good understanding for a A a d D mother's problems. 76. Sex is no great problem for children if the A a d D parent doesn't make it one. 77. It's up to the father to take charge of the family. A a d D 78. Being a mother doesn't give women the right to know A a d D everything in their children's lives. 79. Toilet training should be put off until the child A a d D indicates he is ready. 80. A woman should be up and around a short time after A a d D giving birth. 81. Children should be encouraged to undertake all A a d D kinds of jobs no matter how hard. 82. It is important for a mother to have a social life A a d D outside of the family. 83. Children have a right to rebel and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 84. Having children doesn't mean you can't have as A a d D much fun as you usually do. 85. Mothers shouldn't worry much about calamities A a d D that might happen to their children. 86. Husbands and wives who have different views can A a d D still get along without arguments. 87. Strict training makes children unhappy. A a d D 88. A mother should keep control of her temper even A a d D when children are demanding. 89. A good mother can tolerate criticism of herself, A a d D even when the children are around. 56 90. Loyalty to parents is an over-emphasized virtue. A a d D 91. Most parents prefer a "scrappy" child to a quiet A a d D one. 92. Most young mothers are pretty content with home A a d D life. 93. A child should have time to just dawdle or A a d D daydream. 94. Anything a child wants to tell a parent is A a d D important enough to listen to. 95. Most men try to take their wives out as often A a d D as they can. 96. Children are normally curious about sex. A a d D 97. Most wives think it best that the husband take the A a d D lead in family affairs. 98. Every child should have an inner life which is only A a d D his business. 99. The longer a child is bottle or breast fed the more A a d D secure he will feel. 100. Any woman should be capable of taking care of a A a d D baby by herself. 57 APPENDIX C ORIGINAL REVISED FORM INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then rate them as follows: strongly agree mildly agree mildly disagree D strongly disagree Indicate your opinion by drawing a circle around the "A" if you strongly agree, around the "a" if you mildly agree, around the "d" if you mildly disagree and around the "D" if you strongly disagree. There are no right or wrong answers, so answer according to your own opinion. It is very important to the study that all questions be answered. Many of the statements will seem alike but all are necessary to show slight differences of opinion. 1. A good mother should shelter her child from life's A a d D little difficulties. 2. Some children are just so bad they must be taught A a d D to fear adults for their own good. 3. Children should realize how much parents have to A a d D give up for them. 4. People who think they can get along in marriage A a d D without arguments just don't know the facts. 5. A child will be grateful later on for strict A a d D training. 6. Children will get on any woman's nerves if she has A a d D to be with them all day. 7. It's best for the child if he never gets started A a d D wondering if his mother's views are right. 8. More parents should teach their children to have A a d D unquestioning loyalty to them. 9. One of the worst things about taking care of a A a d D home is a woman feels that she can't get out. 58 10. If you let children talk about their troubles they A a d D end up complaining even more. 11. A young child should be protected from hearing A a d D about sex. 12. A mother should make it her business to know A a d D everything her children are thinking. 13. Most children are toilet trained by 15 months A a d D of age. 14. A mother should do her best to avoid any dis- A a d D appointment for her children. 15. It is frequently necessary to drive the mischief A a d D out of a child before he will behave. 16. A mother must give up her own happiness for that A a d D of her child. 17. Sometimes it's necessary for a wife to tell off her A a d D husband in order to get her rights. 18. Strict discipline develops a fine strong character. A a d D 19. Mothers very often feel that they can't stand their A a d D children a moment longer. 20. A parent should never be made to look wrong in a A a d D child's eyes. 21. The child should be taught to revere his parents A a d D above all other grown-ups. 22. Having to be with children all the time gives a A a d D woman the feeling her wings have been clipped. 23. Parents who start a child talking about his worries A a d D don't realize that sometimes it's better to leave well enough alone. 24. It is very important that young boys and girls A a d D not be allowed to see each other completely undressed. 25. A child should never keep a secret from his A a d D parents. 26. The sooner a child learns to walk the better he A a d D is trained. 27. A child should be protected from jobs which might A a d D be too hard for him. 59 28. A wise parent will teach a child early just who A a d D is boss. .29. Few women get the gratitude they deserve for all A a d D they have done for their children. 30. No matter how well a married couple love one A a d D another, there are always differences that cause irritation and lead to arguments. 31. Children who are held to firm rules grow up to A a d D be the best adults. 32. It's a rare mother who can be sweet and even A a d D tempered with her children all day. 33. Children should never learn things outside the A a d D home which make them doubt their parents' ideas. 34. A child soon learns that there is no greater A a d D wisdom than that of his parents. 35. Most young mothers are bothered by the feeling A a d D of being shut up in the home than by anything else. 36. Children pester you with all their little upsets A a d D if you aren't careful from the first. 37. Children who take part in sex play become sex A a d D criminals when they grow up. 38. An alert parent should try to learn all her A a d D child's thoughts. 39. The earlier a child is weaned from its emotional A a d D ties to its parents the better it will handle its own problems. 40. Parents should know better than to allow their A a d D children to be exposed to difficult situations. 41. Children need some of the natural meanness taken A a d D out of them. 42. Children should be more considerate of their mothers A a d D since their mothers suffer so much for them. 43. There are some things which just can't be settled A a d D by a mild discussion. 44. Most children should have more discipline than A a d D they get. 45. Raising children is a nerve wracking job. A a d D 60 46. The child should not question the thinking of A a d D the parent. 47. Parents deserve the highest esteem and regard A a d D of their children. 48. One of the bad things about raising children is A a d D that you aren't free enough of the time to do just as you like. 49. If a child has upset feelings it is best to leave A a d D him alone and not make it look serious. 50. Sex is one of the greatest problems to contend A a d D with in children. 51. A mother has the right to know everything going A a d D on in her child's life because her child is part of her. 52. A mother should make an effort to get her child A a d D toilet trained at the earliest possible time. 53. Children should be kept away from all hard jobs A a d D which may be discouraging. 54. It is sometimes necessary for parents to break A a d D a child's will. 55. Mothers sacrifice almost all their own fun for A a d D their children. 56. It's natural to have quarrels when two people who A a d D both have minds of their own get married. 57. Children are actually happier under strict A a d D training. 58. It's natural for a mother to "blow her top" when A a d D children are selfish and demanding. 59. There is nothing worse than a child hearing A a d D criticism of his mother. 60. Loyalty to parents comes before anything else. A a d D 61. A young mother feels "held down" because there A a d D are lots of things she wants to do while she is young. 62. The trouble with giving attention to children's A a d D problems is they usually just make up a lot of stories to keep you interested. 61 63. There is usually something wrong with a child who A a d D asks a lot of questions about sex. 64. It is a mother's duty to make sure she knows her A a d D child's innermost thoughts. 65. A child should be weaned away from the bottle or A a d D breast as soon as possible. 66. A good mother lets her child learn the hard way A a d D about life. 67. A child should never be taught to fear adults. A a d D 68. Parents shouldn't feel they have to sacrifice for A a d D their children. 69. There is no reason for arguments in a happy A a d D marriage. 70. Strict training will make a child resent his A a d D parents later on. 71. There is no reason why a day with the children A a d D should be upsetting. 72. Children have every right to question their A a d D mothers' views. 73. Loyalty on the part of children to their parents A a d D is something that the parents should earn. 74. Taking care of a home doesn't have to coop a A a d D woman up. 75. Children should be encouraged to talk about their A a d D problems. 76. Children should be taught about sex as soon as A a d D possible. 77. A child's thoughts and ideas are his own business. A a d D 78. Very few children are toilet trained by 15 months. A a d D 79. A child should learn that he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 80. You can't make a child behave by cracking down on A a d D him. 81. There is no reason why a mother can't be happy and A a d D make her child happy too. 62 82. A good wife never has to argue with her husband. A a d D 83. Strict discipline makes children grow up mean and A a d D rebellious. 84. Most mothers never get to the point where they A a d D can't stand their children. 85. If a parent is wrong he should admit it to his A a d D child. 86. A child should be taught that there are many other A a d D people he will love and respect as much or more than his own parents. 87. Most mothers are content to be with children all A a d D the time. 88. A child should always be encouraged to talk about A a d D his troubles. 89. There is nothing wrong with bathing boys and girls A a d D in the same bath tub. 90. Children are entitled to keep their own secrets. A a d D 91. A child should take all the time he wants to A a d D before he walks. 92. Children should be encouraged to undertake tough A a d D j obs if they want to. 93. There is no need for children to look on parents A a d D as their bosses. 94. Most children are grateful to their parents. A a d D 95. If a couple really loves each other there are A a d D very few arguments in their married life. 96. If children are given too many rules they will A a d D grow up to be unhappy adults. 97. Most mothers can spend all day with the. children A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 98. A child should be encouraged to look for answers A a d D to his questions from other people even if the answers contradict his parents. 99. Most children soon learn that their parents were A a d D mistaken in many of their ideas. 63 100. Most young mothers don't mind spending most of their time at home. A a d D 101. A mother should be concerned with any problem of A a d D a child no matter how trivial. 102. Sex play is a normal thing in children. A a d D 103. A good parent doesn't pry into the child's A a d D thoughts. 104. A child needs to be emotionally close to its A a d D parents for a long time. 105. Children have to face difficult situations on A a d D their own. 106. If a child acts mean he needs understanding rather A a d D than punishment. 107. Children don't "owe" their mothers anything. A a d D 108. Almost any problem can be solved by quietly A a d D talking it over. 109. Most children are disciplined too much. A a d D 110. Raising children is an easy job. A a d D 111. When a child thinks his parent is wrong he A a d D should say so. 112. A parent should not expect to be more highly A a d D esteemed than other worthy adults in their children's eyes. 113. If you run your home right you have plenty of A a d D time to do the things you like to do. 114. A mother should always be concerned about upset A a d D feelings in a child. 115. Sex is no great problem for children if the parent A a d D doesn't make:.it one. 116. Being a mother doesn't give women the right to know A a d D everything in their children's lives. 117. Toilet training should be put off until the child A a d D indicates he is ready. 118. Children should be encouraged to undertake all kinds A a d D of jobs no matter how hard. 64 119. Children have a right to rebel and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 120. Having children doesn't' mean you can't have as A a d D much fun as you usually do. 121. Husbands and wives who have different views can A a d D still get along without arguments. 122. Strict training makes children unhappy. A a d D 123. A mother should keep control of her temper even A a d D when children are demanding. 124. A good mother can tolerate criticism of herself A a d D even when the children are around. 125. Loyalty to parents is an over-emphasized virtue. A a d D 126. Most young mothers are pretty content with home A a d D life. 127. Anything a child wants to tell a parent is A a d D important enough to listen to; 128. Children are normally curious about sex. A a d D 129. Every child should have an inner life which is A a d D only his business. 130. The longer a child is bottle or breast fed the A a d D more secure he will feel. 65 APPENDIX D FINAL REVISED FORM OF PARI INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES ON FAMILY LIFE AND CHILDREN Read each of the statements below and then rate them as follows: A a d D strongly mildly mildly strongly agree agree disagree disagree Indicate your opinion by drawing a circle around the "A" if you strongly agree, around the "a" if you mildly agree, around the "d" if you mildly disagree and around the "D" if you strongly disagree. There are no right or wrong answers, so answer according to your own opinion. It is very important to the study that all questions be answered. Many of the statements will seem alike but all are necessary to show slight differences of opinion. 1. A good mother should shelter her child from life's A a d D little difficulties. 2. A child should never be taught to fear adults. A a d D 3. Children should realize how much parents have to A a d D give up for them. 4. There is no reason for arguments in a happy A a d D marriage. 5. A child will be grateful later on for strict A a d D training. 6. There is no reason why a day with the children A a d D should be upsetting. 7. It's best for the child if he never gets to A a d D wondering if his mother's views are right. 8. Loyalty on the part of children to their parents A a d D is something that the parents should earn. 9. One of the worst things about taking care of a A a d D home is a woman feels that she can't get out. 10. Children should be encouraged to talk about their A a d D problems. 66 11. Most children are toilet trained by 15 months A a d D of age. 12. A child's thoughts and ideas are his own business. A a d D 13. It is frequently necessary to drive the mischief A a d D out of a child before he will behave. 14. A child should learn that he has to be disappointed A a d D sometimes. 15. Sometimes it's necessary for a wife to tell off her A a d D husband in order to get her rights. 16. There is no reason why a mother can't be happy and A a d D make her child happy too. 17. Mothers very often feel that they can't stand their A a d D children a moment longer. 18. Strict discipline makes children grow up mean and A a d D rebellious. 19. The child should be taught to revere his parents A a d D above all other grown-ups. 20. If a parent is wrong he should admit it to his A a d D child. 21. Parents who start a child talking about his A a d D worries don't realize that sometimes it's better to leave well enough alone. 22. Most mothers are content to be with children all A a d D the time. 23. A child should never keep a secret from his A a d D parents. 24. A child should take all the time he wants before A a d D he walks. 25. A child should be protected from jobs which might A a d D be too hard for him. 26. There is no need for children to look on parents A a d D as their bosses. 27. Few women get the gratitude they deserve for all A a d D they have done for their children. 28. If a couple really loves each other there are very A a d D few arguments in their married life. 67 29. Children who are held to firm rules grow up to be A a d D the best adults. 30. Most mothers can spend all day with the children A a d D and remain calm and even-tempered. 31. Children should never learn things outside the A a d D home which make them doubt their parents' ideas. 32. Most children soon learn that their parents were A a d D mistaken in many of their ideas. 33. Most young mothers are bothered by the feeling of A a d D being shut up in the house than by anything else. 34. A mother should be concerned with any problem of A a d D a child no matter how trivial. 35. The earlier a child is weaned from its emotional A a d D ties to its parents the better it will handle its own problems. 36. A good parent doesn't pry into the child's A a d D thoughts. 37. Children need some of the natural meanness taken A a d D out of them. 38. Children have to face difficult situations on their A a d D own. 39. There are some things which just can't be settled A a d D by a mild discussion. 40. Children don't "owe" their mothers anything. A a d D 41. Raising children is a nerve wracking job. A a d D 42. Most children are disciplined too much. A a d D 43. Parents deserve the highest esteem and regard of A a d D their children. 44. When ;a child thinks his parents are wrong he should A a d D say so. 45. If a child has upset feelings it is best to leave A a d D him alone and not make it look serious. 68 46. If you run your home right you have plenty of time A a d D to do the things you like to do. 47. A mother has the right to know everything that is A a d D going on in her child's life because her child is part of her. 48. Toilet training should be put off until the child A a d D indicates he is ready. 49. Children should be kept away from all hard jobs A a d D which may be discouraging. 50. Children have a right to rebel and be stubborn A a d D sometimes. 51. Mothers sacrifice almost all their own fun for A a d D their children. 52. Husbands and wives .who have different views can A a d D still get along without arguments. 53. Children are actually happier under strict A a d D training. 54. A mother should keep control of her temper even A a d D when children are demanding. 55. There is nothing worse than a child hearing A a d D criticism of his mother. 56. Loyalty to parents is an over-emphasized virtue. A a d D 57. A young mother feels "held down" because there are A a d D lots of things she wants to do while she is still young. 58. Anything a child wants to tell a parent is important A a d D enough to listen to. 59. A child should be weaned away from the bottle or A a d D breast as soon as possible. 60. Every child should have an inner life which is A a d D only his business. 69 APPENDIX E INTRODUCTORY LETTER Dear Parents: A study is being undertaken at the- University of British Columbia on the attitudes of mothers towards child rearing and family life. This study is an attempt to duplicate one conducted twenty years ago to discover if there is any relationship between school achievement and parental attitudes. The cooperation of the Vancouver School Board has been enlisted in order to contact parents of children who were enrolled in grade one in the school year ending June, 1981. Participation in this study is voluntary. Not all parents will be contacted due to limited time and money for the project. If you are willing to participate please sign the form and return it to school with your child. An interviewer will then contact you by phone to arrange a convenient time to drop off the questionnaire. All answers will be strictly confi dential. Your cooperation in this study is very much appreciated. fill out the questionnaire on maternal attitudes towards child rearing and family life. I understand that my name will not be used and that all answers will be kept strictly confidential. \ I, , am willing to volunteer to (Please print name) (Signature) (Date) (Address) (Phone) 70 APPENDIX E EXPLANATORY LETTER My name is Janice Richardson. I am a grade one teacher for the Vancouver School Board and a graduate student at the University of British Columbia. Currently, I am involved in a research project for the university that is attempting to establish whether there is any relationship between parental attitudes towards child rearing and family life and learning problems. As you are aware, some children find it easier to learn to read than others. Research indicates that these learning problems begin as early as grade one. Therefore, we felt that interviewing mothers of children who had recently completed grade one might give us some insight. This is strictly voluntary. You do not have to answer any of the questions and you may withdraw at any time. However, we would really appre ciate your cooperation. Your answers will be of great value in our study. There are no right or wrong answers. Everyone has his or her own ideas on how children should be raised. We are drawing from a broad spectrum of mothers whose children have just completed grade one. We have no idea how your child has performed academic ally. Your answers will be kept strictly confidential. Please do not put your name on the questionnaire. All the information will be coded and the original questionnaires destroyed to protect your privacy. So as not to use too much of your time we have a list of ideas that other mothers have contributed. When you are answering the questions please keep in mind your child who has recently completed grade one. 71 Circle the large "A" if you strongly agree with the statement. Circle the small "a" if you mildly agree with the statement. Circle the small "d" if you mildly disagree with the statement. Circle the large "D" if you strongly disagree with the statement. If you have any ideas which you feel should be included, jot them down at the end. I would appreciate having them. Others who have given me their ideas say it is best to work quickly. Give your first reaction. If you read and reread the statements it gets confusing and you can't finish in the amount of time we have. Please do not ask anyone else what they think while you.are doing the questions. It is your opinion as a mother that I am interested in. If you complete the questionnaire, I will assume that you are willing to take part. Thank you for your time and opinions. 72 APPENDIX F Table 1 PARI Scale Numbers and Corresponding Revised Scale Numbers PARI Revised Scale Scale 2 1 Fostering Dependency 4 2 Breaking the Will 5 3 Martyrdom 7 4 Marital Conflict 8 5 Strictness 9 6 Irritability 10 7 Excluding Outside Influences 11 8 Deification 13 9 Rejection of the Homemaking Role 16 10 Avoidance of Communication 20 11 Intrusiveness 22 12 Acceleration of Development 73 APPENDIX F Table 2 PARI Factored Scales 1. Encouraging Verbalization 2. Fostering Dependency 3. Seclusion of the Mother 4. Breaking the Will 5. Martyrdom 6. Fear of Harming the Baby 7. Marital Conflict 8. Strictness 9. Irritability 10. Excluding Outside Influences 11. IDeification of the Parent 12. Suppression of Aggression 13. Rejection of Homemaking Role 14. Equalitarianism 15. Approval of Activity 16. Avoidance of Communication 17. Inconsiderateness of the Husband 18. Suppression of Sexuality 19. Ascendency of the Mother 20. Int rusivenes s 21. Comradeship and Sharing 22. Acceleration of Development 23. Dependency of the Mother 74 APPENDIX F Table 3 Scales and Items Used In conjunction With Zuckerman's Factors^ Factor A - Authoritarian Control (Z) 1. Harsh Punitive-Control (S&B) Scale Name PARI Revised Scale Scale (4) (10) (11) 2 7 Breaking the Will Excluding Outside Influences Deification Revised Item Numbers .2,13,26,37,50 7,20,31,44,55 8,19,32,43,56 2. Suppression and Interpersonal Distance (S&B) (16) 10 Avoidance of Communication 10,21,34,45,58-Over-possessiveness (S&B) (2) (5) (20) 1 3 11 Fostering Dependency Martyrdom Intrusiveness 1,14,25,38,49 3,16,27,40,51 12,23,36,47,60 Excessive Demand for Striving (S&B) (8). (22) 5 12 Strictness Acceleration of 5,18,29,42,53 11,24,35,48,59 Factor B - Hostility-Rejection (Z, S&B) (7) (9) (13) 4 6 9 Marital .Conflict Irritability Rejection of the Home-Making Role 4,15,28,39,52 6,17,30,41,54 9,22,33,46,57 (Z) - Zuckerman (S&B) - Schaeffer and Bell 75 APPENDIX F Table 4 Scales and Corresponding Item Numbers (2) 1 (4) 2 (5) 3 (7) 4 (8) 5: .'(9)' 6: (10) 7 1-P 2-R 3-P 4-R 5-P 6-R 7-P 14-R 13-P 16-R 15-P 18-R 17-P 20-R 25-P 26-R 27-P 28-R 29-P 30-R 31-P 38-R 37-P 40-R 39-P 42-R 41-P 44-R 49-P 50-R 51-P 52-R 53-P 54-R 55-P (11) 8 (13) 9 8-R 9-P 19-P 22-R 32-R 33-P 43-P 46-R 56-R 57-P (16) 10 10-R 21-P 34-R 45-P 58-R (20) 11 12-R 2 3-P 36-R 47-P 60-R (22) 12 11-P 24-R 35-P 48-R 59-P (2) - (22) : PARI Scale Numbers 1-12: Revised Scale Numbers P: PARI Scales R: Reversed Scales APPENDIX F Table 5 Number of Participating Students and Mothers Classified by Grade, . . Sex and Achievement Level Achievement Students Mothers Level Grade 1 2 Male Achievers 2 0 2 Male Underachievers 0 11 11 Female Achievers 16 0 16 Female Underachievers 0 2 2 77 APPENDIX F Table 6 Mean Scores•for Male Underachievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B FACTOR A - AUTHORITARIAN CONTROL (Z) GRADE TWO MALE UNDERACHIEVERS Harsh Punitive Control (S&B) 2 11;33 7 11.0 8 11.21 Total Means 11.18 Suppression and Interpersonal Distance (S&B) v 10 • 8.73 Over-Possessiveness (S&B) 1 10.64 3 12.25 11 i 13.93 Total Means 12.27 Excessive Demand for Striving (S&B) 5 15.10 12 12.5Total Means 13.8 FACTOR A MEANS 11.50 FACTOR B - HOSTILITY-REJECTION (Z.S&B) 4 13.95 6 11.68 9 12.2FACTOR B TOTAL MEANS 12.64 78 APPENDIX F Table 7 Mean' "Scores for :Female Achievers on Zuckerman's Factors A and B FACTOR A - AUTHORITARIAN CONTROL (Z) GRADE ONE FEMALE ACHIEVERS Harsh Punitive Control (S&B) 2 10.63 7 9.0 8 12.Total Means 10.54 Suppression and Interpersonal Distance (S&B) 10 14-56 ; Over-Possessiveness (S&B) 1 8.06 3 10.0 11 12.19 Total Means 10.08 Excessive Demand for Striving (S&B) 5 14.63 12 9.44 Total Means 12.0FACTOR A MEANS 11.81 FACTOR B - HOSTILITY-REJECTION (Z,S&B) 4 " 15.81 6 13.25 9 13.69 FACTOR B TOTAL MEANS 14.25 79 

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