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Efficacy study of brief Morita therapy intervention with shy adolescents Donahue, Patricia A. 1988

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EFFICACY  STUDY OF B R I E F MORITA THERAPY  INTERVENTION WITH SHY ADOLESCENTS by PATRICIA  A. DONAHUE  R.N., ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL, MONTREAL,  1968  B.PE., UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  Dr.  I . Ishiyama, Supervisor  D r . W. B o l d t  D r . R. Young >  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J U L Y , 1988 ©Patricia A. Donahue  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Counselling  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  October  8.  1988  Psychology  ABSTRACT  The  study  counseling, shy  examines t h e change e f f e c t  b a s e d on M o r i t a  adolescent  females  following Scale  screening  used  students  were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e  body a t a V a n c o u v e r s e c o n d a r y w i t h t h e Cheek a n d B u s s  in identifying  school  (1981) Shyness  shyness i n i n d i v i d u a l s .  were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d  consisting  u s e d was a  s u b j e c t s w i t h a time l a g f o r  i n t e r v e n t i o n . Subjects  mainstream student  Morita  a s an i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h  (n = 1 2 ) . The d e s i g n  multiple-baseline across treatment  therapy,  of b r i e f  t o one o f t h r e e  Eligible  groups  each  o f f o u r s u b j e c t s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 4  - 45 m i n u t e  i n s t r u c t i o n a l - t y p e group c o u n s e l i n g  sessions  c o n d u c t e d o v e r a 4-week p e r i o d . R e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s were administered  bi-weekly  throughout the study  p e r i o d o f 14  weeks. C l e a r l y n o t i c a b l e changes i n t h e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n occurred  f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s on a l m o s t a l l s u b -  scales.  Subjects  greater  coping  greater  a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r  and  disturbance  i n t h e p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase  effectiveness in their  by a n x i o u s  target  shy n a t u r e ,  reported  situations,  less intensity of,  f e e l i n g s and l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n  taking desired action despite anxiety. Behavioral taken  p r e - and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o support  counts  the p o s i t i v e  change f i n d i n g s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e discussed.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Title  Page  Abstract  .  i  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  v  ,  v i i , viii,  i i  ix, x  Acknowledgements  x i  CHAPTER I  I  Background  ±  II  Rationale  3  III II  1  INTRODUCTION  Aim  I4.  6  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I  Introduction  II  Shyness/Social  III  Social Anxiety  IV  5 Anxiety  i n Adolescents  ..  Studies Involving Female S u b j e c t s  Related Research I n v o l v i n g Adolescents as S u b j e c t s ....  7 10 n  V  R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s on M o r i t a T h e r a p y  VI  Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e  17  VII  Purpose  20  VIII  Hypothesis  20  iv III  23  METHODOLOGY R a t i o n a l e and B r i e f  II  Subjects  Description  III  A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s  28  IV  Measures  30  24-  A. D e p e n d e n t  30  V a r i a b l e s Measured  B. A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s  IV  23  I  .  V  Procedure  VI  Treatment  36  VII  Counselor  37 39  RESULTS I  II  G r a p h i c P r o f i l e s of S e l f - R e p o r t Repeated Measures Scores Statistical  I4.Q  Analysis 93  of R e p e a t e d Measures  V  31+  96  III  Shyness S c r e e n i n g  Scale  IV  Behavioral Reports  98  V  Summary  100  D I S C U S S I O N , L I M I T A T I O N S , RECOMMENDATIONS 10^  AND CONCLUSIONS I  Discussion  10^4-  of R e s u l t s  A. A c c e p t a n c e a n d P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e Towards t h e S h y / A n x i o u s N a t u r e B. C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n s C. D e g r e e  o f B e i n g B o t h e r e d by t h e Shy/Anxiety Problem  106 107 ....  108  V  D. D e g r e e o f D i f f i c u l t y i n I n i t i a t i n g D e s i r a b l e A c t i o n i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t ion ... E. L e v e l  of Confidence i n E n t e r i n g the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n  F. A n x i e t y II  Severity  ...  no  i n the Shy/Target Situation ...  112  L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations for  III  no  Future Research  113  A. L i m i t a t i o n s  113  B. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r Future Research I m p l i c a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s  115 116  BIBLIOGRAPHY  118  APPENDIX  PART 1  125  APPENDIX  PART 2  1^3  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE  1  Descriptive Analysis  of Shyness S c a l e (Cheek & B u s s )  2  Cheek & B u s s S h y n e s s S c a l e  3  Percentages  4  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of 7-Repeated Measures - A C o m p a r i s o n Between B a s e l i n e a n d Post-Intervent ion  5  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of B e h a v i o r a l Counts P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n P h a s e s  6 i  Statistical  Statistical Analysis  o f Improvement f o r a l l G r o u p s on t h e 7 - R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s  A n a l y s i s of B e h a i o r a l Counts a Comparison Between B a s e l i n e and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n  vii  L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1  G r o u p 1, S c a l e 8 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Scale  2  G r o u p 1, S c a l e  8  Trends  on S c a l e 8 ^5  A n x i e t y Acceptance 3  G r o u p 2, S c a l e  8  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on 1^6  Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Scale 4  G r o u p 2, S c a l e  5  G r o u p 3, S c a l e 8 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance Scale  6  7  G r o u p 3, S c a l e  G r o u p 1, S c a l e  8  8  G r o u p 1, S c a l e  G r o u p 2, S c a l e  G r o u p 2, S c a l e  2  Trends  2  G r o u p 3, S c a l e Scale  52  on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  ..53  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on 5/4.  2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s 2  Trends  Effectiveness 11  lf9  2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s  Scale 10  i+8  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on  Effectiveness 9  l\7  T r e n d s on S c a l e 8 - Anxiety Acceptance  2  Scale 8  T r e n d s on S c a l e 8 - Anxiety Acceptance  2  on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  ..  55  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on 2 - Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s  56  viii  12  13  14  Group  3, S c a l e 2 T r e n d s on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  57  G r o u p 1, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e C a u s e d by t h e Shyness Problem  61  G r o u p 1, S c a l e 7 T r e n d s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e C a u s e d by t h e S h y n e s s P r o b l e m  ..  £,  G r o u p 2, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n c e s C a u s e d by t h e Shyness Problem  ..  ^  16  G r o u p 2, S c a l e 7 T r e n d s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e C a u s e d by t h e S h y n e s s P r o b l e m  ..  64-  17  G r o u p 3, S c a l e 7 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e C a u s e d by t h e Shyness Problem  ..  65  ..  66  ....  70  15  18  Group  3, S c a l e 7  Disturbance 19  20  Group  Group  1,  22  Group  1, S c a l e 5  2,  7 - Overall  C a u s e d by t h e S h y n e s s P r o b l e m  S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  - Difficulty 21  T r e n d s on S c a l e  T r e n d s on S c a l e  Experienced  2  5  i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  G r o u p 2, S c a l e 5 T r e n d s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy  Situation  ..  ....  71  72  IX  23  24  G r o u p 3, S c a l e 5 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on Scale 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  ....  74  i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  ..  75  G r o u p 1, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  ..  78  ....  79  ..  80  ....  81  ..  82  ....  83  ....  87  ....  88  • • • •  89  G r o u p 3, S c a l e 5 - Difficulty  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  Group  Experienced  G r o u p 2, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree, o f C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n G r o u p 2, S c a l e 6 T r e n d s on S c a l e 6 - D e g r e e of C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n G r o u p 3, S c a l e 6 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 - Degree of C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n G r o u p 3, S c a l e 6 T r e n d s on S c a l e 6 - D e g r e e of C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n Group  1, S c a l e 4  Group  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on  4 - Intensity  1, S c a l e 4  of A n x i e t y  T r e n d s on S c a l e  - Intensity 33  5  1, S c a l e 6 T r e n d s on S c a l e 6 - D e g r e e of C o n f i d e n c e Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  Scale 32  T r e n d s on S c a l e  of A n x i e t y  Reactions 4 Reactions  G r o u p 2, S c a l e 4 L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s  34  Group  2, S c a l e 4 T r e n d s on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y R e a c t i o n s  35  Group  3, S c a l e  Scale 36  Group  4  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on  4 - Intensity  3, S c a l e  4  T r e n d s on S c a l e  - Intensity 37  Behavioral  of A n x i e t y  of A n x i e t y  Reactions  ....  91  Reactions  ....  92  4  Counts P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n  99  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e of  my c o m m i t t e e ,  committee,  D r . I . I s h i y a m a , a n d t o t h e members o f t h e  D r s . W. B o l d t a n d R. Young f o r t h e i r  patience during  this  In a d d i t i o n , his  t o the chairman  on-going  guidance and  endeavor.  I want t o a c k n o w l e d g e  s u p p o r t and  encouragement.  Lars Andersson f o r  1 CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  This for  study  adolescent  counseling,  I  aims t o e x p l o r e  the experience  females and t o a s s e s s  of shyness  the e f f i c a c y  a s an i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n a d d r e s s i n g  of M o r i t a  this  Background  Morita  therapy,  i s a Japanese approach t o t r e a t i n g  self-focused, anxiety-ridden clients,  a n d was d e v e l o p e d i n  J a p a n by Dr.Shoma M o r i t a  i n t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h i s  The t h e r a p y ' s  foundation  underlying  human e m o t i o n . I n s t e a d  of viewing  a n x i e t y as a  weakness or as a drawback t o s o c i a l encouraged t o take anxious  nature  their  Morita  of t h e i r  emotions w i l l f u l l y appropriate  i s , the i n d i v i d u a l  to l i f e  Another tenet of has c h o i c e  cannot c o n t r o l  but can c o n t r o l behavior.  Through  of M o r i t a  therapy i s  empowered t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e  i n s t e a d of  withdrawing  a c t i o n t a k i n g , the c l i e n t  their  sensitivity  i s t h a t d e s p i t e a n x i e t y one s t i l l  of a c t i o n t a k i n g , t h a t  useful  personal  accepting  desire for social participation.  therapy  and.  functioning, c l i e n t s are  a p o s i t i v e stance,  a s an i n d i c a t i o n  century.  i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  acceptance of a n x i e t y as a normal and p o t e n t i a l l y  and  problem.  i n t o n o n - p r o d u c t i v i t y and i s o l a t i o n .  2 Morita counseling, been p r o m o t e d by t o as  "the  firmly  Ishiyama  b a s e d on M o r i t a  (1986a,  i n t e r v e n t i o n promotes c l i e n t s '  understanding  and  simultaneously productive  insight  helps  them a p p r e c i a t e  refers  This  of e m o t i o n  their  and  p o t e n t i a l for  living.  i s not  aiming  as an  i n t e r v e n t i o n , the  to r i d the c l i e n t  of a n x i e t y  but  t o h a v e them become c o n s t r u c t i v e , s e l f - v a l u i n g  individuals despite their therapist  anxious  uses a combination behavioral  and  positively  reinterpret their  instruction  neglect  decreasing  to the  social  Morita  has  shyness both  i n J a p a n and  single showing  Miura  and  session Morita  i n t h e West 1970;  where o n l y  one  and  ever  treatment  1986c,  treatment  treating  (Ishiyama,  Morita,  1976). S t u d i e s  improvement i n s o c i a l l y 1983,  symptoms.  b e h a v i o r a l problems i n c l u d i n g  & Usa,  Reynolds,  (Ishiyama,  client  egocentric  become mood-based  proved s u c c e s s f u l i n  emotional  1977;  i n h e l p i n g the  t a s k s a t hand l e a d i n g t o  anxiety-type  & Suzuki,  didactic  participation.  therapy  & K o n d o , 1960;  Morita  social anxiety  self-focus, clients  attending  The  s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d and  s t e m m i n g f r o m s h y n e s s and  With increased  nature.  o f e m p a t h i c and  techniques  focus  has  greater  i n t o the nature  In a p p l y i n g M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g  rather  1986b) i n what he  p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n technique".  counseling  therapist  therapy,  1986;  1926/1974; using  Kawai Suzuki  brief,  or  h a v e been s u c c e s s f u l i n anxious  Western  1987b). In Ishiyama's s e s s i o n was  used, a  clients  (1983)  study,  follow-up  3 observation client's  year  later  former p r o b l e m of  treatment of  one  the  client  test  continued  Ishiyama's studies  sessions  revealed  no  relapse  in  anxiety. Since on  ( 1 9 8 4 b , as  the  Morita  a p o s i t i v e trend. few  as  three  In  other  counseling  r e s u l t e d i n c l e a r t h e r a p e u t i c c h a n g e , where  q u a l i t a t i v e c h a n g e s , as  reported  by  s u b j e c t s , were  consistent with objective findings. Longitudinal studies in Japan  involving clients  patient  b a s i s has  18 y e a r s  t r e a t e d on  e i t h e r an  i n - or  shown d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e c h a n g e as  f o l l o w i n g treatment  (Suzuki  & Suzuki, clients  originally  nervous,  s e v e r l y h a n d i c a p p e d by  c o n d i t i o n s and  lives despite their  II  were now  shy  their  able  to lead  observed  1977;  K a t a o k a & K a r a s a w a , 1 9 8 2 ) . Many o f t h e s e  focused  out-  Suzuki,  were self-  productive  s e n s i t i v e nature.  Rationale  During  adolescence the  b o u n d a r i e s and identity.  individual  i s i n the process  of  This developmental stage  accentuated  f o r m p a r t of  forming  E x p l o r a t i o n and t h i s process.  l e a d i n g to withdrawal  involvement.  Zimbardo  of  a n x i e t y and  easily  be  self-  understood  the a d o l e s c e n t ' s  e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o n e r v o u s n e s s and anxiety  individual  introspection necessarily  I t can  p e e r e v a l u a t i v e f e e d b a c k and  an  i s a period  s e l f - f o c u s with heightened  consciousness.  is exploring  and  (1974) and  diminished other  own  how  self-  performance social  researchers  have  4 reported  t h e common o c c u r a n c e o f s h y n e s s amongst  adolescents.  He s t a t e s t h a t o v e r  50% o f N o r t h  American  adolescents  c l a i m t o be s h y a s o p p o s e d t o 4 0 % o f t h e a d u l t  population.  I t would appear t h a t  greatly the  benefit  emotional  from guidance and i n s t r u c t i o n  self  i n d i v i d u a l choice  and i t s nature  limited,  particular  Ill  despite  therapy  pertaining to that  the presence  with Western  clients  and as t o t h e involvement of a d o l e s c e n t s type of r e s e a r c h  could  in this  i ti s non-existent.  Aim  The  primary aim of t h e present  i n s t r u c t i o n a l model of b r i e f in helping  shy a d o l e s c e n t  r e l a t e d emotional  Morita  and b e h a v i o r a l  counseling  difficulties.  working with adolescents  shyness/social  shy p e r s o n s .  i s effective shyness-  Possible  anxiety  Professionals  both i n the school  c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s may f i n d w i t h i n M o r i t a  The  i f an  a n d p o s s i b l y b r i n g a b o u t some n e e d e d c h a n g e s i n  p r a c t i c e of c o u n s e l i n g  direction  i s to test  i s i n p r o m o t i n g an i n s i g h t f u l a n d  a p p l i e d approach t o adolescent counseling  study  females t o overcome t h e i r  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e study  the  group  and t h e knowledge  i s a l w a y s an o p t i o n  o f a n x i e t y . R e s e a r c h on M o r i t a is  the adolescent  i n dealing with present  baseline design  study across  system and i n  counseling  t h i s common p r o b l e m  a new  area.  i s c o n d u c t e d by way o f a m u l t i p l e subjects. A time-lag  between 3 groups of s u b j e c t s  f o r treatment  o f 1 week intervention i s  5 i n p l a c e . The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s 4 - M o r i t a conducted over  a f o u r week p e r i o d . S e l f - r e p o r t  measures were t a k e n  bi-weekly  d u r a t i o n of t h e study. recorded  14-week  P r e - and  were  Post-  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y point.  repeated  In a d d i t i o n , b e h a v i o r a l counts  Individual follow-up  observation  sessions  throughout the e n t i r e  by s u b j e c t s f o r 2, 5-day p e r i o d s  Intervention.  last  counseling  3 weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e  6 CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  I  INTRODUCTION  Shyness Zimbardo, Perl  (Franco,  Christoff,  C r i m m i n s , & K e l l y , 1983;  1977) a n d h e t e r o s o c i a l a n x i e t y  & Himadi,  1978; L e a r y  i d e n t i f i e d a s two s p e c i f i c  & Schlenker,  (Arkowitz,  Hinton,  1981) h a v e been  problems f o r a d o l e s c e n t s .  Buss  (1980) d e f i n e s  shyness i n terms of one's r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g  with  or casual acquaintances:  strangers  f e e l i n g s o f awkwardness and d i s c o m f o r t aversion  and i n h i b i t i o n  behavior. avoid  social  expected  i n t e r a c t i o n s and t o f a i l in social  p.596). Viewed social  and both  concern, gaze  social  S h y n e s s i s a l s o d e f i n e d a s , "... a t e n d e n c y t o  appropriately  of  of normally  tension,  situations",  toparticipate (Pilkonis,  1977b,  i n t h i s manner, s h y n e s s c a n be s e e n a s a f o r m  a n x i e t y and s o c i a l avoidance  (Buss,  1980; L e a r y ,  1 9 8 3 a ) . A n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f s h y n e s s i s p u t f o r t h by B u s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) who d e f i n e s  self-consciousness  awareness of o n e s e l f of e x c e s s i v e  as a s o c i a l  reasoning, are  acute  object, involving a  feeling  exposure t o the s c r u t i n y of others.  In t h e p e r i o d of a d o l e s c e n c e w i t h increased  s h y n e s s a s an  i t s generally  l e v e l s of s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n and e g o c e n t r i c one way i n w h i c h s h y n e s s a n d h e t e r o s o c i a l a n x i e t y  t r a n s l a t e d i s i n c o g n i t i v e s e l f - f o c u s e d n e g a t i v i t y and  7 r e l u c t a n c e t o take a c t i o n  (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson,  H a n s e l l e t a l , 1986; K e g a n , negativity  Cognitive self-focused  t h a t i s , d w e l l i n g on o n e ' s n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s  perceptions, anxiety,  1982).  i s manifested  i n negative  low degree of a c c e p t a n c e  1984).  According  of the anxious  to Alden  i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r t o be p r e o c c u p i e d acceptability  of t h e i r  behavior  assessment. Alden surprising  a n d Cappe  that this  self-evaluation inhibition".  and in  II  which,  self-  i n negative " I t i s not  and n e g a t i v e  accomplishing the (Kegan,  social  developmental  1982) t h e this  cognitive  i n order t o take the i n i t i a l  interaction  steps  with others.  ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS  of on-going  of themselves  and t h e w o r l d  change. In the s h o r t f i v e years  13 t o 17, one may o b s e r v e  occuring  often results  relationships  The a d o l e s c e n t s ' v i e w  ages  (1986), shy  with others'  a d o l e s c e n t must move t h r o u g h  SHYNESS/SOCIAL  the process  a n d Cappe  self-focused attention  behavioral negativity initiating  situations  (1986, p.343), wrote,  In s u c c e s s f u l l y  anxious  and  i n c r e a s e s a n x i e t y and b e h a v i o r a l  task of f o r m i n g peer socially  self  l e a d i n g t o ongoing  o b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n which  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  diminished coping e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s o c i a l (Ishiyama,  1984;  significant  ( K e g a n , 1982; G a r b a r i n o ,  i n t u r n , h a s an i m p a c t  from  maturation  1985; E r i k s o n , 1959)  on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r  development and b e h a v i o r . D u r i n g  is in  trait  t h i s p e r i o d , the i n d i v i d u a l  8 is  i n a s t a t e of developmental t r a n s i t i o n  which n e c e s s a r i l y  i n v o l v e s a l o s s of one's o r g a n i z a t i o n (Kegan, 1982), and t h e stability  and s e c u r i t y  adolescents 1985;  i s identity  Marcia,  crucial  i t a f f o r d s . A key stage f o r formation  1980). Success a t t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage i s  i f the adolescent  task of e s t a b l i s h i n g relationship  i s t o move on t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l  intimacy  (Grotevant,  definition this,  i n a mutually  experiences  life  w i t h p e e r s p r o v i d e s many o f  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f -  needed f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n  O r n s t e i n and  trusting  Thorbecke & Meyer, 1982). E r i k s o n  (1959) s t a t e d t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n the e s s e n t i a l  ( E r i k s o n , 1959; G a r b a r i n o ,  Sobel  of i d e n t i t y .  Further to  (1988) p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e need f o r  c o m m u n i t y i s a key p a r t o f o u r e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r i t a g e a n d assists  g r e a t l y i n keeping  us h e a l t h y .  It i s social  interaction  t h a t b r i n g s about c o g n i t i v e growth,  the a b i l i t y  t o d e f o c u s and e s t a b l i s h  from o t h e r s  (Piaget,  In process  t h i s process  as  separate  1952). of necessary  usually diminished  occurs. According  the self  particularly  interaction  i n shy a d o l e s c e n t s ,  to Garbarino  (1985),  with others, a adaptation  adaptation  takes  p l a c e by way o f two c o n t i n u a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g c o m p l e m e n t a r y processes (1980a,  which are a s s i m i l a t i o n  and accommodation.  1980b) p r o p o s e s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n  Hill involves  t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n of o u r c h a n g i n g s e l v e s and o u r c h a n g i n g contexts  which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  adolescence. flexibility  Thus t h e g r e a t in social  critical  in early  need f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  interaction  by way o f s o c i a l  9 participation.  According  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and intellectual s e e n how and  inclusion  problem to i n h i b i t  a l (1986) c o n c l u d e  w i t h low  at  higher  be  readily  of s o c i a l  contact  the adolescent the  and  to allow  f o r m a t i o n of  the  these  far-reaching effects.  t h a t the experience  w i t h s e l f - r e p o r t s on  a slightly  interplay  Cheek  that shyness i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d  s e l f - e s t e e m and  correlates  i t can  i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  in c r i t i c a l  the  i s what i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  i n community. For  contacts results et  adaptation  (1985),  development. Consequently,  important  shy/anxious  to Garbarino  level  than  loneliness found  of  depression  in  adolescents  in college students.  Cheek e t a l ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e p o r t t h a t t h i s a f f e c t s d a t i n g i n a n e g a t i v e way. (1984, in  academic  ( 1 9 8 0 ) and  the p o t e n t i a l  as a c c o r d i n g  rules  literally  he/she w i l l t h a t has  formation, social  and  (1932),  e v a l u a t e a c t s not  self-report  i n d i v i d u a l ' s concept, i n order  interaction  m o r a l judgement of  the maturing  v i e w s good o n l y  i n terms of  child  the  a c t s but  i n t e r m s o f how This  measures as  understanding  to set f o r t h a c l e a r  is a they and  takes  obedience,  i n accordance w i t h the  conform w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s .  skills  success  f o r c r e a t i n g a b i a s i n measurement.  to Piaget  prompted these  w e a k n e s s of  with  achievement.  a d d i t i o n to i d e n t i t y  has  Ishiyama  sometimes i n t e r f e r e  c o g n i t i v e growth, the d e v e l o p i n g  child If,  to Friedman  1986b), shyness can  In and  According  motive  these  acts  recognized rely  solely  on  the  observation/report  p i c t u r e of  internal  processes  (Cheek & B u s s ,  1981; C l a r k  & B o l t o n , 1984;  R a p o p o r t e t a l , 1981) .  Ill  SOCIAL ANXIETY STUDIES INVOLVING FEMALE SUBJECTS  I t appears that  relatively  little  research  c o n d u c t e d on t h e t o p i c o f f e m a l e s o c i a l Jacklin,  1975). S u b j e c t s  involved  anxiety  has been (Maccoby &  i n the following  studies  were c o l l e g e age f e m a l e s , none i n v o l v e d a d o l e s c e n t s O'Banion and A r k o w i t z  (1977) c o n d u c t e d a study  s i n g l e c o l l e g e women on s o c i a l a n x i e t y of  others'  that high negative  evaluative socially  information  processing  information  selectively associated  to Clark  about o n e s e l f  remember n e g a t i v e with negative  Fenigstein  in  negatively  They found remember than low  and A r k o w i t z  He c o n f i r m e d  by o t h e r s ,  (1975),  i n s u c h a way a s t o  information  i slikely  ( 1 9 7 9 ) m e a s u r e d 92 f e m a l e s i n v o l v e d  self-consciousness  perceived  self.  memory  t o be  self-evaluations.  s t u d i e s on s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , interaction.  about  about themselves b e t t e r  a n x i o u s ones. And, a c c o r d i n g  i n v o l v i n g 560  and s e l e c t i v e  a n x i o u s women s e l e c t i v e l y  information  only.  self-attention  the hypothesis  i n two  and s o c i a l  that persons  high  w o u l d be more a w a r e o f how t h e y a r e more s e n s i t i v e a n d r e a c t  to rejection  more  than those low i n s e l f -  consciousness . A study of  on 45 f e m a l e s  shyness-related  social  in relation behavior  to the modification  through  symptom  m i s a t t r i b u t i o n was By  c o n d u c t e d by  misattributing social  frequency n o i s e ) , they v e r b a l and  behavioral  females i n the  study.  B r o d t and  anxiety  t o an  found that  shy  Zimbardo  (1981).  e x t e r n a l source f e m a l e s showed  responses comparable t o the  (high  both  not-shy  O b s e r v e r , s e l f - r e p o r t and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l measurements i n d i c a t e d t h a t m i s a t t r i b u t i n g arousal social  (social anxiety) behavior  t o an  in a specific  e x t e r n a l s o u r c e can way,  alter  in t h i s case, a p o s i t i v e  way. Here i t can tends toward  be  seen t h a t  increased  increased  negative  anxiety  in  females  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and  thus  the  need of a t h e r a p e u t i c  approach t h a t a d d r e s s e s the p o s i t i v e  a c c c e p t a n c e of  anxiety.  little  research  population,  i s i n d i c a t e d , there  t o draw upon i n v o l v i n g t h e  few  females, which  p u b l i c a t i o n s seem t o be as  of d e v e l o p m e n t a l  s e l f - r e p o r t and  research  commitment and  following studies  focus  report  need f o r r e s e a r c h  of  Christoff adolescents  subjects  attrition on  this  issues  s u c h as and  in  age  group t r a i n i n g ,  self-  population. on  the  stability  in this  et a l (1985) c o n d u c t e d a study  groups using  SUBJECTS  a v a i l a b l e on  issues, r e l i a b i l i t y  g r o u p . The and  explores  experiences.  dealing with adolescents interplay  is  female  RELATED RESEARCH INVOLVING ADOLESCENTS AS  Very  of  As  e s p e c i a l l y adolescent  their anxiety  IV  social  shy  a m u l t i p l e baseline design  where  the  intervention  sessions,  within  a school  conducted s e q u e n t i a l l y  a c r o s s t i m e . The  effective  socially  in producing  change i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . increased  f r e q u e n c y of  daily  social interaction  p a t t e r n s of  self-evaluation.  indicated that  less  than c l e a r  fluctuation  c h a n g e c o u l d be  how  14-16  and  accountable  for  years.  i t was  Ishiyama's  shy  developing  of  of  Morita  sparing condition  therapy  them t h e can  the by  in helping grief  bring  self-evaluation  of  and  ways of  processing and  for  with  opposite  the  and  adolescents  ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The  study  a d o l e s c e n t development to  shyness,  this  them n u r t u r e a more  Brondolo  sex.  application  i s o l a t i o n that  c o n d u c t e d on  was  more  them u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r  painful  it  loneliness,  w i t h the  a p r i m e one  out  the  checklist,  non-shy i n  and  self-rating)  through appropriate a c t i o n - t a k i n g .  M e c h a n i c and  introspectiveness  the  helping  most e x t e n d e d s t u d i e s Hansell,  shyness  shy  (1984) r e s u l t s p o i n t e d  w i t h p e e r s and  seems t o be  partly  weather  s h y n e s s i n a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s , and  friendships  This population  results  suspected  group r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s than d i d interference  the  (1984) i n v o l v e d  shyness experience. Using q u e s t i o n a i r e the  positive  b a s e d on  ( b a s e d on  a d o l e s c e n t s have d i f f e r e n t  found that  more  positive  this.  Ishiyama  adolescents  an  more  H o w e v e r , p a r t of  in lunch-time habits  n o n - s h y g r o u p s of ages  skill  proved  behavioral  study revealed  c h a n g e and  A s u r v e y s t u d y done by  of  significant  The  were  intervention  interactions,  r e p o r t s of  setting,  positive One  of  is  that  compared  specifically  examining  i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s and h e a l t h . L e v e l of d e p r e s s i o n  was one r e f l e c t i o n over  three years  cultural and  of l e v e l of h e a l t h . S u b j e c t s  i n c l u d e d 1,236 a d o l e s c e n t s  surveyed  of mixed  background i n t h e 7 t h , 9 t h , and 11th grades.  i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s were s l i g h t l y  c o r r e l a t e d . Females scored  slightly  i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s than males. introspectiveness  scores  a n x i e t y and females  but  Age  positively  higher  on  Subjects with  higher  r e p o r t e d more d e p r e s s i o n ,  reported greater depression  more  than d i d  males. The other  results  suggest  that developmental  kinds of d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s  difficulties  such  with school or peers,  p a r e n t s may be s o u r c e s  discontinuities,  as f a m i l y problems, a c c i d e n t s and i l l n e s s and  of adolescent i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s  l e a d i n g t o depression. This appears p a r t i c u l a r l y female their for  adolescents. Alden clinical  a n d Cappe ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t a t e t h a t  experience  40% of c l i e n t s  s h y n e s s have s i g n i f i c e n t Despite  the l i m i t e d  adolescents, Lerner  relations  treatment  of depression.  ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o r s e e s an i n c r e a s e d f o c u s on p o p u l a t i o n due t o ,  in biology, cognition, personality, social  and emotions t h a t o c c u r  (p.259).  He i s o p t i m i s t i c  affected  by t h e n e e d t o s t u d y  teen  levels  seeking  from  amount o f p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on  r e s e a r c h on t h e a d o l e s c e n t "...transitions  true for  at this  time  of  life"  that funding patterns w i l l  be  t h i s g r o u p due t o i n c r e a s e s i n  p r e g n a n c y , i n c i d e n c e s o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s , a n d unwed  m o t h e r h o o d . He victimized  V  by  concludes scientific  RESEARCH STUDIES ON  Studies carried efficacy clients 1977).  out  that t h i s group w i l l  i n Japan have a l r e a d y c o n f i r m e d  & Karasawa,  1982;  approximately had  i n each of t h e i r  e i g h t h u n d r e d and  been t r e a t e d w i t h M o r i t a t h e r a p y  n e u r o t i c c o n d i t i o n s . In S u z u k i t h e 815 least  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out  6 months p r e v i o u s , t h o s e  not c o m p l e t e l y c u r e d comprised  years  and  i n another  the Suzuki  admission  Suzuki  short  term  & Suzuki,  surveyed  inpatients  & Suzuki's  (1977) s t u d y  ,of  to p a t i e n t s discharged cured  of n e u r o s i s and  a b l e to l e a d normal  a f o l l o w - u p of  two  18 y e a r s  case  at  those lives  studies  i n one  and  sustained positive  4  change.  e t a l . (1982) s t u d y , a f o l l o w - u p 8 y e a r s significant  i m p r o v e m e n t i n 90%  not  42.5  who  for self-focused/  same p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r i m p r o v e m e n t was  support  adult  Suzuki, et a l .  studies, former  the  improvement  1977;  t r e a t e d w i t h M o r i t a t h e r a p y . The  clear  clients  still  showed s i m i l a r  produced  inpatients required  but  70.1%. In the  were p r e s e n t e d  In  fifty  anxious  high  r a t e s h a v e been shown ( S u z u k i & S u z u k i , These a u t h o r s ,  be  MORITA THERAPY  In outcome s t u d i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  1982).  longer  neglect.  of M o r i t a t h e r a p y w i t h s h y / s o c i a l l y ( S u z u k i , Kataoka  no  mean  of  after former  time  months. These r e s u l t s  only to Morita therapy's  but a l s o t o i t s s u s t a i n e d e f f e c t  with nervous/anxiety disorders.  efficacy  lend  i n the  in treating  An i m p o r t a n t of M o r i t a  therapy  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e West was made by I s h i y a m a  (1986b)  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n technique"  ( s e e Appendix 5 ) , whereby a n x i e t y  a n a t u r a l human e x p e r i e n c e reflection  one's d e s i r e  that accepting  anxiety  up a p o s s i b i l i t y concrete  approach  particularly present of shy  a n d c a n be v i e w e d a s a s i g n a l  for social  for choice  idea  i t , and t h u s  socially  a higher  anxious  clients  Would t h e a d o l e s c e n t s  i n the  a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r  feelings  s h y n e s s a n d g a i n a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s nature? Several  opening  o f a c t i o n t a k i n g , seems a  in helping  reflect  i n v o l v e m e n t . The  and not f i g h t i n g  shy a d o l e s c e n t s .  study  i s shown t o be  s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by I s h i y a m a  their  (1983,  1985, 1986c) h a v e p r o d u c e d e v i d e n c e o f p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n socially  anxious c l i e n t s  reinterpretation therapy.  Two  her  former  Morita  technique"  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of  were s i n g l e c a s e s t u d i e s  which a c l i e n t significant  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the " p o s i t i v e  immobilizing  anxiety  showed  f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n  when s p e a k i n g  involved a  i n repeated  qualitative client herself  reports)  without  client  i n groups or t o  s t r a n g e r s . The r e s u l t s showed c l e a r t h e r a p e u t i c reflected  ready and  s t r e s s one week a f t e r h e r s i n g l e  i n t e r v e n t i o n . The a n o t h e r  experiencing  ( 1 9 8 3 , 1986c) one i n  s u f f e r i n g from t e s t a n x i e t y  improvement, s i t t i n g  Morita  changes (as  s e l f - r e p o r t measures and i n a f t e r the M o r i t a  became more a c c e p t i n g as b e t t e r a b l e  i n t e r v e n t i o n when t h e  of her a n x i e t y  and v i e w e d  t o cope w i t h h e r t a r g e t  problems.  Another study two  yielding definite  g r o u p s , n=lO, a M o r i t a  therapy  empathy-based c o n t r o l group subjects  therapeutic  in press). A l l  were p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s  p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d of 1 t o 3 b r i e f but  were a l s o shown t o h a v e l a s t i n g  study  case  year l a t e r  (Ishiyama,  involved  i n t e r v e n t i o n g r o u p a n d an  (Ishiyama,  were a d u l t s . N o t o n l y  change  effects.  seen  sessions,  In the s i n g l e  1983) t h e c h a n g e r e m a i n e d e v i d e n t  thus showing t h i s  therapy's  one  potential for carry-  over p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . Morita  therapy  h a s been a p p l i e d t o o t h e r  nervous/anxious c l i e n t s and  Ogawa ( 1 9 8 8 ) .  explores  as  In a c l i n i c a l  these c l i e n t s  author  create can  were a b l e  (1987)  P o s i t i v e outcomes a r e r e l a t e d  t o change focus  from  nervous  f o r productive  s t a t e s t h a t one u s e o f M o r i t a  therapy  subjects  choice  of focus.  This  living.  i s to help  a p o s i t i o n of calm c e n t e r e d n e s s from which  make r e s p o n s i b l e  (1987)  i n the treatment of  t o making c h o i c e s  to shy a d o l e s c e n t s . the  report, Levine  therapy  female c l i e n t s .  self-preoccupation The  a s i n t h e r e p o r t s by L e v i n e  t h e use of M o r i t a  bulimia with  than  clients  could also  apply  I t w o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t t o o b s e r v e i f  in this  study  would e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n a k i n  t o c a l m c e n t e r e d n e s s f r o m w h i c h t h e y c o u l d make c o n s t r u c t i v e choices, shy  f o r example, i n coping  more e f f e c t i v e l y  in their  s i t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , Ogawa ( 1 9 8 8 ) d e s c r i b e s h i s  application sexual  of M o r i t a  therapy  a s s a u l t . The f o c u s  to counseling  i s on h e l p i n g  v i c t i m s of  the c l i e n t  f e e l i n g s and i n d i r e c t i n g her i n c o n c r e t e  accept  ways t o d e a l  with  reality.  Would the a d o l e s c e n t s  i n the present  study  gain  from the M o r i t a  i n t e r v e n t i o n such t h a t they  would  experience  less d i f f i c u l t y  in taking desirable action in their  shy  situations? In a d d i t i o n to above t y p e s Reynolds therapy  of c l i e n t s M o r i t a  (1976,  1984,  everyday  life  therapy's  of M o r i t a  demonstrating,  value  possible  overall  i n the  study  constructive (1984)  has  i n the c o n t e x t  they  living  of  in a l l  s u f f e r e d from s h y n e s s . I s i t  i n t e r v e n t i o n would  d e c r e a s e the degree of  s o c i a l a n x i e t y and  increase their  help their  confidence  in  shy s i t u a t i o n s ?  SUMMARY OF  LITERATURE  S h y n e s s has and  therapy  be  through case s t u d i e s , M o r i t a  then t h a t the M o r i t a  adolescents  Morita  t h i s approach can  for enhancing productive  i n d i v i d u a l s whether or not  VI  how  the  by  1986), a l e a d i n g p r o p o n e n t of  practice for increased  the p r i n c i p l e s  to  as p r o p o s e d  f o r the average p o p u l a t i o n . Reynolds  applied  their  therapy  i n the West, d e s c r i b e s  e m p l o y e d as a l i f e living  i t s application specificially  social  object  been d e f i n e d as a f o r m of  avoidance;  exposed to the  participate.  an  awareness of  self  s c r u t i n y of o t h e r s  Because a d o l e s c e n c e  social as a  and  social failure  i s a p e r i o d of marked  preoccupation,  s h y n e s s i s commonly e x p r e s s e d  negativity  r e l u c t a n c e to take  and  as  anxiety  to self-  in self-focused  action (Csikszentmihalyi &  Larson,  1984; H a n s e l l e t a l , 1986; K e g a n , 1 9 8 2 ) .  to Ishiyama  (1984),  interpretation self  negative  thoughts  result  of a n x i e t y , l e s s acceptance  and d e c r e a s e d  ability  According  i n negative  of the anxious  t o cope e f f e c t i v e l y  in social  situations. In s t u d i e s conducted (Erikson, process  with adolescents  1959; O r n s t e i n & S o b e l ,  and a d u l t s . S o c i a l  understood  to play a c r u c i a l  Garbarino  i s closely  establishment  can  participation role  related  of s o c i a l  to success  s p e c u l a t e on t h e c r i t i c a l  the growing  development.  achieved  i n community.  d e v e l o p m e n t s one  a n d f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on  (Clark & Arkowitz,  O'Banion & A r k o w i t z ,  1975; F e n i g s t e i n , 1979;  1977) h a s shown t h a t s o c i a l l y  appear t o have a c c e n t u a t e d  sensitivity  females.  An e x t e n d e d s t u d y  ( 1 9 8 6 ) showed f e m a l e s  scoring slightly  r e p o r t i n g more d e p r e s s i o n  t o observe  higher  on  higher i n  F e m a l e s u b j e c t s were c h o s e n f o r t h i s p r e s e n t an a t t e m p t  than low  by H a n s e l l , M e c h a n i c a n d  i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s than males and those introspectiveness  anxious  to evaluation  by o t h e r s a n d r e a c t more n e g a t i v e l y t o r e j e c t i o n  Brondolo  i n the  individual.  Research  anxious  be  intellectual  c o n t a c t and i n c l u s i o n these  interaction  can thus  i n adolescent  shyness i s p e r m i t t e d t o i n h i b i t  females  social  ( 1 9 8 5 ) goes s o f a r a s t o s t a t e t h a t  development  If  1988; P i a g e t , 1952) t h e  of a d a p t a t i o n takes p l a c e through  with peers  as s u b j e c t s  more c l e a r l y M o r i t a  and a n x i e t y . study  partly in  counseling's  effects  on n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n  and r e p o r t e d l e v e l s of  anxiety. The  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s  i n research studies  a p p e a r t o be r a t h e r l i m i t e d . C h r i s t o f f  e t a l ' s (1985)  produced  b e h a v i o u a l change i n  peer  socially  significant positive  relationships,  more p o s i t i v e  that i s , increased d a i l y  r e p o r t s on i n t e r a c t i o n  p a t t e r n s of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . survey found  t h a t t h e s h y s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d more  be  in loneliness,  developing  friendships  interactions,  a n d more  positive  (1984) c o n d u c t e d  on s h y a n d n o n - s h y a d o l e s c e n t s a g e d  experiences and  Ishiyama  skill  a  14-16 y e a r s a n d negative  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n academic  success  with peers. Consequently,  r e c o g n i z e d how an a p p r o a c h  study  i t can  such as M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g t h a t  e n c o u r a g e s i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d be o f practical for  value  i n promoting  t h e r a p y and both  experiences  r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l e improvement f o r  1985, 1986c) h a v e p r o d u c e d  introduction  technique"  therapy proved their  of t h e " p o s i t i v e  (Ishiyama,  positive  Ishiyama  change  results.  reinterpretation  1986b) i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  a s u c c e s s f u l endeavor  shyness/anxiety  1977; S u z u k i  i n J a p a n on t h e e f f i c a c y o f  s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d . I n t h e W e s t , s t u d i e s by  (1983, The  studies (Suzuki & Suzuki,  a l , 1982) h a v e been c o n d u c t e d  Morita the  life  adolescents. Two l o n g i t u d i n a l  et  more p o s i t i v e  i n having  i n a more p o s i t i v e  light.  of M o r i t a subjects Other  authors  ( L e v i n e , 1987; Ogawa, 1988) h a v e a p p l i e d M o r i t a  therapy  with observable  positive  results  view  i n areas  such as  eating 1986)  disorders  and s e x u a l  has a p p l i e d  the p r i n c i p l e s of M o r i t a  promote c o n s t r u c t i v e and  purposeful  a s s a u l t . Reynolds  living  therapy to  by e n c o u r a g i n g g r e a t e r  participation in life.  however, i n terms of a p p l y i n g needs, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  Morita  of a d o l e s c e n t s  a n x i e t y / s h y n e s s . Thus t h e u n d e r l y i n g  therapy to address the in dealing thrust  VII  with  of t h i s  social present  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  unique therapy t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r population  helping  social  There i s a gap  study attempts t o demonstrate s u c c e s s f u l  providing  ( 1 9 7 6 , 1984,  with  t h e aim of  an a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h f o r c o u n s e l o r s t o u s e i n  t h i s age g r o u p .  PURPOSE  The  purpose of t h i s  of  brief Morita  of  4 group c o u n s e l i n g  objective  sessions, self-focused  of s o c i a l l y  of s o c i a l l y  a group of female  VIII  HYPOTHESIS  reported  n e g a t i v i t y and c o p i n g  i s t o determine the degree t o which  level  i n the form  would a f f e c t t h e  anxious adolescents.  C o u n s e l i n g , as a t h e r a p e u t i c reported  i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e how t h e u s e  C o u n s e l i n g a s an i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e effectiveness  study  The s p e c i f i c Morita  i n t e r v e n t i o n , changes the s e l f -  anxious cognition  adolescents.  and b e h a v i o r i n  In t h i s in  study,  w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of M o r i t a  t h e form of a b r i e f  hypothesized  Morita counseling  that s o c i a l l y  subjects w i l l  anxious  therapy  intervention, i t i s  adolescent  female  show i m p r o v e m e n t on c o g n i t i v e a n d b e h a v i o r a l  measures a f t e r  the treatment  intervention.  S p e c i f i c a l l y the  subjects w i l l : (a) show h i g h e r  a c c e p t a n c e o f , a n d more p o s i t i v e  attitudes  towards t h e i r  increased  r a t i n g s on a c c e p t a b i l i t y ,  and  bearability,  studies  (1983,  anxious  nature  of t h e i r a n x i o u s  as r e f l e c t e d i n  usefulness,  nature  1986c) - S e l f a n d A n x i e t y  desirability  as i n Ishiyama's Questionnaire  (Appendix 1 ) . (b) r e p o r t h i g h e r  coping  effectiveness in their  dealing with anxiety provoking s i t u a t i o n s ) as i n L e v i n e ' s  ways o f  situations (target  report  (1987) - S e l f and A n x i e t y  Questionnaire. (c) r e p o r t a d e c r e a s e Reynolds'  reported  cases  Complaint  Inventory  (d) show h i g h e r target Self  in overall  (1976,  1984, 1986) - T a r g e t  a c c e p t a n c e o f own a n x i o u s  s i t u a t i o n s as i n Ishiyama's s t u d i e s  and A n x i e t y  (f)  report  nature i n  (1983,  1986c) -  Questionnaire. in initiating  desirable action  t h e t a r g e t s i t u a t i o n s a s i n Ogawa's r e p o r t  Target Complaint  s e v e r i t y as i n  (Appendix l ) .  (e) show l e s s d i f f i c u l t y in  anxiety  (1988) -  Inventory. increased confidence  i n entering the target  s i t u a t i o n s and c a r r y i n g out d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n as i n R e y n o l d s '  reported  cases  (1976,  1984,  1986)  - Target  Complaint  Inventory. (g) be Ishiyama's cases  l e s s b o t h e r e d by t h e i r studies  (1976,  1984,  (1983, 1986)  a n x i e t y problem  1986c) a n d R e y n o l d s ' - Target Complaint  as i n  reported  Inventory.  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  I  R a t i o n a l e and B r i e f  The  Description  e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d  by way o f a  m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e d e s i g n a c r o s s t h r e e groups time-lagged Barlow, groups  f o r treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n  of subjects  (Hayes  1 9 7 6 ) . The t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n  1981, Hersen  for a l l three  was M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s . S u c h a d e s i g n  involves serial  o b s e r v a t i o n s over time t o a s s e s s changes i n  t r e n d and l e v e l  for the subjects  changes i n t r e n d and l e v e l response  to intervention  r e s e a r c h e r s have used change over  i n each group  f o r each group  threats of v a l i d  inferences,  (Cook  that  individual  improvements),  intervention  1979; K a z d i n , 1981)  Such t h r e a t s as h i s t o r y  testing,  some  i n t e r f e r e with the drawing  & Campbell,  external events, maturation (e.g.,  i n terms of  spontaneous  instrumentation,  statistical  subject selection, a t t r i t i o n  and i n t e r a c t i o n of  s e l e c t i o n a n d m a t u r a t i o n were e f f e c t i v e l y  asked  Clinical  time.  c a n be c o n t r o l l e d .  this  1976).  t h i s method t o o b s e r v e  to internal validity  regression,  as w e l l as  as a whole i n  (Hersen & Barlow,  With time-lagged f o r treatment  in  &  taken i n t o  account  way ( C a m p b e l l & S t a n l e y , 1 9 6 6 ) . The m a j o r q u e s t i o n  i n t h i s experiment  i s , "Does t h i s  treatment  work?"  The  three systematically staggered points  i n t e r v e n t i o n a l s o enhanced treatment  due t o t h e  i n t e r v e n t i o n b e i n g u s e d w i t h more t h a n one  population  a n d i n more t h a n one s e t t i n g (Cook  1979). Each phase baseline  external validity  of treatment  & Campbell,  o f t h e s t u d y h a d a minimum o f e i g h t  data points  a s recommended by T r y o n  (1982) t o  e n c o m p a s s a n y s t o c a s t i c e f f e c t s . The l a s t p h a s e  was e x t e n d e d  t o e n s u r e p e r m a n e n c e o f t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s a n d an a t t e m p t was  made t o a d d r e s s t h e r o l e o f a t t e n t i o n p l a c e b o i n t h e  baseline  phase  common t h r e a t  (Hersen & Barlow,  1976). T h i s element  i sa  i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y r e s e a r c h whereby t h e  t h e r a p i s t ' s presence and a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g a l o n e , as discussed  by R o g e r s  (1951), can r e s u l t i n c l i e n t  improvement. Due reversal  to the e t h i c a l  of treatment e f f e c t s (Hayes,  1 9 7 6 ) , were n o t u s e d  II  concerns, sequential  withdrawal or  1981; Hersen  & Barlow,  i n the present study.  Subjects  Females to eliminate  were c h o s e n gender  as s u b j e c t s  differences  in this  study i n order  i n terms of s o c i a l  interrelating.  Doyle  asssertiveness  f r o m o t h e r women a n d have d i f f i c u l t y  up f o r t h e i r Jacklin  (1985, p.312) s t a t e s t h a t  women  learn standing  r i g h t s i n s e t t i n g s i n v o l v i n g men. M a c c o b y a n d  (1975) a l s o r e p o r t  that  girls,  compared t o boys,  t e n d t o f o r m a c o a l i t i o n more r e a d i l y w i t h a d u l t s a s a means  of c o p i n g accept.  w i t h boy's a g g r e s s i v e  Lastly,  participants traditionally Carlson,  there  do n o t  seems t o h a v e b e e n a n e g l e c t o f f e m a l e  in social being  dominance which they  science  given  research with  t o male s u b j e c t s  1960; G r e e n g l a s s  & Stewart,  preference  (Carlson &  1973; P y k e , e t a l ,  1 975) . The s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d f r o m K i t s i l a n o School,  one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s l a r g e h i g h  school counselors,  i n the high/lower  schools  Secondary r a t e d , by t h e  to middle  socio-  e c o n o m i c c l a s s . The Cheek & B u s s ( 1 9 8 1 ) S h y n e s s S c a l e ( s e e A p p e n d i x 2) was v o l u n t a r i l y female students of p o t e n t i a l serve  as o u t l i n e d i n Appendix  s u b j e c t s , 12 s t u d e n t s  as s u b j e c t s f o r t h e study.  indicates higher score  11. From t h i s  were f i n a l l y  High scores  degree of shyness.  o f 65  35 q u a l i f i e d  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y soliciting  9 students  on t h i s  the highest  o p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i n g was r e d u c e d t o 12 d u r i n g The f i n a l  were t h e n  students.  seen i n groups  was  31 i n t e r e s t e d  s c o r i n g 15  consenting  resources  recommended  o r were g i v e n t h e  i n one M o r i t a s e s s i o n . T h i s the s o l i c i t i n g  12 s u b j e c t s w e r e t h e n  Pyke,  1987) t o one o f t h r e e  table  (Wilson  scale  An a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f  were s e l e c t e d . T h o s e n o t c h o s e n were  to various counseling  to  each f o r the purpose of  v o l u n t e e r s . The r e s u l t  s t u d e n t s . Of t h e s e , students  students  pool  screened  p o i n t o f 20 was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e q u a l i f y i n g  The r e s u l t i n g  either  c o m p l e t e d by a t o t a l  of p a r e n t a l  randomly a s s i g n e d  g r o u p s u s i n g a random  & B r i g h t , 1 9 5 2 ) . T h i s number  number consent.  (Agnew & numbers  was s u f f i c i e n t  to  allow  for a t t r i t i o n .  i s as  follows:  The  s u b j e c t ' s g r o u p and  GROUP 1: G r a d e 8,  n=1;  Grade  10,  n=3  G r o u p 2: G r a d e 8,  n=1;  G r a d e 10,  n=3  G r o u p 3: G r a d e 8,  n=1;  Grade  10,  n=1,  Grade  A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of s c o r e s on is provided  (see Table  1 on  following  S u b j e c t s ages r a n g e d from a brief  13 t o  11,  n=2  the Shyness  four counseling and  experienced  a waiting period during  which p e r i o d they would complete seven s c a l e s t w i c e Due of  to the nature  excluded  psychiatric  treatment  obtained  the  student  initiating  from the  i . e . , drug  the study.  Subjects  and  approximately The  therapy  form  were  (Appendix  or g u a r d i a n  t h r e e weeks  and  3) from  before of  anonymity.  appears that extraneous  special  note  (except  in that i t  variables influenced their  b r o u g h t t o the a t t e n t i o n of t h i s a u t h o r  that these  only  currently  s u b j e c t s were a s s u r e d  i n Group 3 deserve  of t h e s t u d y  be  subjects  subject's parent  themselves  confidentiality  end  Any  from the s t u d y . A s i g n e d consent  was  I t was  t h a t t h e r e may  e f f e c t s of t h e t r e a t m e n t .  undergoing  weekly.  of t h e r e s e a r c h w i t h i t s s m a l l number  s e s s i o n s , s u b j e c t s were t o l d  limited  Scale  17 y e a r s . They r e c e i v e d  s e s s i o n s w o u l d be o f f e r e d by a t r a i n e d (the researcher) a f t e r  profile  page).  explanation that approximately  counselor  grade  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on  profile.  towards  subject  s u b j e c t s w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g some u n u s u a l  the  ten) events  in  TABLE 1  SHYNESS SCALE ( N o t e 1) SCORES o f SURVEY STUDENTS SCREENED f o r SUBJECT SELECTION  Overall ( a l l students screened) :  n= 6 5 ,  M=  19.9,  S.D.=  5.9,  Range=  11-34  Students not eligible :  n=34,  M=  16.6,  S.D.=  6.2,  Range=  11-34  Students quali f y i n g but not included :  n=!9,  M=  23.4,  S.D.=  4.8,  Range=  19-28  Subjects  n=  M=  24.0,  S.D.=  6.6,  Range=  20-30  Note  1  :  12,  Cheek a n d B u s s S h y n e s s S c a l e (1981)  their  l i v e s . I t was  subject herself from her  r e l a t e d by  at and  f a t h e r w i t h whom she  so was  depressed  ten c o n t r a c t e d  Subject  insisted  seemed t o h a v e l e f t which  possibly  e l e v e n had the  taken  s t u d y and  exchange d u r i n g t h i s d e t r a c t e d her  from  related  on  the  remaining  time. Both  was  complete.  pronounced  an  student  c o u l d have  of the s t u d y .  clearly  Subject  a marked  agreeable  but  interference in their  study  the group from  their  data are  information rather  the s t u d y .  It is difficult  affected  v a r i a b l e as  consistent  Ill  trend.  A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s  lives  than  b a s e l i n e s o f t h i s g r o u p were  the h i s t o r y  often  included  whether the t i m e - l a g g e d by  time  I n summary, a l l f o u r  in  for additional  study  profile.  intensive  demonstrating  t h e p e r i o d of the s t u d y and  excluding  i n the  f o r a week a t a  of which  during the  remain  s u b j e c t s somewhat  several trips  the requirements  subjects experienced  forced to  h e r m e a s u r e s a t home. T h e s e  also hostessed  not  mononucleosis  was  r e b e l l i o u s n e s s . V e r b a l l y t h e s u b j e c t was f o l l o w - t h r o u g h was  separated  i n f l u e n c e d the shyness  by h e r p a r e n t  the  i s c l o s e , he h a v i n g moved away  p e r m i t t e d to complete  occurences  12, a s  recently  t h e t h i r d week o f t h e s t u d y and  home f o r 3 w e e k s . She  during  s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r and  t h a t s u b j e c t n i n e was  a great distance. Subject during  the  to  t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  state  no  Visual  i n s p e c t i o n of data  used i n t i m e - s e r i e s the  was u s e d a s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  research.  Changes r e f l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n  groups' graphs over time a r e i n s p e c t e d  study.  Kazdin  statistics continues  forthis efficacy  (1978, p.138), s t a t e s t h a t , "..the use o f  with  single-case design  to explain that  i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l " . He  statistically  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean c l i n i c a l l y i m p r o v e m e n t . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e v i s u a l demonstration derives given the of  phase,  the acceptable  according stable;  (Kazdin,  pertaining during of d a t a  for relying  t o B a l l a r d (1983),  phase i s " o b v i o u s l y  points  are:  of slope  behavior  on v i s u a l a n a l y s i s ,  this  baseline"  results  from  analysis  that  t h e number  t h e r a n g e o f 20  (Ballard,  1983).  change, i . e . , whether t h e e x t e n t of  on a d a i l y  treatment enhances t h e c l i e n t ' s basis  ( R i s l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) , i s a n o t h e r way  seems an a p p r o p r i a t e  to Miller,  method of a n a l y s i s .  (1979) s t a t e t h a t t h e h i s t o g r a m i s  the simplest  g r a p h i c a l way t o p r e s e n t  i n a t i m e - s e r i e s data  cautions,  the treatment  (p.71) and; (3) t h a t  i n each phase does not reach  Robinson and F o s t e r probably  the baseline i s  during  of e x a m i n i n g t r e a t m e n t e f f i c a c y . A c c o r d i n g (1985),  1 9 8 4 ) . Some  and s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i v e r g e n t  change d u r i n g  functioning  of performance of  (1) t h a t  of data  t o 50 a s n e e d e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l Therapeutic  level  1974; Tawney & G a s t ,  criteria  (2) t h e l e v e l  inspection  from showing t h a t performance d u r i n g a  phase v i o l a t e s t h e p r e d i c t e d  prior  appreciable  however, t h a t c a r e  analysis. Miller must be t a k e n  treatment (1985)  i n keeping the  width  of each bar  impression  of  equal  to avoid  giving rise  Measures  1.  Dependent v a r i a b l e s measured S c o r e s on  the  shyness experience  components c o n s t i t u t e  dependent v a r i a b l e . These components are  anxiety  intensity,  confidence,  difficulty  of  a c c e p t a n c e , and  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s in coping  S c o r e s were d e r i v e d provided  c o m p o n e n t by  the  acceptable  way  of  trend  f i g u r e does not  disturbance,  shyness experience,  c o n t i n u u m w h i c h was  follows: of  positive  d e g r e e of i n the  self-  shy  f r o m a n s w e r s c h e c k e d o f f on  with  the  presentation  f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s . In the  stability allow  as  in action taking, level  degree of e m o t i o n a l  interpretation  situation.  false  change.  IV  the  to a  i s 85%,  any  of  each  graphs,  p e r c e n t a g e below  this  f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be  made a b o u t  p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . F o u r s c a l e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m  Ishiyama's  Target Complaint Inventory Intensity  Scale, Level  C o n f i d e n c e S c a l e , and remaining  three  namely the  of D i f f i c u l t y  scales derived  Anxiety  S c a l e , Degree  O v e r a l l Disturbance  Quest ionna i r e (Ishiyama, Interpretation  (1987),  from the  S e l f and  P o s i t i v e Anxiety  Scale, Anxious Self-Acceptance  research  anxious c l i e n t s  s t u d i e s on M o r i t a  (Ishiyama,  1985,  the  Anxiety  Scale,  C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e . T h e s e s c a l e s were u s e d previous  of  S c a l e , and  1987), namely the  a  therapy's  1986c, 1987b,  and  in  e f f i c a c y on 1987c).  the  Ishiyama's obtained  a n a l y s e s of t h e  from  correlation  adult clients.  was  Interpretation and  found  S c a l e and  the Anxious  c o n c e p t u a l l y t h e s e two  Acceptance  the adolescent the Target  placed  t e n t h , and  Complaint  thirteenth  the  I n v e n t o r y used "a l i t t l e " ,  at the f i r s t ,  box  "moderately",  fourth,  manner  (Osgood, S u c i ,  A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e used  in three d i f f e r e n t  formats  i n the p r o c e s s of d a t a 4 s c a l e s are  sensitivity  reliability  Intensity  .5 on a Scale  nine  differential  which  were  varied,  randomly  collection. from  validity,  (a mean s e v e r i t y  p o s t - i n t e r v i e w , of Anxiety  and  the Target  and  Complaint  satisfactory  p r e - and p o s t - s e s s i o n  rating d i f f e r e n c e , pre-  13 p o i n t  by h a v i n g  and  scale).  (AIS). This scale i s intended  measure a n x i e t y i n t e n s i t y  The  1957).  13-Box S c a l e . B a t t l e e t a l . ( 1 9 6 6 ) r e p o r t e d clinical  seventh,  o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e s was  following  vertically  the bottom r e s p e c t i v e l y .  & Tannenbaum,  from  scales  13 b o x e s  between b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s i n a semantic  The  and  from  here  properties  s t u d y . The  spaces  rotated  they  a n a l y s e s of t h e d a t a  from  resulting  Scale,  Anxiety  scales  The  the S e l f  Anxiety  the psychometric  s u b j e c t s i n the present  "extremely"  positive  Self-Acceptance  called  statistical  w i t h , "not a t a l l " ,  " v e r y " , and  data  study. Each s c a l e i s d e s c r i b e d  i n f o r m a t i o n on  o f e a c h s c a l e b a s e d on  the  s c a l e s o v e r l a p each o t h e r ,  s c a l e and  Scale in this  with additional  Because a h i g h  between the P o s i t i v e  were c o l l a p s e d i n t o one  from  s c a l e s were b a s e d on  the  to  s u b j e c t respond  to  the  following question:  anxiety  "How  i n t e n s e a r e your  r e a c t i o n s when y o u e n t e r  checking  t h e s h y s i t u a t i o n ? " by  o f f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box on t h e c o n t i n u u m .  L e v e l of D i f f i c u l t y  Scale  (LPS). This  m e a s u r e t h e amount o f d i f f i c u l t y  preceeding  the check-off  experience  scale i s intended to  the subject encounters  taking action i n the target s i t u a t i o n .  you  average  in  The q u e s t i o n  s c a l e i s : "How much d i f f i c u l t y  do  i n c a r r y i n g out a d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n i n t h e shy  situation?" Degree of Confidence subject's level  Scale  (DCS). I n t h i s  of confidence  entering  the target s i t u a t i o n  question  they  scale the  i s measured as they a n t i c i p a t e a n d t a k i n g a c t i o n . The  must r e s p o n d t o i s : "How c o n f i d e n t do y o u f e e l  about e n t e r i n g t h e shy s i t u a t i o n  and t a k i n g a d e s i r a b l e  action?" Overall Disturbance  by A n x i e t y  m e a s u r e how b o t h e r e d The  subject  the subject  scale purports to  i s by t h e s h y n e s s  problem.  i s t o respond t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n :  " O v e r a l l , how much d o e s t h i s emotional  (PDA). T h i s  discomfort  Positive Anxiety  shyness problem  (i.e.,  and b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t y )  Interpretation Scale  bother  you?"  ( P A I S ) . The P A I S a n d  t h e CES d e s c r i b e d b e l o w a r e t h e i m p r o v e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e previously Morita  u s e d s c a l e s w h i c h showed h i g h  i n t e r v e n t i o n (Ishiyama,  intended  1986c,  sensitivity to  1 9 8 7 b ) . The P A I S i s  t o measure t h e degree of p o s i t i v e  the anxious  nature  using  semantic  adjective p a i r s (acceptable  attitude  differential  - unacceptable,  towards  r a t i n g s on 4-  useless -  useful,  undesirable  Each p a i r  - d e s i r a b l e , bearable  gives a score  range from  r a n g e f r o m 4 t o 36. A h i g h e r intepretation scale part  score  would you e v a l u a t e  unbearable).  1 t o 9, a n d a t o t a l i n d i c a t e s a more  o f a n x i e t y . The q u e s t i o n  i s : "How  -  validity  with high  s i t u a t i o n s ? " Adequate  internal  consistency  this  or nervous  o f y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t seems t o s u r f a c e  anxiety-arousing social  positive  accompanying  the anxious  score  in certain construct  ( a l p h a = .96) h a s  been r e p o r t e d o f t h e s c a l e ( I s h i y a m a ,  1987c).  Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s Scale  scale purports to  (CES).  This  measure t h e degree of e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h e s u b j e c t in coping  experiences  with the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g target s i t u a t i o n .  The  CES c o n s i s t s o f s i x a d j e c t i v e p a i r s ( c o m p e t e n t incompetent, impatient clear-minded  - patient, productive  - confused  unsuccessful  t e n s e ) . Each b i - p o l a r p a i r and  a total  score  indicates higher the  unproductive,  - successful, relaxed -  y i e l d s a score  range from  r a n g e f r o m 6 t o 54. A h i g h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The q u e s t i o n  s c a l e i s : "How  1 to 9  score  accompanying  w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h e way y o u d e a l  the a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l  situations?"  ( a l p h a = .95; I s h i y a m a ,  Anxious Self-Acceptance  Scale  with  The s c a l e h a s been  found t o have adequate c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y consistency  -  and h i g h  internal  1987c).  (ASAS). T h i s s c a l e i s i n t e n d e d  t o measure t h e degree of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e of t h e shy s e l f the  s u b j e c t when t h e y  target  situation.  appreciative,  a n t i c i p a t e becoming anxious  Four b i - p o l a r p a i r s ( c r i t i c a l  satisfied  - dissatisfied,  -  tolerant -  i n the  by  intolerant,  p e s s i m i s t i c - o p t i m i s t i c ) y i e l d a score  1 t o 9, a n d a t o t a l accompanying t h i s  score  r a n g e f r o m 4 t o 36. The q u e s t i o n  s c a l e i s : "How w o u l d y o u f e e l  yourself  when y o u t h i n k o f b e c o m i n g a n x i o u s  arousing  social  2.  Ancillary  For Scale  measures  is,  t h e Ss e m o t i o n a l  state i n target  the test  items  level  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s  (1980) 7 - P o i n t  Scale  measuring s i m i l a r  Procedure  that  N i n e t y day  o f .74, i n d i c a t i n g  i s measuring remain s t a b l e scale c o r r e l a t e d with  (1977) Shyness S e l f - R e p o r t  of  coefficient  of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ,  a r e m e a s u r i n g t h e same t r a i t .  the test  They  item and t h e r e f o r e ,  (n=96) showed a r e l i a b i l i t y  that the t r a i t s  state.  situations.  s c o r e , a n a l y s i s ( n = 9 l 2 ) r e v e a l e d an a l p h a  test-retest  V  affective  f o r a n a l y s i s . Item score/remainder  .79, an a c c e p t a b l e  time.  once t o t h e S d u r i n g t h e  measuring the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  requires recoding  of  (1981) Shyness  2 week s c r e e n i n g p h a s e . The s c a l e i n v o l v e s 9  S t a t e m e n t 2, h o w e v e r , i s a r e v e r s e  scale  i n the anxiety-  s c r e e n i n g p u r p o s e s t h e Cheek & B u s s  statements reflect  toward  situations?"  ( A p p e n d i x 2) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  initial  range of  (_r = .67) a n d w i t h  over  Zimbardo's Johnson's,  (r_ = .81) s h o w i n g t h a t t h e t e s t i s  components t o t h e s e  shyness  tests.  The students The  Cheek & B u s s S h y n e s s S c a l e  as  o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter  p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i o n and  found  in that I t was  partaking  explained  to the  subjects  mid-way t h r o u g h t h e  t h e y w o u l d be  a period before  a twice  under S u b j e c t s  o r i e n t a t i o n of  i n four group c o u n s e l i n g  counseling  administered  to  section.  subjects  is  same s e c t i o n .  approximately that  was  that they would  s e s s i o n s , one study.  per  They were  asked to complete s c a l e s twice  the  four counseling  s e s s i o n s , and  i n the  w e e k l y b a s i s . The  repeated  week, informed  weekly  sessions, during  s i x week p e r i o d  be  for  the  following  measures f o r each  on  subject  0  t o c o m p l e t e were l e f t , subject's and  prearranged  drop-off  offices. reminder  box  secret  a t one  Mid-week t h e  G r o u p 1 had baseline while G r o u p s 2 and  3 had  identification,  researcher  called  s c a l e s had was  in a  each pick-up  department's each s u b j e c t  been c o m p l e t e d  kept c o n s i s t e n t  observation  and  points  in i t s  time-lagged,  (Hersen & Barlow,  nine  r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l groups  and  thirteen observation  ten  points  i n the  1976),  intervention  e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout except during i n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e where two and  a f t e r the  a  so t h a t a l l  p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases r e s p e c t i v e l y . These p o i n t s  before  as  amount of a t t e n t i o n .  eight  the  envelopes with  the c o u n s e l i n g  telephoning  received a uniform  s i x and  of  i n q u i r i n g i f the  d r o p p e d o f f . The Ss  in individual  were t a k e n on  counseling  session.  were  the  the  same  day,  had and  VI  Treatment  Session  1.  The  counseling  appointed  sessions  q u i e t room i n t h e s c h o o l o v e r  - m i n u t e d u r a t i o n . The f i r s t establishing  trust  and  into  social  of t h i s  session focused  u s i n g empathic  The c o u n s e l o r  e x p l o r i n g subjects' present beliefs  in relation  emotional,  are i n anxietyfocused  ideas, behaviors,  to their  on  reflections  subjects behavioral,  situations.  i n an  l u n c h h o u r f o r a 45  c o g n i t i v e r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s when t h e y  provoking on  half  and r a p p o r t  with occasional probing and  f o r each group were h e l d  shy n a t u r e .  primarily feelings,  This  was  f o l l o w e d by i n s t r u c t i o n a l - t y p e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e nature  and mechanism of a n x i e t y  In  the f i r s t  concepts,  the  1984a).  s e s s i o n , one o r two M o r i t a  according  reinterpretation  (Ishiyama,  t o Ishiyama's  technique  counseling  (1984a) p o s i t i v e  ( A p p e n d i x 5 ) , were i n t r o d u c e d a n d  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e s s i o n was s p e n t d i s c u s s i n g b e h a v i o r a l  instructions  1 t o 3 (Appendix 6 ) . Short  Morita-based  positive  given  interpretation  t o each s u b j e c t t o c a r r y as a  Sessions  w r i t t e n summaries of  of s o c i a l  a n x i e t y was  reminder.  2 to 4  S u b s e q u e n t s e s s i o n s began w i t h r e p o r t s on homework a n d any  g a i n s made. The c o u n s e l o r  summarizing techniques  used empathic r e f l e c t i o n and  t o comment on t h e s u b j e c t s ' homework  p e r f o r m a n c e and f a c i l i t a t e d  d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i m p o r t a n t .  i s s u e s and  p r o b l e m s t h a t had  f o l l o w i n g a i m s were g i v e n c o n f r o n t a t i o n and (1)  arisen during  focus  unproductive  p a t t e r n s , and  effective  target situation  target  Behavioral  i n c l u d i n g a review  familiarity their the  shy  nature.  s u b j e c t s was  once t h e in  to f u r t h e r  their  the (Appendix  written positive  Subjects  increase  p o s i t i v e view  of  t h e m a i n message d e l i v e r e d t o  self-awareness I t was  continued  their  awareness o f , the  subjects gained  s p i t e of  t o implement  of each s e s s i o n .  In g e n e r a l ,  behavioral choices.  reaction  end  summaries d a i l y  w i t h , and  and  (2)  behavioral strategies  instruction  at the  were e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n s u l t interpretation  The  instruction,  a t t i t u d e s and  to cope w i t h the  6)  of  self-understanding,  beliefs,  (3) d e v e l o p i n g  behavior.  way  week.  the p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n technique:  increasing problem-related  modifying  by  the  of e x p e r i e n c e d  e x p e c t e d by  awareness t h a t  emotions, they  the  researcher  they  w o u l d be  emotion  can  likely  that  take to  and  action take  act ion. Since counseling o v e r two  this  5-day p e r i o d s  Counselor  i s whether  subjects*  Morita  b e h a v i o r a l c o u n t s were t a k e n  and  a frequency  b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e s was  observations.  the d e g r e e of  VII  main c o n c e r n  works or not,  o f c o g n i t i v e and repeated  study's  T h i s was  histogram  daily  (polygram)  p l o t t e d from  done i n o r d e r  to  a p p l i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l  determine learned.  The  author  a l s o s e r v e d as t h e c o u n s e l o r  study. Advocates  of s i n g l e - c a s e e x p e r i m e n t a l  (Hayes,1981; Hersen & Barlow, the  i n the  idea t h a t the  1976;  Kazdin,  c o u n s e l o r conduct  h i s / h e r c l i e n t s as  designs, 1981)  clinical  these c l i e n t s c o n s t i t u t e  present  support  research using readily  available subjects. The level  c o u n s e l o r was  graduate  completed  two  for  second  year of a  Master's  program i n c o u n s e l i n g psychology. Morita therapy  i n t r o d u c t o r y and close  i n her  training  courses  i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s and  was  She  at p r e s e n t l y under  s u p e r v i s i o n o f an e s t a b l i s h e d M o r i t a t h e r a p y  further c l i n i c a l  and  educational training.  i s a 41-year o l d Caucasian daughter  a t t e n d i n g secondary  c h i l d r e n . Her c a r e and  psychiatric  and  who  has  an  The  trainer counselor  adolescent  s c h o o l a s w e l l a s two  younger  e d u c a t i o n a l background i s i n p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h  experience working clinical  female  had  n u r s i n g where she  w i t h a l l age  groups.  educational training  c o u n s e l i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y  has She  had has  many y e a r s had  i n empathy-based  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  recent  of  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS  The focus  r e s u l t s of t h i s  on t h e v i s u a l  study  are presented  with  a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s b a s e d on v i s u a l  i n s p e c t i o n a s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y done i n c l i n i c a l s i n g l e case experimental of  statistical  provided. the  designs.  a n a l y s i s and b e h a v i o r a l  data  (Anxiety Acceptance Scale,  of D i f f i c u l t y  Intensity  of Anxiety Levels  (baseline, addition,  are also  and t r e n d s  Scale)  By A n x i e t y  r e s u l t s on b e h a v i o u r a l  performance i n the repeated  phase  phases  c o u n t s t a k e n p r e - and p o s t -  As w e l l a s e x a m i n i n g t h e p r e - a n d  a r e made ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s P a r t  violates  in this  i n the three  p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n phases f o r change, i n t e r - g r o u p  derives  Scale,  i s discussed  a r e examined  Scale,  i n t e r v e n t i o n , and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n ) . I n  intervention are analyzed.  The  on e a c h o f  I n t e n s i t y Coping  S c a l e , Degree of C o n f i d e n c e Reactions  using  In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s  Effectiveness Scale, Overall Disturbance  chapter.  studies  The v i s u a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p l o t t e d d a t a  s i x scales  Level  t h e main  strength  2 for individual  inspection  demonstration  from showing t h a t performance d u r i n g  (Kazdin,  subject's  measures).  of t h e v i s u a l  the predicted  comparisons  level  a given  phase  of performance of t h e p r i o r  1 9 7 4 ) . T r e a t m e n t e f f i c a c y i s s o u g h t by way o f  changes r e f l e c t e d i n l e v e l  of each phase, p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e -  and  p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n , a s w e l l as c h a n g e s i n t r e n d f o r t h e s e  phases.  The  s t u d y ' s main c o n c e r n  c o u n s e l i n g w o r k s o r n o t and c o g n i t i v e and from  i s whether M o r i t a  so t h e s e  frequency polygrams  b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e s , g i v e n t h a t t h e y were  repeated o b s e r v a t i o n s over a p p r o x i m a t e l y  The  concern,  1985).  o b j e c t i v e of t h e s t u d y  which M o r i t a C o u n s e l i n g  c o g n i t i o n and  behavior  i s to detemine the degree  level  of s o c i a l l y  i n s m a l l groups of  anxious female  adolescents. R e s u l t s are presented to address t h a t a d o l e s c e n t female  Ss w i l l  the  show i m p r o v e n e n t  on  hypothesis cognitive  b e h a v i o r a l measures f o l l o w i n g M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g .  reader  i s reminded  comprising  intervention,  d u r a t i o n of  f o r t y minutes  I  Profiles  The outlined  results  i n Chapter  be  were b r i e f  (a  session).  of S e l f - R e p o r t Repeated Measures  will  address  of r e s u l t s of  repeated  d e s c r i b e d . Instruments  found  i n the Appendix  1,  Scores  the q u e s t i o n s  I I . To a r r i v e a t a n s w e r s t o  q u e s t i o n s , group graphs  the d a t a can  per  specifically  a r e p r e s e n t e d and  The  t h a t the four c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s ,  the treatment  Graphic  to  , as a t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  changes the s e l f - r e p o r t e d  and  taken  fourteen  w e e k s , w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a d d r e s s i n g t h i s (Miller,  of  used  these measurements  in gathering  1a, & 2. F o r  ease  of d i s c u s s i o n , t h e B a s e l i n e  phase w i l l  be r e f e r r e d t o a s  P h a s e A, t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e a s P h a s e B, a n d t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n a s P h a s e C. On  the L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s '  Counseling  sessions  regular they  arrows. Observations  taken  p r e - and p o s t -  same d a y . M i s s i n g d a t a between  were  to the  taken  have  bi-weekly  counseling  at  points.  Throughout the study  i t will  where  s e s s i o n on t h e  i s i n d i c a t e d by l o n g e r  connecting  be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e  p e r f o r m a n c e of Group 3 i s s i g n i f i c e n t l y 1 & 2. An e x a m i n a t i o n  three.  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n phase  observation  Groups  two a n d  a n d t h e r e f o r e do n o t  i n t e r v a l s except during  were  lines  sessions  one a n d f o u r a r e a d j a c e n t  i n t e r v e n t i o n c u t - o f f borders indication  graphs,  v  the arrows i n d i c a t e c o u n s e l i n g  Post-  lower  than t h a t of  of the i n d i v i d u a l  Ss g r a p h s  ( A p p e n d i x 8) f r o m thi,s g r o u p r e v e a l s Ss 9 & 10 g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t i n g a somewhat f l a t Ss  profile  w i t h t h e odd e x c e p t i o n  11 & 12 r e p o r t i n g a. r a t h e r e r r a t i c  the  odd e x c e p t i o n .  Research Question  See C h a p t e r  #1:  profile,  again  with  5 f o r d i s c u s s i o n on G r o u p  Will  Ss show a h i g h e r  and  3.  accept-  a n c e o f , a n d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r the M o r i t a in  anxious  nature  i n t e r v e n t i o n as  increased  after reflected  s e l f - r e p o r t r a t i n g s on  positive  attitudinal  -uative  items?  and  self-eval  On  e x a m i n a t i o n of group  "Anxiety Acceptance i n Groups  Scale", a clear  1 & 2 indicating  p a r t of t h e i r  graphs  f o r the 8-item S c a l e  p o s i t i v e change i s seen  a g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e of  n a t u r e . D e s p i t e G r o u p 2's  lesser  a c c e p t a n c e a t t h e o n s e t of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n , continues very c l e a r l y  b a s e l i n e and a t t h e s t a r t abrupt  the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  I n F i g u r e 1, G r o u p difference second  of  7.96  shows an on  1 shows a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e  improved  i . e . a decrease  t h i s phase w i t h  i t s 89%  envelope  trend direction  attitude  11%,  indication toward  level the of a  their  = 5.7)  (trend  leveling  improvement  The  stability  shy  stability  envelope  stability  (trend  However,  stability  t h e n t o o k an a b r u p t u p s w i n g  was  off with a slight  criterion  stability.  i n anxiety acceptance.  trend  i n P h a s e B where v a r i a b i l i t y  stability  i n the  shown i n F i g u r e 2, P h a s e A r e v e a l s a d o w n - a n g l e d  trend l i n e ,  criterion  phase.  phase.  h i g h e s t of the 3 groups, a c l e a r  n a t u r e . As  increase  again decreases  i n c r e a s e , a d i f f e r e n c e of  h i g h e r a c c e p t a n c e and  83%,  l e s s acceptance  i n c r e a s e but t h i s a c c e p t a n c e  entering  the  of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  anxious  increase in  i n t o the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  G r o u p 3 a l s o shows a c o n t i n u i n g  8,  criterion low, t r e n d  i s being maintained.  =  stability  down a n g l e i n P h a s e C  = 7.1)  in this  envelope  a n d a 92%  last  in 6.9) of (trend  trend  phase s u g g e s t s  that  Group 2 g e n e r a t e s the h i g h e s t P h a s e s A & C, distinct nature.  at  10.28, a  14%  l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e between  increase  i m p r o v e m e n t i n a t t i t u d e and P h a s e A t r e n d shows a s t e e p  criterion  e n v e l o p e = 7.5)  (trend s t a b i l i t y B w i t h an  83%  3); a  a c c e p t a n c e of  their  slope  w i t h a 91%  criterion  (see F i g u r e  but  criterion  e n v e l o p e = 8.4)  C w h i c h shows an  85%  stability.  Figure  5, G r o u p 3's  trend direction  criterion presents  in Figure  up-slope  h e r e and i n Group  w i t h a 93%  (trend s t a b i l i t y  Phase B w i t h a t r e n d  stability  i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e and  2.30,  6 i n Phase A  a down-slope, a decrease  i n Phase 1,  trend  the  increase.  (trend  stability  stability  in anxiety acceptance.  criterion of  a 3%  83%  e n v e l o p e = 6.6)  indicating  (trend s t a b i l i t y  i n P h a s e C but  maintains  A in  an  positive attitude after  c o u n s e l i n g , d r o p s somewhat e n v e l o p e = 6.1)  a  i n Phase  g r a p h shows l e s s c h a n g e i n t h a t  e n v e l o p e = 6.3)  sharp upswing  As  on  drops  maintained.  Phase A to C l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s o n l y The  5 points  continues  (trend s t a b i l i t y  i m p r o v e m e n t seems  stability  trend s t a b i l i t y ,  e n v e l o p e = 6.9)  trend s t a b i l i t y  trend  (trend  shy  the  criterion  a firm  100%  stability.  Summary - T h e r e i s a c l e a r p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n G r o u p s 1 &  2 i n a n x i e t y a c c e p t a n c e and  nature, 2,  a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r  whereas Group 3 p r e s e n t s  although  the  shy  a l e s s e r change. In Group  p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase a l r e a d y  had  an  upward  Group 1, Scale 8  Level Differences on Scale 8 Anxiety Acceptance Scale  72 Baseline  64  Intervention  Post  Intervention  56 I  48 u o  u in  i  40 32 -  8 -I 0  ]  0  10  20  30  40  Time (days)  Figure 1  50  60  70  80  90  100  Group 1, Scale 8  Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance  Figure 2  CVoiJn 9 S m l p R <->  L  e  v  e  l  e r e n c e s on Scale 8 Anxiety Acceptance Scale  D i f f  Time (days)  Figure 3  ON  Group 2, Scale 8  Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance  Figure 4  -o  Group 3, Scale 8  Level Differences on Scale 8 Anxiety Acceptance Scale  72 64  Baseline  Intervention  Post  Intervention  56 I  48  i  40 32  8 0H 0  i  10  .  20  — L  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  Time (days)  Figure 5  CO  Group 3, Scale 8  Trends on Scale 8 - Anxiety Acceptance  Time (days)  Figure 6  M3  trend d i r e c t i o n this  levels-off  trend d i r e c t i o n climbs.  Group  before  1 & 2's p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  u p s w i n g t r e n d d i r e c t i o n and h i g h that  improvement  is definitely  follows with a slight completely  the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  trend  being  stability  maintained.  suggests Group 3  l e s s upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n b u t w i t h a  s t a b l e t r e n d a t 100%. G r a p h s , i n f i g u r e s one t o  six,, are presented  on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s .  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n #2:  Will  Ss r e p o r t  effectiveness dealing with situations, after  a higher  in their  coping  ways o f  the anxiety  provoking  i . e . , target s i t u a t i o n s ,  r e c e i v i n g the M o r i t a  counseling  i n t e r v e n t ion?  Results the  on t h e 6 - i t e m S c a l e  s c a l e that taps  2, " C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s " ,  a b e h a v i o r a l component  p r o d u c e s t h e most  o b v i o u s p o s i t i v e c h a n g e f o r G r o u p s 1 & 2. S u b j e c t s comprehend, and r e s p o n d t o t h i s reflected result  effectiveness Morita  s c a l e more r e a d i l y a s  i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y higher  i s that  Ss r e p o r t in their  seemed  a decided  shy/target  r a t i n g f o r most increase  S s . The  i n coping  s i t u a t i o n s a f t e r the  counseling.  Refering  to Figure  7, G r o u p  1's l e v e l  between Phase A & C i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  7.98,  difference i.e., a  14%  to  increase.  In Figure  criterion  e n v e l o p e = 5) i n P h a s e A shows a d e f i n i t e  slope  with a trend  8 the trend d i r e c t i o n  stability  of 78%. T h i s  i n an u p - s l o p e ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y the  criterion  commencement o f P h a s e B w i t h  maintains this  upper l e v e l  e n v e l o p e = 5.6) d u r i n g stability  of t h i s  trend  (trend  abruptly  stability  changes  o f 100% a n d  criterion  92% s t a b l e t r e n d  l a s t phase p o i n t s  down  e n v e l o p e = 5.1) a t  (trend s t a b i l i t y  a high  stability  P h a s e C. The  t o a c o n t i n u a t i o n of  improvement.  Group  2 i n Figure  Phase A t o C l e v e l trend direction steep  upward  stability  shows g r e a t e s t  as seen i n F i g u r e  direction  trend  change w i t h a  d i f f e r e n c e o f 8.07, a 15% i n c r e a s e .  criterion  s t e e p upward  9 again  The  10 i n P h a s e A shows a  (trend s t a b i l i t y  a t 82%, & t r e n d  e n v e l o p e o f 5.9) f o l l o w e d (trend s t a b i l i t y  criterion  by a  less  envelope =  5.9) i n a 100% s t a b l e P h a s e B, P h a s e C's t r e n d c o n t i n u e s a definite  upward  slope  = 6.8) a n d i s a f i r m continued  c r i t e r i o n envelope  s t a b l e t r e n d a t 100%,  promising  improvement.  Group 3 p r e s e n t s the  (trend s t a b i l i t y  on  the smallest  amount o f c h a n g e  i n that  P h a s e A-C l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s 1.22, a 3% i n c r e a s e ( s e e  Figure  1 1 ) . On e x a m i n i n g F i g u r e  downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  12, t h e r e  (trend s t a b i l i t y  = 5.6) i n P h a s e A w h i c h i s 7 2 % t r e n d t h a t t h i s phase  i s 91% t r e n d  isa  slight  c r i t e r i o n envelope  s t a b l e . Note,  stable after  the f i r s t  however, 3  Group 1, Scale 2  Level Differences on Scale 2 Coping Effectiveness  54 48 -  Baseline  Intervention  Post  Intervention  42 -  1  36 a)  o u  I/)  F -  30 24 -  •  1  \. "  w  18 12 ~ 6 0 0  10  20  30  40  Time (days)  Figure 7  50  60  70  80  90  100  Group 1, Scale 2  Trends on Scale 2 - Coping Effectiveness i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n  Figure 8  U5  CVrM  IP*  VJMUUfJ  9 ^(Tllp Level Differences on Scale 2 Z . , vDUUIC Z. Coping Effectiveness  Figure 9  Group 2, Scale 2  Trends on Scale 2 - Coping Effectiveness in the Shy S i t u a t i o n  Figure 10  Crr\\ \r\ \J\ V J U L J  ^ ^/-nlo vJ, O L , U i e  9 Z.  L  e  V  e  l  D i f f e r e n  Coping  c e s on Scale 2 Effectiveness  Group 3, Scale 2  T r e n d s on S c a l e 2 - C o p i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  F i g u r e 12  observation (trend trend  p o i n t s . Phase B r e v e r s e s  stability  criterion  s t a b l e , drops  direction trend  e n v e l o p e = 4.9)  1 point  (trend s t a b i l i t y  stability  during  to a steep  but  upward  which i s  continues  on  an  83%  upward  c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 5)  Phase  slope  trend  with  100%  C.  Summary - A l l g r o u p s show i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e i r t o c o p e more e f f e c t i v e l y  with  & 2 showing the  degree. I t i s noted t h a t Group 1  commensed t h e in coping the  greatest  study  trend  effectively  situation,  but  t h i s was  was  clearly  also true  Groups 1  direction  reversed  during  to a l e s s e r extent  for  P o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e s f o r a l l g r o u p s were h i g h l y  stable promising  figures  shy  w i t h a m a r k e d downward t r e n d  i n t e r v e n t i o n . This  G r o u p 3.  their  ability  a continued  seven to t w e l v e ,  are  improvement. Graphs,  presented  on  the  in  following  pages.  Research Question  3:  Will  S_s r e p o r t  b o t h e r e d by after  that  their  the M o r i t a  they are  anxiety  less  problem  counseling  inter-  vention?  In S c a l e  7,  " O v e r a l l , how  much d o e s t h i s  p r o b l e m b o t h e r y o u ? " , where a d e c r e a s e improvement, a l l 3 groups r e p o r t decrease  i n the d i s t u r b a n c e  shyness  in score  indicates  improvement i n a  or b o t h e r of  the  reported  shyness  p r o b l e m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n G r o u p s 2 & 3. T h e s e two g r o u p s show a d e f i n i t e and c o n t i n o u s Group  1 shows o n l y  decrease over a l l phases  slight positive  change  whereas  i n the  initial  p h a s e s i n c r e a s i n g t o a more n o t i c e a b l e one i n t h e l a s t phase. I f t r e n d s t a b i l i t y more f i r m  i n the f i n a l  t h e n t h i s measure  indication  of t h e e f f i c a c y  Looking at Figure  p h a s e was  w o u l d seem t o o f f e r of M o r i t a  13, G r o u p  somewhat a  clear  counseling.  1's l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s a  d r o p o f 1.45, w h i c h i s 1 1 % , f r o m P h a s e A t o P h a s e C. T h e r e i s a s l i g h t downward t r e n d  slope  (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.7) i n P h a s e A b u t t r e n d  stability  u n a c c e p t a b l e l o w 44%. P h a s e B ( F i g u r e very  s l i g h t downward t r e n d a n g l e  criterion  i s an  14) t r e n d  l i n e shows a  (trend s t a b i l i t y  criterion  e n v e l o p e = 1.6) i n d i c a t i n g a m i n i m a l l o w e r d e g r e e o f disturbance  with a less  than acceptable  67%. The downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.4) becomes c l e a r trend s t a b i l i t y  Group  stability  (trend s t a b i l i t y  i n P h a s e C w i t h an  below a c c e p t a b l e  criterion increased  a t 77%.  i n anxiety  (see F i g u r e  severity.  a s l i g h t down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  15) i n d i c a t i n g a  In Figure  16 t h e r e  (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.2) i n P h a s e A where  trend  stability  clear  i s only  criterion  stability  i s 73%.  P h a s e B b e g i n s t o show a p r o n o u n c e d downward t r e n d (trend  of  2's l e v e l o f d i f f e r e n c e i s a d r o p o f 1.46 o r 11%  f r o m P h a s e A t o P h a s e C, improvement  trend  direction  c r i t e r i o n e n v e l o p e = 1.1) a n d i s a l m o s t  acceptable presents  with a trend s t a b i l i t y  84%.  a c l e a r downward t r e n d s l o p e  criterion  envelope =  significant  at the  2,  one  Scale  6,  observation that  of  this  continue  1.1)  unacceptable  can  p o i n t s has  a steady  (trend  level  of  path  of  time,  is As  with  h a l f of of  phase  stability  77%.  last  a trend s t a b i l i t y increased  final  variability  observe that the  group, given on  although  The  Group  the  100%  suggesting  would p o s s i b l y  improvement.  Scores f o r Group 3 are comparable to the  other  two  groups w i t h a c l e a r improvement. R e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e g r o u p has or  10%.  a level  In F i g u r e  direction  P h a s e B,  this  criterion The  d i f f e r e n c e from Phase A t o Phase C of 18,  P h a s e A shows a n o t i c a b l e down  (trend s t a b i l i t y  however, the  criterion  trend s t a b i l i t y trend direction  envelope =  1.3)  disappears  at  an  improvement i n b e i n g  show l e s s d e g r e e o f d i s t u r b a n c e pattern  i n t o the  final  72%.  trend  In  stability  stability  acceptable  is  100%.  85%  Trend clearly  Ss.  r e s u l t s , a l l g r o u p s show  l e s s bothered  s h y n e s s p r o b l e m . G r o u p 1, d u r i n g  at  i s observed.  to these  1.29  i n P h a s e C where a  i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e change f o r t h e s e  Summary - A c c o r d i n g  the  1.4)  (trend  however, t r e n d  d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n remains steady  envelope =  i s unacceptable  n o t i c a b l e p o s i t i v e change r e c u r s  stability  17,  o r d i s t u r b e d by  the and  their  i n t e r v e n t i o n , begins continues  in  p h a s e . G r o u p s 2 & 3 show a  this similar  to  Group 1, Scale 7  0)  o u  in  13 12 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0  Baseline  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by t h e Shyness P r o b l e m  Post  Intervention  Intervention  -A r  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  Time ( d a y s )  F i g u r e 13  ON  ^  Group 1, Scale 7  T r e n d s on S c a l e 7 - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by t h e Shyness Problem  F i g u r e 14  ON IV)  Or  O  C^s^l-.  VJMOUp Z., OCOIG  01  u  o o  w  13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0  Baseline  V  V *  1  0  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by t h e Shyness Problem  Intervention  A- * A V  ~7 /  1  Post Intervention  i  \  1  i  20  30  -  i  40  Time (days)  F i g u r e 15  1  50  60  70  80  90  100  ON  Group 2, Scale 7  T r e n d s on S c a l e  - O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by t h e Shyness Problem  Time (days)  C  F i g u r e 16  ON  Group 3, Scale 7  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 7 O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e Caused by the Shyness Problem  ON  F i g u r e 17  F i g u r e 18  ON ON  pattern the  i n that  there  pre-intervention  more i m p r o v e m e n t w i t h envelope  down t r e n d  that  a firm  100% t r e n d  to eighteen,  Will  in all  action  5, " D e g r e e o f e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y  i m p r o v e m e n t , a l t h o u g h no n o t i c e a b l e  a d e f i n i t e downward t r e n d  i s f i r m f o r two g r o u p s . T h i s  Ss were  Morita  intervention?  i n t h e s h y s i t u a t i o n " , where a l o w e r  groups with  in  in their  s i t u a t i o n s a f t e r the  in  score  change  the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase, the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n  stability the  less d i f f i c u l t y  desirable  counseling  S c o r e s on S c a l e  by  Graphs, i n f i g u r e s  Ss r e p o r t  shy/target  indicates  concluded,  a r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s .  initating  taking  criterion  a l l groups i n d i c a t e being l e s s bothered  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4:  action  stability  I t c a n be  shy p r o b l e m p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n .  thirteen  directions in  p h a s e b u t t h e s e c o n t i n u e t o show e v e n  i n the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n .  therefore, their  i s already  occurs  phase  shows  d i r e c t i o n . Trend  points  out t h a t  while  l e a r n i n g no c h a n g e e f f e c t o c c u r e d b u t , o v e r  time, the a c t i o n  taking d i f f i c u l t y  c l e a r l y began t o  decrease.  The level  r e s u l t s shown i n F i g u r e  difference  19 f r o m G r o u p  1 present a  d e c r e a s e from Phase A t o Phase C of  w h i c h i s 16% l o w e r , t h e g r e a t e s t  2.03  improvement of a l l g r o u p s  on  this  s c a l e . In F i g u r e  stability  criterion  a downward one B this 1.6)  and  20,  envelope = trend  trend d i r e c t i o n (trend  1.8)  i n Phase A  stability  and  trend  H o w e v e r , i n P h a s e C, stability  criterion  envelope =  a reported  this point  i n time f o r t h i s  G r o u p 1's  this  i m p r o v e m e n t . On  trend  77%  of  e n v e l o p e = 1.2)  trend  w h i c h i s 14%  22,  82%.  the  difficulty  as  stability be  i n G r o u p 1 and of  85%.  decrease  lower 1's  (see  level  pattern  the  shy  but  similar  variability  shy s i t u a t i o n s .  and  criterion  unstable  (67%), Ss  s i t u a t i o n s during  contrary,  shows a m a r k e d  criterion  i s small at  During t h i s phase, t h i s  in their  of  1.4)  envelope  trend  group appears  responding w i t h at a c o n s i s t e n t l y lower degree  difficulty  from  Figure  is  (trend s t a b i l i t y  in their on  at  is  i n d i c a t i n g that momentarily,  i n t e r v e n t i o n . P h a s e C,  1.1)  difficulty  envelope =  downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y =  observed,  downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  criteion  Phase B  the  however, t r a c e s a sharp,  greater  83%.  stability.  examining Figure  of  envelope =  variability  f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t o Group  upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n , •reported  be  i n experienced  g r o u p . The  1.88  (trend s t a b i l i t y  stability  Phase  d r o p s somewhat t o  can  t o t h a t of Group 1 w i t h a d e f i n i t e i n Phase A  criterion  l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e shows a s l i g h t  at a value  Again,  1.5)  decrease  though, at  G r o u p 2's  stability  In  a c l e a r downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d  reflecting  significant  is definitly  i s h i g h a t 89%.  trend d i r e c t i o n (trend s t a b i l i t y  disappears  21).  the  of  to  Looking difference only  at Figure  23, Group 3 s c o r e s  show a  from Phase A t o C as a n e g l i g a b l e d r o p of  1% l o w e r .  Phase A i s s t a b l e a t 93% t r e n d  a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1 . 3 ) . P h a s e B, l i k e an u p w a r d t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  and has a s o l i d  92%.  g r o u p seems t o h a v e been p o s i t i v e l y  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h i s aspect  a t 50%. P h a s e C  (trend  e n v e l o p e = 1.2)  stability  trend  of e x p e r i e n c e d  stability  a f f e c t e d by difficulty.  difficulty  their  shy s i t u a t i o n s , Groups  1 & 2 a s much a s 16% a n d  lower  r e s p e c t i v e l y . However,  the three  decreased d i f f i c u l t y  i s reversed  groups  in  14%  already  i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase  w i t h a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n . but  of  l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s , a l l groups  show i m p r o v e m e n t by r e p o r t i n g l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d  reflect  with  criterion  criterion  Summary - I n o b s e r v i n g  stability  criterion  trend unstable  shows a c l e a r downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  the  .14,  t h a t o f G r o u p 2, r e v e r t s t o  (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.2) w h i c h i s v e r y  This  level  This  levels-off  f o r Groups 2 & 3 d u r i n g  f o r Group 1  the i n t e r v e n t i o n  p h a s e . The p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n r e v e r t s b a c k t o s h o w i n g improvement and c a r r y - o v e r direction slightly to  with  firm trend  effect  stability  l e s s one f o r G r o u p  twenty-four,  by a s t e a d y  are presented  downward  trend  f o r Groups 2 & 3 and a  1. G r a p h s , i n f i g u r e s  nineteen  on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s .  OOI  ID 1 S m l p S  UU(J  I, O ^ U I C  D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n  Figure  19  -a o  Group 1, Scale 5  Trends on Scale 5 - D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n  Figure 20  Group 2, Scale 5  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n the Shy S i t u a t i o n  IV)  F i g u r e 21  Group 2, Scale 5  T r e n d s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  F i g u r e 22  -o  Group 3, Scale 5 13 12 1 1 10 9  Baseline  in  Intervention  i  u  o u  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 5 D i f f i c u l t y Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  \7—  6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0  \x  v^^y^  ,  .  ^  10  20  30  40  Time ( d a y s )  F i g u r e 23  Post Intervention  i  50  60  70  80  90  100  -(=-  Group 3, Scale 5.  T r e n d s on S c a l e 5 - D i f f i c u l t y E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  F i g u r e 24  -o  Research Question  5:  Will  Ss r e p o r t  entering  their  increased  shy/target  confidence  situations a  c a r r y i n g out d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g  All  Ss e x c e p t t h o s e  on S c a l e  6,  "Degree o f c o n f i d e n c e  w h e r e an i n c r e a s e d  score  degree of c o n f i d e n c e . in  that  i n Group 2 r e p o r t  i t reflects  the other  during  intervention?  similar  i n shy/target  ratings  situation",  c o r r e s p o n d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n  T h i s measure  the l e a s t  stands  out i n the  O n l y G r o u p 2, i n t h e f i n a l but even t h i s  very  w o r d s , t h e Ss c o m p l e t e d t h e  reporting  feeling  shy/target  25, G r o u p  trend d i r e c t i o n i s  less confident  s i t u a t i o n s t h a n when t h e y  In F i g u r e .73,  slightly  out and  phase,  shows a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e In other  Even  1 & 3 show an i n c r e a s e i n  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e , one l e v e l s  decreases.  unstable.  study  p o s i t i v e change o v e r a l l .  though t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s i n Groups confidence  after  study  in their  commensed i t .  1 reports a level  d i f f e r e n c e of -  a 5% d e c r e a s e f r o m P h a s e A t o P h a s e C. E x a m i n i n g F i g u r e  26, P h a s e A shows a s l i g h t stability  criterion  unacceptable  upward  e n v e l o p e = 1.5)  at a trend s t a b i l i t y  contrast, presents  trend direction  criterion  stability  a t 67% m a k i n g t h i s  but v a r i a b i l i t y i s  o f 5 5 % . P h a s e B, i n  an s h a r p upward  stability  e n v e l o p e = 1.4)  trend d i r e c t i o n  (trend  but has even l e s s t r e n d  trend d i r e c t i o n  P h a s e C shows a c l e a r l e v e l i n g  (trend  out of Phase B  questionable. trend  direction  (trend s t a b i l i t y  criterion  w i t h even g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y ,  e n v e l o p e = 1.4) b u t  trend  stability  being  only  54%.  In F i g u r e negligible  -.07, only  shows a s l i g h t stability but  27, G r o u p 2's l e v e l  1% f r o m P h a s e A t o P h a s e C. F i g u r e  down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  criterion  not a c c e p t a b l e ,  trend  stability  A l t h o u g h Phase C c l e a r l y stability  higher  reported confidence,  t h e phase  criterion  being  i tagain  has h i g h  8 observations)  of 88%, p e r h a p s p o i n t i n g t o improvement for  this  trend  of 67%.  direction  e n v e l o p e = 1.3), i n d i c a t i n g  54%. Note however,  (the last  reflects  criterion  trend s t a b i l i t y  shows an u p w a r d  (trend  of  (trend  of 73%. Phase B  (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.3) w i t h an e v e n l e s s  stability  in results  variability,  that the last  has a t r e n d  groups, a minimal l e v e l  stability  over a long  range  29 G r o u p  3, a s w i t h t h e o t h e r  d i f f e r e n c e i s r e v e a l e d . Here  i t is  =.04, w h i c h i s 0%, f r o m P h a s e A t o P h a s e C, i n d i c a t i n g i n the reported  shows a s l i g h t stability only  degree of confidence.  down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  criterion  i n Phase A  Figure  trend direction  no 30  (trend  e n v e l o p e = 1.3) where t r e n d  near t o a c c e p t a b l e  upward  2/3s  group of Ss.  On e x a m i n i n g F i g u r e  decrease  28  e n v e l o p e = 1.2) i n P h a s e A w i t h a n e a r ,  a downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  trend  difference i s a  stability is  a t 7 9 % . P h a s e B shows a d e f i n i t e (trend s t a b i l i t y  criterion  envelope =  GrOlJn 1 W U  H  ^Pnlp  ') O V ^ U I C  R  U  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 g e e of Confidence Experienced i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n D e  r  F i g u r e 25  00  Group 1, Scale 6  T r e n d s on S c a l e 6 - Degree o f C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  F i g u r e 26  o  QZ-S^IZ-N CZ  U r O U D Z , 0CQI6  0  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e b Degree o f C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  CO  F i g u r e 27  o  A B C F i  9 u r e 28 CO  "  Z  O  I  C  L?rOUp vJ, >I)CQle O  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 6 Degree o f C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  CO  F i g u r e 29  '  Group 3, Scale 6  T r e n d s on S c a l e 6 - Degree o f C o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e Shy S i t u a t i o n  F i g u r e 30  CO  1.2) w i t h g r e a t  variability,  trend  stability  being  P h a s e C h a s a c l e a r down t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d criterion trend  e n v e l o p e = 1.2) b u t w i t h  stability  declining  but not a t a s t a b l e  acceptable is  rate.  t o these o v e r a l l  groups completed the study  r e s u l t s , the  reporting feeling  slightly  less  t h a n when t h e y commensed. I n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n  phase Groups indicating  stability  a t 77%, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o n f i d e n c e  Summary - A c c o r d i n g  confident  l e s s than  34%.  1 & 3 show a p p r e c i a b l e  increased  confidence  upward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s  but these l e v e l - o f f  i n t h e p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n . O n l y G r o u p 2, a l t h o u g h  or drop  showing a  downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n i n P h a s e A a n d B, i n d i c a t e s a c l e a r improvement i n t h a t  the stable trend d i r e c t i o n ,  post-  intervention continues  on an o b v i o u s u p w a r d s l o p e .  in  to thirty,  figures twenty-five  following  are presented  Graphs,  on t h e  pages.  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 6:  Will  Ss r e p o r t a d e c r e a s e i n  anxiety  s e v e r i t y i n t h e i r shy/  target situations after receiving Morita  counseling  as t h e i n t e r -  vention?  E x a m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s on t h e 13 p o i n t c o n t i n u u m on Scale  4, "How  intense  a r e your average a n x i e t y  reactions i n  the  shy/target  s i t u a t i o n s ? " , where a l o w e r s c o r e  improvement, r e v e a l s again definite  positive  w h i l e Group 3 l a g s behind w i t h  seen i n F i g u r e  reflects  31,  the  greatest  less  G r o u p 1's  stability  32,  criterion  d i r e c t i o n and  a  level  19%  very  the  envelope =  s t a b l e at  1.7)  100%.  i s a trend  At  stability  1.6),  perceptable  and  trend  Phase B  envelope =  stable at  92%  In F i g u r e the This  1.47)  i s seen  i s only  67%.  barely  stability i s quite  stability.  33,  G r o u p 2 shows a s i m i l a r c h a n g e t o G r o u p 1  P h a s e C-A reflects  l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e i s 2.22, the  second g r e a t e s t  a l l s c a l e s . Examining Figure  direction  (trend s t a b i l i t y  criterion  which  almost acceptable  trend  stability  of  34,  the  envelope =  82%.  trend d i r e c t i o n (trend s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.1)  but  at a l e v e l  2 points  is  17%  improvement f o r a l l trend 1.4)  P h a s e A shows a s h a r p d o w n s l o p e t r e n d d i r e c t i o n w i t h  this  -  this  A  i n Phase C but  g r o u p s on  with  up  criterion  downslope t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d  criterion  result  Phase A t r e n d d i r e c t i o n  envelope =  lower.  reported  decrease. This  (trend s t a b i l i t y  that  anxiety  difference  t r e n d d i r e c t i o n l e v e l s out  in  less  i m p r o v e m e n t f o r a l l g r o u p s on a l l  s c a l e s . Looking at F i g u r e  slope  present  change.  c o m p a r i n g P h a s e C t o A i s 2.49,  (trend  1 & 2  p o s i t i v e change, i . e . , they r e p o r t  intensity,  As  t h a t Groups  indicates  Phase B  in an  continues  criterion  lower than Phase  A.  Here t h e r e  i s 83% t r e n d  continuation criterion  however, t r e n d  stability  an e x t e n s i o n  definite  stability  stability  a t 77%. A g a i n , a l m o s t t h e l a s t  has a t r e n d  could  P h a s e C shows a  of downslope d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d  e n v e l o p e = 1.1)  acceptable  given  stability.  i s below  h a l f of t h i s  o f 100%, p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t p e r h a p s , i f  of time,  t h i s group's trend d i r e c t i o n  stablize.  Figure  35 shows G r o u p 3 r e p o r t i n g b e i n g  l e s s b o t h e r e d by t h e a n x i e t y  only  slightly  problem with a l e v e l  difference  o f P h a s e C f r o m A o f .53, w h i c h i s 4% l o w e r . I n F i g u r e the  Phase A t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y  e n v e l o p e = 1.4) 79%, w h i l e 1.2)  slopes  downward a n d h a s a t r e n d  Phase B ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y  stability  criterion  a t 6 7 % . P h a s e C, h o w e v e r ,  = 1.3)  i n d i c a t i n g that anxiety  Variability  intensity  i s not a t the a c c e p t a b l e  stability  of  envelope = w i t h a low  shows a  downward t r e n d d i r e c t i o n ( t r e n d s t a b i l i t y  36,  criterion  r e v e r t s t o an u p w a r d t r e n d d i r e c t i o n a g a i n  trend  it  phase  definite  c r i t e r i o n envelope i s diminishing.  level  b u t comes n e a r t o  a t 77%. I t would appear t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t  l a g g e d somewhat a n d showed  itself  and/or p r a c t i c e of the M o r i t a  Summary - Improvement according  with  further assimilation  learning.  i s i n d i c a t e d f o r a l l groups  to these r e s u l t s i n that  the a n x i e t y  severity  c a u s e d by t h e s h y n e s s p r o b l e m i s d e c r e a s e d . The  greatest  improvement  differences  i s shown by G r o u p s  1 & 2 when l e v e l  G r O U D 1 S c n l P A\->  ,  »^vuio  *-t  L  e  D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 I n t e n s i t y of A n x i e t y Reactions v  e  l  F i g u r e 31  CO  -a  Group 1, Scale 4  Trends on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y o f A n x i e t y Reactions  F i g u r e 32  CO CO  Group 2, Scale 4  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 I n t e n s i t y of Anxiety Reactions  F i g u r e 33  co  Group 2, Scale 4  T r e n d s on S c a l e 4 - I n t e n s i t y o f A n x i e t y Reactions  F i g u r e 34  Group 3, Scale 4  L e v e l D i f f e r e n c e s on S c a l e 4 I n t e n s i t y of Anxiety Reactions  F i g u r e 35  F i g u r e 36  are  o b s e r v e d . As t o t r e n d d i r e c t i o n s , G r o u p s  greater either  improvement  i n that anxiety  i n the p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n  reverted  t o a downward t r e n d  showed  an  increase  or i n t e r v e n t i o n phase but  d i r e c t i o n i n the  i n t e r v e n t i o n phase e s p e c i a l l y f o r Group figures thirty-one to t h i r t y - s i x , following  1 & 3 show  post-  3. G r a p h s , i n  a r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e  pages.  Considering  scores  from a l l t h r e e  groups, the f o l l o w i n g  T a b l e 3 i s a summary o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c h a n g e occurred,  i . e . , improvement  reported  that  by Ss o v e r t h e 7-  r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s when e x a m i n i n g l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s . Due the  small  n, no d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t c a n be made a s t o w h e t h e r  changes are s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  II  of Repeated Measures  Statistical  Analysis  In a d d i t i o n t o i t e m - a n a l y s i s reported  and  internal consistencies  u n d e r MEASURES i n C h a p t e r 3, t h e  7-Repeated  M e a s u r e s were e x a m i n e d f o r Mean d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g Baseline  to  and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n  p h a s e s . T a b l e 4 on t h e  f o l l o w i n g page  lists  these  use of T - t e s t s  could  r e s u l t i n the f i n d i n g s not  generalizable  the  findings. It i s possible  due t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of s e r i a l  that  the  being dependency.  TABLE 3 PERCENTAGES o f IMPROVEMENT on t h e 7-REPEATED MEASURES  Scale  f o r a l l GROUPS ( N o t e 1)  Group 1 (n = 4)  Group 2 (n = 4)  Anxiety Severity Scale  19%  17%  4%  Degree of Di f f i c u l t y Scale  1 6%  1 4%  1%  Coping Ef f e c t i v ness Scale  1 4%  1 5?  Anxiety Acceptance Scale  1 1%  1 4%  Overall Bothersomeness Scale  1 1%  1 1  1 0!  5%  1%  0%  L e v e l of Conf i d e n c e Scale  Note  Group 3 (n = 4)  1: T a k e n by g r o u p , Mean s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n P r e - a n d P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s c a l e and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p e r c e n t a g e .  TABLE 4  S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS o f 7-REPEATED MEASURES a COMPARISON BETWEEN BASELINE a n d POST-INTERVENTION  BASELINE  POSTINTERVENTION  Scale  Mean  (S.D.)  Mean  (S.D.)  Coping effectiveness  28.70  (8.05)  34.73  (7.32)  1 1  Intensity of a n x i e t y  9.05  (2.06)  7.30  (1.59)  1 1  3.99**  Difficulty experienced  8.54  (2.31)  7.17  (1.94)  1 1  3.31*  L e v e l of con f i d e n c e  7.71  (2.03)  7.54  (1.67)  1 1  0.39ns  Overall bothersome  8.45  (2.50)  7.01  (2.01 )  1 1  2.82*  Anxiety acceptance  36.93  (6.90)  44.23  (8.06)  1 1  -2.79*  df  t (2-tailed)  n=1 2 * p<  .02  ** p<  .01  ns = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  -3.00*  T-tests are normally  a p p l i e d i n c o m p a r i n g random  data  samples. With the e x c e p t i o n the  shy/target  situation",  change w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e  III  Shyness Screening  An  of S c a l e  6,  T-tests  value  i n Table  from the  two  remaining  s i g n i f i c e n t . The  study  attempting  was  not  h e l p them a c c e p t  r e p o r t on  characteristic.  be  their and  values level  £ <  reader  not  i s reminded t h a t shy  productive  nature  but  i n s p i t e of  of  .05.  o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s were  t o c h a n g e Ss  i t and  score  Post-Intervention  w i t h a Mean d i f f e r e n c e o r t = 2.27  statistically  to  Post-Intervention  2.  i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n Ss  Values  positive  Scale  T h i s c o m p a r i s o n o f P r e - and  shyness,  show d e f i n i t e  in  <.05  a n a l y s i s of t h e P r e - and  r e s u l t s are presented  "Degree of c o n f i d e n c e  the  rather that  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the change r e f e r r e d t o  a b o v e r e s u l t e d f r o m Ss b e c o m i n g more a c c e p t i n g o f t h e i r  shy  nature. In  a d d i t i o n t o i t s use  Shyness S c a l e  i n s c r e e n i n g , t h e Cheek a n d  (Appendix 2 ) , which i s not  s e r i e s m e a s u r e s , was  u s e d a s an a n c i l l a r y  P o s t - T r e a t m e n t phase p o i n t s as w e l l as  p a r t of the  time-  s c a l e at Pre-  i n the  Buss  follow-up  and  TABLE 2  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of t h e P r e - and P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n D i f f e r e n c e on S c o r e s on t h e Cheek a n d B u s s S h y n e s s S c a l e (1981)  n  Pre-Intervention Mean (S.D.)  11  *  p<  Post-Intervention Mean (S.D.)  31.27  29.00  (4.50)  (4.27)  .05  (2-tailed)  df  10  2.27*  phase t o gather behavioral  IV  changes.  Behavioral  The day,  f u r t h e r documentation of c o g n i t i v e and  Reports  Ss were r e q u e s t e d  over a 5 c o n s e c u t i v e  Morita counseling  day p e r i o d b e f o r e  their  shy/target  a c t i o n . T h e s e r e p o r t s were i n t e n d e d  shyness a c t i v i t y . would  Specifically,  they had  s i t u a t i o n s and take  as a b e h a v i o r a l c o m p a r i s o n o f p o s t -  phase they  and a f t e r t h e  i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e number o f t i m e s  attempted t o enter appropriate  t o document a t t h e e n d o f e a c h  t o be u s e d  to pre-intervention  i n the Post-Intervention  i n d i c a t e the extent  o f a p p l i c a t i o n t h e Ss  were m a k i n g o f t h e i r M o r i t a l e a r n i n g .  A.  I n t h e B e h a v i o r a l C o u n t s g r a p h b e l o w o f a l l Ss  where s c o r e increase phase This  represents  t h e number o f a t t e m p t s made, a c l e a r  i n c o u n t s has taken  place  with the P r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n  M = 2.5 a n d t h e P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e latter  intervention  score  a significantly dealing directly counseling.  i s c l o s e t o a 100% i n c r e a s e  total  counts i n d i c a t i n g  greater  M = 4.6. from t h e P r e -  that, overall,  Ss  made  number o f a t t e m p t s t o p r a c t i c e  with their  shyness problem a f t e r  The ^ B e h a v i o r a l C o u n t s ' g r a p h ,  seven, i s presented  together  on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .  the Morita  in figure  thirty-  BEHAVIOURAL COUNTS -  N=10  INTERVENTION Post-Intervention  Pre-Intervent ion  M = 2.5 *  *  time  3  H  M = 4.6 S  t  (days)  2  time  Figure 37  3  H  (days)  5  B.  Statistical  presented here comparison  a n a l y s i s of B e h a v i o r a l Counts a r e a l s o  ( T a b l e 5 on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s ) where a  o f Mean d i f f e r e n c e s  According  to these r e s u l t s  p o s i t i v e change has o c c u r e d increased  initiating  ( t = 2.02),  definite  f o r t h e Ss i n t o t a l  of a c t i o n  taking  i n terms of  i n the shy/target  T a b l e 6 p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d  situation.  V  i s included.  analysis.  Summary  On e x a m i n i n g that p o s i t i v e reflected  t h e above r e s u l t s ,  change o c c u r e d  by t h e i r  i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d  f o r a l l t h r e e groups as  s c o r e s on f i v e o u t o f t h e s i x s c a l e s  a d m i n i s t e r e d . The e x c e p t i o n i s S c a l e 6, "Degree o f Confidence  i n the Shy/Target  revealed a s l i g h t l y  i s of i n t e r e s t  where two g r o u p s  l e s s degree of f e e l i n g  G r o u p 2 showed i m p r o v e m e n t It  Situation",  c o n f i d e n t . Only  i n the p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  phase.  t o n o t e h o w e v e r , t h a t on S c a l e 5, " D e g r e e  of E x p e r i e n c e d D i f f i c u l t y  i n Action Taking  i n t h e Shy  S i t u a t i o n " , a l l s u b j e c t s began by s h o w i n g i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n phase. T h i s p o s i t i v e though,  i n the post-intervention  reflecting  change  accentuated  f o r G r o u p s 2 a n d 3,  even l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y  f o r these  s u b j e c t s a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . To a l e s s e r this  same o c c u r a n c e  c a n be o b s e r v e d  f o r these  degree,  same g r o u p s on  TABLE 5  S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S o f DIFFERENCE i n BEHAVIORAL COUNT SCORES ( N o t e 1) PRE- a n d POST-INTERVENTION PHASES  n  Pre-intervention Mean (S.D.)  10  * p< .05 Note  Post-Intervention Mean (S.D.)  2.50  4.60  (3.41)  (3.89)  df  9  -2.02*  (1-tailed)  1: T h e s e v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t t h e a g g r e g a t e number o f attempts at entering t h e i r shy/target s i t u a t i o n s of a l l s u b j e c t s as r e p o r t e d d a i l y . C o u n t s were r e c o r d e d o v e r two 5-day p e r i o d s , one i n t h e P r e and t h e o t h e r i n t h e P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e .  TABLE 6  S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S o f BEHAVIORAL COUNTS a COMPARISON BETWEEN B A S E L I N E a n d POST-INTERVENTION  GROUPS  BASELINE Mean  (S.D.)  POST-INTERVENTION Mean  (S.D.)  Group 1 (n = 3)  1.0  (1.42)  3.0  (2.94)  Group 2 (n = 4)  3.5  (3.84)  6.5  (4.43)  Group 3 (n = 3)  2.7  (3.09)  3.7  (2.36)  Scale  7,  " O v e r a l l D i s t u r b a n c e C a u s e d by  P r o b l e m " . Improvement i n t h e again a clear accentuation i n t e r v e n t i o n and results,  on for  the  components of  level The  of  reveal  the  e f f e c t e d an the  the  a clear  p h a s e s . B a s e d on  intervention,  in  but the  these  Morita  improvement f o r a l l groups  shyness e x p e r i e n c e measured  Counts recorded  subjects'  f o r the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  improvement o v e r a l l  post-intervention  except  of concepts  for a l l subjects.  almost doubled that  phase.  purpose  the M o r i t a  a v e r a g e number of a t t e m p t s a t c o n s t r u c t i v e  intervention  i s present  confidence.  Behavioral  monitoring  pre-intervention  post-intervention  sessions,  Shyness  of p o s i t i v e change f o l l o w s  i t i s apparent that  counseling  the  action  i n the  pre-  The  taking  CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS and CONCLUSIONS  I  D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s  The focus  d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s of t h i s  on t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n ,  conducted  "IsMorita  i n t h e form of 4 b r i e f  s m a l l groups of a d o l e s c e n t  research  will  counseling,  counseling  females,  study  sessions  effective  with  in bringing  a b o u t p o s i t i v e c o g n i t i v e a n d b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e ? " . The sequential not  research questions  be r e p e a t e d .  only t o those interesting,  from t h e p r e v i o u s  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s w i l l  findings that this important  Some a s p e c t s  researcher  chapter  will  be c o n f i n e d  considers  most  and s i g n i f i c a n t .  of t h e study,  however, r e q u i r e  special  note as i n the f o l l o w i n g : a)  Baselines - Ideally  where h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y  baselines should occurs.  In t h i s  commitment a l r e a d y p l a c e d a g r e a t resources probably attrition given on and  and so e x t e n d i n g  be e x t e n d e d study,  the circumstances,  the time  demand on t h e s t u d e n t s  t h i s commitment w o u l d most  have r e s u l t e d i n l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f S s . To t h i s  researcher  and i n  i t seemed  unrealistic,  to bring greater pressure  t h e S s , and t o encompass f u r t h e r p e r i o d s o f h o l i d a y s , i n order  i n cases  t o extend  the study  t o bear  examinations  b e y o n d t h e 14  week p e r i o d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , seen  i n the  resulted of  initial  from,  b) u n c l e a r  l a c k of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e  comprehension  in reporting.  i n t e r v e n t i o n brought  fluctuation  due  assimilation  learning within a relatively  o f new  p e r i o d of time and  to the  final  of  short  at  i n t h i s phase i s  i s suspicion that  academic grade l e v e l s  lends  Interviews - Half-hour  the  perplexity  by  another  student,  f o r the a u d i o t a p i n g of t h e s e  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by observed.  graduate  follow-up interviews 3 weeks  o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t f o r G r o u p 3. M o s t Ss  permission  The  t h e r e f o r e , no  s u b j e c t s , no  m e e t i n g was  w i t h the  the  was  treatment  study's  researcher  results.  the was and  necessary.  follow-up interviews a  h e l d f o r a l l Ss where t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n on  gave  s e s s i o n s . From  f u r t h e r follow-up treatment to the  after  s i g n of d i s t u r b a n c e  Ss a p p e a r e d s a t i s f i e d  Feedback - Pursuant  feedback  there  in  results.  were c o n d u c t e d  d)  high v a r i a b i l i t y  In a d d i t i o n ,  of d i f f e r e n t  c) F o l l o w - u p  the  i n the process  each w i t h v a r y i n g attempts  Therefore,  understandable.  t o Ss b e i n g  i s observed  t h i s phase p r o b a b l y  mixture  i t is  change.  I n t e r v e n t i o n Phase - Frequent  application.  the  t o show i m p r o v e m e n t so  t o s t a t e t o what d e g r e e t h e  is  have  f o r e x a m p l e i n G r o u p 2,  already, s t a r t i n g  about p o s i t i v e b)  or c)  i s a l s o observed  b a s e l i n e was difficult  p a r t of t h i s phase. T h i s c o u l d  a) a n o v e l t y e f f e c t ,  instruction,  Limitation  f o r most S s , h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y  final  provided  H a l f of the  Ss  attended  and t h e o t h e r s  provided  in appreciation for their  The  reader  significance, The  were r e a c h e d by t e l e p h o n e .  t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y  in a total  f i v e adolescent developmental  sessions  o f 45 m i n u t e s  brief. each  o f 3 h o u r s , over a d u r a t i o n o f 4 weeks,  w i t h i n a 14 week r e s e a r c h  A.  involvement.  i s r e m i n d e d , when e x a m i n i n g r e s u l t s f o r  four Morita counseling  resulted  L u n c h was  years  study  p e r i o d . A l s o Ss a g e s  spanned  encompassing a wide range of  fluctuation.  A c c e p t a n c e and P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e Towards Shy/Anxious  At  the c o n c l u s i o n of the study,  t h e p o s i t i v e change i n  t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a n x i e t y was s i g n i f i c a n t gained  Nature  suggesting  t h a t Ss  an i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e a n d more p o s i t i v e v i e w o f t h e  shy/anxious p a r t of t h e i r  nature.  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y  true  f o r G r o u p 2 a n d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , G r o u p 1. P r e s u m a b l y , one could extend t h i s  t o s t a t e t h a t Ss l e a r n e d  dimension of s e l f  n e e d n o t be v i e w e d a s an a d v e r s a r y  r a t h e r a s a n a t u r a l p a r t o f human n a t u r e . the  greatest  considering trend  line  that  this but  Group 2 r e f l e c t e d  improvement w i t h Group 3 showing t h e l e a s t before  and a f t e r  intervention levels.  i n the P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n  near a c c e p t a b l e  stability  improvement f o r these  clearly  The u p w a r d  f o r Group 2 w i t h  indicates  when  i t s 83%  continued  S s . H o w e v e r , t h e B a s e l i n e a l s o shows a  similar line  improvement c o n s i d e r i n g  i t ssimilar  upward  trend  a n d t h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t Ss w o u l d h a v e  continued  t o improve simply  Hawthorne e f f e c t  by b e i n g  (Roethlisberger & Dickson,  & 3, on t h e c o n t r a r y , show a d e c i d e d direction  change  1947). Groups 1 i n trend  f r o m downward i n B a s e l i n e t o a d i s t i n c t  Intervention having  measured as i n t h e  reflecting  upward i n  that the Morita counseling  a positive effect.  Both groups then l e v e l  was  off with a  s t a b l e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i m p r o v e m e n t . I n summary, G r o u p s 3's t r e n d l i n e s p e r h a p s l e a n more t o i n d i c a t i n g due t o M o r i t a  B.  1 &  improvement  counseling.  Coping E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n s  Overall, reported Groups  Ss i n d i c a t e d i m p r o v e m e n t  coping  with anxiety  1 & 2 fell  improvement  G r o u p 3's  coping  situations.  ( a r r i v e d a t by p h a s e  i n c r e a s e s o f 14% a n d  i m p r o v e m e n t was  B a s e l i n e , Groups  target  w i t h i n t h e t o p 50% o f o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e  i n the study,  comparisons) with  in their  i n t h e ways t h e y  level  15% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  relatively  l e s s a t 3%. I n t h e  1 & 3's t r e n d l i n e s  show a d e c r e a s e i n  e f f e c t i v e n e s s p e r h a p s due t o i n c r e a s e d  consciousness  of t h e p r o b l e m ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1979). However, b o t h g r o u p s reflect continue  an u p w a r d this  swing during  trend  the counseling  in a stable post-sessions  sessions period,  and  indicating  some p e r m a n e n c e  shows a c l e a r Baseline,  extension  n o t s t a b l e and so c a n n o t  T h e s e a r e Ss who  final  be  c o u l d h a v e b e n e f i t e d f r o m an  T h i s a p p l i e s t o Group  e x t e n t . The  line  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the  of t h i s phase i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s  permitted.  clearly  increase i n coping  b u t t h i s p h a s e was  considered.  a lesser  o f e f f e c t . G r o u p 2's t r e n d  could  have  1 as w e l l and t o Group 3 t o  p h a s e f o r G r o u p 2, i n a n y  case,  shows an i m p r o v e m e n t o c c u r i n g on an u p w a r d s t a b l e  t r e n d . M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g , which promotes a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n taking  in shy/target  i m p a c t on t h e s e Behavior  s i t u a t i o n s a p p e a r s t o h a v e made an  adolescents.  counts,  w h i c h a r e most c l o s e l y  c o n s t r u c t , produced r e s u l t s al  similar  & Mascitelli  (1982) c o n c l u d e  c o n t r i b u t e more t o b e h a v i o r  C.  Degree of Being  It client  that  assignments other  approaches.  Problem  i s n o t one o f t h e a i m s o f M o r i t a T h e r a p y t o r i d t h e o f s h y n e s s b u t r a t h e r t o h a v e t h i s p r o b l e m be in their  m e n t i o n one a s p e c t .  study,  Groups  et  interaction.  by t h e S h y / A n x i e t y  t r o u b l e s o m e and i n t e r f e r i n g  clear  social  change than  Bothered  to this  t o t h a t of C h r i s t o f f  ( 1 9 8 5 ) i n e f f e c t i n g more p o s i t i v e  Kazdin  related  In t h i s  improvement o c c u r e d 1, 2, & 3 r e p o r t e d ,  productive  life  less to  i t c a n be s t a t e d t h a t  f o r a l l g r o u p s on t h i s  measure.  r e s p e c t i v e l y , 11%, 1 1 % , & 10%  reduction  i n d e g r e e of t r o u b l e s o m e n e s s f r o m t h e  Individually,  Ss  t h i s component  2,  4,  5,  significant the  positive On stable, the  t = 2.82  d i f f e r e n c e . Taking  there  i s an  trends,  although  improvement  a  briefness  of  significant  continue.  s t a b l e making  On  in t h i s aspect  100%  the  line  i t questionable  i n G r o u p s 1 and stability  and  p o i n t s are  last  2 the  be  to observe  2.  h a l f of  the  first  phase  eleven  out  stability  show c o n t i n u e d  the  extension  of  positive  I t might prove u s e f u l to  possibility.  be  lower than  a r g u e d t h a t an  t h i s component p e r i o d i c a l l y for this  would  i t can  c l o s e to acceptable  envelope. I t could  c h a n g e f o r G r o u p s 1 and  this  less,  t o be  3's  are  improvement  i n Group 3 the  t h i s phase would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y  m e a s u r e s on  from  last  2 points continuing  trends  phase w i t h Group  e n t i r e t y , none  whether t h i s apparent  13 o b s e r v a t i o n 82%,  in their  not  throughout  d e f i n i t e downward  c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n , none t h e  observed that e n j o y s an  b a s e l i n e s are  Post-Intervention  s t a b l e . Considered  assessment p o i n t  trend  w i t h p = 0.017, r e v e a l s  i s a d e f i n i t e and  e x a m i n a t i o n of  acceptably  with  Graphs).  i n t o account the  I n t e r v e n t i o n phase. There are  being  on  change.  f o r a l l groups i n the  of  C,  intervention, this  problem.  & 10 show d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n  ( s e e A p p e n d i x - I n d i v i d u a l Ss  C o m p a r i n g P h a s e s A and  shy  over the  take  coming  year  110  D.  Degree of D i f f i c u l t y  in I n i t i a t i n g Desirable  in  the  Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n  T w o - t h i r d s of  the  Ss  c h a n g e , an level  a v e r a g e of a  reported  15%  a significant positive  improvement, i n t h i s area  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n P h a s e s A and  c o m p a r i s o n of  t h e s e two  lines  clear,  Post-  half  of  i t i s 100%  stability  clearly  significantly their  E.  a u n i t G r o u p 1's s t a b l e but  almost the  s t a b l e . Group 2 & 3 enjoy a s h o w i n g t h a t t h e s e Ss  less d i f f i c u l t y  A  significant  t = 3.055 w i t h p = 0.007. A l l P h a s e C t r e n d  I n t e r v e n t i o n phase i s not  when  C are considered.  phases r e v e a l a  p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . As  Action  report  in i n i t i a t i n g  reflect  entire  last  solid experiencing  action taking  in  shy/target s i t u a t i o n s .  Level  of C o n f i d e n c e  in Entering  the  Shy/Target Situations  Overall,  t h i s component y i e l d e d p o o r r e s u l t s .  appears t h a t a l l Ss, showed l i t t l e  e x c e p t t h o s e i n G r o u p 2,  p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . So  to report  i m p r o v e m e n t on  report  n o t i c e a b l e g a i n . One  no  that confidence  i s gained  a l l the  although other  It  uniformly  most seemed  able  components, here  of M o r i t a ' s  through repeated  tenets  states  p r a c t i c e of  they  appropriate limitation had  was  a factor in that  insufficient  reach that possible  point  that  t o f o c u s on attending the  the  carry-over  may  be  no  increased  that  that  while  confidence  Also,  feeling,  Ss  were  gaining  the  other  confidence  i n d i c a t i n g that  coping  be  confidence  with,  problem. This confidence  and  still  constructive action probability  t o be  that adolescent  a sense of  intregal part. e x p e c t any  hand, one  pointed  If this  significant  self  negative  f e e l i n g that  intervention. Although  were a b l e the  with  h a v e t o be  in that adolescents  developing  reported  to  anxiety  the  taken.  are  their  the  there  for is a  f i r m l y i n the  then  i t may  fair  i s confounding process  of w h i c h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  i s so,  shyness  p r i n c i p l e that  in order  Further,  development  may  i n t e n s i t y , the  Morita  achieved  it  a l l Ss,  improve  o v e r a l l bothersomeness with  is consistent  does not  Ss  r e a d e r must remember t h a t  effectiveness, lessen  difficulty  results  these four  a f t e r the  appear a drawback the low  to  i n a d d i t i o n to Groups 2 & 3 showing  much l e s s c o n f i d e n t  despite  and  i s not  p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , G r o u p 1 a c t u a l l y showed a 5%  result  as  not  taking  respond to r e a d i l y . I t should  however, t h a t  i t is  attempt at a c t i o n t a k i n g  d e v e l o p e d . On  t h i s a s p e c t of  to  i n s u c h a way  gained post-action  sufficiently  measured,  t o e n a b l e them  m e a s u r e i s s e t up taking  time  being  confidence.  e f f e c t f r o m one  that adolescents out,  of  pre-action  not  Ss,  practice opportunities  because the  t o the  a n o t h e r was it  action taking. It is possible  be  is  these of an  unrealistic  p o s i t i v e change i n t h i s  area.  to  112  F.  Anxiety  S e v e r i t y i n the Shy/Target S i t u a t i o n  T h i s component improvement  for two-thirds  p o s i t i v e change showed  revealed  of t h e S s . Group  a 17% i m p r o v e m e n t when l e v e l  significant  t = 3.99  and p = 0.002.  a significant  in their  teaching  proposes that the experienced  target situations.  a s one p e r s e v e r e s  that  of M o r i t a  a c t i o n t a k i n g as  symptoms o f t h e opportunities for  Ss a p p e a r e d t o make a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e  headway i n r e d u c i n g three  their  situational  anxiety  g r o u p s f o l l o w c l e a r downward t r e n d s ,  severity. A l l  e s p e c i a l l y Groups  2 & 3, i n t h e P o s t - I n t e r v e n t i o n p h a s e i n d i c a t i n g change d i r e c t i o n .  These phases a r e not a c c e p t a b l y  t h o u g h a s w h o l e u n i t s b u t G r o u p s 2 & 3's l a s t  a positive stable  halves,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e 100% a n d 88% s t a b l e w h i c h means t h a t p o s s i b l y complete s t a b i l i t y extension  in a  s e v e r i t y of a n x i e t y  r e a c t i o n . With the l i m i t e d  these  19%  drop i n anxiety  An a s p e c t  in appropriate  o p p o s e d t o f o c u s i n g on t h e e m o t i o n a l  practice,  a  phases r e s u l t s  I t seems c l e a r  severity  shy/anxiety  1 showed  differences are  comparing these  Ss r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c i n g  diminishes  p e r c e n t a g e of  from Phase A t o C and l i k e w i s e Group 2  compared. S t a t i s t i c a l l y  these  the highest  of t h i s  phase.  i s emerging with a f u r t h e r  quite  II  A.  L i m i t a t i o n s and  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e  Research  Limitations  The  most o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n  for this  study  i s , of  c o u r s e , t h e m e a s u r e m e n t i n s t r u m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . They h a v e been d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s a d u l t s a n d  a c c o r d i n g l y , use  terminology. This terminology required modification periodic  clarification  adult with  a s Ss a c a d e m i c c o m p r e h e n s i o n  ranged  f r o m G r a d e s 8 t o 11. The  measures, a s i d e from the B e h a v i o r a l  Counts,  i n n a t u r e and  were s e l f - r e p o r t  questionable predictive extent  results  validity  f r o m them r e f l e c t  as  c o n s e q u e n t l y , have  i t i s unknown t o what  cognitive process  and  behavior. Because the study spanned a p e r i o d of f o u r t e e n weeks, this period  i n c l u d e d e x a m i n a t i o n t i m e s as w e l l as  p e r i o d s . Hersen  & Barlow  (1976) a d v i s e  time-frame  flexibility  i n conducting s i n g l e - c a s e type design  experiments  particularly  i n terms  of s u f f i c i e n t  establish a stable baseline. This l a t t e r accommodate. These above e x t e r n a l threat  to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y  (Cook & C a m p b e l l ,  1979;  holiday  was  time  to  difficult  e v e n t s posed  s u c h as h i s t o r y and  a  to  certain attrition  K a z d i n , 1981). However, the t i m e - l a g  for  treatment addressed  t h e s e a n d t h e r e was no l o s s o f Ss  due t o a t t r i t i o n . There effects  i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as w e l l , about  i s o l a t i n g the  of t h e M o t i t a - b a s e d t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s , i . e . ,  positive  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l  anxiety techniques,  (Ishiyama,  1984b) f r o m o t h e r t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s  attention,  empathy, c a t h a r s i s and t r e a t m e n t e x p e c t a n c y .  attempts at e s t a b l i s h i n g  such as  a s t a b l e b a s e l i n e (Hersen  1976) a n d t i m e - l a g g e d i n t e r v e n t i o n p o i n t s (Cook & 1979),are  d i r e c t e d at t h i s confound,  e x a m i n a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c  The  & Barlow, Campbell,  a l l o w i n g the  e f f e c t s of the M o r i t a c o u n s e l i n g  intervention. In  terms  enable broad Kitsilano average.  o f s a m p l i n g , one l o c a t i o n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s even though  Secondary  the c o n s t r i c t e d  sessions allowed f o r only minimal  o n l y be made o v e r In  these  socio-economic t o the  time f o r group  study,  generalization  subjects.  r e f e r e n c e t o G r o u p 3's r e s u l t s a n d t h e s u s p e c t e d  extraneous  v a r i a b l e s mentioned  provision,  d u r i n g the screening process, to enable the  researcher  to distinguish  (i.e.  to  location,  time a l l o t e d  d i s c u s s i o n . Due t o t h e s m a l l n i n t h i s can  that  School, represented the  In a d d i t i o n ,  couseling  is insufficient  s t a b l e over time)  depression.  state  (insert  earlier,  t h e r e was  no  ( i . e . c o n t e x t u a l ) from  trait  r e f e r e n c e ) a n x i e t y or  I f i t were known t h a t Ss were e x p e r i e n c i n g o n l y  s t a t e a n x i e t y o r d e p r e s s i o n t h e n , by d e f i n i t i o n ,  these  would  f l u x u a t e . H o w e v e r , a s i s s u s p e c t e d w i t h Ss i n G r o u p 3, i f  s t a t e a n x i e t y or d e p r e s s i o n fluctuation researcher present  c o u l d be had  not  B.  expected  i n the  become a w a r e o f  i n G r o u p 3,  b e e n more f u l l y  were p r e s e n t  the  results  The  process  results.  the  other  of a s i m i l a r  research  i f the  approximately  some o f  the  time pressure  have  the  treatment  sessions  were e x t e n d e d  experienced  by  time  also  by  for  remove  Ss w h i c h  was  distraction.  anxiety/depression  can  process  w h e r e b y s t a t e and  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . P e r h a p s  b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on  extending  the  g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n and  2. A more t h o r o u g h s c r e e n i n g  3. G a t h e r i n g  clarify  a h a l f hour. T h i s would a l l o w  e x c h a n g e and  conselors  variables  study:  counseling  greater  further  this  Research  i m p a c t c o u l d be made by  intervention  cause f o r  If  from t h i s group c o u l d  f o l l o w i n g i d e a s w o u l d e n h a n c e and  1. A g r e a t e r  little  included.  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e  -  then  Ss  from the  trait  seeking  school  w o u l d be u s e f u l .  B e h a v i o r a l Counts over the  f i v e day  longer  periods,  p e r i o d t o t e n d a y s i f Ss  perhaps would  co-operate.  Not  researcher Morita  l e a r n i n g but their  efforts  the  to play  greater  between  Ss  period give were  has  this  as a r e m i n d e r t o  social anxiety  study and  Providing a concrete  deal with  pragmatic aide during  a developmental stage  confusion.  sessions,  could time-wise  be  readily  t h i s developmental stage shy  p a r t of t h e i r  use  this part  study  t h a t they and  of  by  renowned f o r positive  i n the  teach adolescents need not  be  brief  learning secondary early in v i c t i m s to  furthemore, t h a t they  t o r e m i n d t h e m s e l v e s of  of p a r t i c i p a t i n g  mechanism  f o l l o w i n g such  incorporated  nature  a  grooming  i n the area  indicates that t h i s Morita  g u i d a n c e s t u d i e s . To  the  adolescents,  shy/anxious s i t u a t i o n s i s a  Having achieved  r e s u l t s on most m e a s u r e s i n t h e  appear  most u s e f u l  I t s i m p a c t on  w h i c h t o a p p r o a c h and  schools'  i t would  through self-acceptance  is clear.  i n d e c i s i v e n e s s and  Ss  sessions.  a significant  sense of c o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g .  counseling  applying  i n p r o m o t i n g , amongst d e v e l o p i n g  a p o s i t i v e self-image  the  Conclusions  r e s u l t s g e n e r a t e d by  that Morita counseling role  i t a l s o serves  I m p l i c a t i o n s and  Of  longer  a b e t t e r p i c t u r e o f how  to continue  Ill  only would t h i s  i n community l i f e  the  importance to  seems a u s e f u l  can them  beginning  at promoting  self-knowledge.  addresses the  i s s u e of  b e t w e e n e m o t i o n and part  Morita  inner  therapy  s t r u g g l e and  indieisiveness  action taking. Learning  o f a r e g u l a r component o f a l i f e  r e d u c e t h i s common t e n s i o n and  experienced  by  adolescents  and  assist  t h i s approach  skills  conceivably  constructively.  directly  program  as  could  struggle  them i n m o v i n g  forward  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Agnew, N.McK., and P y k e , S.W. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The Jersey: Prentice H a l l .  s c i e n c e game.  New  A l d e n , L., and C a p p e , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . C h a p t e r 25: I n t e r p e r s o n a l P r o c e s s T r a i n i n g f o r Shy C l i e n t s . I n W.H.Jones, J.M.Cheek, and S . R . B r i g g s ( E d s . ) , S h y n e s s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on r e s e a r c h and t r e a t m e n t . New York: Plenum P r e s s . A r k o w i t z , H., H i n t o n , R., P e r l , J . a n d H i m a d i , W. (1978). Treatment s t r a t e g i e s f o r d a t i n g a n x i e t y i n c o l l e g e men b a s e d on r e a l - l i f e p r a c t i c e . C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 7, 4 1 - 4 6 . 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( 1 9 2 8 / 1 9 7 4 ) . S h i n k e i s h i t s u - n o h o n t a i - o y o b i r y o h o [True nature and treatment of n e r v o s i t y ] . C o l l e c t e d Works 2. Tokyo: Hakuyosha. O ' B a n i o n , K., a n d A r k o w i t z , H. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S o c i a l a n x i e t y a n d s e l e c t i v e memory f o r a f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s e l f . S o c i a l B e h a v i o r and P e r s o n a l i t y , 5 ( 2 ) , 321-328. Ogawa, B.K. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . C o u n s e l i n g v i c t i m s o f s e x u a l a s s a u l t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u l l e t i n of M o r i t a Therapy, 1 ( 1 ) , 19-25. O r n s t e i n , R., S o b e l , D. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The h e a l i n g b r a i n . New Y o r k : Simon & S h u s t e r . O s g o o d , C.E., S u c i , G . J . , a n d Tannenbaum, P.H. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The m e a s u r e m e n t o f m e a n i n g . U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s Press. P i a g e t , J . ( 1 9 3 2 ) . The m o r a l j u d g e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books L t d . . P i a g e t , J . ( 1 9 5 2 ) . The o r i g i n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e New Y o r k : W.W.Norton & Co..  in children.  Pilkonis, Pyke,  S.W., R i c k s , F.A., S t e w a r t , J . C . , a n d N e e l y , C.A. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The s e x v a r i a b l e i n C a n a d i a n p s y c h o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s . I n M . W r i g h t ( C h a i r ) , The s t a t u s o f women p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Symposium p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f the O n t a r i o P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Toronto.  R a p o p o r t , J . , E l k i n s , R., L a n g e r , D., S c e e r y , W., Buchsbaum, M., G i l l i a n , J . , M u r p h y , D., Zahn, T., L a k e , R., L u d l o w , G., M e n d e l s o n , W. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C h i l d h o o d o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e d i s o r d e r . American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y , 138, 1545-1554. R e y n o l d s , D.K. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . M o r i t a p s y c h o t h e r a p y . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of H a w a i i .  Berkley:  R e y n o l d s , D.K. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The q u i e t t h e r a p i e s . H o n o l u l u : U n i v e r s i t y Press of Hawaii. R e y n o l d s , D.K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . C o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii P r e s s .  Honolulu:  R e y n o l d s , D.K. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E v e n i n summer t h e i c e d o e s n ' t m e l t . New Y o r k : W i l l i a m M o r r o w & Co. I n c . .  124 R i s l e y , T.R. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . B e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n : An e x p e r i m e n t a l t h e r a p e u t i c endeavor. In L.S.Hamerly, P.O.Davidson, and L . E . A c k e r ( E d s . ) , B e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n and i d e a l mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . C a l g a r y , Canada: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y P r e s s . R o b i n s o n , P.W., and psychology: and Row.  F o s t e r , D.F. (1979). Experimental A s m a l l N approach. New Y o r k : H a r p e r  R o e t h l i s b e r g e r , F . J . , and D i c k s o n , W.J. and t h e w o r k e r . C a m b r i d g e , MA.: Press. Rogers,  ( 1 9 4 8 ) . Management Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  C.R. (1951). C l i e n t - c e n t e r e d therapy. Houghton M i f f l i n .  Boston:  S u z u k i , T., and S u z u k i , R. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C h a p t e r 18: M o r i t a therapy. I n E . D . W i t t k o w e r , and H.Warnes ( E d s . ) , Psychosomatic medicine: I t ' s c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row. S u z u k i , T., K a t a o k a , H. and K a r a s a w a , 0. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . On t h e l o n g -term development of s h i n k e i s h i t s u - n e u r o t i c s t r e a t e d by M o r i t a t h e r a p y - A s t a t i s t i c a l q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . P s y c h i a t r i a c l i n . , 15, 145-152. Tawney, J.W., and G a s t , D.L. (1984). S i n g l e s u b j e c t r e s e a r c h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Pub. T h o r e s e n , C.E., and A n t o n , J . L . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I n t e n s i v e m e n t a l r e s e a r c h i n c o u n s e l l i n g . J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 21, 5 5 3 - 5 5 9 .  experi-  T r y o n , W.W. (1982). A s i m p l i f i e d t i m e - s e r i e s a n a l y s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , 1 5, 4 2 3 - 4 2 9 . W e i n e r , I . B . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C h a p t e r 14. P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n a d o l e s c e n c e . I n A d e l s o n , J . (Ed) Handbook o f a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s . W i l s o n , E. , and B r i g h t , J r . ( 1 9 5 2 ) . An s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : Z i m b a r d o , P.G.  (1977). Shyness.  New  i n t r o d u c t i o n to McGraw-Hill.  York:  Jove  Publications.  Z i m b a r d o , P.G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C h a p t e r 16, T h e r a p i e s f o r p e r s o n a l c h a n g e . I n P s y c h o l o g y and l i f e , 1 2 t h . E d i t i o n . : S c o t t F o r e s m a n & Co..  PART 1  THE 7-ITEM REPEATED MEASURE  Appendix 1  S e l f and A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : p l e a s e p u t an X f o r e a c h a d j e c t i v e p a i r t o b e s t d e s c r i b e how y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u r s e l f . Ex:  " I p r e f e r t o work  .." f a s t alone  : :  :_X: : :  : :  : :  : : slowly :_X: i n g r o u p s  1. How w o u l d y o u e v a l u a t e t h e a n x i o u s o r n e r v o u s p a r t o f y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t seems t o s u r f a c e i n c e r t a i n a n x i e t y arousing s o c i a l situations? "The a n x i o u s  p a r t o f my p e r s o n a l i t y i s ..."  acceptable  :  :  :_  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  unacceptable  useless  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : useful  undesirable  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : desirable  bearable  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : unbearable  2. How w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h e way y o u d e a l w i t h t h e a n x i e t y arousing s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? " I am . . . i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g situations.  social  competent  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : incompetent  impatient  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  : patient  productive  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  unproductive  clear-minded  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  confused  unsuccessful  :  '  :  :  :_:  :  : successful  r e l a x e d : : : : : : : : : : tense 3. How w o u l d y o u f e e l t o w a r d y o u r s e l f when y o u t h i n k o f becoming a n x i o u s i n t h e a n x i e t y - a r o u s i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ? I would f e e l  (toward  myself)."  critical  :  apprec i a t ive  satisfied  :  dissatisf ied  tolerant  :  intolerant  pessimistic  :  opt imi s t i c  Appendix 1 The T a r g e t C o m p l a i n t I n v e n t o r y : p l e a s e p l a c e an X t o b e s t d e s c r i b e your c u r r e n t view i n response t o each of t h e following questions. 1 .How intense are your average anxiety reactions when y o u enter the shy s i t uation .  2.How much di ff i c u l t y do y o u e x p erience i n c a r r y i n g out a desirable action i n the shy situation?  3 .How conf ident do y o u f e e l about enter ing the shy situation and t a k ing a desirable act ion?  4.Overall, how much does t h i s shyness problem ( i . e . , emotional d i s c o m f o r t & behavioral diffi c u l t y ) bother you?  extremely  extremely  extremely  extremely  very  very  very  very  moderately  moderately  moderately  moderately  a  a  a  a  little  not a t a l l  little  not a t a l l  not  little  ata l l  little  not a a l l  Appendix  CHEEK AND BUSS ( 1 9 8 1 ) SHYNESS SCALE  P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u a t t h e present 1. I am s o c i a l l y  somewhat a w k w a r d .  not a t a l l 2.  I don't  find  I feel not  4.  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  i t hard t o t a l k  not a t a l l 3.  at a l l  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  nervous  inhibited  not a t a l l  8.  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  not a t a l l 9.  well.  at  in social  t o someone i n a u t h o r i t y .  parties. e x t r e m e l y so  situations  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  e x t r e m e l y so  someone r i g h t  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  .  i n the eye.  e x t r e m e l y so  I am more s h y w i t h members o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . not a t a l l  dumb.  e x t r e m e l y so  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  I have t r o u b l e l o o k i n g  know  e x t r e m e l y so  when s p e a k i n g  not a t a l l  I don't  about s a y i n g something  6 . I am o f t e n u n c o m f o r t a b l e  I feel  e x t r e m e l y so  e x t r e m e l y so  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  not a t a l l  7.  to strangers.  t e n s e when I'm w i t h p e o p l e  When c o n v e r s i n g I w o r r y  I feel  e x t r e m e l y so  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  not a t a l l 5.  time.  1 - 2 - 3 - 4  e x t r e m e l y so  Appendix  3  Jan./88.  Dear P a r e n t o r G u a r d i a n ,  Your  daughter  expressed  and h a s been a c c e p t e d a s a p a r t i c i p a n t , a social  interest  pending consent, i n  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h s t u d y t o be c o n d u c t e d a t K i t s i l a n o  H i g h S c h o o l , o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l h o u r s . The s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d with helping  shy a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s  type c o u n s e l l i n g approach is  t o examine whether  this their  by u s e o f an  (Morita Counselling).  the participants w i l l  instructiveThe  benefit  t y p e o f s h y n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g a n d show p o s i t i v e social  Efficacy  b e h a v i o u r . The o f f i c i a l  title  Study of B r i e f M o r i t a C o u n s e l l i n g  purpose from change i n  of the study i s : Intervention  with  Shy A d o l e s c e n t s .  In  summary what w i l l  occur i s that  a n x i e t y , u s i n g an 1 1 - i t e m c h e c k l i s t mins.  to complete), w i l l  participant  will  complete  measures of s o c i a l  ( which  be t a k e n a t r e g u l a r this checklist  s e s s i o n s of about  intervals.  4  The  t w i c e p e r week o v e r  an a p p r o x i m a t e s e v e n week p e r i o d . T h e r e w i l l counselling  r e q u i r e s about  be f o u r  group  45 m i n u t e s e a c h c o n d u c t e d i n  Appendix 3 the middle  of t h e s t u d y . These w i l l  room i n t h e s c h o o l . A 1 4 - q u e s t i o n  take place  in a private  Shyness S c a l e w i l l  a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t u d y . The t o t a l commitment f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t w i l l 2/3 h r . p e r week) o v e r  7 weeks.  Jan./88 and end i n approx.  The  study  the whole study supervision Psychology  The s t u d y w i l l  a t U.B.C. a n d I w i l l  including  D e p t . a t U.B.C.. P e r m i s s i o n  Board.  degree i n  be c o n d u c t i n g  of t h e C o u n s e l l i n g  forthis  r e s e a r c h has  of t h e s c h o o l and t h e  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e E t h i c s C o m m i t t e e on R e s e a r c h  a request  f o r approval  a t U.B.C. i s c u r r e n t l y  processed..  I would l i k e anonymity of your identification promptly  t o i n f o r m you t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and daughter  will  will  be c l o s e l y g u a r d e d  be u s e d ) . A l l d a t a c o l l e c t e d  d e s t r o y e d by b u r n i n g , no l a t e r  completion  date  than  o f t h e s t u d y . T h o s e who w i l l  d a t a a r e , my a d v i s o r , D r . I s h i y a m a ,  two t h e s i s  members a t U.B.C. a n d m y s e l f .  The p r i n c i p a l ,  c o u n s e l l o r s of K i t s i l a n o High  School  the  begin i n  t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s under t h e  o f my a d v i s o r , D r . I . I s h i y a m a ,  Vancouver School  being  be 6 h r s . , ( a b o u t  mid-April/88.  been g r a n t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l  by  time  i s my t h e s i s p r o j e c t f o r a M a s t e r ' s  Counselling Psychology  a l s o be  data.  will  (code  will  1 year  be  from t h e  have a c c e s s t o committee t e a c h e r s , and  not have a c c e s s t o  Appendix  CONSENT FORM  Jan.  I c o n s e n t / I do n o t c o n s e n t  (circle  i n the Efficacy  Study of B r i e f  Counselling  I n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h Shy A d o l e s c e n t s t o be  conducted at K i t s i l a n o High School (after Donahue, a C o u n s e l l i n g  beginning I  i n January/88  understand that c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y  will  Morita  s c h o o l h o u r s ) by  Psychology graduate student,  and ending approx.  assured and a l l t h e o r i g i n a l  1988.  one) t o b e i n g a  participant  Patricia  i n mid-Apri1/88.  and anonymity  will  be  d a t a c o n n e c t e d w i t h my name  be d e s t r o y e d one y e a r f r o m t h e c o m p l e t i o n d a t e o f t h i s  project.  I hold  withdraw  from t h e s t u d y a t any time w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g  class  the right  standing at school.  to refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e  I also understand that  study of r e l a t i v e l y  short d u r a t i o n which cannot  desired  r e s u l t s and d i s t i n g u i s h e s  therapeutic  therefore, I  3  from a r e g u l a r c o u n s e l l i n g  have r e c e i v e d a copy  attached  letter  of t h i s consent  or to  this  my  i sa  guarantee itself,  program. form, and i t ' s  of e x p l a n a t i o n , which I s h a l l  k e e p f o r my  records. Student's Signature:  ;  NOTE: P l e a s e s u b m i t t o : M r . B . K i n g h o r n , K i t s i l a n o S e c . S c h o o l *** K e e p t h e a t t a c h e d c o p y o f t h e C o n s e n t Form.  133 Appendix Graphical  Outline  oE R e s e a r c h  Study.  Session  Group_i^  .  J  ©  © c£>  (S)  FoLLOW-up  —  *3  i  I  1  4  <S) © <2) ©  (3)  |© •  <£> ©  ©  ®  1 1  1 1  ©  1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  h  2 .  Gro U D  4.  ® <2>-- • • •  0  1 Gro up 3.  —1 >  CD  © G> <£> i  week 3  i  i i  [  i  i  M  i  l  l  5  >  TIME  Appendix  5  P O S I T I V E RE-INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUE  1. A n x i e t y i s n o t an a b n o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e o r p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n , b u t a common and n o r m a l human r e s p o n s e t o certain social situations. 2. Underneath s o c i a l a n x i e t y , there i s a d e s i r e f o r being s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , e f f e c t i v e , and c o n s t r u c t i v e . A n x i e t y and d e s i r e a r e l i k e two s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n . T h u s , t h e d e n i a l o f s o c i a l a n x i e t y means t h e d e n i a l of y o u r d e s i r e t o live constructively. 3. A n x i e t y c a n be a c c e p t e d as i t i s , and y o u c a n s t i l l make c o n s t r u c t i v e c h o i c e of a c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e p e o p l e and i n e f f e c t i v e p e o p l e i s n o t whether t h e y f e e l a n x i e t y or n o t , but r a t h e r whether t h e y t a k e a c t i o n or not i n s p i t e of a n x i e t y . 4. The more you t r y t o f i g h t o r m a n i p u l a t e t h e symptoms o f a n x i e t y , t h e more s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d you t e n d t o g e t . A l s o , by a s s u m i n g t h a t e v e r y o n e a r o u n d y o u i s a w a r e of y o u r a n x i o u s and n e r v o u s r e a c t i o n s , you become e x t r a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s unnecessarily. This egocentric preoccupation i n t e r f e r e s with y o u r e f f e c t i v e t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n . You end up n e g l e c t i n g what n e e d s t o be done i n t h e g i v e n s o c i a l c o n t e x t . By t r e a t i n g a n x i e t y as y o u r enemy, y o u f e e d a t t e n t i o n and e n e r g y i n t o t h e a n x i e t y symptoms j u s t t o e x a g g e r a t e them. I f you a c c e p t a n x i e t y and see t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of i t , y o u c a n use y o u r a n x i e t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e p u r p o s e s . 5. A n x i e t y d o e s n o t h a v e t o be a p e r s o n a l w e a k n e s s . S o c i a l a n x i e t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n of y o u r s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y . You c a r e a b o u t , and f e e l s e n s i t i v e t o , how o t h e r s m i g h t t h i n k , f e e l , and r e s p o n d t o y o u . As a r e s u l t , y o u may end up f e e l i n g n e r v o u s and a n x i o u s . H o w e v e r , i n s t e a d of g e t t i n g p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a n x i e t y symptoms and a v o i d i n g t h e s i t y a t i o n , what n e e d s t o be done i s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f y o u r s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and r e d i r e c t i t t o what i s h a p p e n i n g , and t o what n e e d s t o be done i n t h e g i v e n s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  Source: Ishiyama, F . I . (1986b). B r i e f M o r i t a therapy f o r s o c i a l a n x i e t y : A s i n g l e - c a s e s t u d y of t h e r a p e u t i c c h a n g e s . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g , 2 0 : ( 1 ) , 58-59.  Appendix POSITIVE/ENCOURAGING MESSAGES and INSTRUCTIONS ( g i v e n t o Ss t o c a r r y w i t h them a s a r e m i n d e r  1. I t i s okay t o f e e l f e e l i n g s or t o c r i t i z e  s h y . T h e r e i s no n e e d shy p e r s o n a l i t y .  5.  ).  to f i g h t  shy  2. S o c i a l a n x i e t y i s a t r a n s i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t may r e a c h a peak but w i l l s u b s i d e e v e n t u a l l y . P e r s e v e r e w i t h o u t t a k i n g f l i g h t f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n . L e t a n x i e t y t a k e i t s own c o u r s e of r i s i n g a n d f a l l i n g w i t h o u t r e s i s t i n g i t . 3. Y o u r s h y n e s s and s o c i a l a n x i e t y r e f l e c t y o u r d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t a n d s o c i a l s u c c e s s . B e c a u s e y o u do n o t want t o f a i l s o c i a l l y , u p s e t o t h e r s , o r be c r i t i c i z e d by o t h e r s , y o u become n e r v o u s a n d a n x i o u s . T h e r e f o r e , a n x i e t y i s a "go" s i g n a l r a t h e r t h a n a " s t o p " s i g n a l i n y o u r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . P r o c e e d w i t h c a u t i o n and n e r v o u s n e s s i n t h e g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i n s t e a d o f r u n n i n g away f r o m i t . 4. You c a n t a k e a c t i o n i n s p i t e o f a n x i e t y and shy f e e l i n g s . You n e e d n o t c o n t r o l y o u r i n c o n v e n i e n t f e e l i n g s take necessary a c t i o n .  to  5. You a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g s p o n t a n e o u s e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . S t o p b l a m i n g y o u r s e l f f o r the l a c k of a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l s h y n e s s o r t o c h a n g e y o u r shy p e r s o n a l i t y . What c o u n t s i s y o u r c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n . An e f f e c t i v e a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n d o e s n o t h a v e t o be a fearless person. 6. You a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r y o u r c h o i c e o f a c t i o n and i t s consequences. Pursue the a c t i o n that w i l l a c t u a l i z e your d e s i r e f o r m e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of t h e p r a c t i c a l t a s k s a t h a n d . 7. T h e r e i s a j o b t o be done h e r e a n d now, be i t s p e a k i n g up o r a p p r o a c h i n g a s t r a n g e r . I t h a s t o be done w h e t h e r y o u h a p p e n t o be i n t h e " r i g h t " mood o r n o t . 8. You h a v e a l o t t o o f f e r t o p e o p l e , s u c h a s y o u r u n i q u e i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s n o t f a i r t o o t h e r s o r t o y o u r s e l f not t o e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f j u s t because you f e e l shy and y o u d o n ' t f e e l l i k e t a l k i n g .  Appendix  5  9. B e c a u s e y o u a r e s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e and c a u t i o u s , y o u do not say o f f e n s i v e or h u r t f u l t h i n g s or a c t a g g r e s s i v e l y t o w a r d o t h e r s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e way f e a r l e s s a n d i n s e n s i t i v e p e o p l e a c t . T r y t o use y o u r s o c i a l sensitivity i n a p p r o a c h i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e t o i n c r e a s e y o u r personal effectiveness.  Source:  I s h i y a m a , F . I . ( 1 9 8 7 a ) . Use o f M o r i t a t h e r a p y i n shyness c o u n s e l l i n g i n the west: Promoting c l i e n t ' s s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and a c t i o n - t a k i n g J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t , 65, 547-551.  Appendix 6  BEHAVIORAL  1. it  INSTRUCTIONS  Do n o t r e s i s t a n x i e t y . A c c e p t a n x i e t y f o l l o w i t ' s own n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f r i s e  as i t i s , and l e t and f a l l .  2. S t o p b l a m i n g y o u r s e l f f o r y o u r a n x i e t y a n d n e r v o u s n e s s . I n s t e a d , c o n s i d e r the i n t e n s i t y of your a n x i e t y as a r e f l e c t i o n o f how i m p o r t a n t t h e t a s k i s t o y o u .  3. P e r s e v e r e t h r o u g h t h e a n x i o u s moments, a n d do n o t l o s e s i g h t of t h e t a s k a t hand.  4.  Make c h o i c e  of a c t i o n , and not e m o t i o n .  5. T h i n k a n d a c t i n t e r m s o f how y o u c a n be p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e i n s t e a d o f t h i n k i n g how y o u c a n a v o i d o r m a n i p u l a t e d i s c o m f o r t and a n x i e t y .  and  138 Appendix  I t e m A n a l y s i s on S c a l e s  I tern/Scale T o t a l I tern  Scale 1  I tern  1,2,  3  Correlation Scale  2  I tern  Scale  1  .289  1  .622  1  .278  2  .277  2  .412  2  .361  3  .418  3  .612  3  .484  4  .180  4  .611  4  . 1 72  5  .507  6  .631  Total Item  Scale  Score/Total Item  of 3 S c a l e s Scale  Correlation Item  Scale  1  .584  1  .731  1  .430  2  .482  2  .559  2  .722  3  .594  3  .706  3  .699  4  .528  4  .706  4  .313  n=l2  5  .642  6  .680  3  7  Appendix 8 AVERAGES ( L E V E L S ) o f EACH PHASE by GROUP  GROUP 1 Scale  ( P h a s e A) Baseline  ( P h a s e B) Intervention  ( P h a s e C) PostIntervention  Point Di f ference ( P h a s e CP h a s e A)  2  26.75  31 .70  34.73  7.98  1 4%  6  8.47  8.04  7.74  -.73  5%  8  34.92  41 .54  42.88  7.96  1 1%  Point Di f ference (Phase A P h a s e C) 4  10.81  9.83  8.32  2.49  1 9%  5  10.25  9.58  8.22  2.03  1 6%  7  9.39  8.79  7.94  1.45  140 Appendix 9 AVERAGES ( L E V E L S ) o f EACH PHASE b y GROUP  GROUP 2 Scale  ( P h a s e A) Baseline  ( P h a s e B) Intervention  ( P h a s e C) PostIntervention  Point Di f ference ( P h a s e CP h a s e A)  %  2  31 .95  36.94  40.02  8.07  1 5%  6  7.1 1  6.60  7.04  -.07  1%  8  40. 1 0  44.30  50.38  1 0.28  1 4%  Point Di f ference ( P h a s e AP h a s e C)  %  4  8.42  7.01  6.20  2.22  1 7%  5  8.05  6.57  6.17  1 .88  1 4%  7  7.39  6.85  5.93  1 .46  1 1%  1^1 A p p e n d i x 10 AVERAGES ( L E V E L S ) o f EACH PHASE by GROUP  GROUP 3 Scale  ( P h a s e A) Baseline  ( P h a s e B) Intervention  ( P h a s e C) PostIntervention  Point Di f ference ( P h a s e CP h a s e A)  2  27.68  29.03  28.90  1.22  3%  6  7.52  7.26  7.48  -.04  0%  8  36.04  38.34  38.34  2.30  3%  Point Difference ( P h a s e AP h a s e C)  %  4  7.82  7.24  7.29  .53  4%  5  7.20  7.33  7.06  .14  1%  7  8.41  7.71  7.12  1.29  10%  n=1 2  A p p e n d i x 11  SUBJECT SELECTION - S c r e e n i n g  Number o f students responding to screening Gr .8 (during guidance class) ance class) Gr. s 9,10,11, 1 2 (as recommend - e d by counselors )  Process  Students with eligible scores  95  32  33  33  Number o f s t u d e n t s chosen as s u b j e c t s  PART  Subject 1, Scale 2  Subject 2, Scale 2 Score  54 i 48 42 -  Time  Subject 3, Scale 2 Score  54  I  48 -  24 18 12 i  0  i  10  — i  20  I  30  l  40  r50  1  60  1  70  1  80  1  90  Time -p-  Subject 4, Scale 2 Score  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time -o  Subject 5, Scale 2 Score  Time  Subject 6, Scale 2 Score  Subject 7, Scale 2 54  Score -I  30 24 18 12 i  0  i  20  ^  r  40  60  100  Time H  o  1  Subject 8, Scale 2 Score 54 n  18 12 6  4 0  , 20  - n  ,  40  60 Time  r  80  Subject 9, Scale 2 Score  Time IV)  Subject 10, Scale 2  Subject 11, Scale 2 Score 5 4 -| 48 42 36 -  Time  100  Subject 12, Scale 2 54  Score -i  48 -  0  20  40  60  80  100  Time t—*  Subject 1, Scale 7 Score  Time ON  Subject 2, Scale 7 Score  4 3 2 1  I  I  I  I  —1  0  10  20  30  40 Time  50  f—  60  1  1  1  70  80  90  Subject 3, Scale 7 Score 13  j  12 11 -  6 5 4 3 2 1  1 0  '  i  20  30  ^  40  I  1  1  1  50  60  70  80  1  90  Time CO  Subject 4, Scale 7 Score 13 n  6 5 4 3 2 i  0  i  10  i  20  i  30  ^  40 Time  i  50  I  60  1  70  1  80  1 90  Subject 5, Scale 7 Score  2H i  i  i  I  1  0  20  40  60  80  Time  - [  100  Subject 6, Scale 7 13-|  Score  0  20  40  60 Time  80  Subject 7, Scale 7  Subject 8, Scale 7  Subject 9, Scale 7  Subject 10, Scale 7 Score  20  40  60 Time  80  Subject 11, Scale 7 Score  Time  Subject 12, Scale 7 Score  4 3 2 0  20  40  60 Time  80  Subject 1, Scale 5 Score  3 2 0  10  20  30  40  50  Time  Subject 2, Scale 5 Score  3 2 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time ON NO  Subject 3, Scale 5 13-i  Score  12 -  6 5 4 3 2 i  i  i  10  20  30  i —  40  1  ,  1  ,  -|  50  60  70  80  90  Time -o o  Subject 4, Scale 5  Subject 5, Scale 5 Score  Time -o  Subject 6, Scale 5  Subject 7, Scale 5 Score 13 - j 12 11 -  3 2 40  60  80  100  Time -o  Subject 8, Scale 5 Score  -O  Subject 9, Scale 5  Subject 10, Scale 5  Subject 11, Scale 5 Score 13  -i  12 11 -  3 2 0  20  40  60  80  Time i—  1  CO  Subject 12, Scale 5  Subject 1, Scale 6 Score  i  i  i  i  |  —|  0  10  20  30  40  50  ,  ,  ,  1  60  70  80  90  Time CO  o  Subject 2, Scale 6 Score  Time  Subject 3, Scale 6 Score  CO  Subject 4, Scale 6 Score  0  10  20  30  40 Time  50  60  70  80  90  Subject 5, Scale 6  Subject 6, Scale 6  Subject 7, Scale 6  Subject 8, Scale 6  Subject 9, Scale 6 Score 13 - T — — 12 -  Time t-  4  CO CO  Subject 10, Scale 6 Score 13—1  12 11 10 9 -  2H 20  40  60  80  Time CD  Subject 11, Scale 6 Score 13-i  12 11 10 -  20  40  60  80  100  Time o  Subject 12, Scale 6 Score  Time  Subject 1, Scale 4  to  Subject 2, Scale 4 Score  Time NO  Subject 3, Scale 4 Score 13-i  —  12 11 -  7 6 5 4 3 2 1  T 0  I  |  1  1  1  ,  ,  ,  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Subject 4, Scale 4  Subject 5, Scale 4  Subject 6, Scale 4 Score  NO  Subject 7, Scale 4 Score  Time  Subject 8, Scale 4 Score  Subject 9, Scale 4 Score  (V)  o o  Subject 10, Scale 4 Score 13-i  12 11 -  4 3 2 1  i 0  ' 2  0  1  1  1  40  60  80  100  Time o  Subject 11, Scale 4 Score  13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4H 3 2 1 0  20  40  60 Time  80  100  (V)  o  (V)  Subject 12, Scale 4 Score  Time  Subject 1, Scale 1 Score 3 6 -,  16 12 8 i  i  i  I  0  10  20  30  l  I  40 50 Time  1  1  1  1  60  70  80  90  o  Subject 2, Scale 1 Score 3 6 -. 32 28 -  8H i  0  i  10  ^  20  I  30  I  40  1  50  1  60  1  70  1  80  1 90  Time o  Subject 3, Scale 1 Score  36  -i  32 -  16  H  12  H  8 H  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time o  Subject 4, Scale 1 Score  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time IV)  o  Subject 5, Scale 1  Subject 6, Scale 1  Subject 7, Scale 1 Score 3 6 -i  16 12 8 -  0  20  40  60  80  100  Time (V)  o  Subject 8, Scale 1  Subject 9, Scale 1  Subject 10, Scale 1  Subject 11, Scale 1 Score 3 6 ~j 32 28 24 -  0  20  40  60  80  100  Time (V)  Subject 12, Scale 1  Subject 1, Scale 3 Score 3 6 -i 32 28 -  Subject 2, Scale 3 Score 3 6 -| 32 -  8H  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time i—  - o  1  Subject 3, Scale 3 36  Score -r  32 28 -  128 4  i  l  I  l  I  i  1  1  1  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  Time 00  Subject 4, Scale 3 36  Score  32 -  1 0  20  30  40 Time  50  60  70  80  90  Subject 5, Scale 3 36  Score -i  Time (VI  o  Subject 6, Scale 3  Subject 7, Scale 3 Score 36 -r 32 -  16 128 -  0  20  40  60  80  Time tV)  Subject 8, Scale 3  Subject 10, Scale 3  Subject 11, Scale 3  Subject 12, Scale 3 Score 36  -i  32 28 -  20  40  60 Time  80  

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