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Efficacy study of brief Morita therapy intervention with shy adolescents Donahue, Patricia A. 1988

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EFFICACY STUDY INTERVENTION OF BRIEF WITH SHY MORITA THERAPY ADOLESCENTS by PATRICIA A. DONAHUE R.N., ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL, MONTREAL, 1968 B.PE., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d Dr. I . I s h i y a m a , S u p e r v i s o r Dr. W. B o l d t Dr. R. Young > THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1988 ©Patricia A. Donahue In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date O c t o b e r 8. 1988 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The s t u d y examines the change e f f e c t of b r i e f M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , based on M o r i t a t h e r a p y , as an i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h shy a d o l e s c e n t females (n = 12). The d e s i g n used was a m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e a c r o s s s u b j e c t s w i t h a time l a g f o r t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . S u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from the mainstream s t u d e n t body a t a Vancouver secondary s c h o o l f o l l o w i n g s c r e e n i n g w i t h the Cheek and Buss (1981) Shyness S c a l e used i n i d e n t i f y i n g shyness i n i n d i v i d u a l s . E l i g i b l e s t u d e n t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of t h r e e groups each c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r s u b j e c t s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n s i s t e d of 4 - 45 minute i n s t r u c t i o n a l - t y p e group c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s c o n d u c t e d over a 4-week p e r i o d . Repeated measures were a d m i n i s t e r e d b i - w e e k l y t h r o u g h o u t the stu d y p e r i o d of 14 weeks. C l e a r l y n o t i c a b l e changes i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n o c c u r r e d f o r the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s on almost a l l sub-s c a l e s . S u b j e c t s i n t h e p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e i r t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s , g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r shy n a t u r e , l e s s i n t e n s i t y o f , and d i s t u r b a n c e by a n x i o u s f e e l i n g s and l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n t a k i n g d e s i r e d a c t i o n d e s p i t e a n x i e t y . B e h a v i o r a l c o u n t s taken p r e - and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o s u p p o r t the p o s i t i v e change f i n d i n g s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i T i t l e Page A b s t r a c t . i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s , v i i , v i i i , i x , x Acknowledgements x i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 I Background ± I I R a t i o n a l e 3 I I I Aim I4. I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 6 I I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 I I S h y n e s s / S o c i a l A n x i e t y i n A d o l e s c e n t s .. 7 I I I S o c i a l A n x i e t y S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Female S u b j e c t s 10 IV R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h I n v o l v i n g A d o l e s c e n t s as S u b j e c t s .... n V R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s on M o r i t a Therapy VI Summary of L i t e r a t u r e 17 V I I Purpose 20 V I I I H y p o t h e s i s 20 i v I I I METHODOLOGY 23 I R a t i o n a l e and B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n 23 I I S u b j e c t s 24-I I I A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s 28 IV Measures 30 A. Dependent V a r i a b l e s Measured 30 B. A n c i l l a r y Measures . 31+ V Pr o c e d u r e VI Treatment 36 V I I C o u n s e l o r 37 IV RESULTS 39 I G r a p h i c P r o f i l e s of S e l f - R e p o r t Repeated Measures S c o r e s I4.Q I I S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Repeated Measures 93 I I I Shyness S c r e e n i n g S c a l e 96 IV B e h a v i o r a l R e p o r t s 98 V Summary 100 V DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 10^ I D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 10^ 4-A. Acceptance and P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e Towards the Shy/Anxious Nature 106 B. Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n s 107 C. Degree of B e i n g B o t h e r e d by the S h y / A n x i e t y Problem .... 108 V D. Degree of D i f f i c u l t y i n I n i t i a t i n g D e s i r a b l e A c t i o n i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n ... no E. L e v e l of C o n f i d e n c e i n E n t e r i n g the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n ... no F. A n x i e t y S e v e r i t y i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n ... 112 I I L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 113 A. L i m i t a t i o n s 113 B. Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 115 I I I I m p l i c a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY 118 APPENDIX PART 1 125 APPENDIX PART 2 1^3 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of Shyness S c a l e (Cheek & Buss) 2 Cheek & Buss Shyness S c a l e S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 3 P e r c e n t a g e s of Improvement f o r a l l Groups on t h e 7-Repeated Measures 4 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of 7-Repeated Measures - A Comparison Between B a s e l i n e and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n 5 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of B e h a v i o r a l Counts P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n Phases 6 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of B e h a i o r a l Counts i a Comparison Between B a s e l i n e and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Group 1, S c a l e 8 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 8 - A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e 2 Group 1, S c a l e 8 Trends on S c a l e 8 -A n x i e t y Acceptance 5^ 3 Group 2, S c a l e 8 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 8 - A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e 1^ 6 4 Group 2, S c a l e 8 Trends on S c a l e 8 - A n x i e t y Acceptance l\7 5 Group 3, S c a l e 8 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 8 - A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e i+8 6 Group 3, S c a l e 8 Trends on S c a l e 8 - A n x i e t y Acceptance lf9 7 Group 1, S c a l e 2 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s 52 8 Group 1, S c a l e 2 Trends on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n . . 5 3 9 Group 2, S c a l e 2 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s 5/4. 10 Group 2, S c a l e 2 Trends on S c a l e 2 - Co p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 55 11 Group 3, S c a l e 2 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s 56 v i i i 12 Group 3, S c a l e 2 Trends on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n 57 13 Group 1, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by t h e Shyness Problem 61 14 Group 1, S c a l e 7 Trends on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem . . £,2 15 Group 2, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n c e s Caused by t h e Shyness Problem . . ^ 16 Group 2, S c a l e 7 Trends on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem . . 64-17 Group 3, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem .. 65 18 Group 3, S c a l e 7 Trends on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem .. 66 19 Group 1, S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 70 20 Group 1, S c a l e 5 Trends on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 71 21 Group 2, S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 72 22 Group 2, S c a l e 5 Trends on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n IX 23 Group 3, S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 74 24 Group 3, S c a l e 5 Trends on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 75 25 Group 1, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 78 26 Group 1, S c a l e 6 Trends on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 79 27 Group 2, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree, of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 80 28 Group 2, S c a l e 6 Trends on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 81 29 Group 3, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n .. 82 30 Group 3, S c a l e 6 Trends on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n .... 83 31 Group 1, S c a l e 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s .... 87 32 Group 1, S c a l e 4 Trends on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s .... 88 33 Group 2, S c a l e S c a l e 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s • • • • 89 34 Group 2, S c a l e 4 Trends on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s 35 Group 3, S c a l e 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s .... 91 36 Group 3, S c a l e 4 Trends on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s .... 92 37 B e h a v i o r a l Counts P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n 99 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o the chairman of my committee, Dr. I . I s h i y a m a , and t o the members of t h e committee, D r s . W. B o l d t and R. Young f o r t h e i r g u idance and p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h i s endeavor. In a d d i t i o n , I want t o acknowledge L a r s Andersson f o r h i s o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t and encouragement. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y aims t o e x p l o r e t h e e x p e r i e n c e of shyness f o r a d o l e s c e n t females and t o a s s e s s the e f f i c a c y of M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , as an i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n a d d r e s s i n g t h i s problem. I Background M o r i t a t h e r a p y , i s a Japanese approach t o t r e a t i n g s e l f - f o c u s e d , a n x i e t y - r i d d e n c l i e n t s , and was d e v e l o p e d i n Japan by Dr.Shoma M o r i t a i n the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y . The t h e r a p y ' s u n d e r l y i n g f o u n d a t i o n i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d . a c c e p t a n c e of a n x i e t y as a normal and p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l human emotion. I n s t e a d of v i e w i n g a n x i e t y as a p e r s o n a l weakness or as a drawback t o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , c l i e n t s a r e encouraged t o ta k e a p o s i t i v e s t a n c e , a c c e p t i n g t h e i r a n x i o u s n a t u r e as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i f e and t h e i r d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A nother t e n e t of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i s t h a t d e s p i t e a n x i e t y one s t i l l has c h o i c e of a c t i o n t a k i n g , t h a t i s , the i n d i v i d u a l cannot c o n t r o l emotions w i l l f u l l y but can c o n t r o l b e h a v i o r . Through a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t a k i n g , the c l i e n t of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i s empowered t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e i n s t e a d of w i t h d r a w i n g i n t o n o n - p r o d u c t i v i t y and i s o l a t i o n . 2 M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , f i r m l y based on M o r i t a t h e r a p y , has been promoted by Ishiyama (1986a, 1986b) i n what he r e f e r s t o as "the p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e " . T h i s c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n promotes c l i e n t s ' g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e of emotion and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e l p s them a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o d u c t i v e l i v i n g . In a p p l y i n g M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g as an i n t e r v e n t i o n , the t h e r a p i s t i s not a i m i n g t o r i d the c l i e n t of a n x i e t y but r a t h e r t o have them become c o n s t r u c t i v e , s e l f - v a l u i n g i n d i v i d u a l s d e s p i t e t h e i r a n x i o u s n a t u r e . The M o r i t a t h e r a p i s t uses a c o m b i n a t i o n of empathic and d i d a c t i c t e c h n i q u e s and b e h a v i o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n h e l p i n g the c l i e n t p o s i t i v e l y r e i n t e r p r e t t h e i r s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d and e g o c e n t r i c f o c u s stemming from shyness and s o c i a l a n x i e t y symptoms. Wi t h i n c r e a s e d s e l f - f o c u s , c l i e n t s become mood-based and n e g l e c t a t t e n d i n g t o the t a s k s a t hand l e a d i n g t o ever d e c r e a s i n g s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M o r i t a t h e r a p y has p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l i n t r e a t i n g a n x i e t y - t y p e e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l problems i n c l u d i n g shyness b o t h i n Japan and i n the West ( I s h i y a m a , 1986; Kawai & Kondo, 1960; M i u r a & Usa, 1970; M o r i t a , 1926/1974; S u z u k i & S u z u k i , 1977; R e y n o l d s , 1976). S t u d i e s u s i n g b r i e f , or s i n g l e s e s s i o n M o r i t a t r e a t m e n t have been s u c c e s s f u l i n showing improvement i n s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s Western c l i e n t s ( I s h i y a m a , 1983, 1986c, 1987b). In I s h i y a m a ' s (1983) s t u d y , where o n l y one t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n was used, a f o l l o w - u p 3 o b s e r v a t i o n one y e a r l a t e r r e v e a l e d no r e l a p s e i n the c l i e n t ' s former problem of t e s t a n x i e t y . S i n c e M o r i t a t r e a t m e n t the c l i e n t c o n t i n u e d on a p o s i t i v e t r e n d . In o t h e r of I s h i y a m a ' s s t u d i e s (1984b, as few as t h r e e c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n c l e a r t h e r a p e u t i c change, where q u a l i t a t i v e changes, as r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s , were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o b j e c t i v e f i n d i n g s . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n Japan i n v o l v i n g c l i e n t s t r e a t e d on e i t h e r an i n - or o u t -p a t i e n t b a s i s has shown d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e change as o b s e r v e d 18 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t ( S u z u k i & S u z u k i , 1977; S u z u k i , K ataoka & Karasawa,1982). Many of t h e s e c l i e n t s were o r i g i n a l l y s e v e r l y h andicapped by t h e i r n e r v o u s , s e l f -f o c u s e d c o n d i t i o n s and were now a b l e t o l e a d p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s d e s p i t e t h e i r shy s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e . I I R a t i o n a l e D u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e the i n d i v i d u a l i s e x p l o r i n g b o u n d a r i e s and i s i n the p r o c e s s of f o r m i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e i s a p e r i o d of a c c e n t u a t e d s e l f - f o c u s w i t h h e i g h t e n e d a n x i e t y and s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s . E x p l o r a t i o n and i n t r o s p e c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y form p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s . I t can e a s i l y be u n d e r s t o o d how peer e v a l u a t i v e feedback and the a d o l e s c e n t ' s own s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o n e r v o u s n e s s and performance a n x i e t y l e a d i n g t o w i t h d r a w a l and d i m i n i s h e d s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t . Zimbardo (1974) and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have 4 r e p o r t e d the common o c c u r a n c e of shyness amongst a d o l e s c e n t s . He s t a t e s t h a t over 50% of N o r t h American a d o l e s c e n t s c l a i m t o be shy as opposed t o 40% of t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . I t would appear t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t group c o u l d g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from g u i d a n c e and i n s t r u c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the e m o t i o n a l s e l f and i t s n a t u r e and the knowledge t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e i s alw a y s an o p t i o n d e s p i t e the p r e s e n c e of a n x i e t y . R e s e a r c h on M o r i t a t h e r a p y w i t h Western c l i e n t s i s l i m i t e d , and as t o the i n v o l v e m e n t of a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y pe of r e s e a r c h i t i s n o n - e x i s t e n t . I l l Aim The p r i m a r y aim of the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o t e s t i f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l model of b r i e f M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i s e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g shy a d o l e s c e n t females t o overcome t h e i r s h y n e s s -r e l a t e d e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . P o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the stu d y i s i n p r o m o t i n g an i n s i g h t f u l and a p p l i e d approach t o a d o l e s c e n t s h y n e s s / s o c i a l a n x i e t y c o u n s e l i n g and p o s s i b l y b r i n g about some needed changes i n the p r a c t i c e of c o u n s e l i n g shy p e r s o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s b o t h i n the s c h o o l system and i n community a g e n c i e s may f i n d w i t h i n M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g a new d i r e c t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s common problem a r e a . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n d u c t e d by way of a m u l t i p l e -b a s e l i n e d e s i g n a c r o s s s u b j e c t s . A t i m e - l a g of 1 week between 3 groups of s u b j e c t s f o r t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n i s 5 i n p l a c e . The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s 4 - M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s c o n d u c t e d over a f o u r week p e r i o d . S e l f - r e p o r t r e p e a t e d measures were t a k e n b i - w e e k l y t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e 14-week d u r a t i o n of t h e s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , b e h a v i o r a l c o u n t s were r e c o r d e d by s u b j e c t s f o r 2, 5-day p e r i o d s P r e - and P o s t -I n t e r v e n t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 weeks f o l l o w i n g the l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t . 6 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I INTRODUCTION Shyness ( F r a n c o , C h r i s t o f f , Crimmins, & K e l l y , 1983; Zimbardo, 1977) and h e t e r o s o c i a l a n x i e t y ( A r k o w i t z , H i n t o n , P e r l & H i m a d i , 1978; L e a r y & S c h l e n k e r , 1981) have been i d e n t i f i e d as two s p e c i f i c problems f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . Buss (1980) d e f i n e s shyness i n terms of one's r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g w i t h s t r a n g e r s or c a s u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s : t e n s i o n , c o n c e r n , f e e l i n g s of awkwardness and d i s c o m f o r t and b o t h gaze a v e r s i o n and i n h i b i t i o n of n o r m a l l y e x p e c t e d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . Shyness i s a l s o d e f i n e d as , "... a tendency t o a v o i d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and t o f a i l t o p a r t i c i p a t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s " , ( P i l k o n i s , 1977b, p.596). Viewed i n t h i s manner, shyness can be seen as a form of s o c i a l a n x i e t y and s o c i a l a v o i d a n c e (Buss, 1980; L e a r y , 1983a). Another d i m e n s i o n of shyness i s put f o r t h by Buss (1980) who d e f i n e s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s shyness as an a c u t e awareness of o n e s e l f as a s o c i a l o b j e c t , i n v o l v i n g a f e e l i n g of e x c e s s i v e exposure t o the s c r u t i n y of o t h e r s . In the p e r i o d of a d o l e s c e n c e w i t h i t s g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n and e g o c e n t r i c r e a s o n i n g , one way i n which shyness and h e t e r o s o c i a l a n x i e t y a r e t r a n s l a t e d i s i n c o g n i t i v e s e l f - f o c u s e d n e g a t i v i t y and 7 r e l u c t a n c e t o take a c t i o n ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i & L a r s o n , 1984; H a n s e l l e t a l , 1986; Kegan, 1982). C o g n i t i v e s e l f - f o c u s e d n e g a t i v i t y t h a t i s , d w e l l i n g on one's n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s and p e r c e p t i o n s , i s m a n i f e s t e d i n n e g a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a n x i e t y , low degree of a c c e p t a n c e of the a n x i o u s s e l f and d i m i n i s h e d c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ( I s h i y a m a , 1984). A c c o r d i n g t o A l d e n and Cappe (1986), shy i n d i v i d u a l s appear t o be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o t h e r s ' a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h e i r b e h a v i o r l e a d i n g t o ongoing s e l f -o b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n which o f t e n r e s u l t s i n n e g a t i v e assessment. A l d e n and Cappe (1986, p.343), w r o t e , " I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n and n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n i n c r e a s e s a n x i e t y and b e h a v i o r a l i n h i b i t i o n " . In s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k of f o r m i n g peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Kegan, 1982) the s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s a d o l e s c e n t must move t h r o u g h t h i s c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l n e g a t i v i t y i n o r d e r t o t a k e the i n i t i a l s t e p s i n i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . I I SHYNESS/SOCIAL ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS The a d o l e s c e n t s ' view of th e m s e l v e s and the w o r l d i s i n the p r o c e s s of on-going change. In the s h o r t f i v e y e a r s from ages 13 t o 17, one may ob s e r v e s i g n i f i c a n t m a t u r a t i o n o c c u r i n g (Kegan, 1982; G a r b a r i n o , 1985; E r i k s o n , 1959) whi c h , i n t u r n , has an impact on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r t r a i t development and b e h a v i o r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the i n d i v i d u a l 8 i s i n a s t a t e of d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r a n s i t i o n which n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a l o s s of one's o r g a n i z a t i o n (Kegan, 1982), and the s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y i t a f f o r d s . A key stage f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i s i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n ( E r i k s o n , 1959; G a r b a r i n o , 1985; M a r c i a , 1980). Success a t t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e i s c r u c i a l i f the a d o l e s c e n t i s t o move on to the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k of e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t i m a c y i n a m u t u a l l y t r u s t i n g l i f e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( G r o t e v a n t , Thorbecke & Meyer, 1982). E r i k s o n (1959) s t a t e d t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h p e e r s p r o v i d e s many of the e s s e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n needed f o r the f o r m a t i o n of i d e n t i t y . F u r t h e r t o t h i s , O r n s t e i n and S o b e l (1988) proposed t h a t the need f o r community i s a key p a r t of our e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r i t a g e and a s s i s t s g r e a t l y i n k e e p i n g us h e a l t h y . I t i s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t b r i n g s about c o g n i t i v e growth, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a b i l i t y t o d e f o c u s and e s t a b l i s h the s e l f as s e p a r a t e from o t h e r s ( P i a g e t , 1952). In t h i s p r o c e s s of n e c e s s a r y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , a p r o c e s s u s u a l l y d i m i n i s h e d i n shy a d o l e s c e n t s , a d a p t a t i o n o c c u r s . A c c o r d i n g t o G a r b a r i n o ( 1 9 8 5 ) , a d a p t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e by way of two c o n t i n u a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g complementary p r o c e s s e s which a r e a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation. H i l l (1980a, 1980b) proposes t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n i n v o l v e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of our c h a n g i n g s e l v e s and our c h a n g i n g c o n t e x t s which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i n e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e . Thus the g r e a t need f o r the development of f l e x i b i l i t y i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n by way of s o c i a l 9 p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o G a r b a r i n o (1985), the i n t e r p l a y of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n i s what i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l development. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t can be r e a d i l y seen how i m p o r t a n t i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o c i a l c o n t a c t and i n c l u s i o n i n community. For the a d o l e s c e n t t o a l l o w the s h y / a n x i o u s problem t o i n h i b i t the f o r m a t i o n of t h e s e c o n t a c t s r e s u l t s i n c r i t i c a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s . Cheek et a l (1986) c o n c l u d e t h a t shyness i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low s e l f - e s t e e m and t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e of d e p r e s s i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h s e l f - r e p o r t s on l o n e l i n e s s i n a d o l e s c e n t s a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r l e v e l than found i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Cheek et a l (1986) r e p o r t t h a t t h i s a f f e c t s d a t i n g i n a n e g a t i v e way. A c c o r d i n g t o Friedman (1980) and I s h i y a m a (1984, 1986b), shyness can sometimes i n t e r f e r e w i t h s u c c e s s i n academic achievement. In a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c o g n i t i v e growth, the d e v e l o p i n g moral judgement of the c h i l d has the p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a b i a s i n measurement. I f , as a c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t (1932), the m a t u r i n g c h i l d t a k e s r u l e s l i t e r a l l y and views good o n l y i n terms of o b e d i e n c e , he/she w i l l e v a l u a t e a c t s not i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the m o t i v e t h a t has prompted th e s e a c t s but i n terms of how t h e s e a c t s conform w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s . T h i s i s a r e c o g n i z e d weakness of s e l f - r e p o r t measures as they r e l y s o l e l y on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n / r e p o r t s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o s e t f o r t h a c l e a r p i c t u r e of i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s (Cheek & Buss, 1981; C l a r k & B o l t o n , 1984; Rapoport e t a l , 1981) . I l l SOCIAL ANXIETY STUDIES INVOLVING FEMALE SUBJECTS I t a ppears t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d on the t o p i c of female s o c i a l a n x i e t y (Maccoby & J a c k l i n , 1975). S u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s were c o l l e g e age f e m a l e s , none i n v o l v e d a d o l e s c e n t s o n l y . O'Banion and A r k o w i t z (1977) c o n d u c t e d a stu d y i n v o l v i n g 560 s i n g l e c o l l e g e women on s o c i a l a n x i e t y and s e l e c t i v e memory of o t h e r s ' e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about s e l f . They found t h a t h i g h s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s women s e l e c t i v e l y remember n e g a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e m s e l v e s b e t t e r than low a n x i o u s ones. And, a c c o r d i n g t o C l a r k and A r k o w i t z (1975), p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about o n e s e l f i n such a way as t o s e l e c t i v e l y remember n e g a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s . F e n i g s t e i n (1979) measured 92 females i n v o l v e d i n two s t u d i e s on s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s e l f - a t t e n t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . He c o n f i r m e d the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p e r s o n s h i g h i n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s would be more aware of how they a r e p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s , more s e n s i t i v e and r e a c t more n e g a t i v e l y t o r e j e c t i o n than t h o s e low i n s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A stu d y on 45 females i n r e l a t i o n t o the m o d i f i c a t i o n of s h y n e s s - r e l a t e d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h symptom m i s a t t r i b u t i o n was c o n d u c t e d by B r o d t and Zimbardo (1981). By m i s a t t r i b u t i n g s o c i a l a n x i e t y t o an e x t e r n a l s o u r c e ( h i g h f r e q u e n c y n o i s e ) , they found t h a t shy females showed b o t h v e r b a l and b e h a v i o r a l r e s p o n s e s comparable t o the n o t - s h y females i n t h e s t u d y . O b s e r v e r , s e l f - r e p o r t and p s y c h o l o g i c a l measurements i n d i c a t e d t h a t m i s a t t r i b u t i n g a r o u s a l ( s o c i a l a n x i e t y ) t o an e x t e r n a l s o u r c e can a l t e r s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n a s p e c i f i c way, i n t h i s c a s e , a p o s i t i v e way. Here i t can be seen t h a t i n c r e a s e d a n x i e t y i n f e males tends toward i n c r e a s e d n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and t h u s the need of a t h e r a p e u t i c a pproach t h a t a d d r e s s e s the p o s i t i v e a c c c e p t a n c e of s o c i a l a n x i e t y . As i s i n d i c a t e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t o draw upon i n v o l v i n g the female p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s , which e x p l o r e s t h e i r a n x i e t y e x p e r i e n c e s . IV RELATED RESEARCH INVOLVING ADOLESCENTS AS SUBJECTS Very few p u b l i c a t i o n s seem t o be a v a i l a b l e on i s s u e s d e a l i n g w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s as r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s such as i n the i n t e r p l a y of d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e s , r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y of s e l f - r e p o r t and commitment and a t t r i t i o n i n t h i s age group. The f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s f o c u s on group t r a i n i n g , s e l f -r e p o r t and need f o r r e s e a r c h of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . C h r i s t o f f et a l (1985) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y on shy a d o l e s c e n t s groups u s i n g a m u l t i p l e b a s e l i n e d e s i g n where t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s e s s i o n s , w i t h i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , were c o n d u c t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y a c r o s s t i m e . The i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e i n p r o d u c i n g s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r a l change i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s t u d y r e v e a l e d an i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y of d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s , more p o s i t i v e r e p o r t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l and more p o s i t i v e p a t t e r n s of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . However, p a r t of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d l e s s than c l e a r change and i t was s u s p e c t e d p a r t l y t h a t f l u c t u a t i o n i n l u n c h - t i m e h a b i t s based on weather change c o u l d be a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h i s . A s u r v e y s t u d y done by Ishiyama (1984) i n v o l v e d shy and non-shy groups of a d o l e s c e n t s (based on shyness s e l f - r a t i n g ) of ages 14-16 y e a r s . Ishiyama's (1984) r e s u l t s p o i n t e d out how a d o l e s c e n t s have d i f f e r e n t ways of p r o c e s s i n g th e shyness e x p e r i e n c e . U s i n g q u e s t i o n a i r e and c h e c k l i s t , i t was found t h a t the shy group r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s than d i d the non-shy i n l o n e l i n e s s , i n t e r f e r e n c e of shyness i n academic s u c c e s s , and w i t h d e v e l o p i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex. T h i s p o p u l a t i o n seems t o be a prime one f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n h e l p i n g them u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s h y n e s s , s p a r i n g them the g r i e f of p a i n f u l i s o l a t i o n t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n can b r i n g and h e l p i n g them n u r t u r e a more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n - t a k i n g . One of the most extended s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on a d o l e s c e n t s i s t h a t by H a n s e l l , Mechanic and B r o n d o l o (1986). The s t u d y compared i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s and a d o l e s c e n t development t o s p e c i f i c a l l y e x a m i n i n g i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s and h e a l t h . L e v e l of d e p r e s s i o n was one r e f l e c t i o n of l e v e l of h e a l t h . S u b j e c t s s u r v e y e d over t h r e e y e a r s i n c l u d e d 1,236 a d o l e s c e n t s of mixed c u l t u r a l background i n t h e 7 t h , 9 t h , and 11th g r a d e s . Age and i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s were s l i g h t l y but p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . Females s c o r e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r on i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s than males. S u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h e r i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s s c o r e s r e p o r t e d more d e p r e s s i o n , more a n x i e t y and females r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r d e p r e s s i o n than d i d males. The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , o t h e r k i n d s of d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s such as f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s c h o o l or p e e r s , a c c i d e n t s and i l l n e s s and p a r e n t s may be s o u r c e s of a d o l e s c e n t i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s l e a d i n g t o d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s appears p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r female a d o l e s c e n t s . A l d e n and Cappe (1986) s t a t e t h a t from t h e i r c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e 40% of c l i e n t s s e e k i n g t r e a t m e n t f o r shyness have s i g n i f i c e n t l e v e l s of d e p r e s s i o n . D e s p i t e the l i m i t e d amount of p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on a d o l e s c e n t s , L e r n e r (1981) f o r s e e s an i n c r e a s e d f o c u s on r e s e a r c h on the a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n due t o , " . . . t r a n s i t i o n s i n b i o l o g y , c o g n i t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and emotions t h a t o c c u r a t t h i s time of l i f e " ( p . 2 5 9 ) . He i s o p t i m i s t i c t h a t f u n d i n g p a t t e r n s w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the need t o st u d y t h i s group due t o i n c r e a s e s i n teen pregnancy, i n c i d e n c e s of v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s , and unwed motherhood. He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s group w i l l no l o n g e r be v i c t i m i z e d by s c i e n t i f i c n e g l e c t . V RESEARCH STUDIES ON MORITA THERAPY S t u d i e s c a r r i e d out i n Japan have a l r e a d y c o n f i r m e d the e f f i c a c y of M o r i t a t h e r a p y w i t h s h y / s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s a d u l t c l i e n t s ( S u z u k i , Kataoka & Karasawa, 1982; S u z u k i & S u z u k i , 1977). In outcome s t u d i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h improvement r a t e s have been shown ( S u z u k i & S u z u k i , 1977; S u z u k i , e t a l . 1982). These a u t h o r s , i n each of t h e i r s t u d i e s , s u r v e y e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t hundred and f i f t y former i n p a t i e n t s who had been t r e a t e d w i t h M o r i t a t h e r a p y f o r s e l f - f o c u s e d / n e u r o t i c c o n d i t i o n s . In S u z u k i & S u z u k i ' s (1977) s t u d y ,of the 815 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out t o p a t i e n t s d i s c h a r g e d a t l e a s t 6 months p r e v i o u s , those c u r e d of n e u r o s i s and t h o s e not c o m p l e t e l y c u r e d but s t i l l a b l e t o l e a d normal l i v e s c o m p r i s e d 70.1%. In the same p u b l i c a t i o n two case s t u d i e s were p r e s e n t e d and a f o l l o w - u p of 18 y e a r s i n one and 4 y e a r s i n a n o t h e r showed s i m i l a r s u s t a i n e d p o s i t i v e change. In the S u z u k i e t a l . (1982) s t u d y , a f o l l o w - u p 8 y e a r s a f t e r a d m i s s i o n produced s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n 90% of former i n p a t i e n t s t r e a t e d w i t h M o r i t a t h e r a p y . The mean time r e q u i r e d f o r improvement was 42.5 months. These r e s u l t s l e n d c l e a r s u p p o r t not o n l y t o M o r i t a t h e r a p y ' s e f f i c a c y i n the s h o r t term but a l s o t o i t s s u s t a i n e d e f f e c t i n t r e a t i n g c l i e n t s w i t h n e r v o u s / a n x i e t y d i s o r d e r s . An i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n the West was made by Ishiyama (1986b) i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e " (see Appendix 5 ) , whereby a n x i e t y i s shown t o be a n a t u r a l human e x p e r i e n c e and can be viewed as a s i g n a l r e f l e c t i o n one's d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The i d e a t h a t a c c e p t i n g a n x i e t y and not f i g h t i n g i t , and t h u s opening up a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r c h o i c e of a c t i o n t a k i n g , seems a c o n c r e t e a pproach i n h e l p i n g s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s c l i e n t s p a r t i c u l a r l y shy a d o l e s c e n t s . Would t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y r e f l e c t a h i g h e r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of shyness and g a i n a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r shy n a t u r e ? S e v e r a l s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by Ishiyama (1983, 1985, 1986c) have produced e v i d e n c e of p o s i t i v e change i n s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s c l i e n t s i n c o r p o r a t i n g the " p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e " i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y . Two were s i n g l e case s t u d i e s (1983, 1986c) one i n which a c l i e n t s u f f e r i n g from t e s t a n x i e t y showed ready and s i g n i f i c a n t improvement, s i t t i n g f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h o u t her former i m m o b i l i z i n g s t r e s s one week a f t e r her s i n g l e M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n . The a n o t h e r i n v o l v e d a c l i e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g a n x i e t y when s p e a k i n g i n groups or t o s t r a n g e r s . The r e s u l t s showed c l e a r t h e r a p e u t i c changes (as r e f l e c t e d i n r e p e a t e d s e l f - r e p o r t measures and i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e p o r t s ) a f t e r the M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n when the c l i e n t became more a c c e p t i n g of her a n x i e t y and viewed h e r s e l f as b e t t e r a b l e t o cope w i t h her t a r g e t p r o b l e m s . Another s t u d y y i e l d i n g d e f i n i t e t h e r a p e u t i c change i n v o l v e d two g r o u p s , n=lO, a M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n t e r v e n t i o n group and an empathy-based c o n t r o l group ( I s h i y a m a , i n p r e s s ) . A l l s u b j e c t s were a d u l t s . Not o n l y were p o s i t i v e changes seen p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d of 1 t o 3 b r i e f s e s s i o n s , but were a l s o shown t o have l a s t i n g e f f e c t s . In the s i n g l e s t u d y case ( I s h i y a m a , 1983) the change remained e v i d e n t one ye a r l a t e r thus showing t h i s t h e r a p y ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r c a r r y -over p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . M o r i t a t h e r a p y has been a p p l i e d t o o t h e r than n e r v o u s / a n x i o u s c l i e n t s as i n the r e p o r t s by L e v i n e (1987) and Ogawa (1988). In a c l i n i c a l r e p o r t , L e v i n e (1987) e x p l o r e s the use of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n the t r e a t m e n t of b u l i m i a w i t h female c l i e n t s . P o s i t i v e outcomes a r e r e l a t e d as t h e s e c l i e n t s were a b l e t o change f o c u s from nervous s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n t o making c h o i c e s f o r p r o d u c t i v e l i v i n g . The a u t h o r s t a t e s t h a t one use of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i s t o h e l p c r e a t e a p o s i t i o n of cal m c e n t e r e d n e s s from which c l i e n t s can make r e s p o n s i b l e c h o i c e of f o c u s . T h i s c o u l d a l s o a p p l y t o shy a d o l e s c e n t s . I t would be of i n t e r e s t t o observe i f the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y would e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n a k i n t o calm c e n t e r e d n e s s from which they c o u l d make c o n s t r u c t i v e c h o i c e s , f o r example, i n c o p i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , Ogawa (1988) d e s c r i b e s h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y t o c o u n s e l i n g v i c t i m s of s e x u a l a s s a u l t . The f o c u s i s on h e l p i n g the c l i e n t a c c e p t f e e l i n g s and i n d i r e c t i n g her i n c o n c r e t e ways t o d e a l w i t h r e a l i t y . Would the a d o l e s c e n t s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y g a i n from the M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n such t h a t they would e x p e r i e n c e l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n t a k i n g d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s ? In a d d i t i o n t o i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s p e c i f i c i a l l y t o the above t y p e s of c l i e n t s M o r i t a t h e r a p y as proposed by R e y n o l d s (1976, 1984, 1986), a l e a d i n g proponent of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n the West, d e s c r i b e s how t h i s approach can be employed as a l i f e p r a c t i c e f o r i n c r e a s e d c o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g f o r the average p o p u l a t i o n . Reynolds (1984) has a p p l i e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n the c o n t e x t of e v e r y d a y l i f e d e m o n s t r a t i n g , t h r o u g h case s t u d i e s , M o r i t a t h e r a p y ' s v a l u e f o r e n h a n c i n g p r o d u c t i v e l i v i n g i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s whether or not they s u f f e r e d from s h y n e s s . I s i t p o s s i b l e then t h a t the M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n would h e l p a d o l e s c e n t s i n the s t u d y d e c r e a s e the degree of t h e i r o v e r a l l s o c i a l a n x i e t y and i n c r e a s e t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s ? VI SUMMARY OF LITERATURE Shyness has been d e f i n e d as a form of s o c i a l a n x i e t y and s o c i a l a v o i d a n c e ; an awareness of s e l f as a s o c i a l o b j e c t exposed t o the s c r u t i n y of o t h e r s and as f a i l u r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Because a d o l e s c e n c e i s a p e r i o d of marked s e l f -p r e o c c u p a t i o n , shyness i s commonly e x p r e s s e d i n s e l f - f o c u s e d n e g a t i v i t y and r e l u c t a n c e t o t a k e a c t i o n ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i & L a r s o n , 1984; H a n s e l l et a l , 1986; Kegan, 1982). A c c o r d i n g t o Ishiyama (1984), n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s r e s u l t i n n e g a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a n x i e t y , l e s s a c c e p t a n c e of the a n x i o u s s e l f and d e c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o cope e f f e c t i v e l y i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . In s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s as s u b j e c t s ( E r i k s o n , 1959; O r n s t e i n & S o b e l , 1988; P i a g e t , 1952) the p r o c e s s of a d a p t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e t h r o u g h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n can thus be u n d e r s t o o d t o p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n a d o l e s c e n t development. G a r b a r i n o (1985) goes so f a r as t o s t a t e t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l development i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o c i a l c o n t a c t and i n c l u s i o n i n community. I f shyness i s p e r m i t t e d t o i n h i b i t t h e s e developments one can s p e c u l a t e on the c r i t i c a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on the growing i n d i v i d u a l . R e s e a r c h ( C l a r k & A r k o w i t z , 1975; F e n i g s t e i n , 1979; O'Banion & A r k o w i t z , 1977) has shown t h a t s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s females appear t o have a c c e n t u a t e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o e v a l u a t i o n by o t h e r s and r e a c t more n e g a t i v e l y t o r e j e c t i o n than low a n x i o u s f e m a l e s . An extended s t u d y by H a n s e l l , Mechanic and B r o n d o l o (1986) showed females s c o r i n g s l i g h t l y h i g h e r on i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s than males and those h i g h e r i n i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s r e p o r t i n g more d e p r e s s i o n and a n x i e t y . Female s u b j e c t s were chosen f o r t h i s p r e s e n t study p a r t l y i n an attempt t o observe more c l e a r l y M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g ' s e f f e c t s on n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t e d l e v e l s of a n x i e t y . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s appear t o be r a t h e r l i m i t e d . C h r i s t o f f et a l ' s (1985) s t u d y produced s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o u a l change i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t i s , i n c r e a s e d d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s , more p o s i t i v e r e p o r t s on i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l and more p o s i t i v e p a t t e r n s of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . Ishiyama (1984) c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y on shy and non-shy a d o l e s c e n t s aged 14-16 y e a r s and found t h a t the shy s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d more n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s , i n t e r f e r e n c e i n academic s u c c e s s and d e v e l o p i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h p e e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t can be r e c o g n i z e d how an approach such as M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g t h a t encourages i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be of p r a c t i c a l v a l u e i n pro m o t i n g more p o s i t i v e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . Two l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s ( S u z u k i & S u z u k i , 1977; S u z u k i et a l , 1982) have been co n d u c t e d i n Japan on the e f f i c a c y of M o r i t a t h e r a p y and both r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l e improvement f o r the s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d . In the West, s t u d i e s by Ishiyama (1983, 1985, 1986c) have produced p o s i t i v e change r e s u l t s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e " ( I s h i y a m a , 1986b) i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y p r o v e d a s u c c e s s f u l endeavor i n h a v i n g s u b j e c t s view t h e i r s h y n e s s / a n x i e t y i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t . Other a u t h o r s ( L e v i n e , 1987; Ogawa, 1988) have a p p l i e d M o r i t a t h e r a p y w i t h o b s e r v a b l e p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n a r e a s such as e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s and s e x u a l a s s a u l t . R e y n o l d s (1976, 1984, 1986) has a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e s of M o r i t a t h e r a p y t o promote c o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g by e n c o u r a g i n g g r e a t e r s o c i a l and p u r p o s e f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e . There i s a gap however, i n terms of a p p l y i n g M o r i t a t h e r a p y t o a d d r e s s the needs, s p e c i f i c a l l y , of a d o l e s c e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l a n x i e t y / s h y n e s s . Thus the u n d e r l y i n g t h r u s t of t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o demonstrate s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s unique t h e r a p y t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h the aim of p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t e a pproach f o r c o u n s e l o r s t o use i n h e l p i n g t h i s age group. V I I PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e how the use of b r i e f M o r i t a C o u n s e l i n g as an i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n the form of 4 group c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , would a f f e c t the r e p o r t e d l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e s e l f - f o c u s e d n e g a t i v i t y and c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s a d o l e s c e n t s . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e t e r m i n e the degree t o which M o r i t a C o u n s e l i n g , as a t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n , changes the s e l f -r e p o r t e d l e v e l of s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s c o g n i t i o n and b e h a v i o r i n a group of female a d o l e s c e n t s . V I I I HYPOTHESIS In t h i s s t u d y , w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n the form of a b r i e f M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s a d o l e s c e n t female s u b j e c t s w i l l show improvement on c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l measures a f t e r the t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y the s u b j e c t s w i l l : (a) show h i g h e r a c c e p t a n c e o f , and more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r a n x i o u s n a t u r e as r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s e d r a t i n g s on a c c e p t a b i l i t y , u s e f u l n e s s , d e s i r a b i l i t y and b e a r a b i l i t y , of t h e i r a n x i o u s n a t u r e as i n I s h i y a m a ' s s t u d i e s (1983, 1986c) - S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix 1 ) . (b) r e p o r t h i g h e r c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e i r ways of d e a l i n g w i t h a n x i e t y p r o v o k i n g s i t u a t i o n s ( t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s ) as i n L e v i n e ' s r e p o r t (1987) - S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (c) r e p o r t a d e c r e a s e i n o v e r a l l a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y as i n Re y n o l d s ' r e p o r t e d c a s e s (1976, 1984, 1986) - T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y (Appendix l ) . (d) show h i g h e r a c c e p t a n c e of own a n x i o u s n a t u r e i n t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s as i n Ishiyama's s t u d i e s (1983, 1986c) -S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (e) show l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n t h e t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s as i n Ogawa's r e p o r t (1988) -T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y . ( f ) r e p o r t i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n e n t e r i n g the t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s and c a r r y i n g out d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n as i n Re y n o l d s ' r e p o r t e d c a s e s (1976, 1984, 1986) - T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y . (g) be l e s s b o t h e r e d by t h e i r a n x i e t y problem as i n I s h i y a m a ' s s t u d i e s (1983, 1986c) and R e y n o l d s ' r e p o r t e d c a s e s (1976, 1984, 1986) - T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y . CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY I R a t i o n a l e and B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n The e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y was co n d u c t e d by way of a m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e d e s i g n a c r o s s t h r e e groups of s u b j e c t s t i m e - l a g g e d f o r t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n (Hayes 1981, Hersen & Ba r l o w , 1976). The t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r a l l t h r e e groups was M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s . Such a d e s i g n i n v o l v e s s e r i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s over time t o a s s e s s changes i n t r e n d and l e v e l f o r the s u b j e c t s i n each group as w e l l as changes i n t r e n d and l e v e l f o r each group as a whole i n response t o i n t e r v e n t i o n (Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976). C l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have used t h i s method t o observe i n d i v i d u a l change over t i m e . W i t h t i m e - l a g g e d f o r t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n some t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the dra w i n g of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e s , (Cook & C a m p b e l l , 1979; K a z d i n , 1981) can be c o n t r o l l e d . Such t h r e a t s as h i s t o r y i n terms of e x t e r n a l e v e n t s , m a t u r a t i o n ( e . g . , spontaneous improvements), t e s t i n g , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n , s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n , a t t r i t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l e c t i o n and m a t u r a t i o n were e f f e c t i v e l y t a k e n i n t o a ccount i n t h i s way (Campbell & S t a n l e y , 1966). The major q u e s t i o n asked i n t h i s experiment i s , "Does t h i s t r e a t m e n t work?" The t h r e e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t a g g e r e d p o i n t s of t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o enhanced e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y due t o the t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n b e i n g used w i t h more than one p o p u l a t i o n and i n more than one s e t t i n g (Cook & C a m p b e l l , 1979). Each phase of the st u d y had a minimum of e i g h t b a s e l i n e d a t a p o i n t s as recommended by Tryon (1982) t o encompass any s t o c a s t i c e f f e c t s . The l a s t phase was extended t o ensure permanence of the t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s and an attempt was made t o a d d r e s s the r o l e of a t t e n t i o n p l a c e b o i n the b a s e l i n e phase (Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976). T h i s element i s a common t h r e a t i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y r e s e a r c h whereby the t h e r a p i s t ' s p r e s ence and a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g a l o n e , as d i s c u s s e d by Rogers (1951), can r e s u l t i n c l i e n t improvement. Due t o the e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s , s e q u e n t i a l w i t h d r a w a l or r e v e r s a l of t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s (Hayes, 1981; Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976), were not used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I I S u b j e c t s Females were chosen as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i n g . D oyle (1985, p.312) s t a t e s t h a t women l e a r n a s s s e r t i v e n e s s from o t h e r women and have d i f f i c u l t y s t a n d i n g up f o r t h e i r r i g h t s i n s e t t i n g s i n v o l v i n g men. Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1975) a l s o r e p o r t t h a t g i r l s , compared t o boys, t e n d t o form a c o a l i t i o n more r e a d i l y w i t h a d u l t s as a means of c o p i n g w i t h boy's a g g r e s s i v e dominance which they do not a c c e p t . L a s t l y , t h e r e seems t o have been a n e g l e c t of female p a r t i c i p a n t s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h w i t h p r e f e r e n c e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e i n g g i v e n t o male s u b j e c t s ( C a r l s o n & C a r l s o n , 1960; G r e e n g l a s s & S t e w a r t , 1973; Pyke, e t a l , 1 975) . The s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from K i t s i l a n o Secondary S c h o o l , one of Vancouver's l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s r a t e d , by the s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s , i n the h i g h / l o w e r t o m i d d l e s o c i o -economic c l a s s . The Cheek & Buss (1981) Shyness S c a l e (see Appendix 2) was v o l u n t a r i l y c o m p l e t e d by a t o t a l of 65 female s t u d e n t s as o u t l i n e d i n Appendix 11. From t h i s p o o l of p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s , 12 s t u d e n t s were f i n a l l y s c r e e n e d t o s e r v e as s u b j e c t s f o r the s t u d y . H i g h s c o r e s on t h i s s c a l e i n d i c a t e s h i g h e r degree of shyness. An a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f s c o r e p o i n t of 20 was used t o d e t e r m i n e q u a l i f y i n g s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t i n g 35 q u a l i f i e d s t u d e n t s were then seen i n groups of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 s t u d e n t s each f o r the purpose of s o l i c i t i n g v o l u n t e e r s . The r e s u l t was 31 i n t e r e s t e d s t u d e n t s . Of t h e s e , the h i g h e s t s c o r i n g 15 c o n s e n t i n g s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d . Those not chosen were recommended e i t h e r t o v a r i o u s c o u n s e l i n g r e s o u r c e s or were g i v e n the o p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n one M o r i t a s e s s i o n . T h i s number was reduced t o 12 d u r i n g the s o l i c i t i n g of p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t . The f i n a l 12 s u b j e c t s were then randomly a s s i g n e d (Agnew & Pyke, 1987) t o one of t h r e e groups u s i n g a random numbers t a b l e ( W i l s o n & B r i g h t , 1952). T h i s number was s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w f o r a t t r i t i o n . The s u b j e c t ' s group and grade p r o f i l e i s as f o l l o w s : GROUP 1: Grade 8, n=1; Grade 10, n=3 Group 2: Grade 8, n=1; Grade 10, n=3 Group 3: Grade 8, n=1; Grade 10, n=1, Grade 11, n=2 A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of s c o r e s on the Shyness S c a l e i s p r o v i d e d (see T a b l e 1 on f o l l o w i n g p a g e ) . S u b j e c t s ages ranged from 13 t o 17 y e a r s . They r e c e i v e d a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s would be o f f e r e d by a t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l o r ( t h e r e s e a r c h e r ) a f t e r a w a i t i n g p e r i o d d u r i n g which p e r i o d they would complete seven s c a l e s t w i c e weekly. Due t o the n a t u r e of the r e s e a r c h w i t h i t s s m a l l number of s e s s i o n s , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e r e may be o n l y l i m i t e d e f f e c t s of the t r e a t m e n t . Any s u b j e c t s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t i . e . , drug t h e r a p y were e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y . A s i g n e d c o n s e n t form (Appendix 3) was o b t a i n e d from the s u b j e c t ' s p a r e n t or g u a r d i a n and from the s t u d e n t t h e m s e l v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks b e f o r e i n i t i a t i n g the s t u d y . The s u b j e c t s were a s s u r e d of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity. S u b j e c t s i n Group 3 d e s e r v e s p e c i a l note i n t h a t i t appears t h a t e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p r o f i l e . I t was brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of t h i s a u t h o r towards the end of the s t u d y ( e x c e p t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t t e n ) t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s were e x p e r i e n c i n g some u n u s u a l e v e n t s i n TABLE 1 SHYNESS SCALE (Note 1) SCORES of SURVEY STUDENTS SCREENED f o r SUBJECT SELECTION O v e r a l l ( a l l s t u d e n t s s c r e e n e d ) : n= 65, M= 19.9, S.D.= 5.9, Range= 11-34 S t u d e n t s not e l i g i b l e : n=34, M= 16.6, S.D.= 6.2, Range= 11-34 S t u d e n t s q u a l -i f y i n g but not i n c l u d e d : n=!9, M= 23.4, S.D.= 4.8, Range= 19-28 S u b j e c t s : n= 12, M= 24.0, S.D.= 6.6, Range= 20-30 Note 1 Cheek and Buss Shyness S c a l e (1981) t h e i r l i v e s . I t was r e l a t e d by the s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r and the s u b j e c t h e r s e l f t h a t s u b j e c t n i n e was r e c e n t l y s e p a r a t e d from her f a t h e r w i t h whom she i s c l o s e , he h a v i n g moved away a g r e a t d i s t a n c e . S u b j e c t ten c o n t r a c t e d m o n o n u c l e o s i s d u r i n g the t h i r d week of the s t u d y and was f o r c e d t o remain a t home f o r 3 weeks. She i n s i s t e d on r e m a i n i n g i n the s t u d y and so was p e r m i t t e d t o complete her measures a t home. These o c c u r e n c e s seemed t o have l e f t the s u b j e c t s somewhat d e p r e s s e d which p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d the shyness p r o f i l e . S u b j e c t e l e v e n had t a k e n s e v e r a l t r i p s f o r a week a t a time d u r i n g the s t u d y and a l s o h o s t e s s e d an i n t e n s i v e s t u d e n t exchange d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . Both of which c o u l d have c l e a r l y d e t r a c t e d her from the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s t u d y . S u b j e c t 12, as r e l a t e d by her p a r e n t was d e m o n s t r a t i n g a marked r e b e l l i o u s n e s s . V e r b a l l y the s u b j e c t was a g r e e a b l e but o f t e n f o l l o w - t h r o u g h was not c o m p l e t e . In summary, a l l f o u r s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d pronounced i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r l i v e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the study and t h e i r d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than e x c l u d i n g the group from the s t u d y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e whether the t i m e - l a g g e d b a s e l i n e s of t h i s group were a f f e c t e d by the h i s t o r y v a r i a b l e as t h e r e appears t o be no c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d . I l l A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of d a t a was used as c o n v e n t i o n a l l y used i n t i m e - s e r i e s r e s e a r c h . Changes r e f l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the groups' graphs over time a r e i n s p e c t e d f o r t h i s e f f i c a c y s t u d y . K a z d i n (1978, p.138), s t a t e s t h a t , " . . t h e use of s t a t i s t i c s w i t h s i n g l e - c a s e d e s i g n i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l " . He c o n t i n u e s t o e x p l a i n t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y mean c l i n i c a l l y a p p r e c i a b l e improvement. The s t r e n g t h of the v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i o n d e r i v e s from showing t h a t performance d u r i n g a g i v e n phase v i o l a t e s the p r e d i c t e d l e v e l of performance of the p r i o r phase, ( K a z d i n , 1974; Tawney & G a s t , 1984). Some of the a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i a f o r r e l y i n g on v i s u a l a n a l y s i s , a c c o r d i n g t o B a l l a r d (1983), a r e : (1) t h a t the b a s e l i n e i s s t a b l e ; (2) the l e v e l of s l o p e of d a t a d u r i n g the t r e a t m e n t phase i s " o b v i o u s l y and s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i v e r g e n t from t h a t p e r t a i n i n g d u r i n g b a s e l i n e " (p.71) and; (3) t h a t the number of d a t a p o i n t s i n each phase does not r e a c h the range of 20 t o 50 as needed f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ( B a l l a r d , 1983). T h e r a p e u t i c change, i . e . , whether the e x t e n t of b e h a v i o r change d u r i n g t r e a t m e n t enhances the c l i e n t ' s f u n c t i o n i n g on a d a i l y b a s i s ( R i s l e y , 1970), i s a n o t h e r way of e x a m i n i n g t r e a t m e n t e f f i c a c y . A c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r , ( 1 9 8 5 ) , t h i s seems an a p p r o p r i a t e method of a n a l y s i s . R obinson and F o s t e r (1979) s t a t e t h a t the h i s t o g r a m i s p r o b a b l y the s i m p l e s t g r a p h i c a l way t o p r e s e n t t r e a t m e n t r e s u l t s i n a t i m e - s e r i e s d a t a a n a l y s i s . M i l l e r (1985) c a u t i o n s , however, t h a t c a r e must be ta k e n i n kee p i n g the w i d t h of each bar e q u a l t o a v o i d g i v i n g r i s e t o a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of change. IV Measures 1. Dependent v a r i a b l e s measured S c o r e s on the shyness e x p e r i e n c e components c o n s t i t u t e the dependent v a r i a b l e . These components are as f o l l o w s : a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y , d i f f i c u l t y i n a c t i o n t a k i n g , l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , degree of e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e , p o s i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the shyness e x p e r i e n c e , degree of s e l f -a c c e p t a n c e , and e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c o p i n g i n the shy s i t u a t i o n . S c o r e s were d e r i v e d from answers checked o f f on a c o ntinuum which was p r o v i d e d w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of each component by way of the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s . In the g r a p h s , a c c e p t a b l e t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s 85%, any p e r c e n t a g e below t h i s f i g u r e does not a l l o w f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be made about p o s i t i v e change. Four s c a l e s were s e l e c t e d from Ishiyama's T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y (1987), namely the A n x i e t y I n t e n s i t y S c a l e , L e v e l of D i f f i c u l t y S c a l e , Degree of C o n f i d e n c e S c a l e , and O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e S c a l e , and the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e s c a l e s d e r i v e d from the S e l f and A n x i e t y  Quest ionna i r e ( I s h i y a m a , 1987), namely the P o s i t i v e A n x i e t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S c a l e , A n x i o u s S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e , and the C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e . These s c a l e s were used i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on M o r i t a t h e r a p y ' s e f f i c a c y on a n x i o u s c l i e n t s ( I s h i y a m a , 1985, 1986c, 1987b, 1987c). I s h i y a m a ' s a n a l y s e s of the s c a l e s were based on the d a t a o b t a i n e d from a d u l t c l i e n t s . Because a h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the P o s i t i v e A n x i e t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S c a l e and the A n x i o u s S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e , and c o n c e p t u a l l y t h e s e two s c a l e s o v e r l a p each o t h e r , they were c o l l a p s e d i n t o one s c a l e and c a l l e d the A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e i n t h i s s t u d y . Each s c a l e i s d e s c r i b e d here w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s of each s c a l e based on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s of the d a t a from the a d o l e s c e n t s u b j e c t s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The s c a l e s from the T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y used 13 boxes v e r t i c a l l y p l a c e d w i t h , "not a t a l l " , "a l i t t l e " , " m o d e r a t e l y " , " v e r y " , and " e x t r e m e l y " a t the f i r s t , f o u r t h , s e v e n t h , t e n t h , and t h i r t e e n t h box from the bottom r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s c a l e s from the S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e used n i n e spaces between b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s i n a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l manner (Osgood, S u c i , & Tannenbaum, 1957). The o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e measures was v a r i e d , r e s u l t i n g i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t f o r m a t s which were randomly r o t a t e d i n the p r o c e s s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g 4 s c a l e s a r e from the T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t  13-Box S c a l e . B a t t l e et a l . (1966) r e p o r t e d s a t i s f a c t o r y c l i n i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y and v a l i d i t y , and p r e - and p o s t - s e s s i o n r e l i a b i l i t y (a mean s e v e r i t y r a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e , p r e - and p o s t - i n t e r v i e w , of .5 on a 13 p o i n t s c a l e ) . A n x i e t y I n t e n s i t y S c a l e ( A I S ) . T h i s s c a l e i s i n t e n d e d t o measure a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y by h a v i n g the s u b j e c t respond t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "How i n t e n s e a r e your a v e r a g e a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s when you e n t e r the shy s i t u a t i o n ? " by c h e c k i n g o f f the a p p r o p r i a t e box on the continuum. L e v e l of D i f f i c u l t y S c a l e ( L P S ) . T h i s s c a l e i s i n t e n d e d t o measure the amount of d i f f i c u l t y t he s u b j e c t e n c o u n t e r s i n t a k i n g a c t i o n i n the t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n p r e c e e d i n g the c h e c k - o f f s c a l e i s : "How much d i f f i c u l t y do you e x p e r i e n c e i n c a r r y i n g out a d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n the shy s i t u a t i o n ? " Degree of C o n f i d e n c e S c a l e (DCS). In t h i s s c a l e t h e s u b j e c t ' s l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e i s measured as they a n t i c i p a t e e n t e r i n g the t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n and t a k i n g a c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n they must respond t o i s : "How c o n f i d e n t do you f e e l about e n t e r i n g the shy s i t u a t i o n and t a k i n g a d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n ? " O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e by A n x i e t y (PDA). T h i s s c a l e p u r p o r t s t o measure how b o t h e r e d the s u b j e c t i s by the shyness problem. The s u b j e c t i s t o respond t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : " O v e r a l l , how much does t h i s shyness problem ( i . e . , e m o t i o n a l d i s c o m f o r t and b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t y ) b o t h e r you?" P o s i t i v e A n x i e t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S c a l e ( P A I S ) . The PAIS and the CES d e s c r i b e d below a r e the improved v e r s i o n s of the p r e v i o u s l y used s c a l e s which showed h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y t o M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n ( I s h i y a m a , 1986c, 1987b). The PAIS i s i n t e n d e d t o measure the degree of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the a n x i o u s n a t u r e u s i n g semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s on 4-a d j e c t i v e p a i r s ( a c c e p t a b l e - u n a c c e p t a b l e , u s e l e s s -u s e f u l , u n d e s i r a b l e - d e s i r a b l e , b e a r a b l e - u n b e a r a b l e ) . Each p a i r g i v e s a s c o r e range from 1 t o 9, and a t o t a l s c o r e range from 4 t o 36. A h i g h e r s c o r e i n d i c a t e s a more p o s i t i v e i n t e p r e t a t i o n of a n x i e t y . The q u e s t i o n accompanying t h i s s c a l e i s : "How would you e v a l u a t e the a n x i o u s or nervous p a r t of your p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t seems t o s u r f a c e i n c e r t a i n a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? " Adequate c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y w i t h h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( a l p h a = .96) has been r e p o r t e d of the s c a l e ( I s h i y a m a , 1987c). Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s S c a l e (CES). T h i s s c a l e p u r p o r t s t o measure the degree of e f f e c t i v e n e s s the s u b j e c t e x p e r i e n c e s i n c o p i n g w i t h the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n . The CES c o n s i s t s of s i x a d j e c t i v e p a i r s (competent -in c o m p e t e n t , i m p a t i e n t - p a t i e n t , p r o d u c t i v e - u n p r o d u c t i v e , c l e a r - m i n d e d - c o n f u s e d u n s u c c e s s f u l - s u c c e s s f u l , r e l a x e d -t e n s e ) . Each b i - p o l a r p a i r y i e l d s a s c o r e range from 1 t o 9 and a t o t a l s c o r e range from 6 t o 54. A h i g h e r s c o r e i n d i c a t e s h i g h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The q u e s t i o n accompanying the s c a l e i s : "How would you d e s c r i b e the way you d e a l w i t h the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? " The s c a l e has been found t o have adequate c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y and h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( a l p h a = .95; I s h i y a m a , 1987c). A n x i o u s S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e (ASAS). T h i s s c a l e i s i n t e n d e d t o measure the degree of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e of the shy s e l f by the s u b j e c t when they a n t i c i p a t e becoming a n x i o u s i n the t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n . Four b i - p o l a r p a i r s ( c r i t i c a l -a p p r e c i a t i v e , s a t i s f i e d - d i s s a t i s f i e d , t o l e r a n t -i n t o l e r a n t , p e s s i m i s t i c - o p t i m i s t i c ) y i e l d a s c o r e range of 1 t o 9, and a t o t a l s c o r e range from 4 t o 36. The q u e s t i o n accompanying t h i s s c a l e i s : "How would you f e e l toward y o u r s e l f when you t h i n k of becoming a n x i o u s i n the a n x i e t y -a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? " 2. A n c i l l a r y measures For s c r e e n i n g purposes the Cheek & Buss (1981) Shyness S c a l e (Appendix 2) was a d m i n i s t e r e d once to t h e S d u r i n g the i n i t i a l 2 week s c r e e n i n g phase. The s c a l e i n v o l v e s 9 s t a t e m e n t s measuring the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a f f e c t i v e s t a t e . They r e f l e c t the Ss e m o t i o n a l s t a t e i n t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s . Statement 2, however, i s a r e v e r s e i t e m and t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s r e c o d i n g f o r a n a l y s i s . Item s c o r e / r e m a i n d e r of s c a l e s c o r e , a n a l y s i s (n=9l2) r e v e a l e d an a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t of .79, an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , t h a t i s , the t e s t items a r e measuring the same t r a i t . N i n e t y day t e s t - r e t e s t (n=96) showed a r e l i a b i l i t y of .74, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the t r a i t s the t e s t i s measuring remain s t a b l e over t i m e . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Zimbardo's (1977) Shyness S e l f - R e p o r t (_r = .67) and w i t h J o h n s o n ' s , (1980) 7 - P o i n t S c a l e (r_ = .81) showing t h a t the t e s t i s measuring s i m i l a r components t o t h e s e shyness t e s t s . V P r o c e d u r e The Cheek & Buss Shyness S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s t u d e n t s as o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r under S u b j e c t s s e c t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i s found i n t h a t same s e c t i o n . I t was e x p l a i n e d t o the s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y would be p a r t a k i n g i n f o u r group c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , one per week, a p p r o x i m a t e l y mid-way t h r o u g h the s t u d y . They were i n f o r m e d t h a t they would be asked t o c omplete s c a l e s t w i c e weekly f o r a p e r i o d b e f o r e the f o u r c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , d u r i n g the c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , and i n the s i x week p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g on a t w i c e weekly b a s i s . The r e p e a t e d measures f o r each s u b j e c t 0 t o complete were l e f t , i n i n d i v i d u a l e n v e l o p e s w i t h each s u b j e c t ' s p r e a r r a n g e d s e c r e t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n a p i c k - u p and d r o p - o f f box a t one of the c o u n s e l i n g department's o f f i c e s . Mid-week the r e s e a r c h e r c a l l e d each s u b j e c t as a reminder i n q u i r i n g i f the s c a l e s had been completed and dropped o f f . The t e l e p h o n i n g was kept c o n s i s t e n t so t h a t a l l Ss r e c e i v e d a u n i f o r m amount of a t t e n t i o n . Group 1 had e i g h t o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s i n i t s b a s e l i n e w h i l e the t i m e - l a g g e d , (Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976), Groups 2 and 3 had n i n e and ten r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l groups had s i x and t h i r t e e n o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases r e s p e c t i v e l y . These p o i n t s were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t e x c e p t d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase where two were t a k e n on the same day, b e f o r e and a f t e r the c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n . VI Treatment S e s s i o n 1. The c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s f o r each group were h e l d i n an a p p o i n t e d q u i e t room i n the s c h o o l over l u n c h hour f o r a 45 -minute d u r a t i o n . The f i r s t h a l f of t h i s s e s s i o n f o c u s e d on e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u s t and r a p p o r t u s i n g empathic r e f l e c t i o n s w i t h o c c a s i o n a l p r o b i n g i n t o s u b j e c t s b e h a v i o r a l , e m o t i o n a l , and c o g n i t i v e r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s when they a r e i n a n x i e t y -p r o v o k i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . The c o u n s e l o r f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on e x p l o r i n g s u b j e c t s ' p r e s e n t i d e a s , b e h a v i o r s , f e e l i n g s , and b e l i e f s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r shy n a t u r e . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by i n s t r u c t i o n a l - t y p e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e and mechanism of a n x i e t y ( I s h i y a m a , 1984a). In the f i r s t s e s s i o n , one or two M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g c o n c e p t s , a c c o r d i n g t o Ish i y a m a ' s (1984a) p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e (Appendix 5 ) , were i n t r o d u c e d and the remainder of the s e s s i o n was spent d i s c u s s i n g b e h a v i o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s 1 t o 3 (Appendix 6 ) . S h o r t w r i t t e n summaries of M o r i t a - b a s e d p o s i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l a n x i e t y was g i v e n t o each s u b j e c t t o c a r r y as a reminder. S e s s i o n s 2 t o 4 Subsequent s e s s i o n s began w i t h r e p o r t s on homework and any g a i n s made. The c o u n s e l o r used empathic r e f l e c t i o n and summarizing t e c h n i q u e s t o comment on the s u b j e c t s ' homework performance and f a c i l i t a t e d d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p o r t a n t . i s s u e s and problems t h a t had a r i s e n d u r i n g the week. The f o l l o w i n g aims were g i v e n f o c u s by way of i n s t r u c t i o n , c o n f r o n t a t i o n and t h e p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e : (1) i n c r e a s i n g p r o b l e m - r e l a t e d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , (2) m o d i f y i n g u n p r o d u c t i v e b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , and (3) d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s t o cope w i t h the t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n and t o implement the t a r g e t b e h a v i o r . B e h a v i o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d (Appendix 6) i n c l u d i n g a r e v i e w a t the end of each s e s s i o n . S u b j e c t s were encouraged t o c o n s u l t t h e i r w r i t t e n p o s i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n summaries d a i l y t o f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h , and awareness o f , the p o s i t i v e view of t h e i r shy n a t u r e . In g e n e r a l , the main message d e l i v e r e d t o the s u b j e c t s was s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of e x p e r i e n c e d emotion and b e h a v i o r a l c h o i c e s . I t was e x p e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t once the s u b j e c t s g a i n e d awareness t h a t they can t a k e a c t i o n i n s p i t e of t h e i r e m o t i o n s , they would be l i k e l y t o t a k e a c t i o n . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y ' s main c o n c e r n i s whether M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g works or n o t , b e h a v i o r a l c o u n t s were taken d a i l y over two 5-day p e r i o d s and a f r e q u e n c y h i s t o g r a m (polygram) of c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l changes was p l o t t e d from r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the degree of s u b j e c t s * a p p l i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d . V I I C o u n s e l o r The a u t h o r a l s o s e r v e d as the c o u n s e l o r i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . A d v o c a t e s of s i n g l e - c a s e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s , (Hayes,1981; Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976; K a z d i n , 1981) s u p p o r t the i d e a t h a t the c o u n s e l o r conduct c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h u s i n g h i s / h e r c l i e n t s as t h e s e c l i e n t s c o n s t i t u t e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s u b j e c t s . The c o u n s e l o r was i n her second year of a M a s t e r ' s l e v e l g r a d u a t e program i n c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . She had c o m p l e t e d two M o r i t a t h e r a p y t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s a t i n t r o d u c t o r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s and was p r e s e n t l y under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of an e s t a b l i s h e d M o r i t a t h e r a p y t r a i n e r f o r f u r t h e r c l i n i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The c o u n s e l o r i s a 41-year o l d C a u c a s i a n female who has an a d o l e s c e n t daughter a t t e n d i n g secondary s c h o o l as w e l l as two younger c h i l d r e n . Her e d u c a t i o n a l background i s i n p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h c a r e and p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g where she has had many y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g w i t h a l l age groups. She has had r e c e n t c l i n i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n empathy-based c o u n s e l i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . CHAPTER IV RESULTS The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h the main f o c u s on the v i s u a l a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s based on v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n as c o n v e n t i o n a l l y done i n c l i n i c a l s t u d i e s u s i n g s i n g l e c a s e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s . I n a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and b e h a v i o r a l d a t a a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d . The v i s u a l a n a l y s i s of the p l o t t e d d a t a on each of the s i x s c a l e s ( A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e , I n t e n s i t y Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e , O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e By A n x i e t y S c a l e , L e v e l of D i f f i c u l t y S c a l e , Degree of C o n f i d e n c e S c a l e , I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s S c a l e ) i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . L e v e l s and t r e n d s a r e examined i n the t h r e e phases ( b a s e l i n e , i n t e r v e n t i o n , and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s on b e h a v i o u r a l c o u n t s taken p r e - and p o s t -i n t e r v e n t i o n a r e a n a l y z e d . As w e l l as ex a m i n i n g the p r e - and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases f o r change, i n t e r - g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s a r e made (see Appendices P a r t 2 f o r i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s performance i n the r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s ) . The s t r e n g t h of the v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i o n d e r i v e s from showing t h a t performance d u r i n g a g i v e n phase v i o l a t e s the p r e d i c t e d l e v e l of performance of t h e p r i o r phase ( K a z d i n , 1974). Treatment e f f i c a c y i s sought by way of changes r e f l e c t e d i n l e v e l of each phase, p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e -and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n , as w e l l as changes i n t r e n d f o r t h e s e phases. The s t u d y ' s main c o n c e r n i s whether M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g works or not and so t h e s e f r e q u e n c y polygrams of c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l changes, g i v e n t h a t they were t a k e n from r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s over a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t e e n weeks, would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a d d r e s s i n g t h i s c o n c e r n , ( M i l l e r , 1985). The o b j e c t i v e of the s t u d y i s t o detemine the degree to which M o r i t a C o u n s e l i n g , as a t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n , changes the s e l f - r e p o r t e d l e v e l of s o c i a l l y a n x i o u s c o g n i t i o n and b e h a v i o r i n s m a l l groups of female a d o l e s c e n t s . R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o a d d r e s s the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t female Ss w i l l show improvenent on c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l measures f o l l o w i n g M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g . The r e a d e r i s reminded t h a t the f o u r c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , c o m p r i s i n g the t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n , were b r i e f (a d u r a t i o n of f o r t y m i n u t es per s e s s i o n ) . I G r a p h i c P r o f i l e s of S e l f - R e p o r t Repeated Measures S c o r e s The r e s u l t s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i l l a d d r e s s the q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I . To a r r i v e a t answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , group graphs of r e s u l t s of r e p e a t e d measurements ar e p r e s e n t e d and d e s c r i b e d . I n s t r u m e n t s used i n g a t h e r i n g the d a t a can be found i n the Appendix 1, 1a, & 2. For ease of d i s c u s s i o n , the B a s e l i n e phase w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as Phase A, the I n t e r v e n t i o n phase as Phase B, and the P o s t -I n t e r v e n t i o n as Phase C. On the v L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s ' g r a p h s , the a r r o w s i n d i c a t e c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s two and t h r e e . C o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s one and f o u r a r e a d j a c e n t t o the i n t e r v e n t i o n c u t - o f f b o r d e r s and t h e r e f o r e do not have i n d i c a t i o n a r r o w s . O b s e r v a t i o n s were taken b i - w e e k l y a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s e x cept d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase where they were t a k e n p r e - and p o s t - c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n on the same day. M i s s i n g d a t a i s i n d i c a t e d by l o n g e r c o n n e c t i n g l i n e s between o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s . Throughout the st u d y i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the performance of Group 3 i s s i g n i f i c e n t l y lower than t h a t of Groups 1 & 2. An e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l Ss graphs (Appendix 8) from thi,s group r e v e a l s Ss 9 & 10 g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t i n g a somewhat f l a t p r o f i l e w i t h the odd e x c e p t i o n and Ss 11 & 12 r e p o r t i n g a. r a t h e r e r r a t i c p r o f i l e , a g a i n w i t h t h e odd e x c e p t i o n . See Chapter 5 f o r d i s c u s s i o n on Group 3. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n #1: W i l l Ss show a h i g h e r a c c e p t -ance o f , and more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r a n x i o u s n a t u r e a f t e r the M o r i t a i n t e r v e n t i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s e d s e l f - r e p o r t r a t i n g s on p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l and s e l f - e v a l - u a t i v e i t e m s ? On e x a m i n a t i o n of group graphs f o r the 8-item S c a l e 8, " A n x i e t y A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e " , a c l e a r p o s i t i v e change i s seen i n Groups 1 & 2 i n d i c a t i n g a g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e of a n x i o u s p a r t of t h e i r n a t u r e . D e s p i t e Group 2's l e s s e r i n c r e a s e i n a c c e p t a n c e a t the onset of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , the i n c r e a s e c o n t i n u e s v e r y c l e a r l y i n t o the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. Group 3 a l s o shows a c o n t i n u i n g l e s s a c c e p t a n c e i n the b a s e l i n e and a t t h e s t a r t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , shows an a b r u p t i n c r e a s e but t h i s a c c e p t a n c e a g a i n d e c r e a s e s on e n t e r i n g the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. In F i g u r e 1, Group 1 shows a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e of 7.96 i n c r e a s e , a d i f f e r e n c e of 11%, the second h i g h e s t of the 3 groups, a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of a h i g h e r a c c e p t a n c e and improved a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r shy n a t u r e . As shown i n F i g u r e 2, Phase A r e v e a l s a down-angled t r e n d l i n e , i . e . a d e c r e a s e i n a n x i e t y a c c e p t a n c e . However, t h i s phase w i t h i t s 89% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 5.7) then took an a b r u p t upswing i n t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 6.9) i n Phase B where v a r i a b i l i t y was low, t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 83%, l e v e l i n g o f f w i t h a s l i g h t down a n g l e i n Phase C ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 7.1) and a 92% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y . The s t a b i l i t y i n t h i s l a s t phase s u g g e s t s t h a t improvement i s b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d . Group 2 g e n e r a t e s the h i g h e s t l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e between Phases A & C, a t 10.28, a 14% i n c r e a s e (see F i g u r e 3 ) ; a d i s t i n c t improvement i n a t t i t u d e and a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r shy n a t u r e . Phase A t r e n d shows a s t e e p s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 7.5) w i t h a 91% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y , drops ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 6.9) 5 p o i n t s i n Phase B w i t h an 83% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y but c o n t i n u e s on a u p - s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 8.4) here and i n Phase C which shows an 85% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y . As i n Group 1, the improvement seems m a i n t a i n e d . F i g u r e 5, Group 3's graph shows l e s s change i n t h a t Phase A t o C l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s o n l y 2.30, a 3% i n c r e a s e . The t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n F i g u r e 6 i n Phase A ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 6.3) w i t h a 93% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y p r e s e n t s a down-slope, a d e c r e a s e i n a n x i e t y a c c e p t a n c e . A s h a r p upswing ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 6.6) i n Phase B w i t h a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 83% i n d i c a t i n g an i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e a f t e r the c o u n s e l i n g , drops somewhat ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 6.1) i n Phase C but m a i n t a i n s a f i r m 100% s t a b i l i t y . Summary - There i s a c l e a r p o s i t i v e change i n Groups 1 & 2 i n a n x i e t y a c c e p t a n c e and a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r shy n a t u r e , whereas Group 3 p r e s e n t s a l e s s e r change. In Group 2, a l t h o u g h the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase a l r e a d y had an upward Group 1, Scale 8 Level Differences on Scale 8 -Anxiety Acceptance Scale u o u i n 72 64 56 48 40 32 8 -I 0 B a s e l i n e I n t e r v e n t i o n I i P o s t I n t e r v e n t i o n -] 0 10 Time (days) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 1 Group 1, Scale 8 Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Figure 2 CVoiJn 9 Smlp R L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 8 <-> Anxiety Acceptance Scale Time (days) Figure 3 ON Group 2, Scale 8 Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Figure 4 -o Group 3, Scale 8 Level Differences on Scale 8 -Anxiety Acceptance Scale 72 64 56 48 40 32 B a s e l i n e I n t e r v e n t i o n I i P o s t I n t e r v e n t i o n i . — L 8 0 H 0 10 20 Time (days) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 F i g u r e 5 CO Group 3, Scale 8 Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Time (days) Figure 6 M3 t r e n d d i r e c t i o n t h i s l e v e l s - o f f b e f o r e the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n t r e n d d i r e c t i o n c l i m b s . Group 1 & 2's p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n upswing t r e n d d i r e c t i o n and h i g h t r e n d s t a b i l i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t improvement i s d e f i n i t e l y b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d . Group 3 f o l l o w s w i t h a s l i g h t l e s s upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n but w i t h a c o m p l e t e l y s t a b l e t r e n d a t 100%. Graphs, i n f i g u r e s one t o s i x , , a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n #2: W i l l Ss r e p o r t a h i g h e r c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e i r ways of d e a l i n g w i t h the a n x i e t y p r o v o k i n g s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . , t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s , a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n ? R e s u l t s on the 6-item S c a l e 2, "Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s " , the s c a l e t h a t t a p s a b e h a v i o r a l component produces the most o b v i o u s p o s i t i v e change f o r Groups 1 & 2. S u b j e c t s seemed t o comprehend, and respond t o t h i s s c a l e more r e a d i l y as r e f l e c t e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r r a t i n g f o r most Ss. The r e s u l t i s t h a t Ss r e p o r t a d e c i d e d i n c r e a s e i n c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g . R e f e r i n g t o F i g u r e 7, Group 1's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e between Phase A & C i s a s i g n i f i c a n t 7.98, i . e . , a 14% i n c r e a s e . In F i g u r e 8 the t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 5) i n Phase A shows a d e f i n i t e down s l o p e w i t h a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 78%. T h i s a b r u p t l y changes i n an u p - s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 5.1) a t the commencement of Phase B w i t h t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 100% and m a i n t a i n s t h i s upper l e v e l ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 5.6) d u r i n g a h i g h 92% s t a b l e t r e n d Phase C. The s t a b i l i t y of t h i s l a s t phase p o i n t s t o a c o n t i n u a t i o n of improvement. Group 2 i n F i g u r e 9 a g a i n shows g r e a t e s t change w i t h a Phase A t o C l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e of 8.07, a 15% i n c r e a s e . The t r e n d d i r e c t i o n as seen i n F i g u r e 10 i n Phase A shows a s t e e p upward d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y a t 82%, & t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e of 5.9) f o l l o w e d by a l e s s s t e e p upward t r e n d ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 5.9) i n a 100% s t a b l e Phase B, Phase C's t r e n d c o n t i n u e s on a d e f i n i t e upward s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 6.8) and i s a f i r m s t a b l e t r e n d a t 100%, p r o m i s i n g c o n t i n u e d improvement. Group 3 p r e s e n t s the s m a l l e s t amount of change i n t h a t the Phase A-C l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s 1.22, a 3% i n c r e a s e (see F i g u r e 11). On ex a m i n i n g F i g u r e 12, t h e r e i s a s l i g h t downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 5.6) i n Phase A which i s 72% t r e n d s t a b l e . Note, however, t h a t t h i s phase i s 91% t r e n d s t a b l e a f t e r the f i r s t 3 Group 1, Scale 2 Level Differences on Scale 2 -Coping Effectiveness a) o u I/) 54 48 -42 -36 -30 24 -18 -12 ~ 6 -0 -B a s e l i n e I n t e r v e n t i o n 1 1 F - \. " • w P o s t I n t e r v e n t i o n 0 10 Time (days) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 7 Group 1, Scale 2 Trends on Scale 2 - Coping Effectiveness in the Shy Situation Figure 8 U 5 CVrM IP* 9 ^ ( T l l p Level Differences on Scale 2 -V J M U U f J Z . , vDUUIC Z. Coping Effectiveness Figure 9 Group 2, Scale 2 Trends on Scale 2 - Coping Effectiveness in the Shy Situation Figure 10 Crr\\ \r\ ^ ^ / - n l o 9 L e V e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 2 \J\ V J U L J vJ , O L , U i e Z. Coping Effectiveness Group 3, Scale 2 Trends on Scale 2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g ure 12 o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s . Phase B r e v e r s e s t o a s t e e p upward s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 4.9) which i s 83% t r e n d s t a b l e , drops 1 p o i n t but c o n t i n u e s on an upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e nvelope = 5) w i t h 100% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g Phase C. Summary - A l l groups show improvement i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o cope more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n , Groups 1 & 2 showing the g r e a t e s t degree. I t i s noted t h a t Group 1 commensed the s t u d y w i t h a marked downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e l y but t h i s was c l e a r l y r e v e r s e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s was a l s o t r u e t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t f o r Group 3. P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases f o r a l l groups were h i g h l y t r e n d s t a b l e p r o m i s i n g a c o n t i n u e d improvement. Graphs, i n f i g u r e s seven t o t w e l v e , are p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3: W i l l S_s r e p o r t t h a t they a r e l e s s b o t h e r e d by t h e i r a n x i e t y problem a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n ? In S c a l e 7, " O v e r a l l , how much does t h i s shyness problem b o t h e r you?", where a d e c r e a s e i n s c o r e i n d i c a t e s improvement, a l l 3 groups r e p o r t improvement i n a r e p o r t e d d e c r e a s e i n the d i s t u r b a n c e or b o t h e r of the shyness problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Groups 2 & 3. These two groups show a d e f i n i t e and c o n t i n o u s d e c r e a s e over a l l phases whereas Group 1 shows o n l y s l i g h t p o s i t i v e change i n the i n i t i a l phases i n c r e a s i n g t o a more n o t i c e a b l e one i n the l a s t phase. I f t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i n the f i n a l phase was somewhat more f i r m then t h i s measure would seem t o o f f e r a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f i c a c y of M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g . L o o k i n g a t F i g u r e 13, Group 1's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s a drop of 1.45, which i s 11%, from Phase A t o Phase C. There i s a s l i g h t downward t r e n d s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.7) i n Phase A but t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s an u n a c c e p t a b l e low 44%. Phase B ( F i g u r e 14) t r e n d l i n e shows a v e r y s l i g h t downward t r e n d a n g l e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.6) i n d i c a t i n g a m i n i m a l lower degree of d i s t u r b a n c e w i t h a l e s s than a c c e p t a b l e t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 67%. The downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.4) becomes c l e a r i n Phase C w i t h an i n c r e a s e d t r e n d s t a b i l i t y below a c c e p t a b l e a t 77%. Group 2's l e v e l of d i f f e r e n c e i s a drop of 1.46 or 11% from Phase A t o Phase C, (see F i g u r e 15) i n d i c a t i n g a c l e a r improvement i n a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y . In F i g u r e 16 t h e r e i s o n l y a s l i g h t down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e lope = 1.2) i n Phase A where t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s 73%. Phase B b e g i n s t o show a pronounced downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.1) and i s a l m o s t a c c e p t a b l e w i t h a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 84%. The f i n a l phase p r e s e n t s a c l e a r downward t r e n d s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.1) a l t h o u g h v a r i a b i l i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of 77%. As w i t h Group 2, S c a l e 6, one can observe t h a t t h e l a s t h a l f of the o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s has a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 100% s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s group, g i v e n i n c r e a s e d t i m e , would p o s s i b l y c o n t i n u e on a s t e a d y p a t h of improvement. S c o r e s f o r Group 3 a r e comparable t o the o t h e r two groups w i t h a c l e a r improvement. R e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e 17, the group has a l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e from Phase A t o Phase C of 1.29 or 10%. In F i g u r e 18, Phase A shows a n o t i c a b l e down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.4) however, the t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s u n a c c e p t a b l e a t 72%. In Phase B, t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n d i s a p p e a r s ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.3) however, t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s 100%. The n o t i c a b l e p o s i t i v e change r e c u r s i n Phase C where a d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i s o b s e r v e d . Trend s t a b i l i t y remains s t e a d y a t an a c c e p t a b l e 85% c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e change f o r t h e s e Ss. Summary - A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e s u l t s , a l l groups show improvement i n b e i n g l e s s b o t h e r e d or d i s t u r b e d by t h e i r shyness problem. Group 1, d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n , b e g i n s t o show l e s s degree of d i s t u r b a n c e and c o n t i n u e s i n t h i s p a t t e r n i n t o the f i n a l phase. Groups 2 & 3 show a s i m i l a r Group 1, Scale 7 Level D i f f e r e n c e s on Sc a l e 7 -O v e r a l l Disturbance Caused by the Shyness Problem 0) o u in 13 12 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 B a s e l i n e -A r I n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t I n t e r v e n t i o n 0 10 Time (days) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ON F i g u r e 13 ^ Group 1, Scale 7 Trends on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l Disturbance Caused by the Shyness Problem Figure 14 ON IV) Or O C ^ s ^ l - . ~7 Level D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 -VJMOUp Z., OCOIG / O v e r a l l Disturbance Caused by the Shyness Problem 01 u o o w 13 12 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 Baseline A - * A Intervention 1 i Post Intervention V V V * \ 1 1 i - i 1 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (days) 80 90 100 Figure 15 ON Group 2, Scale 7 Trends on Sc a l e Time (days) Figure 16 - O v e r a l l Disturbance Caused by the Shyness Problem C ON Group 3, Scale 7 Level D i f f e r e n c e s on Sc a l e 7 -O v e r a l l Disturbance Caused by the Shyness Problem F i g u r e 17 O N Figure 18 ON ON p a t t e r n i n t h a t t h e r e i s a l r e a d y down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase but t h e s e c o n t i n u e t o show even more improvement w i t h a f i r m 100% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e i n the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t can be c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a l l groups i n d i c a t e b e i n g l e s s b o t h e r e d by t h e i r shy problem p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n . Graphs, i n f i g u r e s t h i r t e e n t o e i g h t e e n , a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4: W i l l Ss r e p o r t l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t a t i n g d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n ? S c o r e s on S c a l e 5, "Degree of e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n a c t i o n t a k i n g i n the shy s i t u a t i o n " , where a lower s c o r e i n d i c a t e s improvement, a l t h o u g h no n o t i c e a b l e change o c c u r s i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase, the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase shows a l l groups w i t h a d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n . Trend s t a b i l i t y i s f i r m f o r two groups. T h i s p o i n t s out t h a t w h i l e the Ss were l e a r n i n g no change e f f e c t o c c u r e d b u t , over t i m e , the a c t i o n t a k i n g d i f f i c u l t y c l e a r l y began t o d e c r e a s e . The r e s u l t s shown i n F i g u r e 19 from Group 1 p r e s e n t a l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e d e c r e a s e from Phase A t o Phase C of 2.03 which i s 16% l o w e r , the g r e a t e s t improvement of a l l groups on t h i s s c a l e . In F i g u r e 20, the t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.8) i n Phase A i s d e f i n i t l y a downward one and t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s h i g h a t 89%. In Phase B t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.6) d i s a p p e a r s and t r e n d s t a b i l i t y drops somewhat t o 83%. However, i n Phase C, a c l e a r downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.5) can be o b s e r v e d , r e f l e c t i n g a r e p o r t e d d e c r e a s e i n e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y a t t h i s p o i n t i n time f o r t h i s group. The v a r i a b i l i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t though, a t 77% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y . Group 2's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e shows a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e from Group 1's a t a v a l u e of 1.88 which i s 14% lower (see F i g u r e 2 1 ) . A g a i n , t h i s f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t o Group 1's l e v e l of improvement. On e xamining F i g u r e 22, the p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Group 1 w i t h a d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n Phase A ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e i o n e n v elope = 1.4) and t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 82%. Phase B ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.2) however, t r a c e s a s h a r p , but u n s t a b l e ( 6 7 % ) , upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t m o m e n t a r i l y , Ss • r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n . Phase C, on the c o n t r a r y , shows a marked downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.1) as i n Group 1 and v a r i a b i l i t y i s s m a l l a t t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 85%. D u r i n g t h i s phase, t h i s group appears t o be r e s p o n d i n g w i t h a t a c o n s i s t e n t l y lower degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s . L o o k i n g a t F i g u r e 23, Group 3 s c o r e s show a l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e from Phase A t o C as a n e g l i g a b l e drop of .14, o n l y 1% l o w e r . Phase A i s s t a b l e a t 93% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y w i t h a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.3). Phase B, l i k e t h a t of Group 2, r e v e r t s t o an upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.2) which i s v e r y t r e n d u n s t a b l e a t 50%. Phase C shows a c l e a r downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.2) and has a s o l i d t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 92%. T h i s group seems t o have been p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h i s a s p e c t of e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y . Summary - In o b s e r v i n g l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s , a l l groups show improvement by r e p o r t i n g l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r shy s i t u a t i o n s , Groups 1 & 2 as much as 16% and 14% lower r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, the t h r e e groups a l r e a d y r e f l e c t d e c r e a s e d d i f f i c u l t y i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase w i t h a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n . T h i s l e v e l s - o f f f o r Group 1 but i s r e v e r s e d f o r Groups 2 & 3 d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. The p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n r e v e r t s back t o showing improvement and c a r r y - o v e r e f f e c t by a s t e a d y downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n w i t h f i r m t r e n d s t a b i l i t y f o r Groups 2 & 3 and a s l i g h t l y l e s s one f o r Group 1. Graphs, i n f i g u r e s n i n e t e e n t o t w e n t y - f o u r , a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. OOI ID 1 S m l p S D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 5 -U U ( J I, O ^ U I C D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g ure 19 -a o Group 1, Scale 5 Trends on Scale 5 - Di f f i cu l ty Experienced in the Shy Situation Figure 20 Group 2, Scale 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Sc a l e 5 -D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g u r e 21 IV) Group 2, Scale 5 Trends on Sc a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g u r e 22 -o Group 3, Scale 5 Level D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 5 -D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n u o u in 13 12 1 1 10 9 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -0 Baseline Intervention i i \ 7 — \ x v ^ ^ y ^ , . ^ Post Intervention 0 10 20 Time (days) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 F i g u r e 23 -(=-Group 3, Scale 5. Trends on Scal e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n Figure 24 -o R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 5: W i l l Ss r e p o r t i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e e n t e r i n g t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a c a r r y i n g out d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n ? A l l Ss e x c e p t those i n Group 2 r e p o r t s i m i l a r r a t i n g s on S c a l e 6, "Degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n " , where an i n c r e a s e d s c o r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n degree of c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s measure s t a n d s out i n the study i n t h a t i t r e f l e c t s the l e a s t p o s i t i v e change o v e r a l l . Even though t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s i n Groups 1 & 3 show an i n c r e a s e i n c o n f i d e n c e d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase, one l e v e l s out and the o t h e r d e c r e a s e s . Only Group 2, i n the f i n a l phase, shows a p o s i t i v e change but even t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i s v e r y u n s t a b l e . In o t h e r words, the Ss c o m p l e t e d the st u d y r e p o r t i n g f e e l i n g s l i g h t l y l e s s c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s than when they commensed i t . In F i g u r e 25, Group 1 r e p o r t s a l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e of -.73, a 5% d e c r e a s e from Phase A t o Phase C. E x a m i n i n g F i g u r e 26, Phase A shows a s l i g h t upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.5) but v a r i a b i l i t y i s u n a c c e p t a b l e a t a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 55%. Phase B, i n c o n t r a s t , p r e s e n t s an s h a r p upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.4) but has even l e s s t r e n d s t a b i l i t y a t 67% making t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n q u e s t i o n a b l e . Phase C shows a c l e a r l e v e l i n g out of Phase B t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e lope = 1.4) but w i t h even g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y , t r e n d s t a b i l i t y b e i n g o n l y 54%. In F i g u r e 27, Group 2's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s a n e g l i g i b l e -.07, o n l y 1% from Phase A t o Phase C. F i g u r e 28 shows a s l i g h t down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n r e s u l t s ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.2) i n Phase A w i t h a n e a r , but not a c c e p t a b l e , t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 73%. Phase B r e f l e c t s a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.3) w i t h an even l e s s t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 67%. A l t h o u g h Phase C c l e a r l y shows an upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.3), i n d i c a t i n g h i g h e r r e p o r t e d c o n f i d e n c e , i t a g a i n has h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y , t r e n d s t a b i l i t y b e i n g 54%. Note however, t h a t the l a s t 2/3s of the phase ( t h e l a s t 8 o b s e r v a t i o n s ) has a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 88%, perhaps p o i n t i n g t o improvement over a l o n g range f o r t h i s group of Ss. On e x a m i n i n g F i g u r e 29 Group 3, as w i t h the o t h e r g roups, a m i n i m a l l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s r e v e a l e d . Here i t i s =.04, which i s 0%, from Phase A t o Phase C, i n d i c a t i n g no d e c r e a s e i n the r e p o r t e d degree of c o n f i d e n c e . F i g u r e 30 shows a s l i g h t down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n Phase A ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.3) where t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s o n l y near t o a c c e p t a b l e a t 79%. Phase B shows a d e f i n i t e upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = GrOlJn 1 ^ P n l p R Level D i f f e r e n c e s on Scal e 6 -W U H ') O V ^ U I C U D e g r e e of Confidence Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g u r e 25 0 0 Group 1, Scale 6 Trends on Sc a l e 6 - Degree of Confidence Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g u r e 26 o QZ-S^IZ-N CZ L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e b -U r O U D Z , 0CQI6 0 Degree of Confidence Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g u r e 27 CO o A B C F i 9 u r e 28 CO " Z O I C L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scal e 6 -L?rOUp vJ, >I)CQle O Degree of Confidence Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n CO F i g u r e 29 ' Group 3, Scale 6 Trends on Scal e 6 - Degree of Confidence Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n F i g ure 30 CO 1.2) w i t h g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y , t r e n d s t a b i l i t y b e i n g 34%. Phase C has a c l e a r down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.2) but w i t h l e s s than a c c e p t a b l e t r e n d s t a b i l i t y a t 77%, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o n f i d e n c e i s d e c l i n i n g but not a t a s t a b l e r a t e . Summary - A c c o r d i n g t o the s e o v e r a l l r e s u l t s , the groups c o m p l e t e d the s t u d y r e p o r t i n g f e e l i n g s l i g h t l y l e s s c o n f i d e n t than when they commensed. In the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase Groups 1 & 3 show a p p r e c i a b l e upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e but t h e s e l e v e l - o f f or drop i n t h e p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n . Only Group 2, a l t h o u g h showing a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n Phase A and B, i n d i c a t e s a c l e a r improvement i n t h a t the s t a b l e t r e n d d i r e c t i o n , p o s t -i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n t i n u e s on an o b v i o u s upward s l o p e . Graphs, i n f i g u r e s t w e n t y - f i v e t o t h i r t y , a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 6: W i l l Ss r e p o r t a d e c r e a s e i n a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y i n t h e i r shy/ t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g as the i n t e r -v e n t i o n ? E x a m i n i n g the r e s u l t s on the 13 p o i n t continuum on S c a l e 4, "How i n t e n s e a r e your average a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s i n the s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s ? " , where a lower s c o r e i n d i c a t e s improvement, r e v e a l s a g a i n t h a t Groups 1 & 2 p r e s e n t d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e change, i . e . , they r e p o r t l e s s a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y , w h i l e Group 3 l a g s b e h i n d w i t h l e s s r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e change. As seen i n F i g u r e 31, Group 1's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e c o mparing Phase C t o A i s 2.49, a 19% d e c r e a s e . T h i s r e s u l t r e f l e c t s the g r e a t e s t improvement f o r a l l groups on a l l s c a l e s . L o o k i n g a t F i g u r e 32, the Phase A t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.7) i s a t r e n d up -s l o p e d i r e c t i o n and v e r y s t a b l e a t 100%. At Phase B t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n l e v e l s out ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.6), and t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s o n l y 67%. A b a r e l y p e r c e p t a b l e downslope t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e nvelope = 1.47) i s seen i n Phase C but i s q u i t e s t a b l e a t 92% s t a b i l i t y . In F i g u r e 33, Group 2 shows a s i m i l a r change t o Group 1 i n t h a t the Phase C-A l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s 2.22, which i s 17% l o w e r . T h i s r e f l e c t s the second g r e a t e s t improvement f o r a l l groups on a l l s c a l e s . E xamining F i g u r e 34, the t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.4) i n Phase A shows a s h a r p downslope t r e n d d i r e c t i o n w i t h an a l m o s t a c c e p t a b l e t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 82%. Phase B c o n t i n u e s w i t h t h i s t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.1) but a t a l e v e l 2 p o i n t s lower than Phase A. Here t h e r e i s 83% t r e n d s t a b i l i t y . Phase C shows a d e f i n i t e c o n t i n u a t i o n of downslope d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.1) however, t r e n d s t a b i l i t y i s below a c c e p t a b l e a t 77%. A g a i n , a l m o s t the l a s t h a l f of t h i s phase has a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 100%, p o i n t i n g out t h a t p e r h a p s , i f g i v e n an e x t e n s i o n of t i m e , t h i s group's t r e n d d i r e c t i o n c o u l d s t a b l i z e . F i g u r e 35 shows Group 3 r e p o r t i n g b e i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s b o t h e r e d by the a n x i e t y problem w i t h a l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e of Phase C from A of .53, which i s 4% l o w e r . In F i g u r e 36, the Phase A t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e lope = 1.4) s l o p e s downward and has a t r e n d s t a b i l i t y of 79%, w h i l e Phase B ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v elope = 1.2) r e v e r t s t o an upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n a g a i n w i t h a low t r e n d s t a b i l i t y a t 67%. Phase C, however, shows a d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.3) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y i s d i m i n i s h i n g . V a r i a b i l i t y i s not a t the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l but comes near t o i t a t 77%. I t would appear t h a t the i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t l a g g e d somewhat and showed i t s e l f w i t h f u r t h e r a s s i m i l a t i o n and/or p r a c t i c e of the M o r i t a l e a r n i n g . Summary - Improvement i s i n d i c a t e d f o r a l l groups a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e s u l t s i n t h a t the a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y caused by the shyness problem i s d e c r e a s e d . The g r e a t e s t improvement i s shown by Groups 1 & 2 when l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s G r O U D 1 S c n l P A- L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 -\-> , »^vuio *-t I n t e n s i t y of Anxiety Reactions F i g u r e 31 CO -a Group 1, Scale 4 Trends on Scale 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y Reactions Figure 32 CO CO Group 2, Scale 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scal e 4 -I n t e n s i t y of Anxiety Reactions F i g u r e 33 co Group 2, Scale 4 Trends on Sc a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y Reactions Figure 34 Group 3, Scale 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scal e 4 -I n t e n s i t y of Anxiety Reactions F i g u r e 35 Figure 36 a r e o b s e r v e d . As t o t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s , Groups 1 & 3 show g r e a t e r improvement i n t h a t a n x i e t y showed an i n c r e a s e e i t h e r i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n or i n t e r v e n t i o n phase but r e v e r t e d t o a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n the p o s t -i n t e r v e n t i o n phase e s p e c i a l l y f o r Group 3. Graphs, i n f i g u r e s t h i r t y - o n e t o t h i r t y - s i x , a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. C o n s i d e r i n g s c o r e s from a l l t h r e e g roups, the f o l l o w i n g T a b l e 3 i s a summary of the p e r c e n t a g e of change t h a t o c c u r r e d , i . e . , improvement r e p o r t e d by Ss over the 7-r e p e a t e d measures when ex a m i n i n g l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s . Due t o the s m a l l n, no d e f i n i t e statement can be made as t o whether changes are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I I S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Repeated Measures In a d d i t i o n t o i t e m - a n a l y s i s and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e p o r t e d under MEASURES i n Chapter 3, the 7-Repeated Measures were examined f o r Mean d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g the B a s e l i n e and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phases. T a b l e 4 on the f o l l o w i n g page l i s t s t h e s e f i n d i n g s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the use of T - t e s t s c o u l d r e s u l t i n the f i n d i n g s not b e i n g g e n e r a l i z a b l e due t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s e r i a l dependency. TABLE 3 PERCENTAGES of IMPROVEMENT f o r a l l GROUPS on the 7-REPEATED MEASURES (Note 1) S c a l e Group 1 (n = 4) Group 2 (n = 4) Group 3 (n = 4) A n x i e t y S e v e r i t y S c a l e 19% 17% 4% Degree of Di f f i c u l t y S c a l e 1 6% 1 4% 1% Coping Ef f e c t i v -ness S c a l e 1 4% 1 5? A n x i e t y A c ceptance S c a l e 1 1% 1 4% O v e r a l l B o t h e r -someness S c a l e 1 1% 1 1 1 0! L e v e l of Conf i d e n c e S c a l e 5% 1% 0% Note 1: Taken by group, Mean s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s between Pre-and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phases were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s c a l e and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p e r c e n t a g e . TABLE 4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS of 7-REPEATED MEASURES -a COMPARISON BETWEEN BASELINE and POST-INTERVENTION BASELINE POST-INTERVENTION S c a l e Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) df t ( 2 - t a i l e d ) C o p i n g e f f e c t -i v e n e s s I n t e n s i t y of a n x i e t y D i f f i c u l t y e x p e r i e n c e d L e v e l of con f i d e n c e O v e r a l l b o t h e r -some A n x i e t y a c c e p t a n c e 28.70 (8.05) 34.73 (7.32) 9.05 (2.06) 8.54 (2.31) 7.71 (2.03) 8.45 (2.50) 7.30 (1.59) 7.17 (1.94) 7.54 (1.67) 7.01 (2.01 ) 36.93 (6.90) 44.23 (8.06) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -3.00* 3.99** 3.31* 0.39ns 2.82* -2.79* n=1 2 * p< .02 ** p< .01 ns = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t T - t e s t s a r e n o r m a l l y a p p l i e d i n comparing random d a t a samples. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of S c a l e 6, "Degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n the s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n " , T - t e s t s show d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e change w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e <.05 I I I Shyness S c r e e n i n g S c a l e An a n a l y s i s of the P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n s c o r e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 . T h i s comparison of P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n v a l u e s i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e change i n Ss r e p o r t on t h e i r l e v e l of s h y n e s s , w i t h a Mean d i f f e r e n c e or t = 2.27 and £ < .05. V a l u e s from the two r e m a i n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c e n t . The r e a d e r i s reminded t h a t the s t u d y was not a t t e m p t i n g t o change Ss shy n a t u r e but r a t h e r t o h e l p them a c c e p t i t and be p r o d u c t i v e i n s p i t e of t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the change r e f e r r e d t o above r e s u l t e d from Ss becoming more a c c e p t i n g of t h e i r shy n a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n t o i t s use i n s c r e e n i n g , the Cheek and Buss Shyness S c a l e (Appendix 2 ) , which i s not p a r t of the t i m e -s e r i e s measures, was used as an a n c i l l a r y s c a l e a t P r e - and P o s t - T r e a t m e n t phase p o i n t s as w e l l as i n the f o l l o w - u p TABLE 2 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n D i f f e r e n c e on S c o r e s on the Cheek and Buss Shyness S c a l e (1981) n P r e - I n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) df 11 31.27 29.00 10 2.27* (4.50) (4.27) * p< .05 ( 2 - t a i l e d ) phase t o g a t h e r f u r t h e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l changes. IV B e h a v i o r a l R e p o r t s The Ss were r e q u e s t e d t o document a t the end of each day, over a 5 c o n s e c u t i v e day p e r i o d b e f o r e and a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e number of t i m e s they had at t e m p t e d t o e n t e r t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s and t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . These r e p o r t s were i n t e n d e d t o be used as a b e h a v i o r a l comparison of p o s t - t o p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n shyness a c t i v i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase they would i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t of a p p l i c a t i o n the Ss were making of t h e i r M o r i t a l e a r n i n g . A. In the B e h a v i o r a l Counts graph below of a l l Ss t o g e t h e r where s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s the number of a t t e m p t s made, a c l e a r i n c r e a s e i n c o u n t s has t a k e n p l a c e w i t h the P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase M = 2.5 and t h e P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase M = 4.6. T h i s l a t t e r s c o r e i s c l o s e t o a 100% i n c r e a s e from the P r e -i n t e r v e n t i o n t o t a l c o u n t s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , o v e r a l l , Ss made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of a t t e m p t s t o p r a c t i c e d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e i r shyness problem a f t e r the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g . The ^ B e h a v i o r a l Counts' graph, i n f i g u r e t h i r t y -seven, i s p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g page. BEHAVIOURAL COUNTS - N=10 P r e - I n t e r v e n t i o n INTERVENTION P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n M = 2.5 M = 4.6 * * 3 H S time (days) t 2 3 H 5 time (days) Figure 37 B. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of B e h a v i o r a l Counts a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d here ( T a b l e 5 on the f o l l o w i n g pages) where a comp a r i s o n of Mean d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n c l u d e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e s u l t s ( t = 2.02), d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e change has o c c u r e d f o r t h e Ss i n t o t a l i n terms of i n c r e a s e d i n i t i a t i n g of a c t i o n t a k i n g i n the s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n . T a b l e 6 p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . V Summary On e x a m i n i n g the above r e s u l t s , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p o s i t i v e change o c c u r e d f o r a l l t h r e e groups as r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r s c o r e s on f i v e out of the s i x s c a l e s a d m i n i s t e r e d . The e x c e p t i o n i s S c a l e 6, "Degree of C o n f i d e n c e i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n " , where two groups r e v e a l e d a s l i g h t l y l e s s degree of f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t . Only Group 2 showed improvement i n the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note however, t h a t on S c a l e 5, "Degree of E x p e r i e n c e d D i f f i c u l t y i n A c t i o n T a k i n g i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n " , a l l s u b j e c t s began by showing improvement i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. T h i s p o s i t i v e change a c c e n t u a t e d though, i n the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r Groups 2 and 3, r e f l e c t i n g even l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s a t the c o m p l e t i o n of the s t u d y . To a l e s s e r degree, t h i s same oc c u r a n c e can be ob s e r v e d f o r the s e same groups on TABLE 5 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS of DIFFERENCE i n BEHAVIORAL COUNT SCORES (Note 1) PRE- and POST-INTERVENTION PHASES n P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) df 10 2.50 4.60 9 -2.02* (3.41) (3.89) * p< .05 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) Note 1: These v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t the a g g r e g a t e number of a t t e m p t s a t e n t e r i n g t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s of a l l s u b j e c t s as r e p o r t e d d a i l y . Counts were r e c o r d e d over two 5-day p e r i o d s , one i n the P r e -and the o t h e r i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase. TABLE 6 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS of BEHAVIORAL COUNTS -a COMPARISON BETWEEN BASELINE and POST-INTERVENTION GROUPS BASELINE POST-INTERVENTION Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Group 1 1.0 (1.42) 3.0 (2.94) (n = 3) Group 2 3.5 (3.84) 6.5 (4.43) (n = 4) Group 3 2.7 (3.09) 3.7 (2.36) (n = 3) S c a l e 7, " O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem". Improvement i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s p r e s e n t but a g a i n a c l e a r a c c e n t u a t i o n of p o s i t i v e change f o l l o w s i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases. Based on t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t i s a p p arent t h a t the i n t e r v e n t i o n , M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , e f f e c t e d an improvement f o r a l l groups on the components of the shyness e x p e r i e n c e measured e x c e p t f o r l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The B e h a v i o r a l Counts r e c o r d e d f o r the purpose of m o n i t o r i n g the s u b j e c t s ' a p p l i c a t i o n of the M o r i t a c o n c e p t s r e v e a l a c l e a r improvement o v e r a l l f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . The a verage number of a t t e m p t s a t c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n t a k i n g p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n a lmost d o u b l e d t h a t i n the p r e -i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS and CONCLUSIONS I D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s The d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n , " I s M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , c o n d u c t e d i n the form of 4 b r i e f c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h s m a l l groups of a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s , e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about p o s i t i v e c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l change?". The s e q u e n t i a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s from the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r w i l l not be r e p e a t e d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s w i l l be c o n f i n e d o n l y t o t h o s e f i n d i n g s t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r s most i n t e r e s t i n g , i m p o r t a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t . Some a s p e c t s of the s t u d y , however, r e q u i r e s p e c i a l note as i n the f o l l o w i n g : a) B a s e l i n e s - I d e a l l y b a s e l i n e s s h o u l d be extended i n c a s e s where h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y o c c u r s . In t h i s s t u d y , the time commitment a l r e a d y p l a c e d a g r e a t demand on the s t u d e n t s r e s o u r c e s and so e x t e n d i n g t h i s commitment would most p r o b a b l y have r e s u l t e d i n l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n a t t r i t i o n of Ss. To t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i t seemed u n r e a l i s t i c , g i v e n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o b r i n g g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e t o bear on the Ss, and t o encompass f u r t h e r p e r i o d s of e x a m i n a t i o n s and h o l i d a y s , i n o r d e r t o ext e n d the stu d y beyond the 14 week p e r i o d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , f o r most Ss, h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y i s seen i n the i n i t i a l p a r t of t h i s phase. T h i s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from, a) a n o v e l t y e f f e c t , b) u n c l e a r comprehension of i n s t r u c t i o n , or c) l a c k of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e i n r e p o r t i n g . L i m i t a t i o n i s a l s o o b s e r v e d f o r example i n Group 2, the b a s e l i n e was a l r e a d y , s t a r t i n g t o show improvement so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e t o what degree the i n t e r v e n t i o n brought about p o s i t i v e change. b) I n t e r v e n t i o n Phase - F r e q u e n t f l u c t u a t i o n i s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s phase p r o b a b l y due t o Ss b e i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n of new l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time and each w i t h v a r y i n g a t t e m p t s a t a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s phase i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s s u s p i c i o n t h a t the m i x t u r e of d i f f e r e n t academic grade l e v e l s l e n d s p e r p l e x i t y t o the r e s u l t s . c) F o l l o w - u p I n t e r v i e w s - H a l f - h o u r f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s were co n d u c t e d by a n o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , 3 weeks a f t e r the f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t f o r Group 3. Most Ss gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r the a u d i o t a p i n g of t h e s e s e s s i o n s . From the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by s u b j e c t s , no s i g n of d i s t u r b a n c e was o b s e r v e d . The Ss appeared s a t i s f i e d w i t h the t r e a t m e n t and t h e r e f o r e , no f u r t h e r f o l l o w - u p t r e a t m e n t was n e c e s s a r y . d) Feedback - P u r s u a n t t o the f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s a f i n a l m e e t i n g was h e l d f o r a l l Ss where the r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d feedback i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t u d y ' s r e s u l t s . H a l f of the Ss a t t e n d e d and the o t h e r s were r e a c h e d by t e l e p h o n e . Lunch was p r o v i d e d i n a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t . The r e a d e r i s reminded, when e x a m i n i n g r e s u l t s f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h a t the i n t e r v e n t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f . The f o u r M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s of 45 minutes each r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l of 3 h o u r s , over a d u r a t i o n of 4 weeks, w i t h i n a 14 week r e s e a r c h s t u d y p e r i o d . A l s o Ss ages spanned f i v e a d o l e s c e n t y e a r s encompassing a wide range of d e v e l o p m e n t a l f l u c t u a t i o n . A. A c c e p t a n c e and P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e Towards Shy/Anxious N a t u r e At the c o n c l u s i o n of the s t u d y , the p o s i t i v e change i n the a c c e p t a n c e of a n x i e t y was s i g n i f i c a n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Ss g a i n e d an i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e and more p o s i t i v e view of the s h y / a n x i o u s p a r t of t h e i r n a t u r e . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r Group 2 and t o a l e s s e r d e gree, Group 1. Presumably, one c o u l d e x t e n d t h i s t o s t a t e t h a t Ss l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s d i m e n s i o n of s e l f need not be viewed as an a d v e r s a r y but r a t h e r as a n a t u r a l p a r t of human n a t u r e . Group 2 r e f l e c t e d the g r e a t e s t improvement w i t h Group 3 showing the l e a s t when c o n s i d e r i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n l e v e l s . The upward t r e n d l i n e i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n f o r Group 2 w i t h i t s 83% near a c c e p t a b l e s t a b i l i t y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s c o n t i n u e d improvement f o r t h e s e Ss. However, the B a s e l i n e a l s o shows a s i m i l a r improvement c o n s i d e r i n g i t s s i m i l a r upward t r e n d l i n e and t h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t Ss would have c o n t i n u e d t o improve s i m p l y by b e i n g measured as i n t h e Hawthorne e f f e c t ( R o e t h l i s b e r g e r & D i c k s o n , 1947). Groups 1 & 3, on the c o n t r a r y , show a d e c i d e d change i n t r e n d d i r e c t i o n from downward i n B a s e l i n e t o a d i s t i n c t upward i n I n t e r v e n t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h a t the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g was h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . Both groups then l e v e l o f f w i t h a s t a b l e maintenance of improvement. In summary, Groups 1 & 3's t r e n d l i n e s perhaps l e a n more t o i n d i c a t i n g improvement due t o M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g . B. Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n s O v e r a l l , Ss i n d i c a t e d improvement i n the ways t h e y r e p o r t e d c o p i n g w i t h a n x i e t y i n t h e i r t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s . Groups 1 & 2 f e l l w i t h i n the t o p 50% of o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e improvement i n the s t u d y , ( a r r i v e d a t by phase l e v e l c o m p a r i s o n s ) w i t h i n c r e a s e s of 14% and 15% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Group 3's improvement was r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a t 3%. In the B a s e l i n e , Groups 1 & 3's t r e n d l i n e s show a d e c r e a s e i n c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s perhaps due t o i n c r e a s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e problem ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1979). However, b o t h groups r e f l e c t an upward swing d u r i n g the c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s and c o n t i n u e t h i s t r e n d i n a s t a b l e p o s t - s e s s i o n s p e r i o d , i n d i c a t i n g some permanence of e f f e c t . Group 2's t r e n d l i n e shows a c l e a r i n c r e a s e i n c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the B a s e l i n e , but t h i s phase was not s t a b l e and so cannot be c o n s i d e r e d . These a r e Ss who c o u l d have b e n e f i t e d from an e x t e n s i o n of t h i s phase i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o u l d have p e r m i t t e d . T h i s a p p l i e s t o Group 1 as w e l l and t o Group 3 t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t . The f i n a l phase f o r Group 2, i n any c a s e , c l e a r l y shows an improvement o c c u r i n g on an upward s t a b l e t r e n d . M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , which promotes a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t a k i n g i n s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a p p e a r s t o have made an impact on t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s . B e h a v i o r c o u n t s , which a r e most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s c o n s t r u c t , produced r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of C h r i s t o f f e t a l (1985) i n e f f e c t i n g more p o s i t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . K a z d i n & M a s c i t e l l i (1982) c o n c l u d e t h a t a s s i g n m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e more t o b e h a v i o r change than o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s . C. Degree of B e i n g B o t h e r e d by t h e S h y / A n x i e t y Problem I t i s not one of the aims of M o r i t a Therapy t o r i d the c l i e n t of shyness but r a t h e r t o have t h i s p roblem be l e s s t r o u b l e s o m e and i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e l i f e t o mention one a s p e c t . In t h i s s t u d y , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t c l e a r improvement o c c u r e d f o r a l l groups on t h i s measure. Groups 1, 2, & 3 r e p o r t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 11%, 11%, & 10% r e d u c t i o n i n degree of t r o u b l e s o m e n e s s from the shy problem. I n d i v i d u a l l y , Ss 2, 4, 5, & 10 show d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n on t h i s component (see Appendix - I n d i v i d u a l Ss G r a p h s ) . Comparing Phases A and C, t = 2.82 w i t h p = 0.017, r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . T a k i n g i n t o account the b r i e f n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h i s i s a d e f i n i t e and s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change. On e x a m i n a t i o n of t r e n d s , a l t h o u g h b a s e l i n e s a r e not s t a b l e , t h e r e i s an improvement i n t h i s a s p e c t t h r o u g h o u t the I n t e r v e n t i o n phase. There a r e d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d s f o r a l l groups i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase w i t h Group 3's b e i n g s t a b l e . C o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y , none a r e a c c e p t a b l y s t a b l e making i t q u e s t i o n a b l e from t h i s assessment p o i n t whether t h i s a p p arent improvement would c o n t i n u e . On c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n , none the l e s s , i t can be o b s e r v e d t h a t i n Groups 1 and 2 the l a s t h a l f of the phase e n j o y s an 100% s t a b i l i t y and i n Group 3 the f i r s t e l e v e n out of 13 o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s a r e c l o s e t o a c c e p t a b l e s t a b i l i t y w i t h 82%, the l a s t 2 p o i n t s c o n t i n u i n g t o be lower than th e t r e n d l i n e e n v e l o p e . I t c o u l d be argued t h a t an e x t e n s i o n of t h i s phase would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y show c o n t i n u e d p o s i t i v e change f o r Groups 1 and 2. I t might prove u s e f u l t o t a k e measures on t h i s component p e r i o d i c a l l y over the coming y e a r t o o b s e r ve f o r t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . 110 D. Degree of D i f f i c u l t y i n I n i t i a t i n g D e s i r a b l e A c t i o n i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n T w o - t h i r d s of the Ss r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change, an average of a 15% improvement, i n t h i s a r e a when l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s between Phases A and C a r e c o n s i d e r e d . A c o m parison of t h e s e two phases r e v e a l a s i g n i f i c a n t t = 3.055 w i t h p = 0.007. A l l Phase C t r e n d l i n e s r e f l e c t c l e a r , p o s i t i v e change. As a u n i t Group 1's P o s t -I n t e r v e n t i o n phase i s not s t a b l e but almost the e n t i r e l a s t h a l f of i t i s 100% s t a b l e . Group 2 & 3 e n j o y a s o l i d s t a b i l i t y c l e a r l y showing t h a t t h e s e Ss r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n t a k i n g i n t h e i r s h y / t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s . E. L e v e l of C o n f i d e n c e i n E n t e r i n g the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n s O v e r a l l , t h i s component y i e l d e d poor r e s u l t s . I t appears t h a t a l l Ss, e x c e p t t h o s e i n Group 2, u n i f o r m l y showed l i t t l e p o s i t i v e change. So a l t h o u g h most seemed a b l e t o r e p o r t improvement on a l l the o t h e r components, here they r e p o r t no n o t i c e a b l e g a i n . One of M o r i t a ' s t e n e t s s t a t e s t h a t c o n f i d e n c e i s g a i n e d t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d p r a c t i c e of a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t a k i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t ime l i m i t a t i o n was a f a c t o r i n t h a t Ss, w h i l e b e i n g measured, had i n s u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e n a b l e them t o r e a c h t h a t p o i n t of i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e . A l s o , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t because the measure i s s e t up i n such a way as t o f o c u s on the p r e - a c t i o n t a k i n g f e e l i n g , Ss were not a t t e n d i n g t o the c o n f i d e n c e g a i n e d p o s t - a c t i o n t a k i n g and the c a r r y - o v e r e f f e c t from one a t t e m p t a t a c t i o n t a k i n g t o a n o t h e r was not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d . On the o t h e r hand, i t may be t h a t t h i s a s p e c t of g a i n i n g c o n f i d e n c e i s not one t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s respond t o r e a d i l y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o Groups 2 & 3 showing no p o s i t i v e change, Group 1 a c t u a l l y showed a 5% n e g a t i v e r e s u l t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e f o u r Ss r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g t h a t much l e s s c o n f i d e n t a f t e r the i n t e r v e n t i o n . A l t h o u g h i t may appear a drawback the r e a d e r must remember t h a t a l l Ss, d e s p i t e low c o n f i d e n c e s t i l l were a b l e t o improve t h e i r c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , l e s s e n the a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y , the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h , and o v e r a l l bothersomeness w i t h the shyness problem. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the M o r i t a p r i n c i p l e t h a t c o n f i d e n c e does not have t o be a c h i e v e d i n o r d e r f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n t o be t a k e n . F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s a f a i r p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a d o l e s c e n t development i s c o n f o u n d i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s i n t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s a r e f i r m l y i n the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g a sense of s e l f of which s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i s an i n t r e g a l p a r t . I f t h i s i s so, then i t may be u n r e a l i s t i c t o e x p ect any s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n t h i s a r e a . 112 F. A n x i e t y S e v e r i t y i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n T h i s component r e v e a l e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of improvement f o r t w o - t h i r d s of the Ss. Group 1 showed a 19% p o s i t i v e change from Phase A t o C and l i k e w i s e Group 2 showed a 17% improvement when l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e compared. S t a t i s t i c a l l y comparing t h e s e phases r e s u l t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t t = 3.99 and p = 0.002. I t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e s e Ss r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t d rop i n a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y i n t h e i r t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s . An a s p e c t of M o r i t a t e a c h i n g p r o p o s e s t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e d s e v e r i t y of a n x i e t y d i m i n i s h e s as one p e r s e v e r e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t a k i n g as opposed t o f o c u s i n g on the e m o t i o n a l symptoms of the s h y / a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n . W i t h the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e , t h e s e Ss appeared t o make a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e headway i n r e d u c i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a l a n x i e t y s e v e r i t y . A l l t h r e e groups f o l l o w c l e a r downward t r e n d s , e s p e c i a l l y Groups 2 & 3, i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n phase i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e change d i r e c t i o n . These phases a r e not a c c e p t a b l y s t a b l e though as whole u n i t s but Groups 2 & 3's l a s t h a l v e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e 100% and 88% s t a b l e which means t h a t q u i t e p o s s i b l y c o mplete s t a b i l i t y i s emerging w i t h a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n of t h i s phase. I I L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h A. L i m i t a t i o n s The most o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y i s , of c o u r s e , the measurement i n s t r u m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . They have been d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s a d u l t s and a c c o r d i n g l y , use a d u l t t e r m i n o l o g y . T h i s t e r m i n o l o g y r e q u i r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n w i t h p e r i o d i c c l a r i f i c a t i o n as Ss academic comprehension ranged from Grades 8 t o 11. The measures, a s i d e from the B e h a v i o r a l Counts, were s e l f - r e p o r t i n n a t u r e and c o n s e q u e n t l y , have q u e s t i o n a b l e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y as i t i s unknown t o what e x t e n t r e s u l t s from them r e f l e c t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s and b e h a v i o r . Because the study spanned a p e r i o d of f o u r t e e n weeks, t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e d e x a m i n a t i o n t i m e s as w e l l as h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . Hersen & Barlow (1976) a d v i s e time-frame f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o n d u c t i n g s i n g l e - c a s e type d e s i g n e x p e r i m e n t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of s u f f i c i e n t time t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a b l e b a s e l i n e . T h i s l a t t e r was d i f f i c u l t t o accommodate. These above e x t e r n a l e v e n t s posed a c e r t a i n t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y such as h i s t o r y and a t t r i t i o n (Cook & C a m p b e l l , 1979; K a z d i n , 1981). However, the t i m e - l a g f o r t r e a t m e n t a d d r e s s e d t h e s e and t h e r e was no l o s s of Ss due t o a t t r i t i o n . There i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as w e l l , about i s o l a t i n g the e f f e c t s of t h e M o t i t a - b a s e d t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s , i . e . , p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l a n x i e t y t e c h n i q u e s , ( I s h i y a m a , 1984b) from o t h e r t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s such as a t t e n t i o n , empathy, c a t h a r s i s and t r e a t m e n t e x p e c t a n c y . The a t t e m p t s a t e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a b l e b a s e l i n e (Hersen & B a r l o w , 1976) and t i m e - l a g g e d i n t e r v e n t i o n p o i n t s (Cook & C a m p b e l l , 1979),are d i r e c t e d a t t h i s c o n f o u n d , a l l o w i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n . In terms of s a m p l i n g , one l o c a t i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s even though t h a t l o c a t i o n , K i t s i l a n o Secondary S c h o o l , r e p r e s e n t e d the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a v e r a g e . In a d d i t i o n , the c o n s t r i c t e d time a l l o t e d t o the c o u s e l i n g s e s s i o n s a l l o w e d f o r o n l y m i n i m a l time f o r group d i s c u s s i o n . Due t o the s m a l l n i n t h i s s t u d y , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n can o n l y be made over t h e s e s u b j e c t s . In r e f e r e n c e t o Group 3's r e s u l t s and the s u s p e c t e d e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e r e was no p r o v i s i o n , d u r i n g the s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s , t o e n a b l e the r e s e a r c h e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h s t a t e ( i . e . c o n t e x t u a l ) from t r a i t ( i . e . s t a b l e over time) ( i n s e r t r e f e r e n c e ) a n x i e t y or d e p r e s s i o n . I f i t were known t h a t Ss were e x p e r i e n c i n g o n l y s t a t e a n x i e t y or d e p r e s s i o n t h e n , by d e f i n i t i o n , t h e s e would f l u x u a t e . However, as i s s u s p e c t e d w i t h Ss i n Group 3, i f s t a t e a n x i e t y or d e p r e s s i o n were p r e s e n t then l i t t l e f l u c t u a t i o n c o u l d be e x p e c t e d i n the r e s u l t s . I f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had not become aware of t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t i n Group 3, the r e s u l t s from t h i s group c o u l d have been more f u l l y i n c l u d e d . B. Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h - The f o l l o w i n g i d e a s would enhance and c l a r i f y the p r o c e s s of a s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h s t u d y : 1. A g r e a t e r impact c o u l d be made by the t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n i f the c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s were extended by a p p r o x i m a t e l y a h a l f hour. T h i s would a l l o w time f o r g r e a t e r exchange and group d i s c u s s i o n and a l s o remove some of the time p r e s s u r e e x p e r i e n c e d by Ss which was cause f o r d i s t r a c t i o n . 2. A more t h o r o u g h s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s whereby s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y / d e p r e s s i o n can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Perhaps s e e k i n g f u r t h e r background i n f o r m a t i o n on Ss from the s c h o o l c o n s e l o r s would be u s e f u l . 3. G a t h e r i n g B e h a v i o r a l Counts over l o n g e r p e r i o d s , perhaps e x t e n d i n g the f i v e day p e r i o d t o t e n days i f Ss would c o - o p e r a t e . Not o n l y would t h i s l o n g e r p e r i o d g i v e the r e s e a r c h e r a b e t t e r p i c t u r e of how Ss were a p p l y i n g M o r i t a l e a r n i n g but i t a l s o s e r v e s as a reminder t o Ss t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e f f o r t s between s e s s i o n s . I l l I m p l i c a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s Of the r e s u l t s g e n e r a t e d by t h i s s t u d y i t would appear t h a t M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g has a s i g n i f i c a n t and most u s e f u l r o l e t o p l a y i n p r o m o t i n g , amongst d e v e l o p i n g a d o l e s c e n t s , a g r e a t e r sense of c o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g . I t s impact on grooming a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e t h r o u g h s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e i n the a r e a of s o c i a l a n x i e t y i s c l e a r . P r o v i d i n g a c o n c r e t e mechanism by which t o a p p r o a c h and d e a l w i t h s h y / a n x i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i s a p r a g m a t i c a i d e d u r i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e renowned f o r i n d e c i s i v e n e s s and c o n f u s i o n . Having a c h i e v e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s on most measures i n the study f o l l o w i n g such b r i e f c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s M o r i t a l e a r n i n g c o u l d t i m e - w i s e be r e a d i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the secondary s c h o o l s ' g u i d a n c e s t u d i e s . To t e a c h a d o l e s c e n t s e a r l y i n t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e t h a t they need not be v i c t i m s t o t h e shy p a r t of t h e i r n a t u r e and f u r t h e m o r e , t h a t they can use t h i s p a r t t o remind t h e m s e l v e s of the i m p o r t a n c e t o them of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community l i f e seems a u s e f u l b e g i n n i n g a t p r o m o t i n g s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . M o r i t a t h e r a p y d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s the i s s u e of i n n e r s t r u g g l e and i n d i e i s i v e n e s s between emotion and a c t i o n t a k i n g . L e a r n i n g t h i s a pproach as p a r t of a r e g u l a r component of a l i f e s k i l l s program c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y reduce t h i s common t e n s i o n and s t r u g g l e e x p e r i e n c e d by a d o l e s c e n t s and a s s i s t them i n moving f o r w a r d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . BIBLIOGRAPHY Agnew, N.McK., and Pyke, S.W. (1987). 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J o u r n a l of  A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , 1 5, 423-429. Weiner, I.B. (1980). Chapter 14. P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n a d o l e s c e n c e . In A d e l s o n , J . (Ed) Handbook of  a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g y . New York: John W i l e y & Sons. W i l s o n , E. , and B r i g h t , J r . (1952). An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l . Zimbardo, P.G. (1977). Shyness. New York: Jove P u b l i c a t i o n s . Zimbardo, P.G. (1985). C h a p t e r 16, T h e r a p i e s f o r p e r s o n a l change. In P s y c h o l o g y and l i f e , 1 2 t h . E d i t i o n . : S c o t t Foresman & Co.. PART 1 THE 7-ITEM REPEATED MEASURE Appendix 1 S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : p l e a s e put an X f o r each a d j e c t i v e p a i r t o b e s t d e s c r i b e how you f e e l about y o u r s e l f . Ex: " I p r e f e r t o work .." f a s t : :_X: : : : : s l o w l y a l o n e : : : : : :_X: i n groups 1. How would you e v a l u a t e the a n x i o u s or nervous p a r t of your p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t seems t o s u r f a c e i n c e r t a i n a n x i e t y -a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? "The a n x i o u s p a r t of my p e r s o n a l i t y i s ..." a c c e p t a b l e : : :_ : : : : : : : u n a c c e p t a b l e u s e l e s s : : : : : : : : : : u s e f u l u n d e s i r a b l e : : : : : : : : : : d e s i r a b l e b e a r a b l e : : : : : : : : : : u n b e a r a b l e 2. How would you d e s c r i b e the way you d e a l w i t h the a n x i e t y -a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? "I am . . . i n d e a l i n g w i t h the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . competent : : : : : : : : : : incompetent i m p a t i e n t : : : : : : : : : : p a t i e n t p r o d u c t i v e : : : : : : : : : : u n p r o d u c t i v e c l e a r - m i n d e d : : : : : : : : : : c o n f u s e d u n s u c c e s s f u l : ' : : : _ : : : s u c c e s s f u l r e l a x e d : : : : : : : : : : t e n s e 3. How would you f e e l toward y o u r s e l f when you t h i n k of becoming a n x i o u s i n the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? I would f e e l (toward m y s e l f ) . " c r i t i c a l : s a t i s f i e d : t o l e r a n t : p e s s i m i s t i c : apprec i a t i v e d i s s a t i s f i e d i n t o l e r a n t opt i m i s t i c Appendix 1 The T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y : p l e a s e p l a c e an X t o b e s t d e s c r i b e your c u r r e n t view i n response t o each of t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 1 .How i n t e n s e a r e your a verage a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s when you e n t e r the shy s i t -u a t i o n . 2.How much d i f f i c u l t y do you exp-e r i e n c e i n c a r r y i n g out a d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n the shy s i t u a t i o n ? 3 .How conf i d e n t do you f e e l about e n t e r i n g the shy s i t u a t i o n and t a k -i n g a d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n ? 4 . O v e r a l l , how much does t h i s shyness problem ( i . e . , e m o t i o n a l d i s -c o m f o r t & beh-a v i o r a l d i f f -i c u l t y ) b o t h e r you? e x t r e m e l y v e r y m o d e r a t e l y a l i t t l e not a t a l l e x t r e m e l y v e r y m o d e r a t e l y a l i t t l e not a t a l l e x t r e m e l y v e r y m o d e r a t e l y a l i t t l e not a t a l l e x t r e m e l y v e r y m o d e r a t e l y a l i t t l e not a a l l CHEEK AND BUSS (1981) SHYNESS SCALE Appendix P l e a s e c i r c l e the number t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s you a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . 1. I am s o c i a l l y somewhat awkward. not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 2. I don't f i n d i t h a r d t o t a l k t o s t r a n g e r s . not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 3. I f e e l t e n s e when I'm w i t h p e o p l e I don't know w e l l . not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 4. When c o n v e r s i n g I worry about s a y i n g something dumb. not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 5. I f e e l nervous when s p e a k i n g t o someone i n a u t h o r i t y . not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 6 . I am o f t e n u n c o m f o r t a b l e a t p a r t i e s . not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 7. I f e e l i n h i b i t e d i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 8. I have t r o u b l e l o o k i n g someone r i g h t i n the eye. not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so 9. I am more shy w i t h members of the o p p o s i t e sex. not a t a l l 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 e x t r e m e l y so Appendix 3 Jan./88. Dear P a r e n t or G u a r d i a n , Your daughter e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t and has been a c c e p t e d as a p a r t i c i p a n t , p ending c o n s e n t , i n a s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h s t u d y t o be co n d u c t e d a t K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l , o u t s i d e of s c h o o l h o u r s . The s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g shy a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s by use of an i n s t r u c t i v e -t y p e c o u n s e l l i n g a pproach ( M o r i t a C o u n s e l l i n g ) . The purpose i s t o examine whether t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l b e n e f i t from t h i s t y pe of shyness c o u n s e l l i n g and show p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . The o f f i c i a l t i t l e of the st u d y i s : E f f i c a c y Study of B r i e f M o r i t a C o u n s e l l i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h  Shy A d o l e s c e n t s . In summary what w i l l o c c u r i s t h a t measures of s o c i a l a n x i e t y , u s i n g an 11-item c h e c k l i s t ( which r e q u i r e s about 4 mins. t o c o m p l e t e ) , w i l l be taken a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . The p a r t i c i p a n t w i l l c omplete t h i s c h e c k l i s t t w i c e per week over an a p p r o x i m a t e seven week p e r i o d . There w i l l be f o u r group c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s of about 45 minutes each c o n d u c t e d i n Appendix 3 the m i d d l e of the s t u d y . These w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n a p r i v a t e room i n t h e s c h o o l . A 1 4 - q u e s t i o n Shyness S c a l e w i l l a l s o be a d m i n i s t e r e d a t the end of the s t u d y . The t o t a l t i m e commitment f o r the e n t i r e p r o j e c t w i l l be 6 h r s . , ( a b o u t 2/3 h r . p e r week) over 7 weeks. The stu d y w i l l b e g i n i n Jan./88 and end i n approx. m i d - A p r i l / 8 8 . The s t u d y i s my t h e s i s p r o j e c t f o r a M a s t e r ' s degree i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t U.B.C. and I w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g the whole s t u d y i n c l u d i n g the c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s under the s u p e r v i s i o n of my a d v i s o r , D r . I . I s h i y a m a , of the C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y Dept. a t U.B.C.. P e r m i s s i o n f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h has been g r a n t e d by the p r i n c i p a l of the s c h o o l and the Vancouver S c h o o l Board. In a d d i t i o n , a r e q u e s t f o r a p p r o v a l by the E t h i c s Committee on Re s e a r c h a t U.B.C. i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p r o c e s s e d . . I would l i k e t o i n f o r m you t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity of your daughter w i l l be c l o s e l y guarded (code i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be u s e d ) . A l l d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i l l be p r o m p t l y d e s t r o y e d by b u r n i n g , no l a t e r than 1 y e a r from the c o m p l e t i o n d a t e of the s t u d y . Those who w i l l have a c c e s s t o dat a a r e , my a d v i s o r , D r . I s h i y a m a , two t h e s i s committee members a t U.B.C. and m y s e l f . The p r i n c i p a l , t e a c h e r s , and c o u n s e l l o r s of K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l w i l l not have a c c e s s t o the d a t a . Appendix 3 CONSENT FORM J a n . 1988. I c o n s e n t / I do not co n s e n t ( c i r c l e one) t o b e i n g a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the E f f i c a c y Study of B r i e f M o r i t a  C o u n s e l l i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h Shy A d o l e s c e n t s t o be co n d u c t e d a t K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l ( a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s ) by P a t r i c i a Donahue, a C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , b e g i n n i n g i n January/88 and e n d i n g approx. i n m i d - A p r i 1 / 8 8 . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity w i l l be a s s u r e d and a l l t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a c o n n e c t e d w i t h my name w i l l be d e s t r o y e d one year from the c o m p l e t i o n d a t e of t h i s p r o j e c t . I h o l d the r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e or t o withdraw from the s t u d y a t any time w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g my c l a s s s t a n d i n g a t s c h o o l . I a l s o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s i s a st u d y of r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n which cannot g u a r a n t e e d e s i r e d t h e r a p e u t i c r e s u l t s and d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , from a r e g u l a r c o u n s e l l i n g program. I have r e c e i v e d a copy of t h i s c o n s e n t form, and i t ' s a t t a c h e d l e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n , which I s h a l l keep f o r my r e c o r d s . S t u d e n t ' s S i g n a t u r e : ; NOTE: P l e a s e submit t o : Mr.B.Kinghorn, K i t s i l a n o S e c . S c h o o l *** Keep the a t t a c h e d copy of the Consent Form. 133 Appendix 4. G r a p h i c a l O u t l i n e oE R e s e a r c h Study. G r o u p _ i ^ Session — FoLLOW-up i Gro Gro J © © c£> (S) <S) © *3 . 4 <2) © I 1 (3) | © © ® © • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 UD 2 . <£> © ® <2>-- • • • 0 h 1 1 1 1 1 1 up 3. CD © G> <£> i i > i —1 [ M i l l i i i 5 week 3 > TIME POSITIVE RE-INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUE Appendix 5 1. A n x i e t y i s not an abnormal e x p e r i e n c e or p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n , but a common and normal human response t o c e r t a i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . 2. Underneath s o c i a l a n x i e t y , t h e r e i s a d e s i r e f o r b e i n g s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , e f f e c t i v e , and c o n s t r u c t i v e . A n x i e t y and d e s i r e a r e l i k e two s i d e s of the same c o i n . Thus, the d e n i a l of s o c i a l a n x i e t y means the d e n i a l of your d e s i r e t o l i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . 3. A n x i e t y can be a c c e p t e d as i t i s , and you can s t i l l make c o n s t r u c t i v e c h o i c e of a c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e p e o p l e and i n e f f e c t i v e p e o p l e i s not whether t h e y f e e l a n x i e t y or n o t , but r a t h e r whether they t a k e a c t i o n or not i n s p i t e of a n x i e t y . 4. The more you t r y t o f i g h t or m a n i p u l a t e the symptoms of a n x i e t y , the more s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d you t e n d t o g e t . A l s o , by assuming t h a t everyone around you i s aware of your a n x i o u s and nervous r e a c t i o n s , you become e x t r a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s u n n e c e s s a r i l y . T h i s e g o c e n t r i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n t e r f e r e s w i t h your e f f e c t i v e t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n . You end up n e g l e c t i n g what needs t o be done i n the g i v e n s o c i a l c o n t e x t . By t r e a t i n g a n x i e t y as your enemy, you f e e d a t t e n t i o n and energy i n t o the a n x i e t y symptoms j u s t t o e x a g g e r a t e them. I f you a c c e p t a n x i e t y and see the p o s i t i v e s i d e of i t , you can use your a n x i e t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e p u r p o s e s . 5. A n x i e t y does not have t o be a p e r s o n a l weakness. S o c i a l a n x i e t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n of your s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y . You c a r e a b o u t , and f e e l s e n s i t i v e t o , how o t h e r s might t h i n k , f e e l , and respond t o you. As a r e s u l t , you may end up f e e l i n g nervous and a n x i o u s . However, i n s t e a d of g e t t i n g p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a n x i e t y symptoms and a v o i d i n g the s i t y a t i o n , what needs t o be done i s t o t a k e advantage of your s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and r e d i r e c t i t t o what i s h appening, and t o what needs t o be done i n the g i v e n s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S o u r c e : I s h i y a m a , F . I . (1986b). B r i e f M o r i t a t h e r a p y f o r s o c i a l a n x i e t y : A s i n g l e - c a s e s t u d y of t h e r a p e u t i c changes. Canadian J o u r n a l of  C o u n s e l l i n g , 2 0 : ( 1 ) , 58-59. Appendix 5. POSITIVE/ENCOURAGING MESSAGES and INSTRUCTIONS ( g i v e n t o Ss t o c a r r y w i t h them as a reminder ). 1. I t i s okay t o f e e l shy. There i s no need t o f i g h t shy f e e l i n g s or t o c r i t i z e shy p e r s o n a l i t y . 2. S o c i a l a n x i e t y i s a t r a n s i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t may r e a c h a peak but w i l l s u b s i d e e v e n t u a l l y . P e r s e v e r e w i t h o u t t a k i n g f l i g h t from the s i t u a t i o n . L e t a n x i e t y t a k e i t s own c o u r s e of r i s i n g and f a l l i n g w i t h o u t r e s i s t i n g i t . 3. Your shyness and s o c i a l a n x i e t y r e f l e c t your d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t and s o c i a l s u c c e s s . Because you do not want t o f a i l s o c i a l l y , u pset o t h e r s , or be c r i t i c i z e d by o t h e r s , you become nervous and a n x i o u s . T h e r e f o r e , a n x i e t y i s a "go" s i g n a l r a t h e r than a " s t o p " s i g n a l i n your s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . P r o c e e d w i t h c a u t i o n and n e r v o u s n e s s i n the g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i n s t e a d of r u n n i n g away from i t . 4. You can t a k e a c t i o n i n s p i t e of a n x i e t y and shy f e e l i n g s . You need not c o n t r o l your i n c o n v e n i e n t f e e l i n g s t o t a k e n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n . 5. You a r e not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g spontaneous e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . S t o p b l a m i n g y o u r s e l f f o r the l a c k of a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l shyness or t o change your shy p e r s o n a l i t y . What c o u n t s i s your c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n . An e f f e c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n does not have t o be a f e a r l e s s p e r s o n . 6. You a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r your c h o i c e of a c t i o n and i t s consequences. Pursue the a c t i o n t h a t w i l l a c t u a l i z e your d e s i r e f o r m e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t and accomplishment of the p r a c t i c a l t a s k s a t hand. 7. There i s a j o b t o be done here and now, be i t s p e a k i n g up or a p p r o a c h i n g a s t r a n g e r . I t has t o be done whether you happen t o be i n the " r i g h t " mood or n o t . 8. You have a l o t t o o f f e r t o p e o p l e , such as your unique i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s not f a i r t o o t h e r s or t o y o u r s e l f not t o e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f j u s t because you f e e l shy and you don't f e e l l i k e t a l k i n g . Appendix 5 9. Because you a r e s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e and c a u t i o u s , you do not say o f f e n s i v e or h u r t f u l t h i n g s or a c t a g g r e s s i v e l y t o ward o t h e r s , i n c o n t r a s t t o the way f e a r l e s s and i n s e n s i t i v e p e o p l e a c t . Try t o use your s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y i n a p p r o a c h i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e t o i n c r e a s e your p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . S o u r c e : I s h i y a m a , F . I . (1987a). Use of M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n shyness c o u n s e l l i n g i n the west: P r o m o t i n g c l i e n t ' s s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and a c t i o n - t a k i n g J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g and Development, 65, 547-551. Appendix 6 BEHAVIORAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Do not r e s i s t a n x i e t y . Accept a n x i e t y as i t i s , and l e t i t f o l l o w i t ' s own n a t u r a l c o u r s e of r i s e and f a l l . 2. Stop b l a m i n g y o u r s e l f f o r your a n x i e t y and n e r v o u s n e s s . I n s t e a d , c o n s i d e r the i n t e n s i t y of your a n x i e t y as a r e f l e c t i o n of how i m p o r t a n t the t a s k i s t o you. 3. P e r s e v e r e t h r o u g h the a n x i o u s moments, and do not l o s e s i g h t of t h e t a s k a t hand. 4. Make c h o i c e of a c t i o n , and not emotion. 5. Think and a c t i n terms of how you can be p r o d u c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e i n s t e a d of t h i n k i n g how you can a v o i d or m a n i p u l a t e d i s c o m f o r t and a n x i e t y . 138 Appendix 7 Item A n a l y s i s on S c a l e s 1 , 2 , 3 I tern I tern/Scale T o t a l C o r r e l a t i o n I tern S c a l e 3 S c a l e 1 I tern S c a l e 2 1 .289 1 .622 1 .278 2 .277 2 .412 2 .361 3 .418 3 .612 3 .484 4 .180 4 .611 4 . 1 72 5 .507 6 .631 T o t a l S c o r e / T o t a l of 3 S c a l e s C o r r e l a t i o n Item S c a l e Item S c a l e Item S c a l e 1 .584 1 .731 1 .430 2 .482 2 .559 2 .722 3 .594 3 .706 3 .699 4 .528 4 .706 4 .313 5 .642 6 .680 n=l2 Appendix 8 AVERAGES (LEVELS) of EACH PHASE by GROUP GROUP 1 S c a l e (Phase A) B a s e l i n e (Phase B) I n t e r -v e n t i o n (Phase C) P o s t -I n t e r -v e n t i o n P o i n t D i f f e r e n c e (Phase C-Phase A) 2 6 8 26.75 8.47 34.92 31 .70 8.04 41 .54 34.73 7.74 42.88 7.98 -.73 7.96 1 4% 5% 1 1% 4 5 7 10.81 10.25 9.39 9.83 9.58 8.79 P o i n t D i f f e r e n c e (Phase A -Phase C) 8.32 2.49 8.22 2.03 7.94 1.45 1 9% 1 6% 140 Appendix 9 AVERAGES (LEVELS) of EACH PHASE by GROUP GROUP 2 S c a l e (Phase A) (Phase B) (Phase C) P o i n t % B a s e l i n e I n t e r - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e v e n t i o n I n t e r - (Phase C-v e n t i o n Phase A) 2 31 .95 36.94 40.02 8.07 1 5% 6 7.1 1 6.60 7.04 -.07 1% 8 40. 1 0 44.30 50.38 1 0.28 1 4% P o i n t % D i f f e r e n c e (Phase A-Phase C) 4 8.42 7.01 6.20 2.22 1 7% 5 8.05 6.57 6.17 1 .88 1 4% 7 7.39 6.85 5.93 1 .46 1 1% Appendix 10 AVERAGES (LEVELS) of EACH PHASE by GROUP GROUP 3 1^ 1 S c a l e (Phase A) B a s e l i n e (Phase B) I n t e r -v e n t i o n (Phase C) P o s t -I n t e r -v e n t i o n P o i n t Di f f e r e n c e (Phase C-Phase A) 2 6 8 4 5 7 27.68 7.52 36.04 7.82 7.20 8.41 29.03 7.26 38.34 7.24 7.33 7.71 28.90 1.22 3% 7.48 -.04 0% 38.34 2.30 3% P o i n t % D i f f e r e n c e (Phase A-Phase C) 7.29 .53 4% 7.06 .14 1% 7.12 1.29 10% n=1 2 Appendix 11 SUBJECT SELECTION - S c r e e n i n g P r o c e s s Number of s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d i n g t o s c r e e n i n g S t u d e n t s w i t h e l i g i b l e s c o r e s Number of s t u d e n t s chosen as s u b j e c t s Gr .8 ( d u r i n g g u i d a n c e c l a s s ) ance c l a s s ) 95 32 Gr. s 9,10,11, 1 2 (as recommend -ed by c o u n s e l -o r s ) 33 33 PART Subject 1, Scale 2 Subject 2, Scale 2 Score 54 i 48 -42 -Time Subject 3, Scale 2 Score 5 4 I 4 8 -2 4 -18 -12 -i i — i I l r - 1 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time -p-Subject 4, Scale 2 Score 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time - o Subject 5, Scale 2 Score Time Subject 6, Scale 2 Score Subject 7, Scale 2 Score 5 4 -I 3 0 -2 4 -18 -12 -i i ^ r 0 20 40 60 Time 100 H 1 o Subject 8, Scale 2 Score 5 4 n 18 -12 -6 4 , - n , r 0 20 40 60 8 0 Time Subject 9, Scale 2 Score Time IV) Subject 10, Scale 2 Subject 11, Scale 2 Score 5 4 -| 4 8 -4 2 -3 6 -100 Time Subject 12, Scale 2 Score 5 4 - i 4 8 -0 20 4 0 60 8 0 100 Time t—* Subject 1, Scale 7 Score Time ON Subject 2, Scale 7 Score 4 -3 -2 -1 I I I I —1 f— 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time Subject 3, Scale 7 Score 13 j 12 -1 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 ' i ^ I 1 1 1 1 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time CO Subject 4, Scale 7 Score 13 n 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -i i i i ^ i I 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time Subject 5, Scale 7 Score 2 H i i i I 1 - [ 0 20 40 60 8 0 100 Time Subject 6, Scale 7 Score 1 3 - | 0 20 40 60 8 0 Time Subject 7, Scale 7 Subject 8, Scale 7 Subject 9, Scale 7 Subject 10, Scale 7 Score 20 40 60 8 0 Time Subject 11, Scale 7 Score Time Subject 12, Scale 7 Score 4 -3 -2 -0 20 40 60 8 0 Time Subject 1, Scale 5 Score 3 -2 -0 10 20 30 40 50 Time Subject 2, Scale 5 Score 3 -2 -0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time ON NO Subject 3, Scale 5 Score 1 3 - i 12 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -i i i i — 1 , 1 , -| 10 20 30 40 5 0 60 70 8 0 9 0 Time -o o Subject 4, Scale 5 Subject 5, Scale 5 Score Time -o Subject 6, Scale 5 Subject 7, Scale 5 Score 13 - j 12 -1 1 -3 -2 -40 60 8 0 100 Time - o Subject 8, Scale 5 Score - O Subject 9, Scale 5 Subject 10, Scale 5 Subject 11, Scale 5 Score 13 - i 12 -1 1 -3 -2 -0 20 40 60 8 0 Time i — 1 CO Subject 12, Scale 5 Subject 1, Scale 6 Score i i i i | — | , , , 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time CO o Subject 2, Scale 6 Score Time Subject 3, Scale 6 Score CO Subject 4, Scale 6 Score 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time Subject 5, Scale 6 Subject 6, Scale 6 Subject 7, Scale 6 Subject 8, Scale 6 Subject 9, Scale 6 Score 13 - T — — 12 -Time t - 4 CO CO Subject 10, Scale 6 Score 13—1 12 -1 1 -10 -9 -2 H 20 40 60 80 Time CD Subject 11, Scale 6 Score 1 3 - i 12 -1 1 -10 -20 40 60 8 0 100 Time o Subject 12, Scale 6 Score Time Subject 1, Scale 4 to Subject 2, Scale 4 Score Time NO Subject 3, Scale 4 Score 1 3 - i — 12 -1 1 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 T I | 1 1 1 , , , 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Subject 4, Scale 4 Subject 5, Scale 4 Subject 6, Scale 4 Score N O Subject 7, Scale 4 Score Time Subject 8, Scale 4 Score Subject 9, Scale 4 Score (V) o o Subject 10, Scale 4 Score 1 3 - i 12 -1 1 -4 -3 -2 -1 i ' 1 1 1 0 2 0 40 60 8 0 100 Time o Subject 11, Scale 4 13 12 -11 -10 -9 8 -7 -6 -5 4 H 3 2 1 Score 0 20 40 60 Time 8 0 100 (V) o (V) Subject 12, Scale 4 Score Time Subject 1, Scale 1 Score 3 6 -, 16 -12 -8 -i i i I l I 1 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time o Subject 2, Scale 1 Score 3 6 -. 3 2 -2 8 -8 H i i ^ I I 1 1 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 5 0 60 70 8 0 90 Time o Subject 3, Scale 1 Score 3 6 - i 3 2 -16 H 12 H 8 H 0 10 20 30 40 5 0 60 70 8 0 90 Time o Subject 4, Scale 1 Score 0 10 20 3 0 40 50 60 70 8 0 9 0 Time IV) o Subject 5, Scale 1 Subject 6, Scale 1 Subject 7, Scale 1 Score 3 6 - i 16 -12 -8 -0 20 40 60 8 0 100 Time (V) o Subject 8, Scale 1 Subject 9, Scale 1 Subject 10, Scale 1 Subject 11, Scale 1 Score 3 6 ~j 3 2 -2 8 -2 4 -0 20 40 60 8 0 100 Time (V) Subject 12, Scale 1 Subject 1, Scale 3 Score 3 6 -i 3 2 -2 8 -Subject 2, Scale 3 Score 3 6 -| 3 2 -8 H 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time i — 1 - o Subject 3, Scale 3 Score 3 6 - r 3 2 -2 8 -1 2 -8 -4 i l I l I i 1 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 9 0 Time 00 Subject 4, Scale 3 Score 3 6 3 2 -1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 Time Subject 5, Scale 3 Score 3 6 - i Time (VI o Subject 6, Scale 3 Subject 7, Scale 3 Score 3 6 - r 3 2 -16 -1 2 -8 -0 20 4 0 60 8 0 Time tV ) Subject 8, Scale 3 Subject 10, Scale 3 Subject 11, Scale 3 Subject 12, Scale 3 Score 3 6 - i 3 2 -2 8 -20 40 60 8 0 Time 

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