UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation into the identification of gifted kindergarten children Perks, Barbara Ann 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A2 P47.pdf [ 13.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054508.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054508-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054508-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054508-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054508-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054508-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054508-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054508-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054508.ris

Full Text

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IDENTIFICATION OF GIFTED KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN by BARBARA ANN PERKS B.S., PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY M.A., COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JANUARY 1984 © BARBARA ANN PERKS, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s ' understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i ABSTRACT G i f t e d c h i l d r e n once i d e n t i f i e d may develop to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i f appropr i a t e and s t i m u l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs are provided. There has been a p r o g r e s s i v e search for v a l i d and economical instruments that can be used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d . The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine what combination of three economical p r e d i c t o r instruments was able to i d e n t i f y an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d group of kindergarten c h i l d r e n . Kindergarten c h i l d r e n (n=8l6) from a random sample of 32 schools i n two urban school d i s t r i c t s of the Greater Vancouver area of B r i t i s h Columbia were administered the Vane Kindergarten Test (VKT). A f u r t h e r sample (n=l94) was drawn from the above sample. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) was administered to the 194 c h i l d r e n . The teachers and parents of these c h i l d r e n (n=l94) completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : Perks Teacher Nomination Questionnaire (PTNQ) and Perks Parent Nomination Questionnaire (PPNQ), on c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . On the b a s i s of t h e i r WPPSI scores, the c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o g i f t e d (n=42) (WPPSI IQ2.130) and no n - g i f t e d (n=l52) (WPPSI IQ<130) groups. A d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was performed to assess the v a l i d i t y of the VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ as p r e d i c t o r s of group membership. Of the 194 c h i l d r e n , 88.7% were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y as g i f t e d or no n - g i f t e d by the VKT, 79.9% by the PTNQ, and 78.4% by the PPNQ. For the 152 non-g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 95.4% were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by the VKT, 96.1% by the PTNQ, and 94.7% by the PPNQ. Of the 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 64.3% were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by the VKT, 21.4% by the PTNQ, and 19.0% by the PPNQ. The VKT was the most accurate p r e d i c t o r (64.3%) of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n - c h i l d r e n and was of p a r t i c u l a r value (97.6%) i f c h i l d r e n with VKT IQ scores of 127, 128, and 129 as we l l as those with scores 130 and higher were included w i t h i n the g i f t e d group. i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s x A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s x i C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION . 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 9 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 9 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n 10 I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n 11 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t s 13 S t a n d a r d i z e d I n d i v i d u a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s 15 S t a n d a r d i z e d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s • 17 T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n 18 P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n 21 S t u d i e s on t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p s 23 C u t o f f S c o r e on t h e C r i t e r i o n I n s t r u m e n t .... 26 Summary 28 I I I INSTRUMENTS: STANDARDIZED TESTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRES 3 0 W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l a n d P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e : C r i t e r i o n I n s t r u m e n t 31 Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t : S t a n d a r d i z e d S c r e e n i n g and P r e d i c t o r I n s t r u m e n t 32 D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e a c h e r and P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : P r e d i c t o r I n s t r u m e n t s 34 V e r b a l Q u e s t i o n s 37 M a t h e m a t i c a l Q u e s t i o n s 42 S p a t i a l Q u e s t i o n s 43 Temperament Q u e s t i o n s 44 B i o g r a p h i c and D e m o g r a p h i c Q u e s t i o n s 45 G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ .. 47 P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d T e s t o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s _ 48 V F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y 49 P r o c e d u r e s 49 PTNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y .... 52 PPNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y — . 54 F i r s t R e v i s i o n o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ 55 S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y 58 P r o c e d u r e s 59 PTNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y ... 61 PPNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y ... 62 S e c o n d R e v i s i o n o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ 66 Summary S t a t e m e n t 73 I V METHODOLOGY 7 5 P o p u l a t i o n 76 Sample S e l e c t i o n 77 I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Sample 77 Random S t r a t i f i e d S c r e e n i n g Sample 80 S t r a t i f i e d C r i t e r i o n Sample 81 PTNQ and PPNQ T e s t - r e t e s t Sample 82 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 84 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e VKT 84 I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g S a m p l e : D e s c r i p t i o n o f P e r f o r m a n c e on VKT 84 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ 86 S c o r i n g a n d D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n 87 S c o r i n g 87 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n 88 D a t a A n a l y s i s 88 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e s 88 C o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s 89 S t a t i s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ 90 V a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ 92 V RESULTS 94 B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s 94 B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s f o r t h e G i f t e d V e r s u s t h e N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p 95 D i s c u s s i o n o f D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s 101 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s 102 S t a t i s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ 102 P e r f o r m a n c e on t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p s 108 P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s 113 P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t S c o r e s 118 v i P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s 119 D i s c u s s i o n 124 VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS 130 Summary o f t h e S t u d y 130 C o n c l u s i o n s 137 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 139 Sample S i z e 139 Sc o p e 140 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 141 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 143 REFERENCE NOTES 144 REFERENCES 145 A p p e n d i x A: S c r e e n i n g T e s t R e f e r e n c e s 164 A p p e n d i x B: T e a c h e r a nd P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e f e r e n c e s 171 A p p e n d i x C: T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 176 A p p e n d i x D: P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 211 A p p e n d i x E: D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a o f t h e P i l o t S t u d i e s ... 255 A p p e n d i x F: T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y 275 A p p e n d i x G: P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y 279 A p p e n d i x H: T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y 283 A p p e n d i x I : P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y 287 A p p e n d i x J : T e a c h e r D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a o f t h e C u r r e n t S t u d y a nd T e a c h e r O v e r v i e w o f C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e l l e c t u a l A b i l i t i e s 291 A p p e n d i x K: P a r e n t D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a o f t h e C u r r e n t S t u d y a nd P a r e n t O v e r v i e w o f C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e l l e c t u a l A b i l i t i e s 295 v i i A p p e n d i x L: T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : C u r r e n t S t u d y 314 A p p e n d i x M: P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m A n a l y s i s : C u r r e n t S t u d y 319 A p p e n d i x N: S t a t i s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e VKT, WPPSI , PTNQ, and PPNQ 324 A p p e n d i x 0: E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s e s 328 A p p e n d i x P: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S u b t e s t s D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s e s 330 v i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f t h e Mea s u r e m e n t f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ: F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y 53 T a b l e 2: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f t h e Measurement f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ: S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y 63 T a b l e 3: PTNQ and PPNQ: T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( S e c o n d E d i t i o n ) 64 T a b l e 4: T a r g e t S a m p l e s and A c t u a l S a m p l e s 83 T a b l e 5: VKT Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Sample 85 T a b l e 6: B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p s 96 T a b l e 7: VKT and WPPSI: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f M e a s u r e m e n t 103 T a b l e 8: PTNQ and PPNQ: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f M e a s u r e m e n t 105 T a b l e 9: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t s a n d T o t a l S c o r e s 107 T a b l e 10: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T e s t - r e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n s 109 T a b l e 11: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e WPPSI and VKT T o t a l S c o r e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d 110 T a b l e 12: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t and T o t a l S c o r e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d 111 T a b l e 13: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d 114 i x T a b l e 14: The P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s 116 T a b l e 15: P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - m o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Between t h e T o t a l S c o r e s o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, PPNQ, and t h e WPPSI 120 T a b l e 16: D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s f o r t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s 121 T a b l e 17: The P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s 122 L i s t o f F i g u r e s g u r e 1: S a m p l i n g P r o c e s s f o r t h e C u r r e n t S t u d y x i Ac k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h o s e p e o p l e whose e f f o r t s were o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . To D r . S. A. P e r k i n s a n d D r . D. A. B a i n , I e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n a n d c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t . My a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e o t h e r members of my c o m m i t t e e , D r . 0. A. O l d r i d g e and D r . A. M. T i e t j e n , f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e a d v i c e . T h a n k s t o D r . W. T. R o g e r s f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f s t a t i s t i c a l a d v i c e he p r o v i d e d . I w o u l d l i k e t o e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s t a f f a nd s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d y t o p r o c e e d . I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and c h i l d r e n who t h r o u g h t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . I w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k Mr. B r u c e J . M c G i l l i v r a y and my p a r e n t s who p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t . My g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d a l s o t o D r . R. G r a y , D r . B. J . H o l m e s , a n d Ms. M. A. K a r r f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , I c o n v e y my t h a n k s t o numerous f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s who i n some manner a i d e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n t h e p a s t d e c a d e , an i n c r e a s i n g amount of money h a s been p r o v i d e d f o r e d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d ( Z e t t e l , 1 9 8 0 ) . Where s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n h a s been p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s h a v e been o b t a i n e d ( M a i e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s may n o t d e v e l o p t o t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l ( H a l l a h a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n d e e d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n become n o n - a c t i v e l e a r n e r s by age t e n ( N a t i o n a l F a c t s S h e e t on t h e G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d , U.S. Gov e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , I t e m 5 1 , 1971; N o l t e , 1 9 7 6 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e b o r e d n o n - a c t i v e l e a r n e r c o u l d become a s c h o o l d r o p o u t , t h e s c h o o l w i t h d r a w a l r a t e b e i n g a l m o s t a s h i g h f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s a s f o r n o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s ( N o l t e , 1 9 7 6 ) . M a r l a n d (1972) t h o u g h t t h a t g i f t e d n o n - a c t i v e l e a r n e r s n e e d e d a s t i m u l a t i n g l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a nd m e a n i n g f u l c h a l l e n g e s t o m o t i v a t e them. He w r o t e : 2 C o n t r a r y t o w i d e s p r e a d b e l i e f , t h e s e c h i l d r e n a nd y o u t h c a n n o t o r d i n a r i l y grow t o w a r d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l w i t h o u t s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . P l a c e d i n u n c h a l l e n g i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h s o m e t i m e s a r e e v e n h o s t i l e t o w a r d t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e g i f t e d a n d t h e t a l e n t e d , t h e y f r e q u e n t l y t e n d t o c o n c e a l t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y a b i l i t i e s a n d b u r y them i n u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t ( M a r l a n d , 1972, p. 2 3 ) . T h a t t h e f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e g i f t e d may r e s u l t i n u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r a l p r o b l e m s h a s been shown by Shaw a n d McCuen ( 1 9 6 0 ) , R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , a nd Hauck and F r e e h i l l ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Shaw and McCuen (1960) c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e i r s t u d y o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s began i n g r a d e t h r e e f o r b o y s and i n g r a d e s i x f o r g i r l s . M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 68) and Hunt (1961) r e p o r t e d t h a t s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s o f t h e g i f t e d o c c u r a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o g r a d e f o u r l e v e l . T h e s e s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s a r e o f t e n i n t h e f o r m o f u n e v e n a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s (Hauck & F r e e h i l l , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s . F i r s t , c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p l e t h o r a o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f g i f t e d n e s s . The most r e c e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n ' s A c t o f 1978 s a y s : 3 G i f t e d c h i l d r e n means c h i l d r e n who a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s p o s s e s s i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d o r p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s t h a t g i v e e v i d e n c e o f h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e c a p a b i l i t i e s i n a r e a s s u c h a s i n t e l l e c t u a l , c r e a t i v e , s p e c i f i c a c a d e m i c , l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y , o r i n t h e p e r f o r m i n g and v i s u a l a r t s ( P a y n e , P a t t o n , K a u f f m a n , Brown, & P a y n e , 1983, p. 1 3 8 ) . O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f g i f t e d n e s s a r e p r o v i d e d by T a y l o r ( 1 9 6 8 ) and Kramer ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T a y l o r ( 1 9 6 8 ) s a i d t h a t what was n e e d e d t o d e f i n e t h e a b l e c h i l d was "an a d j e c t i v e " t h a t c o u l d be u s e d t o c o v e r e i g h t t o t e n b r o a d a r e a s o r h i g h l e v e l t a l e n t s s u c h as i n t e l l i g e n c e , c r e a t i v e t a l e n t s , p l a n n i n g t a l e n t s , and wisdom o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t i e s . K r amer (1983) n o t e d t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g i f t e d n e s s s u c h a s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , s p e c i f i c a c a d e m i c t a l e n t , l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y , a n d c r e a t i v i t y . R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , and R o b i n s o n (1979) s t a t e d t h a t g i f t e d n e s s i s d e f i n e d most o f t e n i n t e r m s o f h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y w h i c h i s m e a s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . H a l l a h a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o n s i d e r e d p e o p l e w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s ( I Q S ) of 130 o r g r e a t e r t o be g i f t e d . The IQs were m e a s u r e d by t e s t s s u c h a s t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by W e s c h l e r ( 1 9 6 7 , 1974a, 1 9 8 1 ) . A s e c o n d p r o b l e m , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o b l e m , r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e q u e s t i o n : A t what age l e v e l s h o u l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d o c c u r ? B i e m i l l a r ( 1 9 8 1 ) s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y a n d s t a t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a was u r g e n t l y n e e d e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , he 4 e m p h a s i z e d t h a t f o l l o w - u p p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be c o n t i n u o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e g r a d e s so t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of t h e s e c h i l d r e n m i g h t be h a n d l e d e f f e c t i v e l y . I n t h e p a s t d e c a d e , R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , and R o b i n s o n ( 1 979) have s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by f o c u s i n g t h e i r r e s e a r c h on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a nd p r o g r a m i n g f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d f o u r - and f i v e - y e a r - o l d s . A t h i r d p r o b l e m i s t h e v a r i e t y o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h h a v e been u s e d o v e r t h e y e a r s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . Some of t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f y o u n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have been i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ( C u r t i s & G l a s e r , 1981; Terman, 1 9 2 5 ) , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s ( Z e i t l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( M a r l a n d , 1972; G e a r , 1 9 7 6 a ) , p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , & J a c k s o n , 1 9 7 9 b ) , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e i n s t r u m e n t s ( U l i c h , 1 9 6 5 ) . Of t h e f o u r t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s c i t e d a b o v e , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s g e n e r a l l y a r e b e l i e v e d t o be t h e most v a l i d ( B e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a r e , h o w e v e r , l e n g t h y t o a d m i n i s t e r and s c o r e , and t h e y r e q u i r e e x a m i n e r s w i t h e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a l t h o u g h l e s s v a l i d , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a n d p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e a s h o r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e and l e s s s t r i n g e n t e x a m i n e r t r a i n i n g . 5 A l t h o u g h s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s a r e q u i c k a n d e c o n o m i c a l t o a d m i n i s t e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e t e s t s h a v e been d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y a v e r a g e o r b e l o w a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n . T e a c h e r a nd p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e a l s o q u i c k a n d e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , b u t o f t e n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y i s m i s s i n g f o r many q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( M i l e y , 1975b; S i m p s o n & M a r t i n s o n , 1961; S c o t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . A l s o , most q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o v e r a d i v e r s i t y o f a r e a s s u c h as i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , a n d e m o t i o n a l ( M e e k e r , 1976; Thompson, 1974; J o h n s o n , 1975; M a r t i n s o n , 1961; M i l e y , 1975; B a r r o n , 1 9 7 4 ) ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y a r e o f t e n t o o g e n e r a l t o use f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y . M a r l a n d (1972) recommended t h a t t h e g i f t e d be a s s e s s e d by more t h a n a s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t . He a d v o c a t e d c o n t i n u e d work d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f more e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o M a r l a n d ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , and R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) and K a r n e s a nd Brown (1979) a l s o recommended t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a l i d a n d e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be u s e d t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . 6 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The c u r r e n t s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f .the r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e d a b o v e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was t o a s s e s s t h e c o n c u r r e n t and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h r e e e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s : a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t , a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m w o u l d h a v e become u n w i e l d y i f more t h a n one a r e a o f g i f t e d n e s s s u c h as c r e a t i v i t y , i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , and l e a d e r s h i p had been e x a m i n e d f o r t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 79) s t r e s s e d t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s i s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e t h i s i s a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d when l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s a n d a t t i t u d e s a r e f o r m e d , t h a t i s t o s a y , when t h e p a t t e r n s o f p a r e n t s ' a n d t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g a n d r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c h i l d t a k e p l a c e , and when t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r 7 p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s a r e f o s t e r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s f o r m e d i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s may be d i f f i c u l t t o r e v e r s e i n l a t e r y e a r s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e g i n no l a t e r t h a n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l a c c o r d i n g t o r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s M a r t i n s o n a n d L e s s i n g e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , A l b e e and J o f f e e ( 1 9 7 7 ) , R o g o l o s k y ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Schermann ( 1 9 6 6 ) , R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , and R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Bower ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Newton and Brown ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Zax a n d Cowen ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and K e l l a n a nd S c h i f f ( 1 9 6 7 ) . S h o r t l y a f t e r P u b l i c Law 94-142 was p a s s e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , M a r l a n d (1972) r e p o r t e d on t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a nd made s u g g e s t i o n s t o e d u c a t o r s i n e a c h s t a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . I n C a n a d a , C o n r y , C o n r y , and D ' O y l e y (1982) a f f i r m e d t h e g r o w i n g n e e d f o r v a l i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n h a s r e c e n t l y p l a c e d a s t r o n g e r e m p h a s i s on p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d . A t a J a n u a r y , 1983 m e e t i n g o f The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e G i f t e d , G a l l a g h e r p r e s e n t e d a p r o p o s a l t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l s u p p o r t f o r r e s e a r c h on g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . One o f t h e t e r m s o f t h i s p r o p o s a l was t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d ( D e l i s l e , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h e r s have been w o r k i n g on t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s s i n c e 8 U.S. P u b l i c Law 94-142 was p a s s e d , more r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e v a l i d and e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s have n o t been p e r f e c t e d ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1979; K a r n e s & Brown , 1 9 7 9 ) . C i h a , H o f f m a n , a n d P o t t e r ( 1 9 74) a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p v a l i d a n d e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r e n t s were a b l e t o a s s e s s t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s b e t t e r t h a n were t e a c h e r s , b u t t h a t t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t was n o t a s s u c c e s s f u l a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . H i r s c h and H i r s c h ( 1 9 80) t r i e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t , t h e Ammons Q u i c k T e s t (Ammons & Ammons, 1 9 6 2 ) , c o u l d be u s e d a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e more c o s t l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e o f u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . They f o u n d t h a t t h e Ammons Q u i c k T e s t was n o t a s u s e f u l a s an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . The p r o b l e m o f d e v e l o p i n g v a l i d and e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e g i f t e d r e m a i n s u n r e s o l v e d . I f s u c h i n s t r u m e n t s were t o be d e v e l o p e d , t h e n g r e a t e r numbers o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d more a c c u r a t e l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y a t an e a r l i e r a g e , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g t h e e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s f o r them. 9 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y on page 2, t h e r e a r e a w i d e r a n g e o f d e f i n i t i o n s f o r g i f t e d n e s s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , g i f t e d n e s s was c o n s i d e r e d a s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , b o t h v e r b a l and p e r f o r m a n c e . V e r b a l a b i l i t y i n c l u d e s s u c h a r e a s a s v o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c . D r a w i n g g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s , d r a w - a - p e r s o n , and p u z z l e s o l v i n g a r e some o f t h e a r e a s i n c l u d e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e a b i l i t y . Whenever t h e t e r m g i f t e d i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h i s w ord means i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d . O p e r a t i o n a l l y , t h e t e r m g i f t e d r e f e r r e d t o t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d an IQ>130 ( " v e r y s u p e r i o r " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) on t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) ( W e c h s l e r , 1967, p. 2 0 ) . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e t e r m n o n - g i f t e d was u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d an IQ<130 on t h e WPPSI. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n As t h e f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was a d d r e s s e d : What c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t , a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) w i l l i d e n t i f y b e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l ? 10 The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t n o t one o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s w o u l d p r e d i c t g i f t e d v e r s u s n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a t l e a s t one o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s e x a m i n e d w o u l d p r e d i c t g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i n c l u d e s f i v e a d d i t i o n a l c h a p t e r s . The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . I n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s u s e d a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d . The m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d t o c o l l e c t a nd a n a l y z e t h e d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o a n s w e r t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I V . The c o n s e q u e n t r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r V. C h a p t e r VI c o n s i s t s o f t h e summary o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , and t h e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 11 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e use o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i s e x a m i n e d . F o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a r e r e v i e w e d . N e x t , s t u d i e s on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a nd n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s a r e p r e s e n t e d . L a s t l y , a u t h o r s ' v i e w p o i n t s on t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t IQ c u t o f f s c o r e b e t w e e n g i f t e d a nd n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e d i s c u s s e d . H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n P r i o r t o t h i s c e n t u r y , p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e g i f t e d c o n s i s t e d o f g o v e r n m e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s , p a r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s (Tannenbaum, 1958; P i c k a r d , 1976; & Du B o i s , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e s e p r o c e d u r e s d e p e n d e d more upon s u b j e c t i v e t h a n o b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t . The f i r s t a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a p r e c i s e i n s t r u m e n t f o r q u a n t i f y i n g m e n t a l a b i l i t y was made a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y by B i n e t a n d Simon u n d e r a c o m m i s s i o n t o t h e F r e n c h g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e e a r l y 1900s ( S c a r r - S a l a p a t e k , 1 9 7 7 ) . 1 2 A l t h o u g h t h e B i n e t - S i m o n S c a l e was d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , i t a l s o i d e n t i f i e d a v e r a g e and g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n 1916, Terman t r a n s l a t e d a n d a d a p t e d t h e B i n e t - S i m o n S c a l e f o r use i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( S e a g o e , 1 9 7 2 ) . He a l s o c o n d u c t e d a l o n g t i t . u d i n a l s t u d y , G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f G e n i u s ( 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 5 9 ) ( K h a t e n a , 1 9 8 2 ) , i n w h i c h he showed t h a t p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t f u t u r e a b i l i t y c o u l d be made on t h e b a s i s o f e a r l y m e a s u r e s . A l t h o u g h e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a d l o n g been a t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t (Du B o i s , 1970; F o x , 1 9 8 1 ) , Terman ( 1 9 2 5 ) was t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n d u c t a l o n g - t e r m , l a r g e - s c a l e e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . S u b s e q u e n t t o t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e B i n e t - S i m o n S c a l e , a t t e n t i o n f o c u s s e d on r e f i n i n g a n d r e d e f i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . S i n c e t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t t e s t r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on v e r b a l s k i l l s , t e s t r e s e a r c h e r s d e v e l o p e d i n s t r u m e n t s i n w h i c h more t h a n one f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l was t e s t e d . Among t h e b e s t known t e s t s t h a t i n c l u d e b o t h v e r b a l a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s k i l l s a r e t h e W e c h s l e r t e s t b a t t e r i e s : The W e c h s l e r A d u l t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e ( W e c h s l e r , 1955, 1 9 8 1 ) , The W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e F o r C h i l d r e n ( W e c h s l e r , 1949, 1 9 7 4 a ) , a n d The W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l a n d P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ( W e c h s l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . R e c e n t l y , t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d h a s e s c a l a t e d i n i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s , t h e U n i t e d 1 3 S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t and s p e c i a l a g e n c i e s e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o n t i n u e d s e a r c h f o r b e t t e r a n d more e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n methods (Tannenbaum, 1 9 8 1 ) . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t s S i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f more p r e c i s e i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s , t h e g i f t e d h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t e s t s o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s , t e a c h e r s , and p a r e n t s . T h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n and n o t s e p a r a t e l y . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , s u c h a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , h a s been c o n s i d e r e d t o be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e use o f a s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t ( P f l e g e r , 1977? T u t t l e & B e c k e r , 1980; L o w r a n c e & A n d e r s o n , 1977; S e l l i n & B i r c h , 1981; The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . The use o f m u l t i p l e i n s t r u m e n t s l e s s e n s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f some g i f t e d c h i l d r e n b e i n g o v e r l o o k e d ( R o t h & Sussman, 1972; M a r t i n s o n , 1 9 7 4 b ) . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d by most s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e s s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a nd t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . P a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s h ave been u s e d a l s o t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( F o x , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t h r e e s u r v e y s , many e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r t s r e p o r t e d t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s had been u s e d f o r t h e 1 4 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . F i r s t , i n a s u r v e y o f s c h o o l s i n I l l i n o i s , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a n d t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n was u s e d w i d e l y ( M a r l a n d , 1 9 7 2 ) . N e i t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s n o r p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m e n t i o n e d i n t h e I l l i n o i s s t u d y ( M a r l a n d , 1 9 7 2 ) . S e c o n d , a r e s e a r c h team f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o q u i t l a m S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ( 1 9 7 5 ) c o m p l e t e d a s u r v e y o f a s s e s s m e n t methods u s e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . S e ven s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were i n c l u d e d . T h e s e s e v e n d i s t r i c t s ( S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n ; San D i e g o , C a l i f o r n i a ; L o n d o n , O n t a r i o ; Edmonton, A l b e r t a ; C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ; a n d O t t a w a , O n t a r i o ) u s e d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . F o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( L o n d o n , O n t a r i o ; C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ; and O t t a w a , O n t a r i o ) u s e d t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , a nd two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( Edmonton, A l b e r t a a nd O t t a w a , O n t a r i o ) u s e d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n s a l s o . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s were n o t u s e d i n t h e s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h i r d , i n a n o t h e r s u r v e y , B u r d i k i n and P e r r y ( 1 9 7 5) f o u n d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were u s e d a s one o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s : P e n t i c t o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; L o n d o n , O n t a r i o ; H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ; O t t a w a , O n t a r i o ; and San D i e g o , 1 5 C a l i f o r n i a . T e a c h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were u s e d i n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; L o n d o n , O n t a r i o ; H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ; and O t t a w a , O n t a r i o ( B u r d i k i n & P e r r y , 1 9 7 5 ) . B u r d i k i n and P e r r y ( 1 9 75) s t a t e d t h a t more c h i l d r e n were l i k e l y t o be i d e n t i f i e d when a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s was u s e d . I n t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s c i t e d a b o v e , t h e u s e o f m u l t i p l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d was f a v o u r e d . I n v i e w o f t h e m u l t i p l e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s , i t w o u l d seem d e s i r a b l e t h a t any s t u d y d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n s h o u l d i n c l u d e m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a s u c h a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . E a c h o f t h e s e t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s , n o t e d a b o v e , i s now r e v i e w e d . S t a n d a r d i z e d I n d i v i d u a l I n t e l 1 i g e n c e T e s t s The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a r e t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d ( G a l l a g h e r , 1 9 7 5 a ) . The p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e t e s t s a p p e a r s t o i m p r o v e a s t h e c h i l d a p p r o a c h e s k i n d e r g a r t e n age ( a g e s f o u r - t o - s i x y e a r s ) ( S o n t a g , B a k e r , & N e l s o n , 1958; R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c a n i d e n t i f y t h e g i f t e d c h i l d e v e n i f he i s u n d e r a c h i e v i n g ( G a l l a g h e r , 1975a) a n d , a s s u m i n g t h e c h i l d ' s m o t i v a t i o n r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t , t h e s e 1 6 t e s t s c a n p r e d i c t n o t o n l y what t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o do a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , b u t a l s o what t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be a b l e t o do i n t h e f u t u r e ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . The two i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s most w i d e l y u s e d f o r i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a r e t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) and t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ( G l a s n a p p , I s s a c , H i t z , & C a r l t o n , 1981; S e l l i n & B i r c h , 1981; M o o r e , Hahn, & B r e n t n e l l , 1978; L a n d i g & Nausmann, 1978; F o x , 1981; R u b e n z e r , 1979; F r e n c h , 1974; M a r t i n s o n , 1973; A l e x a n d e r & M u i a , 1982; F r e e m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t r e l i e s m a i n l y on v e r b a l s k i l l s ( B e e , 1978) w h i l e t h e WPPSI t e s t s d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e v e r b a l a n d p e r f o r m a n c e a r e a s ( C o a t e s & B r o m b e r g , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have t h r e e p r i n c i p a l w e a k n e s s e s : t h e y c a n n o t m e a s u r e s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n ; t h e y a r e e x p e n s i v e t o a d m i n i s t e r ; and t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s n e e d e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e t e s t s may n o t a l w a y s be a v a i l a b l e ( S e l l i n & B i r c h , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d a b o v e , t h e WPPSI i s t h e b e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y b e c a u s e i t t e s t s a w i d e r r a n g e o f c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t h a n t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t (Terman & M e r r i l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , more i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e WPPSI t h a n t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ( W a d d e l l , 1 9 8 0 ) . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e WPPSI 1 7 w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . S t a n d a r d i z e d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s A n o t h e r w i d e l y u s e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , i s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t . I t i s u s e d when a l a r g e s a m p l e must be t e s t e d i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . The t e s t i n g a n d s c o r i n g t i m e s a r e s h o r t e r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . A l s o , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s a r e l e s s e x p e n s i v e t o a d m i n i s t e r . T h e r e a r e two m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s . F i r s t , many o f t h e s e t e s t s were d e s i g n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e o n l y b e t w e e n an a v e r a g e g r o u p and a b e l o w a v e r a g e g r o u p a nd do n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h c e i l i n g s c o r e s t o s e l e c t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( B u r o s , 1974, 1978; Z e i t l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . S e c o n d , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s may n o t e x a m i n e i n d e p t h t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y a r e a s i n w h i c h a c h i l d e x c e l s ( e . g . m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s , s p a t i a l s k i l l s ) . T h e s e a b i l i t i e s may n o t be d e t e r m i n e d u n l e s s f u r t h e r t e s t s o r o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d . S e v e n t y - n i n e s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ( A p p e n d i x A) were r e v i e w e d b e f o r e one was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . T w e n t y - n i n e were l i s t e d i n Z e i t l i n ( 1 9 7 6 , pp. 5 0 - 5 1 ) ; t h e r e m a i n i n g 50 were l i s t e d i n B u r o s ( 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 8 ) . Of t h e 79 s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s r e v i e w e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (VKT) was t h e b e s t i n s t r u m e n t t o 18 use b o t h a s t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t and a l s o a s an e c o n o m i c a l p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t f o r i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (1) t h e VKT had t h e h i g h e s t r a n g e o f IQ s c o r e s e x t e n d i n g b e y o n d two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a b o v e t h e mean (mean=l00, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n = 1 5 ) ; (2) t h e VKT c o v e r s f o u r a s s e s s m e n t a r e a s : p e r c e p t u a l , c o g n i t i v e , o r a l s p e e c h , a nd k n o w l e d g e o f l a n g u a g e ( Z e i t l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) ; a nd (3) i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT i s a v a i l a b l e ( V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e VKT w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n T e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , a r e e c o n o m i c a l t o a d m i n i s t e r . H i s t o r i c a l l y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a s been d e p e n d e n t upon t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d t h i s s t i l l i s r e l i e d upon a s a m a j o r m e t h o d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( R e n z u l l i & S m i t h , 1977) b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s work w i t h many c h i l d r e n o f t h e same age l e v e l a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a r e i n a good p o s i t i o n t o compare c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , Fox (1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t , o f t h e 204 e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s s u r v e y e d i n 1971, 49% f e l t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g was e s s e n t i a l a s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m e t h o d o f t h e g i f t e d , a n d 19% t h o u g h t t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e . 19 The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r e n g t h s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . R o t h and Sussman (1972) and M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 7 4 a ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d s h o u l d be u s e d a l o n g w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s b e c a u s e t h e j u d g m e n t o f t e a c h e r s , when c o m b i n e d w i t h o t h e r methods o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a g i f t e d c h i l d w i l l n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . T e a c h e r s c a n be more a c c u r a t e ( a n i m p r o v e m e n t o f 30% t o 40%) i n t h e i r n o m i n a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i f t h e y a r e r e q u e s t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e c h i l d r e n on t h e b a s i s o f c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( G o r d o n & Thomas, 1967; Koegh & S m i t h , 1970; S t e v e n s o n , P a r k e r , W i l k i n s o n , H egan, & F i s h , 1976; W e i s e , M e y e r s , & T u e l , 1965; G e a r , 1 9 7 6 a ) . I n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s o f t h e g i f t e d i m p r o v e d when s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s were f u l f i l l e d . F i r s t , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s o f t h e g i f t e d seems t o i m p r o v e when o b j e c t i v e t e s t q u e s t i o n s a r e u s e d i n s t e a d o f o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 68) showed t h a t o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s on t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n f o r m s f o r t h e g i f t e d h ad l o w e r v a l i d i t y t h a n d i d c h e c k l i s t s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o f o c u s a t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r s o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d . S e c o n d , S a n b o r n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 7 4 a ) , G e a r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , S m i t h and S a l e n t o ( 1 9 7 1 ) , P e g n a t o ( 1 9 5 8 ) , and G e a r ( 1 9 7 6 b ) n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i f g i v e n g u i d a n c e and 20 s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e g i f t e d . T h i r d , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o i m p r o v e d when t e a c h e r s had enough t i m e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f a s c h o o l y e a r ) t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s ( S m i t h & S a l e n t o , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e r e a r e a l s o w e a k n e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . B a l d w i n ( 1 9 6 2 ) , B a r b e ( 1 9 5 6 ) , C o r n i s h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , J a c o b s ( 1 9 7 1 ) , P e g n a n t o & B i r c h ( 1 9 5 9 ) , W i l s o n ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Terman ( 1 9 2 5 ) , S p e n c e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , J a c o b s ( 1 9 7 1 ) , P o h l ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a n d C o r n i s h ( 1 9 68) showed t h a t t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n was o f t e n i n e f f e c t i v e . The a c c u r a c y of t e a c h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d r a n g e d f r o m 9.5% t o 57. 0 % . I n t h e s e s t u d i e s , n o n d i r e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s were u s e d i n s t e a d o f d i r e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h o u t b e i n g g i v e n f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n ( B o r l a n d , 1 9 7 8 ) . A r e v i e w o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s u c h a s t h e A d j e c t i v e C h e c k l i s t ( S i m p s o n & M a r t i n s o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , A R a t i n g S c a l e f o r I d e n t i f y i n g C r e a t i v e P o t e n t i a l ( M e e k e r , 1 9 7 6 ) , a nd B e h a v i o r i a l D e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e G i f t e d (Thompson, 1 9 7 4 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t s h o r t c o m i n g s s u c h a s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s ( e . g . , s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , c r e a t i v e , l e a d e r s h i p , a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l ) , o p e n - e n d e d f o r m a t s , a n d t o o many q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , o v e r 200 q u e s t i o n s ) o r t o o few q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , one q u e s t i o n ) were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . B a s e d upon t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e 21 was a need t o d e v e l o p a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 t o 50 q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s i n an o b j e c t i v e f o r m a t . The i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r t y p e s o f g i f t e d n e s s ( e . g . , c r e a t i v i t y , l e a d e r s h i p ) w o u l d h a v e been a d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t h e main f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s . P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n I n a d d i t i o n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s and t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e a l s o an e c o n o m i c a l means o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e g i f t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a d v a n t a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . I n g e n e r a l , p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n . o f g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was more a c c u r a t e ( 6 7 % ) t h a n t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n ( 2 2 % ) ( C i h a , H a r r i s , H o f f m a n , & P o t t e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , a n d J a c k s o n ( 1 9 7 9 b ) ; J a c o b s ( 1 9 7 1 ) ; a n d C i h a , H a r r i s , H o f f m a n , and P o t t e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g i f t e d s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a l l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Freeman ( 1 9 7 9 ) n o t e d t h a t p a r e n t s were h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . P a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a r e t h e most i m m e d i a t e o b s e r v e r s o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , i n a good p o s i t i o n t o g i v e o p i n i o n s a b o u t 22 t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s ( R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , & J a c k s o n , 1 9 7 9 b ) . T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t p a r e n t s see t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n more v a r i e d a s w e l l a s more f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a n do t e a c h e r s a n d , b e c a u s e most p a r e n t s a r e r e a l i s t i c a b o u t and i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s ( R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , & J a c k s o n , 1 9 7 9 b ) , t h e y a r e o f t e n w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e f e e d b a c k a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( O ' N e i l l , 1978; S e l l i n & B i r c h , 1 9 8 1 ) . F r e n c h ( 1 9 7 4) and T u t t l e a n d B e c k e r ( 1 9 80) f o u n d t h a t most p a r e n t s were l e s s l i k e l y t h a n t e a c h e r s t o o v e r e s t i m a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s . S i s k (1979) n o t e d t h a t b e c a u s e p a r e n t s have t h e most o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o o b s e r v e t h e i r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , t h e i r w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s h a v e been u s e f u l i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . T h e r e a r e a l s o w e a k n e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . P a r e n t s f r o m l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c n e i g h b o u r h o o d s were more l i k e l y t o r e p o r t a c h i l d as g i f t e d t h a n were p a r e n t s f r o m h i g h e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ( C h e y n e y , 1962; C i h a , H a r r i s , H o f f m a n , & P o t t e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , w e l l - e d u c a t e d p a r e n t s f r o m m i d d l e - c l a s s c o m m u n i t i e s t e n d t o h a v e h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s f o r j u d g i n g w h e t h e r a c h i l d i s g i f t e d ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , and R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . P a r e n t s who have l i t t l e o r no c h a n c e t o compare t h e i r c h i l d ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f s i m i l a r age may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y when r e q u e s t e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r c h i l d ( V e r n o n , 23 Adamson, & V e r n o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . A l s o , p a r e n t s may n o t a l w a y s be aware o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s o u t s t a n d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s ( S e l l i n & B i r c h , 1 9 8 1 ) . A r e v i e w o f p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s u c h as The P a r e n t E v a l u a t i o n o f P u p i l ( S i m p s o n & M a r t i n s o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , I l l i n o i s P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n C h i l d r e n ( C i h a , H a r r i s , & H o f f m a n , 1 9 7 4 ) , a n d The P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Form ( N o r t h C a r o l i n a D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1 9 7 6 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t s h o r t c o m i n g s s u c h a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s ( e . g . , s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , c r e a t i v e , l e a d e r s h i p , and i n t e l l e c t u a l ) , o p e n - e n d e d f o r m a t s , a n d t o o many q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , o v e r 200 q u e s t i o n s ) o r t o o few q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , one q u e s t i o n ) were i n h e r e n t i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e was a need t o d e v e l o p a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 t o 50 q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d on c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s i n an o b j e c t i v e f o r m a t . The a s s e s s m e n t of i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s was t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r f a c t o r s on g i f t e d n e s s w o u l d have been a d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t h e t o p i c o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S t u d i e s on t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G i f t e d a nd N o n - G i f t e d G r o u p s R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d y o u n g c h i l d r e n . I n e a c h o f t h e two s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , a. s t a n d a r d i z e d i n d i v i d u a l 24 i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t . A c u t o f f s c o r e on t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t was u s e d t o c l a s s i f y c h i l d r e n i n t o g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . G l a s n a p p , I s s a c , H i t z , and C a r l t o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) s t u d i e d 78 c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n t o g r a d e f i v e i n two K a n s a s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t was t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n (WISC). The IQ s c o r e o f 125 was u s e d a s t h e c u t o f f s c o r e b e t w e e n t h e " g i f t e d " a nd " n o n - g i f t e d " g r o u p . The m u l t i p l e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d a s p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s i n c l u d e d a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n o n - v e r b a l t e s t , and a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s t h e n was c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g two p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s and t h e n o n - v e r b a l p e r f o r m a n c e t a s k s ( G l a s n a p p , e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . T e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y were f o u n d t o be i n e f f e c t i v e i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e t w e e n g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n f a c t , o n l y one q u e s t i o n , r e l a t i n g t o t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f g i f t e d v e r s u s a v e r a g e was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . N o n - v e r b a l p e r f o r m a n c e t a s k s were b e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s t h a n t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s , i n t h a t 89% (33 o u t of 37 c h i l d r e n ) o f t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a n d 84% (26 o u t o f 31 c h i l d r e n ) o f t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d by n o n - v e r b a l 25 p e r f o r m a n c e t a s k s . T e a c h e r s n o m i n a t e d c o r r e c t l y 72% (27 o u t o f t h e 37 c h i l d r e n ) o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a nd 67% (21 o u t o f t h e 31 c h i l d r e n ) o f t h e n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y , Duncan and D r e g e r (1978) u s e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s t o p r e d i c t m e m b e r s h i p i n a " g i f t e d " g r o u p and a " n o r m a l " g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n f r o m L o u i s i a n a . The f i r s t s a m p l e was a g r o u p o f 30 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who had been c h o s e n p r e v i o u s l y f o r a g i f t e d c h i l d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . S e l e c t i o n was b a s e d on t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s a r b i t r a r y S t a n f o r d - B i n e t IQ c u t o f f s c o r e o f 136. The s e c o n d g r o u p was a s a m p l e o f 30 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who had n o t been c h o s e n f o r t h e g i f t e d c h i l d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . P a r e n t s f i l l e d o u t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s B e h a v i o r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r o j e c t ( D r e g e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . The number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e C h i l d r e n ' s B e h a v i o r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r o j e c t was t a b u l a t e d on 274 i t e m s f o r g i f t e d a nd n o r m a l c h i l d r e n . C o m p o s i t e s c o r e s were p l a c e d on a c o n t i n u u m and a " c u t o f f " s c o r e was e s t a b l i s h e d a t a p o i n t w h i c h y i e l d e d t h e h i g h e s t number o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , 50 o u t o f 60 ( 8 3 . 3 % ) 1 1 - t o - 1 3 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n (25 o u t of 30 i n e a c h g r o u p ) were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e " g i f t e d " o r " n o r m a l " g r o u p s . As shown i n t h e two s t u d i e s c i t e d a b o v e , d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l m ethod t o u s e , i f t h e i n t e n t o f r e s e a r c h e r s i s t o a s s e s s t h e 26 u s e f u l n e s s o f p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a nd n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n t h e s t u d i e s by G l a s n a p p e t a l . ( 1 9 81) a n d Duncan and D r e g e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , s c o r e s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e g i f t e d , a nd t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s had t o make a d e c i s i o n a s t o what IQ s c o r e w o u l d be u s e d a s t h e c u t o f f b e t ween g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . B e f o r e t h e r e s e a r c h e r o f t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y s e l e c t e d t h e IQ c u t o f f s c o r e t o u s e f o r c l a s s i f y i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n t o g i f t e d a nd n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s , t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e was r e v i e w e d . C u t o f f S c o r e on t h e C r i t e r i o n I n s t r u m e n t The s e l e c t i o n o f a c u t o f f s c o r e on t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . I f t h e c u t o f f s c o r e was s e t t o o l o w , most o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e w o u l d be c h o s e n a l o n g w i t h some i n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . I f t h e c u t o f f s c o r e were s e t t o o h i g h , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m i g h t be t o o r e s t r i c t i v e a nd f a i l t o i d e n t i f y many o f t h e g i f t e d . The 130 IQ c u t o f f s c o r e i s t h e one most commonly u s e d when i d e n t i f y i n g a g i f t e d g r o u p ( F r e e m a n , 1979; T e m p e s t , 1974; J e n s e n , 1973; H o r w i t z , 1974; M a r t i n s o n & L e s s i n g e r , 1966; B l a n k , N o t e 1; P e r k i n s , N o t e 2 ) . S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who most g e n e r a l l y f a l l i n t o t h e " g i f t e d " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a v e e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h I Q ' s of > 1 3 0 . S a n d e r l i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) n o t e d t h a t IQ>130 g r o u p s were t e r m e d 27 " g i f t e d " t o " g e n i u s " . R u b e n z e r (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e G i f t e d C h i l d r e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a a s w e l l a s t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t u s e d t h e 130 IQ c u t o f f t o d e n o t e t h e " g i f t e d " g r o u p . W e c h s l e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) , i n a l l h i s IQ t e s t s , c l a s s i f i e d t h e IQ>130 g r o u p a s " v e r y s u p e r i o r " . The t e r m " g i f t e d " as d e f i n e d by S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , S a n d e r l i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and R u b e n z e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) i s synonymous w i t h t h e t e r m " v e r y s u p e r i o r " ( I Q - 1 3 0 ) a s d e f i n e d by W e c h s l e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . B o t h G a l l a g h e r (1975b) a n d M a r l a n d (1971) s t a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e t o p 2% (IQ>13 0) of t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n was i n t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y c a t e g o r y a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , s t u d e n t s who h a v e e x t r e m e l y h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y " c o m p r i s e t h e u p p e r 1% t o 3% o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n b a s e d on an IQ c u t o f f s c o r e of 130" (Dow & O ' R e i l l y , 1 9 8 2 ) . The most r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d l e a v e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e u s e d by t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n u n c h a n g e d f r o m t h a t o f 1971 ( B a n k s , B e l a n g e r , B e t t i o l , B o r t h w i c k , D o n n e l l y , & S m i t h , 1978; " B i l l 8 2 ", 1980; " S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n Handbook", 1 9 8 1 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s who have u s e d t h e 130 IQ c u t o f f f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a r e E l m a n , B l i x t , a n d S a w i c k i ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; K a r n e s and Brown ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; D i r k s , W e s s e l s , Q u a r f o t h , a n d Quenon ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; a n d P e g n a n t o and B i r c h ( 1 9 5 9 ) . I n v i e w o f t h e number o f r e s e a r c h e r s who recommended a W e c h s l e r i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t IQ c u t o f f s c o r e o f 130 when 28 i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , t h a t s c o r e was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . Summary H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d h a s r e l i e d more on s u b j e c t i v e t h a n o b j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . I n t h i s c e n t u r y , t h e e m p h a s i s h a s been on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . A r e v i e w o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were u s e d f r e q u e n t l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e g i f t e d . B a s e d on t h e s t u d i e s c i t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e WPPSI (an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ) was t h e most s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t o use a s a c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t and t h e VKT was t h e b e s t s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t t o u s e . P r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f o u n d t o have s u f f i c i e n t w e a k n e s s e s t o m e r i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new t e a c h e r and p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . R e s e a r c h e r s have u s e d t h e s c o r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t o c l a s s i f y c h i l d r e n i n t o g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . T h i s r e q u i r e d a d e c i s i o n a s t o what IQ s c o r e s h o u l d be u s e d a s t h e c u t o f f between t h e g r o u p s . I n t h i s s t u d y , a WPPSI IQ s c o r e o f 130 was s e l e c t e d by t h e 29 r e s e a r c h e r t o s e r v e a s t h e d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e WPPSI (an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ) , w h i c h s e r v e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t , i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t ( V K T ) , t h e t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h were u s e d a s t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , a l s o a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r . 30 CHAPTER I I I INSTRUMENTS: STANDARDIZED TESTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRES S i n c e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s t h e use of m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , f o u r t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s were e m p l o y e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . W h i l e t h i s c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a l s o a r e d e s c r i b e d . A w i d e l y u s e d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l a n d P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) ( W e c h s l e r , 1967) was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t . The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (VKT) ( V a n e , 1968) s e r v e d a s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t a n d one of t h e p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y . A t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d e v e l o p e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y a n d were u s e d a s two o t h e r p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s i s . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s f o l l o w s . 31 W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e : C r i t e r i o n I n s t r u m e n t As r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e WPPSI ( W e c h s l e r , 1967) i s one o f t h e two most w i d e l y u s e d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s e m p l o y e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d ( B e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . The o t h e r i s t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t (Terman & M e r r i l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . The WPPSI was c h o s e n o v e r t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t b e c a u s e i t i n c l u d e s b o t h v e r b a l a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s t h a t a r e u s e d t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s ( C o a t e s & B r o m b e r g , 1973; W e c h s l e r , 1974b; M c C a l l , H o g a r t y , & H u r l b e r t , 1 9 7 2 ) , w h e r e a s t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t r e l i e s m a i n l y on v e r b a l s k i l l s ( B e e , 1978; S c a r r - S a l a p a t e k , 1 9 7 7 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e WPPSI i s a w e l l d e v e l o p e d t e s t b o t h i n t e r m s o f i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e c o n t e n t s a n d t h e t h o r o u g h n e s s o f i t s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a n d n o r m i n g ( O l d r i d g e & A l l i s o n , 1 9 6 8 ) . The f u l l b a t t e r y i n c l u d e s 11 s u b t e s t s : I n f o r m a t i o n , V o c a b u l a r y , A r i t h m e t i c , S i m i l a r i t i e s , C o m p r e h e n s i o n , S e n t e n c e s , A n i m a l H o u s e , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n , M a z e s , G e o m e t r i c D e s i g n , a nd B l o c k D e s i g n . The WPPSI, w h i c h t a k e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r t o a d m i n i s t e r , was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 200 c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h o f s i x age g r o u p s ( f o u r t h r o u g h s i x - a n d - o n e - h a l f y e a r s ) a n d f r o m v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( W e c h s l e r , 1967, pp. 1 3 - 1 9 ) . The mean o f t h e WPPSI was s e t a t 100 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a t 15. W e c h s l e r (1967) 32 r e p o r t e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m 0.62 t o 0.91 ( o d d - e v e n c o r r e l a t i o n s c o r r e c t e d by t h e Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a ) f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , a n d 0.91 t o 0.97 ( G u i l f o r d ' s c o m p o s i t e r e l i a b i l i t y method) f o r t h e t o t a l IQ s c o r e s . I n a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y (11 week i n t e r v a l ) on a g r o u p o f 50 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who were e n r o l l e d i n two S o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e d f r o m 0.62 t o 0.93 f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , a n d 0.86 t o 0.91 f o r t h e t o t a l IQ s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s on t h e WPPSI, o n l y one i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . T h i s v a l i d i t y s t u d y i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n on t h e VKT. Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t : S t a n d a r d i z e d S c r e e n i n g and P r e d i c t o r I n s t r u m e n t From among t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (VKT) was s e l e c t e d t o s e r v e a s t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t and l a t e r a s a p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . T h i s t e s t m e a s u r e s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f f o u r and s e v e n y e a r s . The VKT c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s u b t e s t s : P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r , V o c a b u l a r y , and Man. The P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r s u b t e s t m e a s u r e s r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s ( B e n d e r , 1938; B o g e r , 1952; K e p h a r t , 1960; V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) ; t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t m e a s u r e s v e r b a l k n o w l e d g e and v e r b a l u s a g e ( A n a s t a s i o w , 1964; Terman & M e r r i l l , 1960; W e c h s l e r , 1967; V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) ; 33 a n d t h e Man s u b t e s t m e a s u r e s a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ( H a r r i s , 1963; K o p p i t z , 1966, 1967; Vane & E i s e n , 1 9 6 2 ) . I n i t i a l l y d e s i g n e d a s a q u i c k s c r e e n i n g t e s t , t h e VKT r e q u i r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i n u t e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t ime. The VKT was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 200 c h i l d r e n a t e a c h h a l f - y e a r l e v e l f r o m f o u r - a n d - o n e - h a l f t o s i x y e a r s . T h e s e c h i l d r e n came f r o m two E a s t e r n s t a t e s i n t h e U.S. ( V a n e , 1968, pp. 2 0 - 2 3 ) . The mean o f t h e VKT was s e t a t 100 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a t 15. T h i s i s t h e same a s t h e mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e f u l l s c a l e s c o r e on t h e WPPSI. Vane ( 1 9 6 8 ) r e p o r t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f 0.97 (one-week i n t e r v a l ) on a g r o u p o f 14 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n and 0.88 ( s i x - m o n t h i n t e r v a l ) f o r a g r o u p o f 36 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . I n t h e o n l y v a l i d i t y s t u d y f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , S c h e r r , P a s e w a r k , a n d Sawyer ( 1 9 7 3 ) r e p o r t e d a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.70 b e t w e e n t h e VKT and t h e WPPSI. The VKT i s a s h o r t e r , more e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t b o t h t o a d m i n i s t e r a n d t o s c o r e t h a n t h e WPPSI. I f i t c o u l d be shown t o be a s v a l i d a s t h e WPPSI ( t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e ) , t h e n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d be l e s s c o s t l y , l e s s t i m e c o n s u m i n g , a nd more e f f i c i e n t . 34 D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e a c h e r and P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : P r e d i c t o r I n s t r u m e n t s The two m a i n methods o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a r e t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s and s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F o r t h i s s t u d y , s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s were p r e f e r r e d o v e r t e a c h e r o r p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s b e c a u s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were b o t h l e s s c o s t l y a nd l e s s t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o a d m i n i s t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o u l d be a s s u r e d o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y t h r o u g h a n s w e r i n g a n o n o m o u s l y . S e v e r a l t e a c h e r and p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n f o r m s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , s u c h a s t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n Check L i s t ( C l a r k & D y e r , 1 9 7 4 ) , t h e D a v i s J o i n t U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t M e n t a l l y G i f t e d M i n o r R e f e r r a l (Kough & De Haan, 1 9 7 4 ) , t h e S c a l e f o r R a t i n g B e h a v i o r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f G i f t e d S t u d e n t s ( R e n z u l l i & H a r t m a n , 1 9 7 1 ) , t h e Check L i s t f o r F i r s t G r a d e P u p i l s ( M i l e y , 1 9 7 5 b ) , and t h e P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Form a t t h e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d L e v e l ( S t o v a l l , 1 9 7 5 ) , were c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e due t o one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. T h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were e i t h e r t o o l o n g o r t o o b r i e f ( M i l e y , 1975b; Thompson, 1974; S c o t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h more t h a n 50 q u e s t i o n s become u n w i e l d y f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o a n s w e r . I f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have l e s s t h a n 10 q u e s t i o n s , t h e y o f t e n a r e u n r e l i a b i l e , t h u s 35 m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y ( M e h r e n s & Lehman, 1 9 8 0 ) ; 2. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v i e w e d had a d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d i n g c r e a t i v i t y , t a l e n t , a n d s o c i a l m a t u r i t y , a s w e l l a s some a c a d e m i c q u e s t i o n s . No q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h f o c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y on v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , and s p a t i a l a b i l i t i e s was a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s a r e t h o u g h t t o be t h e most r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s ( M o o r e , Hahn, & B r e n t a l l , 1 9 7 8 ) ; 3. Many q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had o p e n - e n d e d f o r m a t s . O pen-ended f o r m a t s a r e l e s s r e l i a b l e r e s p o n s e m e t h o d s t h a n more o b j e c t i v e f o r m a t s ( M a r t i n s o n , 1968) ; 4. Some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d f o r use a t t h e h i g h e r e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e l e v e l s ( M i l e y , 1 9 7 5 b ) ; and 5. R e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r most o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had n o t been r e p o r t e d ( M i l e y , 1975b; S i m p s o n & M a r t i n s o n , 1961; S c o t t , 1 9 7 4 ) , t h u s m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e i r use f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . W i t h t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c r i t i c i s m s i n m i n d , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f two new q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n 36 q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I t was ho p e d t h a t w e a k n e s s e s i n p r e v i o u s l y u s e d p r e d i c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d be a v o i d e d , t h e r e b y i m p r o v i n g n o t o n l y t h i s f o r m o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b u t a l s o m a k i n g p r o g r e s s t o w a r d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f more e f f e c t i v e a n d e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The two new q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re t h e P e r k s T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ) and t h e P e r k s P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ). I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C a n d D ) , t h e c o n s t r u c t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , a n d p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e v i e w e d . S i n c e t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s ) f r o m e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o be s i m i l a r i n b o t h p h r a s e o l o g y a n d c o n t e n t , t h e c e n t r a l i d e a s were e x t r a c t e d a n d u s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h an e x p e r t i n t h e t e s t i n g o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( P e r k i n s , N o t e 3 ) . T h i s same p r o c e d u r e f o r f r a m i n g q u e s t i o n s was f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ. The t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ were v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , s p a t i a l , t e m p e r a m e n t , b i o g r a p h i c , and d e m o g r a p h i c . T h e s e c o n s t r u c t s were i d e n t i c a l on b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s ( e x c e p t i n g s p a t i a l a n d d e m o g r a p h i c ) a s b o t h t h e PTNQ a n d 37 PPNQ were d e v e l o p e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The PPNQ a l s o i n c l u d e d f o u r q u e s t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s were r e q u e s t e d t o l i s t s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y ( e . g . , a d v a n c e d w ords u s e d by c h i l d ) . I n s o f a r a s p o s s i b l e , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p a r a l l e l i n c o n t e n t a n d f o r m a t . I f one o r b o t h o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f o u n d t o be a s v a l i d a s t h e WPPSI f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d , t h e n more e c o n o m i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m e t h o d s w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e . D e t a i l s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . V e r b a l Q u e s t i o n s R e s e a r c h e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y h a v e f o u n d t h a t g i f t e d y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g many c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k s i n v o l v i n g l a n g u a g e a n d o f t e n a r e r e a d i n g f l u e n t l y b e f o r e age t h r e e ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1979; Humes & E b e r h a r d t , 1977; K i n c a i d , 1969; Terman & Oden, 1 9 4 7 ) . V o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g , a n d s p e l l i n g s k i l l s were a l s o f o u n d t o be i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t i v e m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t y ( M o o r e , Hahn & B r e n t n a l l , 1978; R o g o l s k y , 1 9 6 8 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d e c i s i o n was t a k e n t o i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l c o n c e p t s : v o c a b u l a r y , s p e l l i n g , p r i n t i n g , s t o r i e s a n d rh y m e s , r e a d i n g , s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s , a nd v e r b a l r e c a l l . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h v e r b a l q u e s t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 38 Q u e s t i o n on v o c a b u l a r y . M o o r e , Hahn, a n d B r e n t n a l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; G l a s n a p p , I s s a c , H i t z , a n d C a r l t o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; Abroms ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; a n d R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h a t a d v a n c e d v o c a b u l a r y was t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "Has l a r g e v o c a b u l a r y . " ; Rough & DeHaan, 1974) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e v o c a b u l a r y q u e s t i o n i n t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 1) and PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n 1 ) , w h i c h i n c l u d e d w ords f r o m g r a d e two and g r a d e t h r e e r e a d e r s ( C l y m e r & M a r t i n , 1978; C l y m e r , Wong, & B e n e d i c t , 1977; C l y m e r , P a r r , G a t e s , & R o b i s o n , 1978; B a l d w i n , 1965; B i e h l , 1 9 6 4 ) , was f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n on v o c a b u l a r y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a d v a n c e d v o c a b u l a r y ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D) .* Q u e s t i o n s on s p e l l i n g . M o o r e , Hahn, a n d B r e n t n a l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d s p e l l i n g t o be t h e t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y o f f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a f t e r v o c a b u l a r y a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s "Knows how t o s p e l l w o rds a t a l e v e l a b o v e h i s / h e r age g r o u p " ( L u n d y , C a r e y , & M o o r e , 1977) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e s p e l l i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 2 & 3) a n d PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 3 & 5 ) , w h i c h i n c l u d e d w o r d s f r o m a g r a d e two s p e l l e r ( K n a p i k , L e v e r t , N e a g l e , & S c h o l l e n , 1 9 6 1 ) , were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on s p e l l i n g a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o s p e l l w o r d s c o r r e c t l y i n b o t h v e r b a l a n d w r i t t e n f o r m ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C an d D ) . 39 Q u e s t i o n s on p r i n t i n g . The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s on p r i n t i n g r e s t e d on i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t , The A n t o n - B r e n n e r D e v e l o p m e n t a l S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( B r e n n e r , 1 9 6 4 ) . B r e n n e r ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h a t , a s t h e c h i l d a p p r o a c h e d t h e f i r s t s c h o o l y e a r s , t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e and p r i n t l e t t e r s was an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s " P r i n t s a l e g e n d on a p o s t e r " ( M e r e d i t h & L a n d i n , 1957) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e p r i n t i n g q u e s t i o n s i n t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 12) and t h e PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n 16) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on p r i n t i n g a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o p r i n t s h o r t w o r d s and s h o r t s e n t e n c e s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Q u e s t i o n on s t o r i e s and r h y m e s . R e s e a r c h on c r e a t i n g s t o r i e s a n d rhymes h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e s t o r i e s a n d rhymes c a n be u s e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n t h e g i f t e d a n d t h e n o n - g i f t e d ( T o r r a n c e , 1966; K h a t e n a , 1 9 8 2 ) . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , " C o n s t r u c t s a n d / o r e x p r e s s e s i m a g i n a t i v e i d e a s , s t o r i e s o r s o l u t i o n s " ; J o h n s o n , 1975) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e s t o r i e s - a n d - r h y m e s q u e s t i o n o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 4) and t h e PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n 6) was f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n on s t o r i e s a n d rhymes i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o t e l l o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s a nd rhymes ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C a n d D ) . 40 Q u e s t i o n s on r e a d i n g . R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n (1979) n o t e d t h a t many g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o r e a d by age t w o , w h i l e Terman ( 1 9 2 5 ) f o u n d t h a t n e a r l y h a l f of t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n h i s s t u d y l e a r n e d t o r e a d b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . S e v e r a l o t h e r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s h ave a l s o shown t h a t many g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o r e a d b e f o r e t h e y e n t e r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n (Humes & E b e r h a r d t , 1977; K i n c a i d , 1969; Terman & Oden, 1 9 4 7 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , h a l f o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a v e t a u g h t t h e m s e l v e s t o r e a d b e f o r e s c h o o l e n t r y ( N a t i o n a l F a c t s S h e e t on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , I t e m 14, 1971; N o l t e , 1 9 7 6 ) . A d d i t i o n a l a v a i l a b l e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who began t o r e a d a t an e a r l y age were more l i k e l y t o be g i f t e d i n o t h e r a c a d e m i c a r e a s ( D u r k i n , 1966; Terman & Oden, 1947; K i n c a i d , 1 9 6 9 ) . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "Reads a g r e a t d e a l on h i s own."; M i l e y , 1975a) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e r e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 5, 6, 7, & 8) and PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 7, 9, 11, & 12) were f o r m u l a t e d . The PTNQ and PPNQ r e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o r e a d words a n d e n t i r e b o o k s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Q u e s t i o n s on s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . R e n z u l l i a n d H a r t m a n (1971) f o u n d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s c a n be u s e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 41 The s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , " L o o k s f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n e v e n t s , p e o p l e , a n d t h i n g s " ; R e n z u l l i & H a r t m a n , 1971) and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s s u c h a s t h e WPPSI and t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 9, 10, & 11) and t h e PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 13, 14, & 15) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , a n d t h i n g s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Q u e s t i o n on v e r b a l r e c a l l . G l a s n a p p e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1) f o u n d t h a t many e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e g i f t e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a s t e r y a n d r a p i d r e c a l l o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n was an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f v e r y s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "Has q u i c k m a s t e r y and r e c a l l o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n " ; R e n z u l l i & H a r t m a n , 1971) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e v e r b a l r e c a l l q u e s t i o n o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 31) a n d PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n 36) was f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n on v e r b a l r e c a l l i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o name s t r e e t s i n h i s c i t y o r town ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . 42 Mathemat i c a l Q u e s t i o n s M o o r e , Hahn, and B r e n t n a l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) and R o g o l s k y (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s c a n be u s e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n t h e g i f t e d a nd t h e n o n - g i f t e d . M o o r e , Hahn, and B r e n t n a l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , i n t h e i r s t u d y w i t h g r a d e f i v e a n d g r a d e s i x e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , f o u n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s t o be t h e s e c o n d most i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y a f t e r v o c a b u l a r y . A c c o r d i n g t o W e s l e y a n d S u l l i v a n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e a v e r a g e f o u r - y e a r - o l d c o u l d r e p e a t t h r e e d i g i t s f r o m memory and t h e a v e r a g e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d c o u l d r e p e a t s e v e n d i g i t s f r o m memory, b u t o f t e n a g i f t e d c h i l d w o u l d a c h i e v e a b o v e what was a v e r a g e f o r h i s age l e v e l ( e . g . , a f i v e - y e a r - o l d g i f t e d c h i l d m i g h t be a b l e t o r e p e a t t h e same number o f d i g i t s a s an a v e r a g e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o e x a m i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f e x i s t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "The p u p i l u n d e r s t a n d s t h e c o n c e p t s o f p l a c e v a l u e . " ; M i l e y , 1 9 7 5 a ) , t h e a r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t o f t h e WPPSI a l s o was e x a m i n e d b e f o r e d e v e l o p i n g t h e g e n e r a l m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . The PTNQ a n d PPNQ i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s s u c h a s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r e n c y and n u m e r i c a l r e c a l l . The q u e s t i o n s on m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s i n t h e PTNQ a n d t h e PPNQ a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o c o u n t (PTNQ q u e s t i o n s 14, 15 & 16; PPNQ q u e s t i o n s 18, 19 & 2 0 ) , t e l l t h e t i m e (PTNQ q u e s t i o n s 17, 18 & 19; PPNQ q u e s t i o n s 2 1 , 22 & 43 2 3 ) , r e p e a t a s e r i e s o f numbers f r o m memory (PTNQ q u e s t i o n s 2 3 , 24, 25, 26 & 27; PPNQ q u e s t i o n s 27, 28, 29, 30 & 31) and u n d e r s t a n d c u r r e n c y (PTNQ q u e s t i o n s 20, 21 & 22; PPNQ q u e s t i o n s 24, 25 & 26) ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . S p a t i a l Q u e s t i o n s G i b s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) f o u n d t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s y m b o l s ( e . g . , t r i a n g l e s , s q u a r e s ) and o b j e c t c o p y i n g were i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l . p r o c e s s e s i n e a r l y - g r a d e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . R o g o l s k y ( 1 9 68) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t s p a t i a l c o m p e t e n c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o v e r b a l a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p e t e n c e , was a good p r e d i c t o r o f t h e g i f t e d . B o t h s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e WPPSI a n d t h e VKT, c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s i n s p a t i a l a r e a s . The PTNQ i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s : g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s a nd compass d i r e c t i o n s w h i l e t h e PPNQ i n c l u d e d t h e same s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n s p l u s one a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n . I n t h i s a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n were r e q u e s t e d t o draw g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s ( e . g . , s q u a r e ) . D e t a i l s o f e a c h t y p e o f s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s on g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s . R e s e a r c h on g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c o g n i z i n g and r e p r o d u c i n g g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s a r e r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , r e f l e c t i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l s ( B o g e r , 1 9 5 2 ) . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s f r o m 44 p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "Can t h e p u p i l i d e n t i f y a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t f r o m a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n ? " ; C h e r r y , 1976) a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n c l u d i n g t h e VKT P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r D r a w i n g s u b t e s t ( V a n e , 1968) a n d t h e WPPSI G e o m e t r i c D e s i g n s u b t e s t ( W e c h s l e r , 1967) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n s on g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s i n t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 28) and t h e PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 32 & 33) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o b o t h r e c o g n i z e and draw g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s s u c h a s t h e s q u a r e and t r i a n g l e ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Q u e s t i o n s on compass d i r e c t i o n s . R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y t h e p o i n t s o f t h e compass was an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f t h e g i f t e d . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , " P o i n t t o t h e E a s t " , F r a n k s , 1974) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e compass d i r e c t i o n s q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 29 & 30) a n d PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 34 & 35) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on compass d i r e c t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h compass p o i n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Temperament Q u e s t i o n s R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s ( 1 9 6 3 ) , R u b e n z e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Passow ( 1 9 8 1 ) , a n d Z i v ( 1 9 7 7 ) S i s k ( 1 9 7 7 ) , D a v i s f o u n d t h a t 45 c u r i o s i t y , p e r s i s t e n c e , a n d commitment t o t a s k were i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Temperament q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , " T r i e s t o d i s c o v e r t h e how and why o f t h i n g s " ; R e n z u l l i & H a r t m a n , 1971) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e temperament q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ and PPNQ were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on temperament a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s c u r i o s i t y (PTNQ q u e s t i o n 35; PPNQ q u e s t i o n 4 0 ) , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t a s k s (PTNQ q u e s t i o n 32; PPNQ q u e s t i o n 3 7 ) , a b i l i t y t o work w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n (PTNQ q u e s t i o n 33; PPNQ q u e s t i o n 3 8 ) , and commitment t o t a s k (PTNQ q u e s t i o n 34; PPNQ q u e s t i o n 39) ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c Q u e s t i o n s The o n l y p u r p o s e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s was t o o b t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e s o f c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r s , a n d p a r e n t s . S i x b i o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s , s i x d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e PTNQ, and s i x d i f f e r e n t d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e PPNQ were d e s i g n e d . The s e x a n d b i r t h d a t e o f t h e c h i l d a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h e b i o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u s i o n o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PTNQ was t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d on g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e s i x d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) f o u r d e m o g r a p h i c 46 q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w o r k s h o p s a n d c o u r s e s were i n c l u d e d t o d e t e r m i n e how many t e a c h e r s h a d a t t e n d e d w o r k s h o p s a nd c o u r s e s on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . Two d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s on t h e t e a c h e r ' s b a c k g r o u n d ( i . e . , number o f y e a r s t e a c h i n g a n d g r a d e l e v e l s t a u g h t ) were a l s o i n c l u d e d . The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u s i o n o f many o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s o f t h e PPNQ was b a s e d on t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d by Coleman ( 1 9 6 6 ) , W h i t e , K aban, a n d A t t a n u c c i ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Kaufman ( 1 9 7 3 ) , K e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , E v a n s a n d W a i t e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , W h i t e ( 1 9 8 2 ) , W i l l e r m a n and F r i e d l e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Kaufman ( 1 9 7 3 ) , H i t c h f i e l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) , B a r b e ( 1 9 5 6 ) , J o r d a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d G r o t h ( 1 9 7 5 ) who f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d . F o r e x a m p l e , Coleman (1966) f o u n d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o home e n v i r o n m e n t a c c o u n t e d f o r 90% o f t h e v a r i a n c e when c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y was m e a s u r e d by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . W h i t e , K a b a n , a nd A t t a n u c c i (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f l i f e a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s a r e f o r m e d . Many o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by Coleman ( 1 9 6 6 ) . The s i x d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ ( s e e A p p e n d i x D) a r e l i s t e d b e l o w : 1. number o f p e o p l e i n t h e home, 2. number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y , 3. p a r e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , 47 4. f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , 5. m o t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , a n d 5. t y p e o f f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e . A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ F o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a nd t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s , a 3 5 - q u e s t i o n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ, s e e A p p e n d i x C) and a 3 5 - q u e s t i o n p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ, A p p e n d i x D) were d e v i s e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 35 q u e s t i o n s , a n o t h e r f i v e q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ p r o v i d e d p a r e n t s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g i v e e x a m p l e s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y . The a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were n o t p l a c e d i n t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s a r e a b l e t o compare t h e a b i l i t i e s o f . k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , w h e r e a s p a r e n t s may n o t have t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y ( R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . B o t h t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s : a s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n a n d a b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . The s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n c o n t a i n e d v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , s p a t i a l , a n d temp e r a m e n t q u e s t i o n s . The b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s b i r t h d a t e o f t h e c h i l d , s e x o f t h e c h i l d , f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n , a n d number o f s i b l i n g s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . B e f o r e t h e y a n s w e r e d t h e 48 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e p a r e n t s were r e q u e s t e d t o p r o v i d e a g l o b a l e s t i m a t e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s e i t h e r a s a v e r a g e o r ab o v e a v e r a g e . T h i s g l o b a l e s t i m a t e was on a s h e e t s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n was u s e d a s t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i n t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The r a t i n g s c a l e f o r t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on t h e p a r e n t a n d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a f o u r - p o i n t L i k e r t r e s p o n s e s c a l e ( L i k e r t , 1 9 3 2 ) . The t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y on a s c a l e o f one t o f o u r . T h i s r e s p o n s e s c a l e was c h o s e n b e c a u s e more v a r i a b i l i t y e x i s t e d t h a n w i t h a t w o - p o i n t r e s p o n s e f o r m a t ( N u n n a l l y , 1 9 6 7 ) . P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d T e s t o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s P r i o r t o t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y , t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s f r o m l o c a l k i n d e r g a r t e n s were a s k e d f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s e d q u e s t i o n s i n t h e v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , s p a t i a l , and temperament a r e a s f o r t h e PTNQ. T h e s e t e a c h e r s a p p r o v e d o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t e n t a n d t h o u g h t t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s a l s o were r e v i e w e d a n d a p p r o v e d by t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e PTNQ were t h e same a s t h o s e on t h e PPNQ. 49 I n a d d i t i o n , f o u r k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e c h i l d r e n who were deemed a b o v e a v e r a g e by t h e i r p a r e n t s and who came f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l f a m i l i e s i n h i g h s o c i o e c o n o m i c n e i g h b o u r h o o d s were q u e s t i o n e d by t h e e x a m i n e r a s t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s u s e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The same f o u r c h i l d r e n were t h e n g i v e n t h e VKT and WPPSI a s w e l l . T h r e e o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n s w e r e d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; t h e same t h r e e c h i l d r e n s c o r e d two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s above t h e mean on t h e F u l l S c a l e s c o r e o f t h e VKT an d t h e t o t a l s c o r e o f t h e WPPSI (Mean = 100, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n = 1 5 ) . The f o u r t h c h i l d a n s w e r e d f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o r r e c t l y a n d s c o r e d n e a r t h e mean on b o t h t h e VKT and WPPSI. F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y E a c h n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t - t e s t e d . The PTNQ and PPNQ were t e s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e L i k e r t r a t i n g s c a l e , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e i t e m s , a n d t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s u b t e s t s . No names a p p e a r e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n was made t h r o u g h c o d e numbers. P r o c e d u r e s T h r e e d a y c a r e c e n t r e s , one f r o m e a c h o f t h r e e u r b a n a r e a s l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a o f B r i t i s h 50 C o l u m b i a , were t h e s o u r c e f r o m w h i c h k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e d c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y . A t t h e t i m e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ( m i d - D e c e m b e r , 1979 t o M a r c h , 1 9 8 0 ) , i t was more p r a c t i c a l t o use d a y c a r e c e n t r e s t h a n k i n d e r g a r t e n s b e c a u s e o f more r a p i d a c c e s s s i n c e t e s t i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d p r i n c i p a l s , a s w e l l a s t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s p r i o r t o d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d have t a k e n c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r t h a n r e c e i v i n g p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s w h i c h was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t e s t i n g i n t h e d a y c a r e c e n t r e s c o u l d commence. T w e l v e t e a c h e r a n d 22 p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d d u r i n g December, 1979, and f o l l o w - u p r e m i n d e r s were s e n t w i t h i n a month t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s who had n o t r e t u r n e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d d u r i n g J a n u a r y t o A p r i l , 1980. The 12 t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e t h r e e d a y c a r e c e n t r e s c o n s e n t e d t o c o m p l e t e one PTNQ, a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were g i v e n i n a l e t t e r a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i r s t page o f e a c h q u e s t i o n n i a r e ( A p p e n d i x C -- F i r s t E d i t i o n ) . S i x o f t h e t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d f i r s t t o n o m i n a t e a nd t h e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r PTNQ f o r an a b o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d ; t h e o t h e r s i x were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r PTNQ f o r an a v e r a g e c h i l d . A c a d e m i c a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n ( a v e r a g e o r a b o v e a v e r a g e ) was e s t i m a t e d by t e a c h e r j u d g m e n t . T h e s e e s t i m a t e s o f a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y were u s e d a s 51 t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l i a b i l i t y . A t e a c h d a y c a r e c e n t r e a m e e t i n g was h e l d , a t w h i c h t i m e , t h e p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e d c h i l d r e n were r e q u e s t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . T w e n t y - t w o p a r e n t s a g r e e d t o a n s w e r t h e PPNQ. A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and t h e PPNQ were s e n t t o e a c h o f t h e 22 p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e d c h i l d r e n . The p a r e n t s were r e q u e s t e d , f i r s t , t o r e p l y t o an e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n on w h e t h e r t h e i r c h i l d was a v e r a g e o r a b o v e a v e r a g e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , and t h e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e PPNQ f o r t h e i r c h i l d . Some o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e f o r t h e p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t i s t o say*, t h e p a r e n t s a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o m p l e t e d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To e n s u r e t h a t s c o r i n g w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r m a r k e d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . V e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g by an e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t r e v e a l e d no e r r o r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o d e d t h e d a t a a n d i t was v e r i f i e d by an a s s i s t a n t . T h e r e were no c o d i n g e r r o r s . The d a t a e n t r y s e r v i c e v e r i f i e d a l l t h e k e y p u n c h i n g o f t h e d a t a . I t e m a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on t h e t e a c h e r and p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s i n g t h e LERTAP c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were s u m m a r i z e d u s i n g t h e 52 F r e q u e n c i e s s u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e & H u l l , 1 9 7 5 ) . PTNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y Of t h e 12 t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t , 10 ( 8 3 . 3 % ) were r e t u r n e d . Of t h e 10 c h i l d r e n w i t h c o m p l e t e d PTNQs, f o u r ( 4 0 % ) were n o m i n a t e d as a b o v e a v e r a g e by t h e i r t e a c h e r s on t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n on g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y and s i x (6 0 % ) were n o m i n a t e d a s a v e r a g e . The s a m p l e d a t a were t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n , t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f w h i c h c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E. T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t h e s e x and age of t h e c h i l d , e n r o l l m e n t o f s c h o o l , number o f y e a r s t e a c h i n g , a n d number o f g r a d e l e v e l s t a u g h t . I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ was p e r f o r m e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x F ) . A l l q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n were c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d . The r a n g e o f t h e s e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween t h e i t e m s a n d t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was 0 . 148 t o 0.863. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e H o y t ' s ANOVA ( H o y t , 1941) f o r t h e s u b t e s t s a n d C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 1. The PTNQ t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.82. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y T a b l e 1 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f t h e Measurement f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ: F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y k Mean SD R SEM PTNQ (n=!0) V e r b a l 1 1 4 31 . 60 1 1 . .56 0. .93 3, .06 M a t h 1 4 28, .00 10. .84 0. ,91 3, .25 S p a t i a l 3 7, .90 2, .88 0, .65 1 , .70 Temperament 4 13, .00 3, .62 0, .96 0, .72 T o t a l 2 35 80, .50 26, .53 0, .82 1 1 , .26 PPNQ (n=!9) V e r b a l 1 1 4 38. ,26 9. ,65 0. ,88 3. 34 M a t h 1 4 29. .32 8, , 32 0, .86 3. 1 1 S p a t i a l 3 10. .79 3. ,38 0, .64 2. 03 Temperament 4 13. .63 2. .93 0. .86 1 . 10 T o t a l 2 35 92. .00 20, .74 0. .77 9. 95 N o t e . PTNQ and PPNQ: 1 s t e d i t i o n -- f o u r p o i n t L i k e r t r e s p o n s e s c a l e . 1 S u b t e s t s : H o y t ' s ANOVA r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( H o y t , 1941) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s . 2 T o t a l T e s t s : C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) i s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s . 54 c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , a n d temperament s u b t e s t s e x c e e d e d 0.90. The l o w e r s p a t i a l r e l i a b i l i t y ( 0 . 6 5 ) was l i k e l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s m a l l number of i t e m s i n t h i s s u b t e s t a n d / o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s p a t i a l c o n t e n t ( M e h r e n s & Lehman, 1 9 8 0 ) . PPNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e F i r s t P i l o t S t u d y Of t h e 22 p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t , 19 ( 8 6 . 4 % ) were r e t u r n e d . Of t h e 19 c h i l d r e n w i t h c o m p l e t e d PPNQs, f i f t e e n ( 7 8 . 9 % ) were n o m i n a t e d a s a b o v e a v e r a g e by t h e i r p a r e n t s on t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n on g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y a n d f o u r ( 2 1 . 1 % ) were n o m i n a t e d a s a v e r a g e . The s a m p l e d a t a were t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e b i o g r a p h i c and d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . The f r e q u e n c i e s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E. T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t h e sex a n d age of t h e c h i l d , l e v e l o f p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , number of s i b l i n g s , b i r t h o r d e r o f c h i l d , a n d number o f a d u l t s i n t h e home. I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ was p e r f o r m e d . I t e m 27 ( c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s f r o m memory) and i t e m 28 ( c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t a s e r i e s o f f o u r d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory) i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t o f t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n were c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d ( A p p e n d i x G ) . A l l o t h e r i t e m s f o r t h e s a m p l e were c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . The 55 r a n g e o f t h e s e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i t e m s and t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was -0.179 t o 0.811. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e H o y t ' s ANOVA ( H o y t , 1941) f o r t h e s u b t e s t s and C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 1. The PPNQ t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.77. The p a t t e r n o f s u b t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s was t h e same as f o r t h e PTNQ. The v e r b a l ( 0 . 8 8 ) , t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l ( 0 . 8 6 ) , and t h e temperament ( 0 . 8 6 ) r e l i a b i l i t i e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e s p a t i a l ( 0 . 6 4 ) r e l i a b i l i t y . A g a i n , a s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e l o w e r s p a t i a l r e l i a b i l i t y may ha v e been t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s m a l l number o f i t e m s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , a s w e l l as t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s p a t i a l c o n t e n t ( M e h r e n s & Lehman, 1 9 8 0 ) . F i r s t R e v i s i o n o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ The r e s u l t s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f i r s t p i l o t t e s t s e r v e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r m a k i n g s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F i r s t , t h e L i k e r t s c a l e u s e d i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was d i s c a r d e d i n f a v o u r o f a d i c h o t o m o u s y e s / n o f o r m a t f o r t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s . The r e a s o n s f o r m a k i n g t h i s c h a n g e w e r e : 1. I t e m stems d i d n o t f i t t h e L i k e r t r e s p o n s e mode i n a l l i n s t a n c e s . 2. B o t h t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s f o u n d t h e L i k e r t r e s p o n s e f o r m a t c o n f u s i n g . A l s o , comments 56 r e c e i v e d f r o m t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was t o o d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s on t h e L i k e r t s c a l e . I n an e a r l i e r s t u d y , S m i t h ( 1 9 58) n o t e d t h a t an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h t w o - c h o i c e i t e m s was p r e f e r a b l e t o a t e s t w i t h more c h o i c e s b e c a u s e i t was q u i c k e r a n d e a s i e r t o a n s w e r . P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , an a v e r a g e a n d an a b o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d w o u l d e x h i b i t . The t e r m s , " a v e r a g e " a n d "above a v e r a g e " , were u s e d i n s t e a d o f t h e t e r m s , " n o n - g i f t e d " a n d " g i f t e d " . Upon c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s e v e n t e a c h e r s a n d s e v e n p a r e n t s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t e r m s " a v e r a g e " a n d "above a v e r a g e " were more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f Kaufman ( 1 9 7 3 ) , W h i t e , K a b a n , a n d A t t a n u c c i ( 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d G r o t h ( 1 9 75) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e a d d i t i o n a l d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , number o f b o o k s i n t h e home) were f o r m u l a t e d a n d a d d e d t o t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The PPNQ c o n t a i n e d s e v e n d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s , w h e r e a s t h e PTNQ r e t a i n e d t h e same t h r e e d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s a s i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n . A l l s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y f i r s t - e d i t i o n q u e s t i o n s were r e t a i n e d i n t h e r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h t h e new y e s / n o r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . 57 G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ, b o t h w i t h 35 s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s , was u s e d i n t h e s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y ( A p p e n d i x C, S e c o n d E d i t i o n a n d A p p e n d i x D, S e c o n d E d i t i o n ) . The t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : ( a ) a s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n - i t e m s 1 t o 35 - ( i . e . , v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , s p a t i a l , a n d t e m p e r a m e n t ) ; (b) a b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n ( e . g . , b i r t h d a t e o f c h i l d a n d p a r e n t ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n ) ; a n d ( c ) an e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n ( e . g . , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a b o v e a v e r a g e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d ) . The s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n was t h e same i n b o t h n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . E a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d t h i r t y - f i v e q u e s t i o n s : q u e s t i o n s 1 t h r o u g h 13 a n d q u e s t i o n 31 were v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s ; q u e s t i o n s 14 t h r o u g h 27 were m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s ; q u e s t i o n s 28 t h r o u g h 30 were s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n s ; a n d q u e s t i o n s 32 t h r o u g h 35 were temperament q u e s t i o n s . The r a t i n g s c a l e was a y e s / n o r e s p o n s e s c a l e e x c e p t f o r t h r e e c h e c k - m a r k q u e s t i o n s i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s e c t i o n . The d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n on t h e t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e l a t e d t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d , w h e r e a s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n on t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e l a t e d t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c h i l d ' s f a m i l y . S i x a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d 58 i n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T hese w e r e : 1. number of m a g a z i n e s s u b s c r i b e d t o r e g u l a r l y , 2. number o f b o o k s i n t h e home, 3. w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e m o t h e r w o r k e d o u t s i d e t h e home, 4. number o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s w a t c h e d by t h e c h i l d , 5. c h i l d ' s f a v o u r i t e t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m , a n d 6. t y p e o f f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e ( e . g . , a p a r t m e n t ) . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a g l o b a l r a t i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . The r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y a s a v e r a g e o r above a v e r a g e . The r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o were a s k e d t o l i s t i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a v e r a g e c h i l d and an ab o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d . T h i s s e c t i o n was t h e same i n b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y A s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g e a r l y May, 1980 on t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f : 1. T e s t i n g t h e y e s / n o r e s p o n s e f o r m a t ; 2. I n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a n t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s o f 59 k i n d e r g a r t e n - a g e d d a y c a r e c h i l d r e n ; a g r o u p o f k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f i n a l s t u d y a n d , t h u s , t h i s s a m p l e w o u l d r e s e m b l e more c l o s e l y t h e f i n a l s a m p l e ; 3. C o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y s t u d y ; a n d 4. C o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y t o t e s t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . No names a p p e a r e d on t h e t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y b e i n g made by code n u mbers. P r o c e d u r e s F i f t y - f i v e t e a c h e r s f r o m two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a s k e d d u r i n g e a r l y May, 1980 t o c o m p l e t e a PTNQ on one k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d f r o m t h e i r c l a s s . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , a s k i n g t h e t e a c h e r e i t h e r t o n o m i n a t e an a v e r a g e o r an a b o v e  a v e r a g e c h i l d , was i n c l u d e d w i t h e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One week a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r s h a d r e t u r n e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a s e c o n d i d e n t i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e same t e a c h e r s s o t h a t t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d be m e a s u r e d . E a c h t e a c h e r c o m p l e t e d a s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e c h i l d t h a t t h e y h a d n o m i n a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 60 The o f f i c i a l s o f t h e two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d d i d n o t g i v e p e r m i s s i o n t o i s s u e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s c h o o l s y s t e m s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a r e n t s a m p l e came f r o m two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a m p l e . T h i s d i d n o t p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e t h e PTNQ and PPNQ were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y . The p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o 38 p a r e n t s c o n t a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y by t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r by c o n t a c t m o t h e r s . One week a f t e r t h e p a r e n t s h a d r e t u r n e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a s e c o n d i d e n t i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e same p a r e n t s a s p a r t o f a t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d d u r i n g May and J u n e , 1980. The r e s e a r c h e r m a r k e d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o e n s u r e t h a t s c o r i n g w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t . V e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g r e v e a l e d no s c o r i n g e r r o r s . The r e s e a r c h e r c o d e d a l l t h e d a t a and an a s s i s t a n t v e r i f i e d a l l t h e c o d i n g . T h e r e were no c o d i n g e r r o r s . The d a t a e n t r y s e r v i c e v e r i f i e d a l l t h e k e y p u n c h i n g o f t h e d a t a . F r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a o f t h e s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y a n d P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e t e s t - r e t e s t a n a l y s i s were c o m p u t e d u s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e & H u l l , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t e m a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on t h e t e a c h e r and p a r e n t 61 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s i n g t h e L e r t a p c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . PTNQ: R e s u l t s of t h e S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y Of t h e 55 t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t , 45 ( 8 1 . 8 % ) were r e t u r n e d . On t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n on g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y , t e a c h e r s n o m i n a t e d 19 ( 4 2 . 2 % ) c h i l d r e n a s a v e r a g e and 26 ( 5 7 . 8 % ) c h i l d r e n a s a b o v e a v e r a g e . The d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r s a m p l e were t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e b i o g r a p h i c and d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n s . The f r e q u e n c i e s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E. T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t h e s e x and age of t h e c h i l d , e n r o l l m e n t of s c h o o l , number of y e a r s t e a c h i n g , and number of g r a d e l e v e l s t a u g h t . I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ was p e r f o r m e d . A l l i t e m s e x c e p t i t e m number 11 ( c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s and t h i n g s ) i n t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n and i t e m number 35 ( c h i l d i s c u r i o u s a b o u t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ) i n t h e t emperament s e c t i o n were c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d . The r a n g e o f t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e i t e m s and t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was -0.021 t o 0.874. C o m p l e t e i t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e t e a c h e r s a m p l e i s a v a i l a b l e i n A p p e n d i x H. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e H o y t ' s 62 ANOVA ( H o y t , 1941) f o r t h e s u b t e s t s and C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. The C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( 0 . 6 1 ) f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t more t h a n one c o n s t r u c t ( i . e . , d i f f e r e n t s u b t e s t s ) was b e i n g m e a s u r e d ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The v e r b a l ( 0 . 8 6 ) , t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l ( 0 . 7 8 ) a nd s p a t i a l ( 0 . 7 2 ) i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e temperament ( 0 . 5 0 ) r e l i a b i l i t y . The s l i g h t l y l o w e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s a n d t h e t o t a l t e s t on t h e s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y o f t h e PTNQ a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y seemed t o have been c a u s e d by t h e r e d u c t i o n o f c h o i c e s on t h e r e s p o n s e s c a l e . T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was l e s s v a r i a n c e f o r e a c h i t e m ( S m i t h , 1 9 5 8 ) . The PTNQ t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d by t h e P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w e r e : v e r b a l ( 0 . 9 8 ) , m a t h e m a t i c a l ( 0 . 9 8 ) , s p a t i a l ( 0 . 9 0 ) , t e m p e r a m e n t ( 0 . 9 8 ) , a n d t o t a l t e s t ( 0 . 9 9 ) . T h e s e r e l i a b i l i t i e s showed t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e PTNQ was s t a b l e o v e r a one-week i n t e r v a l . PPNQ: R e s u l t s o f t h e S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y Of t h e 38 p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t o u t , 34 ( 8 9 . 5 % ) were r e t u r n e d . On t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n on g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y , t h e p a r e n t s n o m i n a t e d 22 ( 6 4 . 7 % ) c h i l d r e n a s a v e r a g e a n d 12 ( 3 5 . 3 % ) c h i l d r e n a s ab o v e a v e r a g e . The 63 T a b l e 2 Means S t a n d a r d S t a n d a r d PTNQ D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , E r r o r s o f t h e Measurement f o r t h e and PPNQ: S e c o n d P i l o t S t u d y a n d Mean SD R SEM PTNQ (n=45) V e r b a l 1 1 4 22. .51 3, .93 0. .86 1 . 47 M a t h 1 4 23. . 1 3 4, .45 0. ,78 2. 09 S p a t i a l 3 6. ,76 1 , .09 0. .72 0. 58 Temperament 4 7. , 1 1 1 , .07 0. .50 0. 76 T o t a l 2 35 59. ,51 8, .32 0. .61 5. 20 PPNQ (n=34) V e r b a l 1 1 4 23. , 1 5 3, .29 0. .83 1 . 36 M a t h 1 4 24. ,29 4. . 39 0. .78 2. 06 S p a t i a l 3 10. ,03 1 , .59 0. .47 1 . 1 6 Temperament 4 7. ,24 1 , .02 0. .52 0. 71 T o t a l 2 35 64. ,71 8, .31 0. .68 4. 70 N o t e . PTNQ and PPNQ: 2nd e d i t i o n r e s p o n s e s c a l e . two c h o i c e y e s / n o 1 S u b t e s t s : H o y t ' s ANOVA r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( H o y t , 1941) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s . 2 T o t a l T e s t s : C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) i s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s . 64 T a b l e 3 PTNQ And PPNQ: T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( S e c o n d E d i t i o n ) T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i 1 i t y Mean SD Mean SD C o e f f i c i e n t PTNQ (n=45) V e r b a l 22. ,51 3, .94 22. .64 4, .05 0. .98 M a t h 23. , 1 3 4, .45 23. , 38 4, .76 0. .98 S p a t i a l 6. ,76 1 , .09 6. .89 1 , . 1 1 0. .90 Temperament 7. . 1 1 1 , . 07 7. , 1 1 1 . .07 0. .98 T o t a l 59. ,51 8, .33 60. ,02 8, .91 0. .99 PPNQ (n=34) V e r b a l 23. . 1 5 3, .29 23. .41 3. . 35 0. .95 M a t h 24. .29 4, .39 24. .71 4. .42 0. .96 S p a t i a l 10. .03 1 . . 57 10. .29 1 , .47 0. .92 Temperament 7. ,24 1 . .02 7. .09 1 , . 1 6 0. .90 T o t a l 64. .71 8. .31 65. . 50 8, .44 0. ,97 65 d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s a m p l e was t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e b i o g r a p h i c , d e m o g r a p h i c , a nd e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n s . The f r e q u e n c i e s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E. T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t h e s e x a n d age o f t h e c h i l d , l e v e l o f p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , number o f s i b l i n g s , b i r t h o r d e r o f c h i l d , number o f a d u l t s i n t h e home, r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e home, and number o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s w a t c h e d . I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ was p e r f o r m e d . A l l i t e m s e x c e p t i t e m 35 ( c h i l d i s c u r i o u s a b o u t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ) i n t h e temperament s e c t i o n c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e p a r e n t ' s e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d . The r a n g e o f t h e s e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i t e m s a n d t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was -0.090 t o 0.537. C o m p l e t e i t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e p a r e n t s a m p l e i s a v a i l a b l e i n A p p e n d i x I . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e H o y t ' s ANOVA ( H o y t , 1941) f o r t h e s u b t e s t s a n d C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. The C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( 0 . 6 8 ) f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s on t h e PPNQ i n d i c a t e d t h a t more t h a n one c o n s t r u c t ( i . e . , d i f f e r e n t s u b t e s t s ) was b e i n g m e a s u r e d ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The v e r b a l ( 0 . 8 3 ) a nd t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l ( 0 . 7 8 ) r e l i a b i l i t i e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e t e m p e r a m e n t ( 0 . 5 2 ) a nd t h e s p a t i a l ( 0 . 4 7 ) 66 r e l i a b i l i t i e s . The r e a s o n f o r t h e l o w e r s p a t i a l a n d temp e r a m e n t r e l i a b i l i t i e s may ha v e been a r e s u l t o f t h e s m a l l number o f i t e m s i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s ( M e h r e n s & Lehman, 1 9 8 0 ) . The PPNQ t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d by t h e P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w e r e : v e r b a l ( 0 . 9 5 ) , m a t h e m a t i c a l ( 0 . 9 6 ) , s p a t i a l ( 0 . 9 2 ) , temperament ( 0 . 9 0 ) , a n d t o t a l t e s t ( 0 . 9 7 ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e PPNQ were s t a b l e o v e r a one-week i n t e r v a l . S e c o n d R e v i s i o n o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n f o r t h e s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by B r a n n o n (1981) who n o t e d t h a t i t e m s w i t h a y e s / n o r e s p o n s e f o r m a t were s l i g h t l y l e s s r e l i a b l e t h a n i t e m s w i t h more t h a n two r e s p o n s e o p t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d i e s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t , h o w e v e r , t o w a r r a n t r e v i s i n g i t e m s t e m s o r f o r f e i t i n g t h e o t h e r b e n e f i t s ( s e e s e c t i o n : F i r s t R e v i s i o n o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ, p. 55) o f t h e y e s / n o r e s p o n s e s c a l e . A s e c o n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was' n e c e s s a r y p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was l o w e r i n t h e s p a t i a l s e c t i o n t h a n i n t h e v e r b a l a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l s e c t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s were 67 i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c o n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o o b t a i n a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s . A l s o , t h e o r d e r o f s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s was c h a n g e d a n d a d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c h i l d a n d an e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n was a d d e d . I n an a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s p a t i a l s u b t e s t , a d d i t i o n a l s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n s were a d d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A c c o r d i n g t o M e h r e n s and Lehman (1980) and S t a n l e y a n d H o p k i n s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , a s u b t e s t t h a t h a s a t l e a s t 10 i t e m s i s more s u i t a b l e t h a n a s h o r t e r s u b t e s t f o r r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s ; t h u s , f o u r t e e n i t e m s were d e v i s e d f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ. Q u e s t i o n number 28 f r o m t h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e s e p a r a t e q u e s t i o n s a n d f i v e a d d i t i o n a l s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n s ( q u e s t i o n s 30, 39, 40, 4 1 , and 42) were a d d e d . The d e c i s i o n on t h e t y p e s o f a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s t o u s e was made a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a g r o u p o f t e n t e a c h e r s a n d t e n p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e s e t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a n d c l a r i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . The b a s i s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e a c h t y p e o f a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n f o r t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 68 Q u e s t i o n s on s o l v i n g p u z z l e s . R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n a n d R o b i n s o n (1979) f o u n d t h a t c o m p e t e n t young c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c o m p l e t e c o m p l i c a t e d j i g s a w p u z z l e s b e f o r e age t h r e e . P u z z l e - s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s f r o m s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ( s u c h a s t h e Maze s u b t e s t o f t h e WPPSI) a n d e x i s t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , " S o l v e s c o m p l e x p u z z l e s " ; B r a z o s p o r t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , 1961) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n s on s o l v i n g p u z z l e s i n t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 39 & 40) and t h e PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n s 39 & 40) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n s on s o l v i n g p u z z l e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o c o m p l e t e a j i g s a w p u z z l e w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d t i m e l i m i t a n d t o n a v i g a t e a maze ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . Q u e s t i o n on g r a p h s and s y m b o l s . M o o r e , Hahn, a nd B r e n t n a l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , i n t h e i r s t u d y w i t h g r a d e f i v e a n d s i x s t u d e n t s , f o u n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g r a p h s a n d s y m b o l s t o be t h e f o u r t h most i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y a f t e r v o c a b u l a r y , m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s , a n d s p e l l i n g . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s " C h i l d c a n i n t e r p r e t maps." ( W o o d l i f f e , 1977) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e g r a p h s - a n d - s y m b o l s q u e s t i o n on t h e PTNQ ( q u e s t i o n 41) a n d PPNQ ( q u e s t i o n 41) were f o r m u l a t e d . The q u e s t i o n on g r a p h s a n d s y m b o l s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t , a w e a t h e r map and l o c a t e h i s home on a map ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C a n d D ) . Q u e s t i o n on d r a w — a — p e r s o n . R e s e a r c h on t h e d r a w - a - p e r s o n q u e s t i o n s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e q u e s t i o n s 69 m e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d p r e d i c t f u t u r e a c h i e v e m e n t ( Goodenough, 1926; H a r r i s , 1963; K o p p i t z , 1967; & Ames, 1 9 4 3 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e Man q u e s t i o n on t h e VKT s u b t e s t r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d t o draw a p e r s o n w i t h body d e t a i l s . P o i n t s were g i v e n a s a c h i l d c o m p l e t e d e a c h p o r t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n ( e . g . , h e a d , e y e s , l e g s ) . Q u e s t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( e . g . , "Can t h e p u p i l draw a p e r s o n ? " ; C h e r r y , 1976) and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ( V a n e , 1968) were e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e d r a w - a - p e r s o n q u e s t i o n on t h e PTNQ ( i t e m number 42) a n d t h e PPNQ ( i t e m . n u m b e r 42) was f o r m u l a t e d . The d r a w - a - p e r s o n q u e s t i o n i n t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o draw a p e r s o n w i t h p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n s a n d d e t a i l s s u c h a s c l o t h e s and h a i r ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s C and D ) . The d r a w - a - p e r s o n q u e s t i o n on t h e PTNQ and PPNQ was s c o r e d a s c o r r e c t i f t h e c h i l d was a b l e t o draw a l l o f t h e b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f a p e r s o n . A d d i t i o n a l r e v i s i o n s o c c u r r e d i n t h e tem p e r a m e n t s e c t i o n . The f o u r t e m p e r a m e n t q u e s t i o n s were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s on t h e H o y t ' s ANOVA f o r t h e temperament s e c t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y were 0.50 f o r t h e PTNQ a n d 0.52 f o r t h e PPNQ. T h e s e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s were t o o low t o be of v a l u e i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . 70 2. N o n c o g n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h a s t e m p e r a m e n t , o f t e n a f f e c t a t e a c h e r ' s o p i n i o n o f w h e t h e r a c h i l d i s g i f t e d . T e a c h e r s f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r s f r o m t h e n o n c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r s o f a t t e n t i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e ( P e d u l l a , A i r a s i a n , & Madaus, 1980; Thomas & C h e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) ; t h e y u s u a l l y i d e n t i f y t h e h a r d o r e n t h u s i a s t i c w o r k e r a s b e i n g g i f t e d ( F o x , 1981; G o r d o n & Thomas, 1 9 6 7 ) . O t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n a f f e c t e d t h e v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l s e c t i o n s . The o r d e r o f t h e t h r e e v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s was r e a r r a n g e d s o t h a t t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d n o t a p p e a r i n c o n s e c u t i v e o r d e r . The q u e s t i o n t o do w i t h p l a c e v a l u e was r e w r i t t e n u s i n g t h e w ords " u n i t s " a n d " t e n s " i n s t e a d o f a r e a l number e x a m p l e b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f u s i o n among r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n . R e v i s i o n s t o t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d : 1. Two d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s (number o f y e a r s t e a c h i n g and g r a d e l e v e l s t a u g h t ) were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s t e n d e d n o t t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s . 2. A q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o t h e c h i l d ( m o t h e r , f a t h e r , b o t h 71 m o t h e r a n d f a t h e r o r g u a r d i a n ) was a d d e d t o t h e p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e so t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y c o u l d be t a l l i e d . An a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n on e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y was a d d e d so t h a t o t h e r a r e a s o f a b i l i t y c o u l d be s u r v e y e d . The r e s p o n d e n t was r e q u e s t e d t o r a t e t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y a s a v e r a g e o r abo v e a v e r a g e f o r r e a d i n g , s p a t i a l r e a s o n i n g , memory, m a t h e m a t i c s , a n d l a n g u a g e . G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e PTNQ  and PPNQ. The t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : a s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n , a b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n , and an e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n ( A p p e n d i x C, t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e PTNQ; A p p e n d i x D, t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e PPNQ). The s e c t i o n s on s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y , b i o g r a p h i c , a n d e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y were i d e n t i c a l on b o t h f o r m s , w h e r e a s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s were d i f f e r e n t . Spec i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n . F o r t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n , t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y s e c t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was o r g a n i z e d so a s t o p r o d u c e t h r e e s u b t e s t s -- v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , and s p a t i a l . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , m e a s u r e s o f t h e s e t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had i d e n t i f i e d them a s v a l i d p r e d i c t o r s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( M o o r e , Hahn & B r e n t n a l l , 72 1978; R o g o l s k y , 1 9 6 8 ) . The t h i r d e d i t i o n o f b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s : v e r b a l - q u e s t i o n s 1 t h r o u g h 12 and q u e s t i o n s 37 and 38 - ( v o c a b u l a r y , s p e l l i n g , p r i n t i n g , s t o r i e s a n d r h y m e s , r e a d i n g , s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , v e r b a l r e c a l l ) ; m a t h e m a t i c a l - q u e s t i o n s 13 t h r o u g h 26 - ( m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s ) ; a n d s p a t i a l -q u e s t i o n s 27 t h r o u g h 36 and 39 t h r o u g h 42 - ( g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s , s o l v i n g p u z z l e s , g r a p h s a n d s y m b o l s , a n d d r a w - a - p e r s o n ) . I n t h e s e c o n d r e v i s i o n ( t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n ) o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ, e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s u b t e s t s h a d 14 q u e s t i o n s . The maximum s c o r e on t h e 4 2 - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was 84 p o i n t s . A NO r e s p o n s e r e c e i v e d one p o i n t ; a YES r e s p o n s e r e c e i v e d two p o i n t s . I n t h e c h e c k mark q u e s t i o n s , one c h e c k mark r e c e i v e d one p o i n t a n d two c h e c k m a r k s r e c e i v e d two p o i n t s : T h r e e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s were a n s w e r e d w i t h c h e c k m a r k s , w h i l e a l l o t h e r q u e s t i o n s were a n s w e r e d u s i n g a y e s / n o r e s p o n s e s c a l e . The t h i r d e d i t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s , c o u l d be a n s w e r e d q u i c k l y , a n d s c o r i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d r a p i d l y . B i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . The b i o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , s e x a n d b i r t h d a t e o f t h e c h i l d ) i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e d a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e . The d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ c o n t a i n e d a q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d on t h e 73 g i f t e d ( e . g . , number o f w o r k s h o p s a t t e n d e d on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d ) . The d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n on t h e PPNQ c o n t a i n e d e i g h t q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c h i l d ' s f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d ( e . g . , p a r e n t ' s l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n ) . E s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y s e c t i o n . The e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s were r e t a i n e d i n t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s may ha v e p r o v i d e d an a c c u r a t e g l o b a l e s t i m a t e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s . The s e c t i o n f r o m t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ on e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y i n t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . One of t h e q u e s t i o n s was on e s t i m a t i n g t h e g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n whom t h e t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s were a s k e d t o n o m i n a t e e i t h e r a s a v e r a g e o r above a v e r a g e . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l p a r t s on e s t i m a t i n g a b i l i t i e s w h i c h c o v e r e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , s p a t i a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y , memory a b i l i t y , m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y , a n d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y . T h i s q u e s t i o n was a d a p t e d f r o m t h e p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , and J a c k s o n ( 1 9 7 9 a ) . Summary S t a t e m e n t A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s were c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y : a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t - t h e VKT; a c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t - t h e WPPSI; and t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s - t h e VKT, t h e PTNQ, and t h e PPNQ. The e m p h a s i s i n t h i s c h a p t e r was on t h e 74 d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s , a n d t h e two r e v i s i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e s e n t e d . Two p i l o t s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i m p r o v i n g t h e n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and s t a b i l i t y r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ. F o l l o w i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d i e s , t h e main i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was u n d e r t a k e n . The m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h i s s t u d y i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I V . 75 CHAPTER I V METHODOLOGY As n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , two s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s a n d two n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l a n d P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o d e f i n e two g r o u p s -- g i f t e d (IQ>130) and n o n - g i f t e d ( I Q < 1 3 0 ) . The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (VKT) was u s e d a s a s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t t o s e l e c t t h e v a l i d a t i o n s a m p l e , a n d as one o f t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p . The P e r k s T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ) a n d t h e P e r k s P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ) were u s e d a s t h e o t h e r two p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s i s d e s c r i b e d . F i r s t , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s c r e e n i n g and f i n a l s a m p l e s i s p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , s c o r i n g a n d d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n , a n d d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s . The VKT means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e a r e r e p o r t e d a s w e l l a s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s f o r e q u a l i t y o f means a n d e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . 76 P o p u l a t i o n The s a m p l e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m two u r b a n d i s t r i c t s , l a b e l l e d a s D i s t r i c t A and D i s t r i c t B, l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o m m u n i t y p o p u l a t i o n was 128,977 f o r D i s t r i c t A and 99,319 f o r D i s t r i c t B ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 2 ) . D i s t r i c t A i s a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b u r b t h a t has a w i d e r a n g e o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e m a c h i n e r y , f o o d and b e v e r a g e , m e t a l f a b r i c a t i o n , c h e m i c a l s , and wood p r o d u c t s ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g i o n a l I n d e x , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b u r b , D i s t r i c t B i s an i m p o r t a n t s h i p p i n g a nd r a i l c e n t r e and h a s a c e n t r a l i z e d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a t h a t i n c l u d e s a d i v e r s i t y o f i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f p u l p m i l l c h e m i c a l s , b a k e d g o o d s , p l a s t i c s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t , and d e e p - d i v i n g s u b m e r s i b l e s . The a v e r a g e income o f p e o p l e i n t h e two d i s t r i c t s i s $28,152 f o r D i s t r i c t A and $33,740 f o r D i s t r i c t B ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 2 ) . Of t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A, 30% h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and 70% had g r a d e 12 o r a l o w e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n (The F i n a n c i a l P o s t : C a n a d i a n M a r k e t s , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n D i s t r i c t B, 47% o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , w h e r e a s 53% had g r a d e 12 o r a l o w e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . I n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e were 30,490 c h i l d r e n i n D i s t r i c t A and 17,589 i n D i s t r i c t B ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l t h e r e were 18,869 c h i l d r e n i n D i s t r i c t A and 9,823 i n D i s t r i c t B. The 77 k i n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 3,538 c h i l d r e n f r o m 96 p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s : 2,456 c h i l d r e n f r o m 62 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n D i s t r c t A and 1,082 c h i l d r e n f r o m 34 s c h o o l s i n D i s t r i c t B. Sample S e l e c t i o n The f i n a l s a m p l e s o f g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d i n t h r e e s t e p s , a s shown i n F i g u r e 1. A t S t e p 1, an i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e was i d e n t i f i e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e VKT. E m p l o y i n g t h e s c o r e s f r o m t h i s t e s t , t h i s s a m p l e was t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o g r o u p s ( S t e p 2 a ) . A random s a m p l e o f t h e c h i l d r e n was t h e n s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h g r o u p ( S t e p 2 b ) . F i n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e WPPSI t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e a t S t e p 2b, t h e c h i l d r e n were r e c l a s s i f i e d t o f o r m t h e g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d f i n a l s a m p l e ( S t e p 3 ) . I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Sample The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g was t o i d e n t i f y a s a m p l e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m w h i c h f u r t h e r s a m p l e s c o u l d be d r a w n . T h i s was done f i r s t by s e l e c t i n g t h e s c h o o l s a n d t h e n by s e l e c t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s t o be s c r e e n e d . S e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l s . C o n s e n t t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y i n t h e s c h o o l s was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f t h e two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The t a r g e t number o f s c h o o l s f o r S a m p l i n g P r o c e s s 78 S t e p I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Sample n = 8 1 6 T e s t s A d m i n i s t e r e d VKT 2a 2b S t r a t i f i e d S c r e e n i n g Sample IQ<115 (VKT) n = 463 IQ>115 (VKT) n = 353 Random S t r a t i f i e d S c r e e n i n g Sample IQ<115 IQ>115 (VKT) (VKT) n = 79 n=1 1 5 WPPSI PTNQ PPNQ S t r a t i f i e d C r i t e r i o n S ample IQ<130 (WPPSI) n=1 52 IQ>130 (WPPSI) n = 42 F i g u r e 1 : S a m p l i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y 79 t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e was s e t a t 40% o f t h e s c h o o l s f r o m e a c h o f t h e two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I n D i s t r i c t A, t h e 62 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were a s s i g n e d numbers 1 t h r o u g h 62 an d i n D i s t r i c t B, t h e 34 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were a s s i g n e d numbers 1 t h r o u g h 34. Two random s a m p l e s were t h e n drawn u s i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers. Of t h e 62 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n D i s t r i c t A, 25 (40%) s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d ; i n D i s t r i c t B, 14 ( 4 0 % ) of t h e 34 s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d . A l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t o a l l o w t h e s t u d y t o p r o c e e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y s e v e n ( 2 0 % ) of t h e s c h o o l s s e l e c t e d i n D i s t r i c t B were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y b e c a u s e o f a c h a n g e i n p o l i c y by d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s . D i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s p l a c e d a r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e number o f s c h o o l s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h i s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e random r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e f r o m D i s t r i c t B b e c a u s e t h e s e s e v e n s c h o o l s were a random s a m p l e o f a l l s c h o o l s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t B. From t h e 32 s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t h r e e s t e p s o f t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e s s . S e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were r e s t r i c t e d t o k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who s p o k e and u n d e r s t o o d E n g l i s h a s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . From t h e s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s , a l l t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , who s p o k e E n g l i s h a s a f i r s t l a n g u a g e , were i n c l u d e d i n i t i a l l y i n t h e s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . P a r e n t a l c o n s e n t f o r m s ( A p p e n d i x D) were s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s o f a l l t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n (n=1272) i n t h e s e l e c t e d 80 s c h o o l s . A t o t a l o f 1001 ( 7 8 . 7 % ) p a r e n t s r e t u r n e d t h e i r f o r m s ; 921 ( 9 2 . 0 % ) p a r e n t s gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . One h u n d r e d a n d f i v e ( 1 1 . 4 % ) o f t h e s e 921 c h i l d r e n were u n a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e o f a b s e n t e e i s m o r b e c a u s e t h e y h a d moved away f r o m t h e s c h o o l p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g 816 ( 8 8 . 6 % ) were s c r e e n e d w i t h t h e VKT ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . Random S t r a t i f i e d S c r e e n i n g Sample U s i n g t h e s c o r e s f r o m t h e VKT, t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e were s t r a t i f i e d i n t o two g r o u p s -a v e r a g e ( I Q s c o r e s o f <115) and a b o v e a v e r a g e ( IQ s c o r e s o f >115 ) . The c u t o f f s c o r e o f 115 c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a p o i n t one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o v e t h e VKT mean. H a l l a h a n ( 1 9 82) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t u s i n g a c u t o f f s c o r e h i g h e r t h a n 115 on a g e n e r a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t g r e a t l y r e d u c e s t h e c h a n c e s o f o b t a i n i n g a l l t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n when an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i s u s e d l a t e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . U s i n g t h e 115 c u t o f f , t h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p r o d u c e d 463 s u b j e c t s i n t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p a nd 353 s u b j e c t s i n t h e a b o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . A s i m p l e random s a m p l e o f 120 c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s ( a v e r a g e a n d a b o v e a v e r a g e ) was s e l e c t e d t o f o r m t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . The s e l e c t i o n o f 120 a b o v e a v e r a g e 81 s u b j e c t s was made t o e n s u r e t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t number o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be t e s t e d f o r t h e v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y . A l l o f t h e a b o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n (n=120) were a s s e s s e d on t h e WPPSI; m a t c h i n g t e a c h e r and p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p l e t e d a n d r e t u r n e d f o r 115 ( 9 5 . 8 % ) o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s . O n l y 79 o f t h e 120 c h i l d r e n i n t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p were a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e WPPSI due t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s b r o u g h t a b o u t by l a b o r p r o b l e m s ( a c i v i c u n i o n s t r i k e ) d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . M a t c h i n g p a r e n t a n d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p l e t e d f o r a l l o f t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n a s s e s s e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f i n a l s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 194 s u b j e c t s , 115 o f whom were a b o v e a v e r a g e a n d 79 o f whom were a v e r a g e ( s e e F i g u r e 1, S t e p 2 b ) . S t r a t i f i e d Cr i t e r i o n Sample To a r r i v e a t t h e f i n a l s a m p l e f o r v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) were r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e WPPSI. T h i s p r o d u c e d a g i f t e d g r o u p o f 42 s u b j e c t s a n d a n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p o f 152 s u b j e c t s ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i t y , t h i s s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e was c a l l e d t h e " s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e " . D a t a f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e t h e n were u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 82 PTNQ and PPNQ T e s t - R e t e s t Sample To d e t e r m i n e t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ, two s e p a r a t e s a m p l e s o f 38 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y f r o m t h e t o t a l random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( F i g u r e 1, S t e p 2 b ) . T e a c h e r s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i r s t t e s t - r e t e s t s a m p l e were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a s e c o n d c o p y o f t h e PTNQ one month f o l l o w i n g t h e main d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e c o n d t e s t - r e t e s t s a m p l e were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e PPNQ one month l a t e r . Of t h e 38 r e t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t e a c h e r s , 37 ( 9 7 . 4 % ) were r e t u r n e d . Due t o a n a t i o n a l p o s t a l s t r i k e w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y , o n l y 25 o f t h e 38 p a r e n t r e t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d be d e l i v e r e d . Of t h e s e , 20 ( 8 0 . 0 % ) were r e t u r n e d . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e , a summary o f t h e v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e r a t e s r e p o r t e d a b o v e a nd c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s t e p s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e f i n a l s a m p l e a nd t e s t - r e t e s t s a m p l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , a p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s a m p l i n g p r o c e s s i s d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 1. 83 T a b l e 4 T a r g e t S a m p l e s a nd A c t u a l S a m p l e s Sample T a r g e t Sample S i z e A c t u a l S ample S i z e % o f G o a l T e s t U s e d # U s e d % Used I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g 1 -- 816 -- VKT 816 100.0 Random S t r a t i f i e d S c r e e n i n g 1 240 1 94 80.8 WPPSI VKT PTNQ PPNQ 1 94 1 94 1 94 1 94 1 00.0 1 00.0 100.0 100.0 S t r a t i f i e d C r i t e r i o n G i f t e d N o n - g i f t e d -- 42 1 52 -- 1 94 1 00.0 T e s t - r e t e s t (PTNQ) 38 37 97.4 PTNQ 37 100.0 T e s t - r e t e s t (PPNQ) 38 20 52.6 PPNQ 20 1 00.0 N o t e . Number of s t u d e n t s i n i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n was 1 272. 1 The i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e a n d t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e d i d n o t h a v e t a r g e t s a m p l e s i z e s . 84 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n No names a p p e a r e d on any t e s t s o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I n s t e a d , c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d by c o d e numbers p r e p r i n t e d on e a c h i n s t r u m e n t . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n s t a g e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t e p s shown i n F i g u r e 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e VKT In t h e f i r s t t e s t i n g s e s s i o n d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months ( m i d - F e b r u a r y t o m i d - A p r i l ) , t h e VKT was a d m i n s t e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l s t o a l l 816 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n by f i v e q u a l i f i e d l e v e l C e x a m i n e r s ( p s y c h o l o g i s t s a n d p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ; C r o n b a c h , 1970, p. 1 8 ) . The g r o u p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r s u b t e s t a n d t h e Man s u b t e s t t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i n u t e s . The i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e m i n u t e s p e r c h i l d . The t o t a l t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e VKT was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i n u t e s p e r c h i l d . I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g S a m p l e : D e s c r i p t i on o f P e r f o r m a n c e on VKT B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e s e c o n d t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t was s c o r e d a n d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The mean o f t h e VKT t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e i n i t i a l 85 s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = 8 l 6 ) was 113.18 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 12.38. The means on t h e t h r e e VKT s u b t e s t s ( P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r , V o c a b u l a r y , a n d Man) r a n g e d f r o m 110.16 t o 115.34 and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m 14.79 t o 23.08 ( s e e T a b l e 5 ) . T a b l e 5 VKT Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g S a mple T e s t Mean SD VKT P e r c e p t u a l M o t o r 110.16 15.13 ( n = 8 l 6 ) V o c a b u l a r y 115.34 23.08 Man 114.45 14.79 F u l l S c a l e IQ 113.18 12.38 The means o f t h e VKT s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e p u b l i s h e d mean of 100.00 ( V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same a s t h e p u b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r e p o r t e d by Vane (1968) were b a s e d on a s a m p l e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f r u r a l a n d u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , h o w e v e r , t h e c h i l d r e n t e s t e d came f r o m two u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a n d had E n g l i s h a s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . A l l t h e p r o t o c o l s o f t h e VKT were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a v e r a g e a n d a b o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p s . Random s a m p l e s were drawn 86 f r o m e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s b e f o r e t h e a d m i n s t r a t i o n o f t h e WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ commenced. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ WPPSI. I n t h e s e c o n d t e s t i n g s e s s i o n d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g months ( m i d - A p r i l t o t h e end o f J u n e ) , " t h e c h i l d r e n who were s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y f r o m t h e s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e t o f o r m t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e WPPSI i n t h e s c h o o l s by s e v e n q u a l i f i e d l e v e l C e x a m i n e r s ( p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ; C r o n b a c h , 1970, p. 1 8 ) . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e WPPSI t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r p e r c h i l d . A l l s u b t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d e x c e p t t h e A n i m a l House S u b t e s t R e t e s t (an o p t i o n a l s u b t e s t ) w h i c h was o m i t t e d b e c a u s e o f t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s . PTNQ. T e a c h e r s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e were a s k e d t o a n s w e r t h e PTNQ. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e l i v e r e d t o them a t t h e s c h o o l s , and a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d s t a m p e d e n v e l o p e was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e t u r n o f e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y . As r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r , a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y was p e r f o r m e d i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s of 38 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n were r e q u e s t e d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e same c h i l d t w i c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one month a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r s had r e t u r n e d t h e f i r s t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a s e c o n d s 87 i d e n t i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e same t e a c h e r s . PPNQ. The p r o c e d u r e s f o r o b t a i n i n g p a r e n t s ' r e s p o n r s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( n = l 9 4 ) were i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t a k e n home by t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y p r o c e d u r e s were t h e same f o r t h e PPNQ a s f o r t h e PTNQ. S c o r i n g a n d D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n S c o r i n g A l l c o m p l e t e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s a n d t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s c o r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . A random s a m p l e o f 24 s e t s o f t e s t s / q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was s c o r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y by a s e c o n d m a r k e r ( l e v e l C e x a m i n e r ; C r o n b a c h , 1970, p. 1 8 ) . The l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two m a r k e r s was a s s e s s e d by c o m p a r i n g e a c h i t e m on t h e 24 t e s t s . The p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two s e t s o f t e s t s f o r t h e WPPSI was 99 . 0 2 % ; t h e o n l y d i s c r e p a n c i e s n o t e d o c c u r r e d on t h e G e o m e t r i c D e s i g n s u b t e s t . F o r t h e VKT, t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t was 9 9 . 0 1 % ; t h e o b s e r v e d d i s c r e p a n c i e s a g a i n a p p e a r e d i n o n l y one s u b t e s t , t h e Man. No s c o r i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e m a r k e r s were o b s e r v e d f o r b o t h t h e PTNQ and PPNQ. 88 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n The c o d i n g o f t h e d a t a f o r t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = 8 l 6 ) was c o m p l e t e d by an a s s i s t a n t a n d v e r i f i e d f o r 50% o f t h e s a m p l e by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The c o d i n g e r r o r r a t e was 0.058%. A l l s c o r e d d a t a f o r t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) were c o d e d w i t h 20 p e r c e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n . The c o d i n g e r r o r r a t e s were 0.026% f o r t h e WPPSI, 0.114% f o r t h e VKT, a n d 0.00% f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ. The k e y p u n c h i n g was v e r i f i e d f o r 100% o f t h e s a m p l e f o r e a c h i n s t r u m e n t by t h e k e y p u n c h i n g s t a f f o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l k e y p u n c h i n g s e r v i c e . An a d d i t i o n a l c h e c k by t h e r e s e a r c h e r on a 10% random s a m p l e o f a l l k e y p u n c h i n g a g a i n s t t h e c o d i n g s h e e t s r e v e a l e d no mi s t a k e s . D a t a A n a l y s i s D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e s A b i o g r a p h i c a nd d e m o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e and t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n "sample was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n t h e b i o g r a p h i c and d e m o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a nd p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f r e q u e n c i e s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s e c t i o n s u s i n g t h e FREQUENCIES a n d CROSSTABS 89 s u b p r o g r a m s o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , & B e n t , 1 9 7 5 ) . T - t e s t s a n d c h i s q u a r e s on t h e b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were c a l c u l a t e d by t h e T-TEST and CROSSTABS s u b p r o g r a m s o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . C o m p a r a b i 1 i t y o f t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d t o compare t h e d a t a f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r s , a n d p a r e n t s i n D i s t r i c t A w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n D i s t r i c t B. The e q u a l i t y o f means was a s s e s s e d by H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 T e s t ( M o r r i s o n , 1976, pp. 1 2 8 - 1 4 1 ) ; t h e e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e was t e s t e d u s i n g t h e B a r t l e t t - B o x H o m o g e n e i t y o f D i s p e r s i o n T e s t (Timm, 1975, pp. 2 5 0 - 2 6 0 ) . These c a l c u l a t i o n s were p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m OWMAR ( H a k s t i a n , N o t e 4 ) . The 0.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was a d o p t e d i n e a c h c a s e . The B a r t l e t t - B o x H o m o g e n e i t y o f D i s p e r s i o n T e s t y i e l d e d a h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e F - r a t i o s t a t i s t i c o f 1.15 w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 0.323 w h i c h showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n s a m p l e s i n t h e two u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . The F - r a t i o f o r t h e H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 T e s t f o r t h e two d i s t r i c t s was 14.54 w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e 0.05 l e v e l . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s 90 c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s r e v e a l e d t h a t on e a c h o f t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s - VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ - t h e c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t B s c o r e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m s c h o o l d i s t r i c t A. D e s p i t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e a n d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e - c o v . a r i a n c e , t h e d a t a f r o m t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were c o m b i n e d a nd t r e a t e d a s one. I n d e e d , a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y do o c c u r b e t w e e n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s . What was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , was t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s e two d i s t r i c t s were p o o l e d . S t a t i s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, a n d ' PPNQ Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s by t h e CONDESCRIPTIVES S u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a l s o were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ. T - t e s t s f o r t h e g r o u p means were c a l u l a t e d by t h e T-TEST s u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t e m a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e d f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m LERTAP ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e 91 WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ was c o m p u t e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f W e c h s l e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . D e t a i l s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o m p u t a t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n G u i l f o r d ( 1 9 5 4 , p. 3 9 3 ) . The G u i l f o r d C o m p o s i t e was u s e d b e c a u s e t h e WPPSI ha s v a r y i n g b a s a l a n d c e i l i n g s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h t e s t - r e t e s t i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m e thod t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT, i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c o n d u c t a r e t e s t on t h e VKT b e c a u s e i t was t o o n e a r t o t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ were c o m p u t e d u s i n g H o y t ' s ANOVA ( H o y t , 1941) a n d t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p u t e d u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1 9 5 1 ) . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r b o t h t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ s u b t e s t s a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s u s i n g t h e PEARSON CORR S u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . F o r t h e e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s where t h e t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s were r e q u e s t e d t o n o m i n a t e t h e c h i l d a s a v e r a g e o r a b o v e a v e r a g e , t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s were a s s e s s e d by c a l c u l a t i n g 0 c o e f f i c i e n t s ( G l a s s & S t a n l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e CROSSTABS S u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . 92 V a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ The p u r p o s e o f t h e v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y , a s s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r I , was t o d i s c o v e r how w e l l t h e VKT, PTNQ and PPNQ d i s c r i m i n a t e d b e t w e e n g i f t e d (WPPSI IQ>130) and t h e n o n - g i f t e d (WPPSI IQ<130) c h i l d r e n . To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a b i l i t y , h e n c e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d . The P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e ( W P P S I ) . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was a n s w e r e d by u s i n g a s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s ( K e r l i n g e r & P e d h a z u r , 1973) i n w h i c h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s was s o u g h t . The g e n e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l f o r t h e s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s was: 3 GM = /30 + I j 3 X i j=1 j i j wh e r e : GM t h e mean i n d e x f o r t h e ( i ) t h g r o u p , i = 1 , 2 ; l 0o j t h e c o n s t a n t ; t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t w e i g h t a t t a c h e d t o t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e , j = 1 ,2,3; a n d X t h e mean o f ( j ) t h p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e o f t h e ( i ) t h g r o u p The h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was t h a t a l l t h e w e i g h t s ( 0 ' s ) 93 e q u a l l e d z e r o a g a i n s t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a t l e a s t one d i s c r i m i n a n t w e i g h t d i f f e r e d f r o m z e r o a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( K e r l i n g e r & P e d h a u z u r , 1973; T a t s u o k a , 1 9 6 9 ) . The c o m p u t a t i o n s were p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e DISCRIMINANT s u b p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s V e r s i o n 9.00 ( N i e & H u l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t h e f i f t h c h a p t e r , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a r e r e p o r t e d . N e x t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . 94 CHAPTER V RESULTS In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e a r e r e p o r t e d . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r e a c h i n s t r u m e n t --W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ( W P P S I ) , Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t ( V K T ) , P e r k s T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ), a n d P e r k s P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ). Then t h e outcome o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s As d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r b i o g r a p h i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s . A b r e a k d o w n o f t h e g i f t e d (n=42) and n o n - g i f t e d (n=152) g r o u p s by sex o f t h e c h i l d , b i r t h o r d e r o f t h e c h i l d , f a t h e r ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , m o t h e r ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , number o f a d u l t s i n t h e home, number o f a d u l t s i n t h e f a m i l y w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home, number o f s i b l i n g s , number o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s w a t c h e d p e r week by t h e c h i l d , number o f b o o k s i n t h e home, and number of n e w s p a p e r s s u b s c r i b e d t o p e r week i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 6 and i n more d e t a i l i n A p p e n d i c e s J a n d K. 95 B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s f o r t h e G i f t e d G r o u p  V e r s u s t h e N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p Age. The mean age o f t h e g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was 5.7 y e a r s w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 0.3 y e a r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x K ) . The n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p had a mean age of 5.8 y e a r s w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 0.3 y e a r s . The one-month d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean a g e s o f t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (;t = 3.09, p_<0.05) . S e x . I n T a b l e 6, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y g r o u p s o f t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e by s e x i s shown. T h e r e were more g i f t e d f e m a l e s ( 5 7 . 1 % ) t h a n g i f t e d m a l e s ( 4 2 . 9 % ) , and more n o n - g i f t e d m a l e s ( 5 2 . 6 % ) t h a n n o n - g i f t e d f e m a l e s ( 4 7 . 4 % ) . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s w i t h i n t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s ( x 2 = 0 . 9 0 , £>0.05). F a t h e r ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . As shown i n T a b l e 6, t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 9 . 5 % ) o f f a t h e r s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t ( 3 1 . 0 % ) h ad a g r a d e 11 o r 12 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f a t h e r s , 7.1% had a g r a d e 9 o r 10 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a n d 2.4% d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . I n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 4 4 . 7 % ) 96 T a b l e 6 B i o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p s V a r i a b l e % G i f t e d % N o n - g i f t e d Sex o f t h e C h i l d M a l e 42.9 F e m a l e 57.1 F a t h e r ' s L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n Gr 1-8 0.0 Gr 9-10 7.1 Gr 11-12 31 .0 P o s t - S e c o n d a r y 59.5 No R e p l y 2.4 52.6 47.4 7.2 11.9 44.7 30.9 5.3 M o t h e r ' s L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n Gr 1-8 0.0 Gr 9-10 0.0 Gr 11 - 12 47.6 P o s t - S e c o n d a r y 50.0 No R e p l y 2.4 #_ o_f A d u l t s i n t h e Home 1 9.5 2 80.9 3 4.8 4 4.8 _# o_f A d u l t s i n t h e F a m i l y  W o r k i n g O u t s i d e t h e Home 0 0.0 1 71.4 2 21.5 3 7.1 3 13, 55, 27.0 0.6 12.5 81.6 3.3 2 . 6 2.6 66.4 29.0 2.0 B i r t h O r d e r 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h 6 t h 52 35, 7 2 0 2 44. 1 40.8 10.5 3.9 0.7 0.0 N o t e . G i f t e d (n=42) N o n - g i f t e d (n=152) 97 T a b l e 6 Co n t i n u e d V a r i a b l e % G i f t e d % N o n - g i f t e d 1 _ S i b l i n g s 0 1 2 3 4 5 14.3 57. 1 19.0 4.8 2.4 2.4 11.8 59, 19, 6, 2 0 J L _ E d u c a t i o n a l  W a t c h e d p e r Week 0 1 - 5 6 - 1 0 1 1 - 1 5 16 o r more TV _ P r o g r a m s C h i l d 0 73, 21 , 0, 4, 7.9 63.8 23. 1 3, 1 , # o f B o o k s 0 i n t h e Home 100 101-200 201-300 300 o r more 19.1 9.5 9.5 61 .9 52 21 8, 18, _# o_f N e w s p a p e r s  p e r Week 0 1 2 3 4 o r more S u b s c r i b e d 20.4 48.0 24.3 5.9 1 . 4 9.5 47.6 35.8 7. 1 0.0 N o t e . G i f t e d (n=42) N o n - g i f t e d (n=152) 98 o f f a t h e r s had a g r a d e 11 o r 12 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The s e c o n d h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n ( 3 0 . 9 % ) o f t h e f a t h e r s h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f a t h e r s , 1 9 . 1 % ha d l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n r a n g i n g f r o m g r a d e one t o g r a d e t e n an d 5.3% d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . M o t h e r ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . As d e p i c t e d i n T a b l e 6, t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 0 . 0 % ) o f m o t h e r s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t ( 4 7 . 6 % ) had a g r a d e 11 o r 12 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e were m i s s i n g d a t a f o r 2.4% o f t h e m o t h e r s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 5 . 9 % ) o f m o t h e r s had a g r a d e 11 o r 12 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The s e c o n d h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n ( 2 7 . 0 % ) o f t h e m o t h e r s h a d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g m o t h e r s , 16.5% had l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n r a n g i n g f r o m g r a d e one t o g r a d e t e n an d 0.6% d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . Number o f a d u l t s i n t h e home. T h e r e were two a d u l t s i n 8 0 . 9 % o f t h e homes o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , one a d u l t i n 9.5% o f t h e homes, and more t h a n two a d u l t s i n 9.6% o f t h e homes ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . I n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e r e were two a d u l t s i n 8 1 . 6 % o f t h e homes, one a d u l t i n 12.5% o f t h e homes, and more t h a n two a d u l t s i n 5.9% o f t h e homes. Number of a d u l t s i n t h e f a m i l y w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e  home. T h e r e was one a d u l t w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n 71.4% o f t h e f a m i l i e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , two a d u l t s w o r k i n g 99 o u t s i d e t h e home i n 2 1 . 5 % o f t h e f a m i l i e s , a n d t h r e e a d u l t s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n 7.1% o f t h e f a m i l i e s ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . T h e r e was one a d u l t w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n 66.4% of t h e f a m i l i e s o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , two a d u l t s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n 2 9 . 0 % o f t h e f a m i l i e s , and t h r e e a d u l t s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home i n 2.0% of t h e f a m i l i e s . I n 2.6% o f t h e f a m i l i e s , t h e r e were no a d u l t s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home. B i r t h o r d e r o f t h e c h i l d . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 2 . 4 % ) o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were f i r s t b o r n , w h e r e a s 3 5 .7% were s e c o n d b o r n . The r e m a i n i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 1 1 . 9 % ) were e i t h e r t h i r d , f o u r t h , o r s i x t h i n b i r t h o r d e r ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 4 4 . 1 % ) o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were f i r s t b o r n , w h e r e a s 4 0 .8% were s e c o n d b o r n . The r e m a i n i n g n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 1 5 . 1 % ) were e i t h e r t h i r d , f o u r t h , o r f i f t h i n b i r t h o r d e r . Number o f s i b l i n g s . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 7 . 1 % ) o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n had one s i b l i n g , w h e r e a s 19.0% h a d two and 14.3% h a d no s i b l i n g s . The r e m a i n i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 1 0 . 6 % ) h ad f r o m t h r e e t o f i v e s i b l i n g s ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 5 9 . 2 % ) o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a d one s i b l i n g , w h e r e a s 19.7% had two and 11.8% had no s i b l i n g s . The r e m a i n i n g n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 9 . 3 % ) h a d t h r e e o r f o u r s i b l i n g s . 100 Number o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s w a t c h e d p e r  week by t h e c h i l d . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 7 3 . 8 % ) o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w a t c h e d between one a n d f i v e e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s p e r week, w h e r e a s 21.4% w a t c h e d b e t w e e n s i x and t e n p r o g r a m s p e r week. The r e m a i n i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 4 . 8 % ) w a t c h e d 16 o r more e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s p e r week ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 6 3 . 8 % ) o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w a t c h e d b e t w e e n one and f i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s p e r week, w h e r e a s 2 3 . 1 % w a t c h e d b e t w e e n s i x and t e n p r o g r a m s p e r week, 3.9% w a t c h e d b e t w e e n 11 a n d 15 p r o g r a m s p e r week, and 1.3% w a t c h e d 16 o r more e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s p e r week. The r e m a i n i n g n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 7 . 9 % ) d i d n o t w a t c h e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . Number o f b o o k s i n t h e home. As r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 6, t h e r e were 300 o r more b o o k s i n 6 1 . 9 % o f t h e homes o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , w h e r e a s t h e r e were f e w e r t h a n 300 b o o k s i n 3 8 . 1 % o f t h e homes. T h e r e were f e w e r t h a n 100 b o o k s i n 52.0% of t h e homes o f t h e n o n - g i f t e d , w h e r e a s t h e r e were b e t w e e n 100 a n d 300 b o o k s i n 29.6% of t h e homes. More t h a n 300 b o o k s were f o u n d i n 18.4% o f t h e homes o f t h e n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Number o f n e w s p a p e r s s u b s c r i b e d t o p e r week. T h e r e was one n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n i n 4 8 . 0 % o f t h e homes o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , two n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n 2 4 . 3 % o f t h e homes, a n d t h r e e t o s e v e n s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n 6.3% o f t h e homes ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . T h e r e were no n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n 20.4% o f 101 t h e homes o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . T h e r e was one n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n i n 47.6% o f t h e homes o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , two n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n 35.8% of t h e homes, and t h r e e i n 7.1% o f t h e homes. T h e r e were no n e w s p a p e r s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n 9.5% o f t h e homes o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . D i s c u s s i o n o f D e m o g r a p h i c R e s u l t s I n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t r e n d s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a a r e n o t e d . C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s a l s o a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e was a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r s ( 5 9 . 5 % ) f r o m t h e g i f t e d g r o u p w i t h p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t h a n f a t h e r s ( 3 0 . 9 % ) f r o m t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . A l s o , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f m o t h e r s ( 5 0 . 0 % ) f r o m t h e g i f t e d g r o u p h ad p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t h a n m o t h e r s ( 2 7 . 0 % ) f r o m t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . The p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h more t h a n 300 b o o k s i n t h e home was g r e a t e r f o r f a m i l i e s ( 6 1 . 9 % ) f r o m t h e g i f t e d g r o u p t h a n f o r f a m i l i e s ( 1 8 . 4 % ) f r o m t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . T h e s e t r e n d s on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f p a r e n t s a n d t h e number o f b o o k s i n t h e home a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d by K e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , E v a n s a nd W a i t e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , W h i t e ( 1 9 8 2 ) , W i l l e r m a n and F r i e d l e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Kaufman ( 1 9 7 3 ) , H i t c h f i e l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) , B a r b e ( 1 9 5 6 ) , J o r d a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d G r o t h ( 1 9 7 5 ) . R e s e a r c h h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s ( R o e d e l l , 1 02 J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1979; K i n c a i d , 1969; Humes & E b e r h a r d t , 1 9 7 7 ) . The l i n k b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a n d g i f t e d n e s s a p p e a r s t o be s u p p o r t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y by t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n ( 6 1 . 9 % ) o f f a m i l i e s o f t h e g i f t e d w i t h more t h a n 300 b o o k s i n t h e home. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e home may e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n o f t e n a r e t h e f i r s t b o r n c h i l d ( W h i t e , K a b a n , & A t t a n u c i , 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e b i r t h o r d e r o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y showed no d i s c e r n i b l e t r e n d s . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s S t a t i s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, and  PPNQ R e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s a r e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e PTNQ ( A p p e n d i x L) and PPNQ ( A p p e n d i x M). The s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , r e l i a b i I t i e s , a n d s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f m e a s u r e m e n t ) o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n b e c a u s e t o t a l s c o r e s were u s e d i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s i s . A d d i t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e VKT a n d WPPSI s u b t e s t s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x N. I n s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ s u b t e s t s a s w e l l a s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r r e p o r t i n g t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d . 1 03 VKT: random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e T h e mean a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e VKT t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e e n t i r e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) were 118.56 and 14.27, r e s p e c t i v e l y ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) . U s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT, Vane (1968) r e p o r t e d a c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.88 ( b a s e d on a f i v e - m o n t h i n t e r v a l ) . T h e r e was n o t enough t i m e , h o w e v e r , t o c o n d u c t a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y on t h e VKT i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y b e c a u s e i t was t o o n e a r t o t h e end of t h e s c h o o l y e a r . T a b l e 7 VKT and WPPSI: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f M e a s u r e m e n t Mean SD R SEM VKT 118.56 1 4.27 --WPPSI 117.21 14.63 0. 93 3.87 N o t e . WPPSI: G u i l f o r d ' s C o m p o s i t e ( G u i l f o r d , 1954) i s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e WPPSI F u l l S c a l e s c o r e . n=1 94 WPPSI: random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . The mean o f t h e WPPSI s c o r e s f o r t h e e n t i r e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) was 117.21 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 14.63. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e F u l l S c a l e IQ was 0.93 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f 104 measurement (SEM) was 3.87. The SEM i s i n IQ s c o r e u n i t s ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) . PTNQ: random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ was p e r f o r m e d . The r a n g e o f t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l PTNQ i t e m s a n d t h e t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n was 0.134 t o 0.569 ( A p p e n d i x L ) . A l l i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d . As shown i n T a b l e 8, t h e mean t o t a l PTNQ s c o r e was 61.96 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 9.01 f o r t h e e n t i r e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) . The t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.88 w i t h a SEM o f 3.12 i n raw s c o r e u n i t s . S t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e PTNQ s u b t e s t s a r e r e p o r t e d b e c a u s e t h e s u b t e s t s were u s e d i n a v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s i s . The mean o f t h e v e r b a l s u b t e s t was 20.97 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.68. F o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t , t h e mean was 19.08 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 3.24. The mean o f t h e s p a t i a l s u b t e s t was 2 1 . 9 1 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.05. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e PTNQ s u b t e s t s were 0.87 ( v e r b a l ) , 0.83 ( m a t h e m a t i c a l ) , a n d 0.80 ( s p a t i a l ) w i t h SEM's (raw s c o r e u n i t s ) o f 1.33, 1.34, and 1.36, r e s p e c t i v e l y . PPNQ: random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . I t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e PPNQ was p e r f o r m e d . The 1 05 T a b l e 8 PTNQ and PPNQ: Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement K Mean SD R SEM PTNQ PPNQ V e r b a l 1 1 4 20. .97 3. .68 0. .87 1 , .33 M a t h 1 4 19. .08 3. .24 0. .83 1 , .34 S p a t i a l 1 4 21 , .91 3. .05 0. .80 1 , .36 T o t a l 2 42 61 , .96 9, .01 0. .88 3, . 1 2 V e r b a l 1 1 4 21 . 87 3, .10 0. .80 1 , .39 M a t h 1 4 19, .46 2. .98 0. .77 1 , .43 S p a t i a l 1 4 22. .84 2. .62 0. .72 1 , .39 T o t a l 2 42 64. . 1 7 7. . 1 7 0. .77 3, .44 N o t e . PTNQ and PPNQ: 3 r d e d i t i o n — t w o - c h o i c e y e s / n o r e s p o n s e s c a l e . 1 S u b t e s t s : H o y t ' s ANOVA r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( H o y t , 1941) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r a l l s u b t e s t s c o r e s . 2 T o t a l T e s t s : C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) i s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s . n=1 94 1 06 r a n g e o f t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n .the i n d i v i d u a l PPNQ i t e m s and t h e p a r e n t e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n was -0.004 t o 0.422 ( A p p e n d i x M). A l l i t e m s e x c e p t i t e m 10 ( c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p e r s o n s , p l a c e s a n d t h i n g s ) i n t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e p a r e n t ' s e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d . As shown i n T a b l e 8, t h e mean t o t a l PPNQ s c o r e was 64.17 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 7.17 f o r t h e e n t i r e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) . The t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.77 w i t h a SEM o f 3.44 i n raw s c o r e u n i t s . S t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e PPNQ s u b t e s t s a r e r e p o r t e d b e c a u s e t h e s u b t e s t s were u s e d i n a v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s i s . The mean o f t h e v e r b a l s u b t e s t was 21.87 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.10. F o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t , t h e mean was 19.46 and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 2.98. The mean o f t h e s p a t i a l s u b t e s t was 22.84 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.62. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e PPNQ s u b t e s t s were 0.80 ( v e r b a l ) , 0.77 ( m a t h e m a t i c a l ) , a n d 0.72 ( s p a t i a l ) w i t h SEM's (raw s c o r e u n i t s ) o f 1.39, 1.43, and 1.39, r e s p e c t i v e l y . PTNQ t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s o f t h e PTNQ a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 9. As shown, t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( one-month i n t e r v a l ) were 0.95 f o r t h e v e r b a l s u b t e s t , 0.95 f o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t , a n d 0.88 f o r t h e s p a t i a l s u b t e s t . F o r t h e t o t a l 107 T a b l e 9 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T e s t - r e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t s a n d T o t a l S c o r e s T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y Mean SD Mean SD C o e f f i c i e n t PTNQ (n=37) V e r b a l 20. . 30 4. . 03 20. ,16 4. ,54 0. .95 M a t h 18. .70 4. .04 15. , 46 3. ,36 0. ,95 S p a t i a l 21 , .81 3, .56 19. , 43 2, , 64 0. .88 T o t a l 60. .81 1 1 . . 02 55. ,05 9. ,87 0. .97 PPNQ (n=20) V e r b a l 22. .75 3. ,49 23. ,75 3. .51 0. .89 M a t h 20. .00 3. ,23 17. , 30 2. ,76 0, .83 S p a t i a l 23. .25 3. ,65 21 . 1 0 2. .79 0. .78 T o t a l 66. .00 8. ,71 62. . 1 5 7, .98 0, .92 108 t e s t , t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.97. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PTNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 10. The h i g h e s t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e PTNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was 0.95 f o r g e n e r a l a b i l i t y and t h e l o w e s t was 0.68 f o r l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y . PPNQ t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s o f t h e PPNQ a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 9. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( o n e - m o n t h i n t e r v a l ) were 0.89 f o r t h e v e r b a l s u b t e s t , 0.83 f o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t , a n d 0.78 f o r t h e s p a t i a l s u b t e s t . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.92 f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PPNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 10. The most r e l i a b l e o f t h e PPNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ( 1 . 0 0 ) a nd t h e l e a s t r e l i a b l e was m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y ( 0 . 4 7 ) . P e r f o r m a n c e on t h e VKT, WPPSI, PTNQ, and PPNQ f o r t h e  G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G r o u p s The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and t - t e s t s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e WPPSI and VKT t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p a r e shown i n T a b l e 11. 109 T a b l e 10 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T e s t - r e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n s T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y Mean SD Mean SD C o e f f i c i e n t PTNQ (n=37) PPNQ ( G e n e r a l 1 , .51 0. ,51 1 , .49 0. ,51 0. ,95 R e a d i n g 1 , .27 0. 45 1 , .32 0. ,48 0. ,88 S p a t i a l 1 , .43 0. ,50 1 .49 0. ,51 0. .90 Memory 1 , .51 0. ,51 1 .54 0, ,51 0. .84 Ma t h 1 , .43 0. , 50 1 .49 0. ,51 0, .79 L a n g u a g e 1 .50 0. ,51 1 .51 0, .51 0, .68 ;n=20) G e n e r a l 1 . 55 0. ,51 1 .45 0, .51 0, .62 R e a d i n g 1 .35 0. ,49 1 .35 0, .49 1 , .00 S p a t i a l 1 .30 0. , 47 1 .30 0, .47 0, .76 Memory 1 .70 0, .47. 1 .65 0, .49 0, .66 M a t h 1 .25 0, .44 1 .25 0, .44 0, .47 L a n g u a g e 1 .60 0, . 50 1 .50 0 .51 0 .82 N o t e . <p c o e f f i c i e n t s ( G l a s s & S t a n l e y , 1970) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r e a c h e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y . 1 1 0 T a b l e 11 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e WPPSI and VKT T o t a l S c o r e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G i f t e d (n=42) N o n - g i f t e d ( n = l 5 2 ) Mean SD Mean SD t - t e s t WPPSI 136.62 5.12 111.84 11.52 20.25 * VKT 134.74 5.70 114.09 12.59 15.33 * *2<.05 I n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p t h e mean of t h e WPPSI t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s was 136.62 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 5.12, w h e r e a s i n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e mean was 111.84 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 11.52. The mean o f t h e VKT t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s was 134.74 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 5.70 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd 114.09 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 12.59 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a n d t - t e s t s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 12. The PTNQ v e r b a l s u b t e s t mean was 23.31 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.61 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd t h e mean was 20.32 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.45 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . I n t h e PTNQ m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t , t h e mean was 21.24 w i t h a 111 T a b l e 12 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t a n d T o t a l S c o r e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G i f t e d (n=42) N o n - g i f t e d ( n = l 5 2 ) Mean SD Mean SD t - t e s t PTNQ V e r b a l 23, .31 3. 61 20, . 32 3. .45 4. .92 * M a t h 21 , .24 3. 10 18, .49 3. .03 5. .19 * S p a t i a l 23, .98 2. 25 21 , .34 3. .00 6. .23 * T o t a l 68, .52 7. 70 60, . 1 4 8. .50 5. .77 * PPNQ V e r b a l 23, .93 3. 1 7 21 . ,30 2. ,83 5. ,20 * M a t h 20, .81 3. 35 19. .09 2. .77 3. .39 * S p a t i a l 24, . 1 7 2. 50 22, .47 2. ,53 3. ,84 * T o t a l 68, .90 7. 1 2 62. .86 6. .62 5. , 1 5 * *p_<. 05 1 12 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.10 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd t h e mean was 18.49 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.03 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . The mean o f t h e PTNQ s p a t i a l s u b t e s t was 23.98 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.25 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p and t h e mean was 21.34 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.00 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . I n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p t h e mean o f t h e PTNQ t o t a l s c o r e s was 68.52 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.70, w h e r e a s i n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e mean was 60.14 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 8.50 I n t h e PPNQ v e r b a l s u b t e s t , t h e mean was 23.93 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.17 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd t h e mean was 21.30 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.83 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . The PPNQ m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t mean was 20.81 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.35 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p and t h e mean was 19.09 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.77 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . F o r t h e PPNQ s p a t i a l s u b t e s t , t h e mean was 24.17 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.50 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p and t h e mean was 22.47 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.53 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . The mean o f t h e PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s was 68.90 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.12 f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p a nd 62.86 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6.62 f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . T - t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p means o f t h e WPPSI, VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ. I n e a c h c a s e , t h e g i f t e d g r o u p mean was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p mean ( p < 0 . 0 5 ) . 1 1 3 The d a t a f o r t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s were d i c h o t o m o u s . Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a n d t - t e s t s f o r t h e e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 13. The means of t h e e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s were h i g h e r f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p t h a n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . A l l o f t h e t - t e s t s t a t i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t (p_<0.05) e x c e p t t h e t - t e s t s f o r m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y on t h e PTNQ and l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y on t h e PPNQ. P r e d i c t i v e V a 1 i d i t y o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s A p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e PTNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On t h e PTNQ, t h e e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , e s t i m a t e d memory a b i l i t y , e s t i m a t e d m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y , e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y , e s t i m a t e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , a n d e s t i m a t e d s p a t i a l a b i l i t y w ere i n c l u d e d a s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s t e p o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , e s t i m a t e d m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e w i t h a F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o ( 2.76) t h a t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . W h i l e f i v e 1 1 4 T a b l e 13 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d T - t e s t s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d N o n - g i f t e d G i f t e d (n=42) N o n - g i f t e d (n=152) Mean SD Mean SD t - t e s t PTNQ G e n e r a l 1 . .67 0. .48 1 , .41 0. ,49 3. ,03 * R e a d i n g 1 .48 0. .51 1 , .24 0. .43 2. ,98 * S p a t i a l 1 .57. 0, .50 1 .30 0, .46 3. .38 * Memory 1 .67 0. .48 1 .44 0, .50 2. . 62 * M a t h 1 .52 0. .51 1 .38 0, .49 1 , .66 L a n g u a g e 1 .67 0. .48 1 .37 0. .48 3. . 55 * PPNQ G e n e r a l 1 . 60 0. ,50 1 .24 0. .43 4, , 53 * R e a d i ng 1 .48 0. ,51 1 , . 1 6 0. .37 4. , 42 * S p a t i a l 1 .43 0. .50 1 .23 0, .42 2. .58 * Memory 1 .76 0. ,43 1 .51 0. .50 3. ,01 * M a t h 1 .52 0. .51 1 .28 0, .45 3, .08 * L a n g u a g e 1 .50 0. .51 1 .34 0, .48 1 . .88 *p<.05 1 15 o f t h e s i x e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , o n l y t h e e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e was e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n ( p < 0 . 0 5 ) ; t h e r e m a i n i n g F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s were l e s s t h a n 2.40. As shown i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y m a t r i x o f T a b l e 14, t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e t o p r e d i c t m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p was n o n e x i s t e n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s were a f u n c t i o n o f t h e two s e p a r a t e s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t s t e p was t h e f i t t i n g o f a p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n t o t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e e n t e r e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n . The s e c o n d s t e p was t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n t o t h e d a t a . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e v a l u e s o f e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y were u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s f o r e a c h c h i l d i n t h e s a m p l e . T h e s e p r o b a b i l i t i e s t h e n were u s e d t o a s s i g n a c h i l d t o e i t h e r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . F o r t h i s s a m p l e , t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p were h i g h e r t h a n t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p ; t h e r e f o r e , a l l t h e c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - g i f t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e PTNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were n o t u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d ; t h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e T a b l e 14 The P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y (%) A n a l y s i s T o t a l N o n - g i f t e d G i f t e d 1 P r e d i c t i o n G r o u p G r o u p A c c u r a c y ( n = l 9 4 ) ( n = l 5 2 ) (n=42) PTNQ: W i l k s S t e p w i s e M e t h o d on E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s ( o n l y PTNQ L a n g u a g e A b i l i t y e n t e r e d ) 78.35 n=1 52 100.0 n= 1 52 0.0 n = 0 0.0 C n = 0 100.0 I n = 42 PPNQ: W i l k s S t e p w i s e M e t h o d on E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t i e s (PPNQ G e n e r a l A b i l i t y a n d R e a d i n g A b i l i t y e n t e r e d ) 76.80 n= 1 49 87.5 n = 1 33 12.5 n=1 9 38. 1 n=1 6 61.9 n = 26 N o t e . C - C o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s I - I n c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s 1 G i f t e d WPPSI IQ>130 N o n - g i f t e d WPPSI IQ<130 1 17 e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s o f t h e PTNQ w o u l d n o t be u s e d i n s u b s e q u e n t v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s e s . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s f o r t h e PTNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n A p p e n d i x 0. The PPNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s were i n c l u d e d i n a s e p a r a t e p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s w h i c h was p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e p a r e n t e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On t h e PPNQ, t h e e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s ( a s l i s t e d f o r t h e PTNQ) were i n c l u d e d a s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s t e p o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , e s t i m a t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e w i t h a F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o ( 3 . 5 2 ) t h a t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . As t h e f i r s t s t e p , t h e e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e was e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n (£<0.05). o f t h e v a r i a b l e s r e m a i n i n g a f t e r s t e p o n e , e s t i m a t e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o (5.72.) a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l ; t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s had F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s t h a t were l e s s t h a n 2.30. W h i l e f i v e o f t h e s i x e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y a n d t h e e s t i m a t e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y were t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n (p_<0.05) . 118 As shown i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y m a t r i x o f T a b l e 14, t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e e s t i m a t e d g e n e r a l a b i l i t y a n d e s t i m a t e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f 16 ( 3 8 . 1 % ) o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The r e m a i n i n g 26 ( 6 1 . 9 % ) were c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s n o n - g i f t e d . Of t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 133 ( 8 7 . 5 % ) were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g 19 ( 1 2 . 5 % ) were a s s i g n e d i n c o r r e c t l y t o t h e g i f t e d g r o u p . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e PPNQ r e v e a l t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e p a r e n t e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s was l o w e r t h a n t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s were u s e d i n s t e a d o f t h e p a r e n t e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s i n s u b s e q u e n t v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s e s . The r e s u l t s f o r t h e PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s a r e r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . S i n c e no f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e PPNQ e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t i e s , t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e s e a b i l i t i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n A p p e n d i x 0. P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f PTNQ and PPNQ S u b t e s t S c o r e s Two a d d i t i o n a l p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s , one on t h e PTNQ and t h e o t h e r on t h e PPNQ, were p e r f o r m e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s was s u p e r i o r t o t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t a l s c o r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e two 1 19 a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , a n d s p a t i a l s u b t e s t s c o r e s was l o w e r t h a n t h e p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e VKT t o t a l s c o r e s were u s e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s f o r t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s a r e r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s f o r t h e PTNQ and PPNQ s u b t e s t s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x P b e c a u s e no f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s . P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o d e t e r m i n e what c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s -- VKT, PTNQ, PPNQ --when c o m p a r e d t o t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t (WPPSI) was a b l e t o i d e n t i f y b e s t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (VKT, PTNQ, PPNQ) and t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t (WPPSI) f r o m t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) were c o m p u t e d . T h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e WPPSI a n d s c o r e s on t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ. 1 20 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 15, r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p_<0,05) w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e WPPSI. The VKT c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h t h e WPPSI ( 0 . 9 0 ) . The n e x t h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e WPPSI i s 0.60 on t h e PTNQ, f o l l o w e d by 0.52 on t h e PPNQ. The c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e p r e d i c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s were a l l a b o v e 0.50. A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l . T a b l e 15 P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - m o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Between t h e T o t a l S c o r e s o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, PPNQ and t h e WPPSI WPPSI VKT PTNQ PPNQ WPPSI 1 .00 VKT 0.90 * 1 .00 PTNQ 0.60 * 0.59 * 1 .00 PPNQ 0.52 * 0.52 * 0.61 * 1.00 *p<.05. The r e s u l t s o f t h e f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s i s , s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 16. As shown a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s t e p o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e VKT, t h e PTNQ, a n d t h e PPNQ a l l h a d s i g n i f i c a n t (p_<0.05) F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s ( 1 0 6 . 7 , 3 3 . 2 5 , a n d 26 . 5 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , a l o n e , e a c h i n s t r u m e n t was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f g i f t e d v e r s u s 121 T a b l e 16 D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s f o r t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s W i l k s S t e p w i s e M e t h o d on t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ F - t o - E n t e r F - t o - e n t e r W i l k s Lambda p r i o r t o s t e p 1 a f t e r s t e p 1 VKT 106.72 * 0.643 PTNQ 33.25 * 0. 52 0.641 PPNQ 26.50 * 0. 50 0.641 *p<.05. F = 3.89 i > , = 1 J>2 = 192 n o n - g i f t e d . The VKT was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e e n t e r e d i n t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n (p<0. 0 5 ) ; t h e r e m a i n i n g PTNQ a n d PPNQ F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s were b o t h l e s s t h a n o n e. A l l t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t t h e PTNQ and PPNQ were n o t a s v a l i d a s t h e VKT when d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e t w e e n a g i f t e d g r o u p and a n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . P r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ. To f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ, t h e p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y m a t r i c e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i n c l u s i o n o f e a c h o f t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s t a k e n a l o n e a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 17. The p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y f o r t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s , a s w e l l a s t h e t o t a l p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y , a r e p r e s e n t e d . 1 22 T a b l e 17 The P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ T o t a l S c o r e s P r e d i c t i o n A c c u r a c y (%) A n a l y s i s T o t a l N o n - g i f t e d G i f t e d 1 P r e d i c t i o n G r o u p G r o u p A c c u r a c y (n=!94) (n=152) (n=42) VKT, PTNQ, & PPNQ: 88 .66 95.4 64.3 C W i l k s S t e p w i s e M e t h o d n = 1 72 n=1 4 5 n = 27 ( o n l y VKT e n t e r e d ) 4.6 35.7 I n = 7 n= 1 5 PTNQ: 79 .90 96. 1 21.4 C D i r e c t M e t h o d n= 1 55 n=l 46 n = 9 3.9 78.6 I n = 6 n = 33 PPNQ: 78 .35 94.7 19.0 C D i r e c t M e t h o d n = 1 52 n=1 44 n = 8 5.3 81.0 I n = 8 n = 34 N o t e . C - C o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s I - I n c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s 1 G i f t e d WPPSI IQ>130 N o n - g i f t e d WPPSI IQ<130 1 23 Of t h e 194 c h i l d r e n i n t h e t o t a l s a m p l e , 8 8 . 7 % were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by t h e VKT ( s e e T a b l e 1 7 ) . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e VKT r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f 27 ( 6 4 . 3 % ) o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The r e m a i n i n g 15 ( 3 5 . 7 % ) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s n o n - g i f t e d . Of t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 145 ( 9 5 . 4 % ) were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n ( 4 . 6 % ) were a s s i g n e d i n c o r r e c t l y t o t h e g i f t e d g r o u p . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e PTNQ r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of 7 9 . 9 % o f t h e 194 c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ( s e e T a b l e 1 7 ) . N i n e ( 2 1 . 4 % ) o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g 33 ( 7 8 . 6 % ) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n we're c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s n o n - g i f t e d . Of t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 146 ( 9 6 . 1 % ) were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x ( 3 . 9 % ) were a s s i g n e d i n c o r r e c t l y t o t h e g i f t e d g r o u p . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on t h e PPNQ r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 78.4% o f t h e 194 c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ( s e e T a b l e 1 7 ) . E i g h t ( 1 9 . 0 % ) o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g 34 ( 8 1 . 0 % ) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s n o n - g i f t e d . Of t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 144 ( 9 4 . 7 % ) were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t ( 5 . 3 % ) were a s s i g n e d i n c o r r e c t l y t o t h e g i f t e d g r o u p . 1 24 D i s c u s s i o n The means o f t h e VKT and WPPSI f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e ( M e a n = l 0 0 . 0 ) p u b l i s h e d i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e s t m a n u a l s ( V a n e , 1968; W e c h s l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . I n t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = l 9 4 ) , t h e mean o f t h e VKT was 118.56 and t h e mean o f t h e WPPSI was 117.21. The means o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e s on t h e PTNQ ( 6 1 . 9 6 ) and PPNQ (6 4 . 1 7 ) were h i g h e r t h a n t h e m i d p o i n t s c o r e o f 42 f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l t h o u g h e q u a l numbers o f a v e r a g e a n d a b o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n ( n = l 2 0 ) were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g sample,, a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on t h e WPPSI f r o m t h e a b o v e a v e r a g e (VKT IQ>115) g r o u p ( n = i i 5 ) a s o p p o s e d t o t h e a v e r a g e (VKT IQ<115) g r o u p ( n = 7 9 ) . T h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o t e s t a l l o f t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p b e c a u s e c i v i c s t r i k e r s p r e v e n t e d t e s t i n g s t a f f f r o m c r o s s i n g t h e p i c k e t l i n e s . The f a c t t h a t more c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d f r o m t h e ab o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p ( n = l l 5 ) t h a n f r o m t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p (n=79) o f t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e was one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e h i g h e r means o f t h e VKT and WPPSI i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y t h a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n t h e t e s t m a n u a l s . O t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e h i g h e r means a r e t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h E n g l i s h a s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e were t h e o n l y ones t e s t e d , a n d t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n came f r o m two u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . A random s a m p l e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t Canada s h o u l d be t e s t e d on t h e VKT and WPPSI b e f o r e 125 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t t h e means o f t h e s e t e s t s c a n be f o r m u l a t e d . The p u b l i s h e d means o f t h e VKT and WPPSI were b a s e d on s a m p l e s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n drawn f r o m a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f r u r a l a n d u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I n t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e VKT (1 4 . 2 7 ) and t h e WPPSI (1 4 . 6 3 ) were a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same ( s e e T a b l e 7) a s t h e p u b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (SD=15.00) f o r t h e VKT and WPPSI ( c f . V a n e , 1968; W e c h s l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . A l t h o u g h a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y on t h e VKT w o u l d h a v e been t h e a p p r o p r i a t e method t o u s e , a t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d y was n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e i t was t o o n e a r t o t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t o t a l WPPSI s c o r e s was 0.93 ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) , a s d e t e r m i n e d by G u i l f o r d ' s c o m p o s i t e r e l i a b i l i t y m e thod. T h i s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f t h e p u b l i s h e d WPPSI c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m 0.96 t o 0.97 ( W e c h s l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e t o t a l PTNQ was 0.88 and f o r t h e t o t a l PPNQ was 0.77 ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . The h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e PTNQ s u g g e s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s were more c o n s i s t e n t t h a n p a r e n t s when a n s w e r i n g t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n s o f t h e n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ t o t a l s c o r e s were 0.96 and 0.92, r e s p e c t i v e l y ( s e e T a b l e 9 ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s t a b l e o v e r a one-month i n t e r v a l . 126 P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i n v o l v e s two c o n c e p t s : e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d e f f i c i e n c y . T h e s e c o n c e p t s were d e f i n e d by P e g n a t o a nd B i r c h ( 1 9 5 9 ) . E f f e c t i v e n e s s i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t . E f f i c i e n c y i s t h e r a t i o b e t ween t h e number o f c h i l d r e n d e s i g n a t e d a s g i f t e d by t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h i s " g i f t e d " g r o u p t h a t h a d WPPSI IQ s c o r e s >130. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e VKT. PTNQ, a n d PPNQ, t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , a r e d i s c u s s e d . The a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ t o p r e d i c t m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s was a s s e s s e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . Of t h e 194 c h i l d r e n i n t h e c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e , 88.7% were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by t h e t h e VKT, 7 9 . 9 % by t h e PTNQ, and 78.4% by t h e PPNQ. N o n - g i f t e d g r o u p p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y ( b a s e d on t o t a l s c o r e s ) was h i g h e r f o r t h e PTNQ ( 9 6 . 1 % ) t h a n f o r t h e VKT ( 9 5 . 4 % ) o r t h e PPNQ ( 9 4 . 7 % ) . The VKT ( 6 4 . 3 % ) was t h e most e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r o f g i f t e d g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p , w h e r e a s t h e PTNQ ( 2 1 . 4 % ) a nd t h e PPNQ ( 1 9 . 0 % ) were l e s s e f f e c t i v e . S e v e n o r 4.6% o f t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s g i f t e d by t h e VKT and 15 o r 35.7% o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d a s n o n - g i f t e d . The VKT was t h e most e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Of t h e 34 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p by t h e VKT, 27 ( 7 9 . 4 % ) 1 27 were g i f t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r WPPSI s c o r e s . The PTNQ and PPNQ were l e s s e f f i c i e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e VKT. Of t h e 15 c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d a s g i f t e d by t h e PTNQ, 9 ( 6 0 . 0 % ) were d e s i g n a t e d a s g i f t e d by t h e i r WPPSI s c o r e s . S i x t e e n c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d a s g i f t e d by t h e PPNQ; h o w e v e r , 8 ( 5 0 . 0 % ) had WPPSI IQ s c o r e s >130. The VKT was a l s o t h e most e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Of t h e 160 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p by t h e VKT, 145 ( 9 0 . 6 % ) were n o n - g i f t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r WPPSI s c o r e s . The PTNQ and PPNQ were l e s s e f f i c i e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d t h a n t h e VKT. Of t h e 179 c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d a s n o n - g i f t e d by t h e PTNQ, 146 ( 8 1 . 6 % ) were d e s i g n a t e d a s n o n - g i f t e d by t h e i r WPPSI s c o r e s . One h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - e i g h t c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d a s n o n - g i f t e d by t h e PPNQ; h o w e v e r , 144 ( 8 0 . 9 % ) h ad WPPSI IQ s c o r e s <130. I f VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 130 a n d h i g h e r a r e u s e d t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , few n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a s g i f t e d , w h e r e a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be r e j e c t e d . W h i c h VKT s c o r e t o use t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w o u l d r e q u i r e a d e c i s i o n a s t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n one i s w i l l i n g t o c l a s s i f y i n c o r r e c t l y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o f t h e 15 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who were i d e n t i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s n o n - g i f t e d , 14 128 had VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127, 128, o r 129. T h e r e were 10 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h VKT s c o r e s i n t h e r a n g e o f 127 t o 129. I f t h e 24 c h i l d r e n w i t h VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127, 128, o r 129 had been i n c l u d e d i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e VKT f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p w o u l d h a v e i n c r e a s e d f r o m 6 4 . 3 % t o 97. 6 % , w h e r e a s t h e e f f i c i e n c y w o u l d have d e c r e a s e d f r o m 79.4% t o 70.7%. The d e c r e a s e i n e f f i c i e n c y w o u l d o c c u r b e c a u s e an a d d i t i o n a l 10 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d have been c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y a s g i f t e d . T h e s e t e n i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a l s o w o u l d have c a u s e d a d e c r e a s e f r o m 95.6% t o 8 8 . 8 % i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e VKT f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . T h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n , h o w e v e r , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e VKT f o r t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p f r o m 90.6% t o 9 9 . 3 % b e c a u s e o n l y one g i f t e d c h i l d w o u l d have been m i s c l a s s i f i e d . I f t h e VKT i s u s e d a s an e c o n o m i c a l i n s t r u m e n t t o i d e n t i f y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n (VKT IQ>1 3 0 ) , a d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n w i t h VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127, 128, o r 129 i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p w o u l d m a x i m i z e t h e number o f g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d . An i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s u c h a s t h e WPPSI c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e t h e r e i s a f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n , b u t t h e c o s t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w o u l d i n c r e a s e . R e s u l t s o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e d t h e a n s w e r t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , w h i c h was: What c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s w o u l d 1 29 i d e n t i f y b e s t an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g r o u p o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ? The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t n o t one o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s was a s v a l i d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t was r e j e c t e d a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y s t u d y showed t h a t a l l t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g i f t e d g r o u p were c l a s s i f i e d i n c o r r e c t l y by t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ. The VKT p r o v e d t o be t h e most v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e summary and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d . D i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a l s o a r e s u g g e s t e d . 1 30 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS The r e s u l t s o f t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . C o n c l u s i o n s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s w e l l a s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Summary o f t h e S t u d y W h i t e , K a b a n , a n d A t t a n u c c i ( 1 9 7 9 ) a n d P i n e s ( 1 9 69) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s o f c h i l d r e n a r e s e t b e f o r e t h e age o f t h r e e . F o r e x a m p l e , c h i l d r e n who l e a r n e d t o r e a d e a r l y f r e q u e n t l y h a d s t o r i e s r e a d t o them by t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( D u r k i n , 1 9 6 6 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s M a r t i n s o n and L e s s i n g e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) ; P r e s s e y ( 1 9 6 5 ) ; a n d R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 79) h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e c r i t i c a l p e r i o d when l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s a r e f o r m e d ; t h u s , t h e y have s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d so t h a t s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n c a n be p r o v i d e d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i s a c h i e v e d o f t e n t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s , a n d , a t t i m e s , p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n s ( F o x , 1 9 8 1 ) . A l t h o u g h w e l l - k n o w n , r e l i a b l e , and v a l i d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s h ave been u s e d w i d e l y 131 f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d ( F o x , 1981; A l e x a n d e r & M u i a , 1 9 8 2 ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g and c o s t l y . F i n d i n g v a l i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t a r e more e c o n o m i c a l and t h a t c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o many c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f p e r i o d o f t i m e i s an u n r e s o l v e d p r o b l e m ( K a r n e s & Brown, 1979; R o e d e l l , J a c k s o n , & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s h a v e p o t e n t i a l a s v a l i d i d e n t i f i e r s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d ( G l a s n a p p , I s s a c , H i t z , & C a r l t o n , 1981; H i r s c h & H i r s c h , 1 9 8 0 ) . S t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s a r e u s e d when a l a r g e s a m p l e must be t e s t e d i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e . The t e s t i n g a nd s c o r i n g t i m e s a r e s h o r t e r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . T e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d a l s o h a s been u s e d f r e q u e n t l y by l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( M a r l a n d , 1 9 7 2 ) , b u t many o f t h e t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n m e t h o d s a r e i n v a l i d ( J a c o b s , 1971; P o h l , 1 9 7 0 ) . M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n s were more r e l i a b l e i f o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s were u s e d , a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e t h e y f o c u s s e d a t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s . S m i t h and S a l e n t o ( 1 9 7 1) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s who were g i v e n some i n s t r u c t i o n s on i d e n t i f y i n g t h e g i f t e d c l a s s i f i e d c h i l d r e n more a c c u r a t e l y i n t o g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s t h a n t e a c h e r s who were g i v e n no d i r e c t i o n s . S m i t h a n d S a l e n t o ( 1 9 7 1 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d 1 32 was more p r e c i s e when t e a c h e r s had a c h a n c e t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o C i h a , H a r r i s , H o f f m a n , a n d P o t t e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d by p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n ( 6 7 . 0 % ) h a s been f o u n d t o be more a c c u r a t e t h a n t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n ( 2 2 . 4 % ) . P a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a r e t h e most i m m e d i a t e o b s e r v e r s o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ; t h u s , t h e y a r e i n a good p o s i t i o n to- g i v e o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s ( R o b i n s o n , R o e d e l l , & J a c k s o n , 1 9 7 9 b ) . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w h i c h was: What c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a l i d p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t , a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , when c o m p a r e d w i t h a c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t ( a n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ) , w i l l i d e n t i f y e c o n o m i c a l l y t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l ? ( I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d was one who o b t a i n e d a WPPSI IQ s c o r e >130.) I n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t , t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (VKT) was u s e d a s an i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t a n d a l s o a s a p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t . The o t h e r two p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i c h were d e v e l o p e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , were b o t h n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : t h e P e r k s T e a c h e r N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ) and t h e P e r k s 1 33 P a r e n t N o m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ). An i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l a n d P r i m a r y S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e ( W P P S I ) , was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p . The a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ t o p r e d i c t m e m b e r s h i p i n g i f t e d (WPPSI IQ>13 0) a n d n o n - g i f t e d (WPPSI IQ<130) g r o u p s was e x p l o r e d . I d e a s e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e were u s e d t o f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s ( i t e m s ) f o r t h e n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (PTNQ a n d PPNQ). The i n i t i a l f o r m o f t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ c o n t a i n e d v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , s p a t i a l , and temperament q u e s t i o n s . B i o g r a p h i c and d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d f o r b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s a l s o were r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e g l o b a l e s t i m a t e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . One o f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s , g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , was u s e d a s t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s . Two p i l o t s t u d i e s were p e r f o r m e d t o m e a s u r e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and t o t e s t t h e r e s p o n s e f o r m a t o f t h e PTNQ and PPNQ. I n t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y , t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y ( C r o n b a c h ' s S t a t i f i e d A l p h a ) f o r t h e PTNQ was 0.82 a n d f o r t h e PPNQ was 0.77. I n i t i a l l y , a f o u r - p o i n t L i k e r t r e s p o n s e s c a l e was u s e d . T h i s r e s p o n s e f o r m a t was c h a n g e d t o a y e s / n o f o r m a t b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among t h e f o u r c h o i c e s o f 1 34 t h e L i k e r t s c a l e . A l s o , i t e m s tems d i d n o t f i t t h e L i k e r t s c a l e i n a l l i n s t a n c e s . A s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y was p e r f o r m e d on t h e r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y ( C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a ) f o r t h e PTNQ was 0.61 a n d f o r t h e PPNQ was 0.68. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - m o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s ) a l s o were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e PTNQ ( 0 . 9 9 ) a nd f o r t h e PPNQ ( 0 . 9 7 ) . T h e r e was a one-week i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e t e s t a n d t h e r e t e s t f o r b o t h t h e PTNQ a n d PPNQ. T h e n , a f i n a l r e v i s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was p e r f o r m e d . The number o f s p a t i a l q u e s t i o n s was i n c r e a s e d t o make i t e q u a l (n=14) t o t h e number o f q u e s t i o n s i n t h e v e r b a l a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b t e s t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The temp e r a m e n t q u e s t i o n s were d e l e t e d b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e temperament q u e s t i o n s on t h e PTNQ ( 0 . 5 0 ) a nd PPNQ ( 0 . 5 2 ) were t o o low t o be o f v a l u e i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e two p i l o t s t u d i e s , t h e mai n i n v e s t i g a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d . The k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y were i d e n t i f i e d by t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a s t h o s e whose p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e was E n g l i s h . S c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y f r o m two u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . W i t h i n t h e s e s c h o o l s a l l k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f o r whom p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t was g i v e n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . T h r e e s u c c e s s i v e s a m p l i n g s t e p s were u s e d . As t h e f i r s t s t e p , 816 c h i l d r e n were s c r e e n e d w i t h t h e VKT. As t h e 1 35 s e c o n d s t e p , t h e 816 s u b j e c t s i n t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e were t h e n s t r a t i f i e d i n t o a g r o u p o f 463 a v e r a g e s u b j e c t s (VKT IQ<115) a n d a g r o u p o f 353 a b o v e a v e r a g e s u b j e c t s (VKT IQ>116). T h i s s a m p l e was c a l l e d t h e s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . A random s u b s e t o f e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s was s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e t o f o r m t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e . The WPPSI was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e a v e r a g e a nd ab o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p s . The c h i l d r e n ' s t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e PTNQ and PPNQ, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , a s t h e t h i r d s t e p , t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e random s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s : t h e g i f t e d g r o u p (n = 42) w i t h WPPSI IQ s c o r e s >130 and t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p ( n = l 5 2 ) w i t h WPPSI IQ s c o r e s <130. T h i s s a m p l e was c a l l e d t h e s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e a n d was u s e d i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n a n a l y s e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e VKT, t h e PTNQ, and t h e PPNQ c o u l d p r e d i c t m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h r e e o f t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t ( 0 . 9 3 ) o f t h e WPPSI was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g G u i l f o r d ' s C o m p o s i t e b e c a u s e t h e WPPSI h a s v a r y i n g b a s a l a n d c e i l i n g s c o r e s . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f t h e PTNQ ( 0 . 8 8 ) a nd PPNQ ( 0 . 7 7 ) were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b a s e d on a one-month i n t e r v a l ) 1 36 were r e p o r t e d f o r t h e PTNQ ( 0 . 9 7 ) and t h e PPNQ ( 0 . 9 2 ) . U s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t m ethod f o r a s s e s s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT, Vane (1968) r e p o r t e d a c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.88 ( b a s e d on a f i v e - m o n t h i n t e r v a l ) . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y on t h e VKT was n o t p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e i t was t o o n e a r t o t h e end of t h e s c h o o l y e a r . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (VKT, PTNQ, an d PPNQ) was a s s e s s e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s t e p o f d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , t h e VKT, PTNQ, and PPNQ a l l had s i g n i f i c a n t (p<0.05) F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s ( 1 0 6 . 7 , 3 3 . 2 5 , a nd 26.05, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , t h e VKT was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e e n t e r e d i n t h e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g PTNQ a n d PPNQ F - t o - e n t e r r a t i o s were b o t h l e s s t h a n one a f t e r t h e VKT was e n t e r e d . F o r t h e 194 c h i l d r e n , 8 8 . 7 % were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d a s g i f t e d o r n o n - g i f t e d by t h e VKT, 7 9 . 9 % by t h e PTNQ, and 78.4% by t h e PPNQ. Of t h e 152 n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , 9 5.4% were i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by t h e VKT, 9 6 . 1 % by t h e PTNQ, and 94.7% by t h e PPNQ. T w e n t y - s e v e n ( 6 4 . 3 % ) o f t h e 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y by t h e VKT, n i n e ( 2 1 . 4 % ) by t h e PTNQ, and e i g h t ( 1 9 . 0 % ) by t h e PPNQ. The VKT, t h e r e f o r e , was t h e most e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e g i f t e d g r o u p ( 6 4 . 3 % ) . Of t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e VKT was t h e most e f f i c i e n t ( 7 9 . 4 % ) , t h e PTNQ was t h e s e c o n d most 1 37 e f f i c i e n t ( 6 0 . 0 % ) , a n d t h e PPNQ was t h e l e a s t e f f i c i e n t ( 5 0 . 0 % ) p r e d i c t o r o f t h e g i f t e d . A l s o , t h e VKT was t h e most e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r ( 9 0 . 6 % ) o f t h e n o n - g i f t e d . The PTNQ (8 1 . 6 % ) a n d t h e PPNQ ( 8 0 . 9 % ) were l e s s e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e VKT when u s e d t o i d e n t i f y n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . ( E f f i c i e n c y i s t h e r a t i o b e t ween t h e number o f c h i l d r e n d e s i g n a t e d a s g i f t e d by t h e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h i s " g i f t e d " g r o u p t h a t h a d WPPSI IQ s c o r e s £130.) C o n c l u s i o n s The v a l i d a t i o n o f t h r e e e c o n o m i c a l p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (VKT, PTNQ, a n d PPNQ) was t h e f o c u s o f t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e l a t i o n ( 0.90) b e t w e e n WPPSI and VKT s c o r e s f o r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y was h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.70 o b t a i n e d by S c h e r r , P a s e w a r k , a nd Sawyer ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I f VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 130 and h i g h e r a r e u s e d t o i d e n t i f y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , few n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( 4 . 6 % ) w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , b u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s n o n - g i f t e d . U s i n g VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 130 and h i g h e r t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w o u l d r e q u i r e a w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e j e c t a p e r c e n t a g e of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f c h i l d r e n w i t h VKT 1 38 IQ s c o r e s o f 127 and h i g h e r were i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g r o u p , t h e n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e VKT t o i d e n t i f y c o r r e c t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d i n c r e a s e f r o m 6 4 . 3 % t o 97. 6 % . T h e r e w o u l d be a d e c r e a s e , h o w e v e r , i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e VKT f r o m 7 9 . 4% t o 70.7% b e c a u s e more n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be mi s c l a s s i f i e d . A l t h o u g h t h e PTNQ and t h e PPNQ were more e f f i c i e n t t h a n e f f e c t i v e , n e i t h e r was a s v a l i d a s t h e VKT. The PTNQ was more v a l i d t h a n t h e PPNQ, b u t n e i t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be u s e d a s an v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d w i t h o u t b e i n g r e v i s e d a n d r e v a l i d a t e d . The PTNQ p r e d i c t i o n r e s u l t o f 21.4% f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g r o u p was c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e r e s u l t o f C i h a , H a r r i s , H o f f m a n , a nd P o t t e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) who r e p o r t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n a s 22.4% f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , w h e r e a s t h e PPNQ p r e d i c t i o n r e s u l t o f 19.0% f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g r o u p was l o w e r t h a n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 6 7 . 0 % f o r t h e p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n a c c u r a c y r e p o r t e d by t h e a u t h o r s c i t e d a b o v e . The l o w e r r e s u l t s o f t h e PPNQ may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e PPNQ and t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h e C i h a e t a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) s t u d y a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s a m p l e s . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , p a r e n t s may n o t have been a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a s w e l l a s t e a c h e r s b e c a u s e p a r e n t s may l a c k e x p e r i e n c e a t a s s e s s i n g 1 39 t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a r e a s s u c h a s v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , a n d s p a t i a l ( S e l l i n a n d B i r c h , 1 9 8 1 ) . P a r e n t s a l s o may have h a d more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n t e a c h e r s w i t h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y b e c a u s e p a r e n t s may h a v e had l i t t l e o r no c h a n c e t o compare t h e i r c h i l d ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r own age ( V e r n o n , Adamson, & V e r n o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . The t e a c h e r s , h o w e v e r , were a b l e t o compare t h e s p e c i f i c i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s o f a k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d w i t h h i s / h e r p e e r s , h a v i n g had most of an a c a d e m i c y e a r t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e S t u d y The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i n b o t h t h e s a m p l e s i z e a nd s c o p e . S a mple S i z e O n l y 194 ( 8 0 . 8 % ) o f t h e p l a n n e d t a r g e t s a m p l e o f 240 s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e random s t r a t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n s a m p l e . C i v i c s t r i k e r s p i c k e t i n g t h e s c h o o l s p r e v e n t e d t h e t e s t i n g s t a f f f r o m c r o s s i n g p i c k e t l i n e s m a k i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e t o a d m i n i s t e r any more WPPSI t e s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s t r a t i f i e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e m i g h t be b i a s e d b e c a u s e t h e amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g a v e r a g e s u b j e c t s was r e d u c e d . A l t h o u g h a l a r g e r number o f a b o v e a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n 1 40 t h a n a v e r a g e , c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d , t h e s a m p l e s i z e f o r t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p (n=79) was l a r g e enough t o a l l o w f o r t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . The means f o r t h e VKT and t h e WPPSI were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e b e c a u s e t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n s a m p l e s i z e s o f t h e a v e r a g e a n d ab o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p s . Scope F i r s t , i n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s were u s e d : a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t ( V K T ) , a t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PTNQ), and a p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PPNQ). I f more d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t i m e a n d f u n d i n g h a d been a v a i l a b l e , i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s a p t i t u d e t e s t s , w h i c h h a v e been u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d a s p r e d i c t o r s . S e c o n d , s i n c e o n l y two u r b a n d i s t r i c t s were i n v o l v e d , t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o s i m i l a r d i s t r i c t s . A n o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f o n l y c h i l d r e n w i t h E n g l i s h a s a f i r s t l a n g u a g e i n t h e s t u d y . T h i r d , t h e m a j o r f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h e e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . O t h e r a r e a s s u c h a s c r e a t i v e t a l e n t s , p l a n n i n g t a l e n t s , l e a d e r s h i p , a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t i e s , w h i c h a r e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , were n o t i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e s t u d y w o u l d have become u n w i e l d y . 141 S u g g e s t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h F i v e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r i s e f r o m t h e r e s u l t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . F i r s t , a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s c o u l d h a v e been u s e d , t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e ones s e l e c t e d were t h e b e s t f o r u s e i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . R e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t w i s h t o i n v e s t i g a t e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h have been u s e d t o measure i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . S e c o n d , o f t h e t h r e e p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s (VKT, PTNQ, an d PPNQ) u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e VKT, a t a s k o r i e n t e d i n s t r u m e n t , was t h e most v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d . New i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be more t a s k o r i e n t e d b e c a u s e , a s shown i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e v a l i d i t y f o r t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s was b e t t e r t h a n f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S u c h i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d ' b e s i m i l a r t o t h e VKT, b u t c o v e r a r e a s s u c h a s r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s . T h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i c h s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d so t h a t e i t h e r t e a c h e r s o r p a r e n t s c o u l d a d m i n i s t e r them, w o u l d p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i o n . T h i r d , i f a w a r e n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n on g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were d i s t r i b u t e d t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e r s ( i . e . , t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s ) , s u c h a w a r e n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d make t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s more c o g n i z a n t o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y 1 42 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . T h u s , t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s may become more o b j e c t i v e i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o S a n b o r n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , M a r t i n s o n ( 1 9 7 4 a ) , a n d S m i t h a n d S a l e n t o ( 1 9 7 1 ) , t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e more a c c u r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n when g u i d a n c e and s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s on g i f t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e . S u c h a w a r e n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d r e s u l t i n more a c c u r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d . M o s t o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y had n o t a t t e n d e d w o r k s h o p s , c o n f e r e n c e s , a n d / o r c o u r s e s on t h e g i f t e d . F o u r t h , t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e VKT r e s u l t s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e VKT mean o f t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e ( n = 8 l 6 ) was 113.18 w h i c h was h i g h e r t h a n t h e p u b l i s h e d mean of 100 ( V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) . I n o r d e r t o d e r t e r m i n e i f t h e VKT mean i s i n f a c t h i g h e r i n C a n a d a , a l a r g e number o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d be t e s t e d . To c a r r y t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n one s t e p f u r t h e r , a v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y on t h e VKT and t h e WPPSI s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d f o r s u c h a s a m p l e of C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n . F i f t h , a s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e d e f i n i t i o n f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was b a s e d on a WPPSI IQ c u t o f f s c o r e o f 130. I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e VKT IQ s c o r e s f o r t h e 15 m i s c l a s s i f i e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n showed t h a t 14 h a d VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127, 128, o r 129. I f t h e s e 14 m i s c l a s s i f i e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a d been p l a c e d i n t h e g i f t e d 143 g r o u p , t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT f o r t h e g i f t e d g r o u p w o u l d h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s f r o m 6 4 . 3 % t o 9 7.6%. To o p t i m i z e e c o n o m i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127 and h i g h e r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . I f one assumes t h a t t h e r e i s a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f VKT s c o r e s w i t h a mean o f 100 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 15, t h e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y two p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d h a v e VKT s c o r e s o f e i t h e r 127, 128, o r 129. T h e r e f o r e , t h e number o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g more e x t e n s i v e t e s t i n g b e f o r e p l a c e m e n t i n t h e g i f t e d p r o g r a m w o u l d n o t be e x c e s s i v e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , e d u c a t o r s m i g h t w i s h t o d e s i g n a t e a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h s c o r e s o f 127, 128, a n d 129 a s g i f t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e y w o u l d b e n e f i t by b e i n g i n a g i f t e d p r o g r a m . C o n c l u d i n g Remarks The PTNQ an d PPNQ were n o t a s v a l i d a s a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n u n l e s s r e v i s e d and r e v a l i d a t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e VKT.was t h e most v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when VKT IQ s c o r e s o f 127 and h i g h e r a r e u s e d t o i d e n t i f y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . R e f e r e n c e N o t e s B l a n k , S. S. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , November, 1979. P e r k i n s , S. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , November, 1979. P e r k i n s , S. A. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r , B. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F a l l , 1979. H a k s t i a n , R. OWMAR: One-way m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f  v a r i a n c e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n d a t e d . 1 45 R e f e r e n c e s Abroms, K. I . B i r t h c r y t o f i v e : M i l e s t o n e s i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g i f t e d . New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1981. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 209 820) A l b e e , G. W., & . J o f f e , J . M. P r i m a r y p r e v e n t i o n o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 ) : The i s s u e s . H a n o v e r , N. Y.: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f New E n g l a n d , 1977. A l e x a n d e r , P. A., & M u i a , J . A. G i f t e d e d u c a t i o n . R o c k v i l l e , M a r y l a n d : A s p e n S y s t e m s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1982. Ames, L. B. The G e s e l l i n c o m p l e t e man t e s t a s a d i f f e r e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r o f a v e r a g e a n d s u p e r i o r b e h a v i o r i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1943, 62, 217-274. Ammons, R. B., & Ammons, C. H. The Q u i c k T e s t : P r o v i s i o n a l m a n u a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1962, n_, 111-161. A n a s t a s i o w , N. J . M a x i m i z i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1964, 5_7(10), 5 3 8 - 5 4 1 . B a l d w i n , C. M. S t o r i e s o f f u n a n d a d v e n t u r e . V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 965. B a l d w i n , J . W. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r - j u d g e d g i f t e d n e s s , a g r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and an i n d i v i d u a l t e s t w i t h p o s s i b l e g i f t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s . The  G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1962, 6 ( 4 ) , 153-156. B a n k s , R. , B e l i n g e r , B., B e t t i o l , I . , B o r t h w i c k , B., D o n n e l l y , B., & S m i t h A. G i f t e d / t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . O n t a r i o , C a n a d a : O n t a r i o M i n s i t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1978. B a r b e , W. B. A s t u d y o f t h e f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e g i f t e d . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1956, 47, 207-217. 1 46 B a r r o n F. K i n d e r g a r t e n c h e c k l i s t . I n F. B a r r o n , The  measurement o f c r e a t i v i t y o r i n D. K. W h i l l a ( E d ) , Handbook o f measurement and a s s e s s m e n t i n b e h a v i o r a l  s c i e n c e s . M e n l o P a r k : A d d i s o n W e s l e y , 1968 o r i n R. M a r t i n s o n , The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and  t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e , 1974. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) Bee, H. The d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d ( 2 n d e d . ) . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1978. B e n d e r , L. A v i s u a l m o t o r G e s t a l t t e s t a n d i t s c l i n i c a l u s e . A m e r i c a n O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y A s s o c i a t i o n R e s e a r c h  M o n o g r a p h , 1938 ( 3 ) . B i e h l , F. c. S t o r i e s o l d and new. V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1964. B i e m i l l e r , A. E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . I n J . H. M. Andrews & W. T. R o g e r s ( E d s . ) , C a n a d i a n r e s e a r c h  i n e d u c a t i o n : A s t a t e of t h e a r t r e v i e w . V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981. B i l l 82, O n t a r i o , C a n a d a : J . C. T h a t c h e r , Queens P r i n t e r f o r O n t a r i o , 1980. B o g e r , J . H. An e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y of t h e e f f e c t s o f p e r -c e p t u a l t r a i n i n g on g r o u p IQ s c o r e s of e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s i n r u r a l u n g r a d e d s c h o o l s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 1952, 46, 4 3-53. B o r l a n d , J . T e a c h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e g i f t e d : A new l o o k . J o u r n a l f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n o f t h e G i f t e d , 1978, 2, 22-32. Bower, E. M. E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l (2nd e d . ) . S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1969. B r a n n o n , R. C u r r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s i n p a p e r - a n d -p e n c i l m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women  Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 5 ( 4 ) , 6 1 8 - 6 2 7 . B r a z o s p o r t I n d e p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S t a f f . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a : A u t h o r s , 1961. 1 47 B r e n n e r , A. A n t o n B r e n n e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l G e s t a l t t e s t o f  s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : W e s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s , 1964. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g i o n a l I n d e x . V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y Of E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978. B u r d i k i n , J . , & P e r r y , J . A r e p o r t t o t h e b o a r d o f s c h o o l  t r u s t e e s on p r o v i s i o n f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l  d i s t r i c t #43 ( C o q u i t l a m ) . C o q u i t l a m , B.C.: C o q u i t l a m S c h o o l B o a r d , Summer, 1975. B u r o s , 0. K. ( E d . ) . T e s t s i n p r i n t I I . H i g h l a n d P a r k , N. J . : The G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1974. B u r o s , O. K. ( E d . ) . The e i g h t h m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s y e a r b o o k . H i g h l a n d P a r k , N. J . : The G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1 978. C h e r r y , B. The i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t : H i s n a t u r e  and h i s n e e d s . M a n a t e e , F l . : M a n a t e e J u n i o r C o l l e g e , 1976. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 135 173) C h e y n e y , A. B. P a r e n t s v i e w t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . P eabody J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1962, 4_0, 98-101 . C i h a , T. E., H a r r i s , R., H o f f m a n , C , & P o t t e r , M. P a r e n t s a s i d e n t i f i e r s o f g i f t e d n e s s , i g n o r e d b u t a c c u r a t e . The  G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1974, J _ 8 ( 3 ) , 191-195. C l a r k , C , & D y e r , E. K i n d e r g a r t e n c h e c k l i s t . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : A u t h o r s , 1974. C l y m e r , T., & M a r t i n , P. M. The dog n e x t d o o r . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : G i n n a nd Company, 1978. C l y m e r , T., P a r r , B., G a t e s , D., & R o b i s o n , E. G. H e l i c o p t e r s and g i n g e r b r e a d . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : G i n n and Company, 1978. C l y m e r , T., Wong, O., & B e n e d i c t , V. J . One t o grow o n . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : G i n n a nd Company, 1977. C o a t e s , S., & B r o m b e r g , P. M. F a c t o r i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e W e c h s l e r p r e s c h o o l a n d p r i m a r y s c a l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 4 and 6 V 2 . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g a n d C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 40, 364-370. 1 48 C o l e m a n , J . S. E q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , 1966. C o n r y , J . , C o n r y , R., & D ' O y l e y , V. T e s t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : E m p h a s i s , t r e n d s , a n d c o n f l i c t s i n t h e 198 0 s . The S c h o o l G u i d a n c e W o r k e r , 1982, 3 7 ( 4 ) , 5-12. C o q u i t l a m S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , Number 43. A r e p o r t t o t h e b o a r d  o f s c h o o l t r u s t e e s on p r o v i s i o n f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t #43. C o q u i t l a m , B.C., C a n a d a , Summer 1 975. C o r n i s h , R. C P a r e n t s ' , t e a c h e r s ' , and p u p i l s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . The G i f t e d C h i l d  Q u a r t e r l y , 1968, _ 2 ( 1 ) , 14-17. C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , The. The n a t i o n ' s  commitment t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d  c h i l d r e n a n d y o u t h . R e s t o n , V i r g i n i a : A u t h o r , 1978. C r o n b a c h , L. J . C o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a a n d t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t e s t s . P s y c h o m e t r i k a , 1951, _ 6 , 29 7 - 3 3 4 . C r o n b a c h , L. J . E s s e n t i a l s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g ( 3 r d e d . ) . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1970. C u r t i s , M. E., & G l a s e r , R. C h a n g i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n D. C. B e r l i n e r ( E d . ) , R e v i e w o f  r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n ( V o l . 9 ) . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981. D a v i s , B. W. I d e n t i f y i n g t h e g i f t e d c h i l d i n t h e a v e r a g e c l a s s r o o m . P e a body J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1963, 4 1 ( 1 ) , 2 8 - 3 2 . D e l i s l e , J . R. (Ed.) Tag e x e c u t i v e b o a r d e n d o r s e s G a l l a g h e r p r o p o s a l t o N a t i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n on E x c e l l e n c e . Tag  U p d a t e , 1983, 6 ( 1 ) , p. 1 D i r k s , J . , W e s s e l s , K., Q u a r f o r t h , J . , & Quenon, B. Can s h o r t - f o r m WISC-R IQ t e s t s i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h F u l l S c a l e IQ? P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1980, j_7, 4 0-46. Dow, I . & O ' R e i l l y , R. R. E x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n : A r e v i e w  o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . O n t a r i o , C a n a d a : M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1982. ( M i c r o l o g No. 82-1133) D r e g e r , R. M. The c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t : An i n t e r i m r e p o r t . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l C h i l d  P s y c h o l o g y , 1977, 5, 28 9 - 2 9 7 . 1 49 Du B o i s , P. H. A h i s t o r y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . B o s t o n : A l l y n & B a c o n , I n c . , 1970. D u ncan, J . A., & D r e g e r , R. M. B e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The J o u r n a l o f  G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1978, 133, 43-57. D u r k i n , D. C h i l d r e n who r e a d e a r l y . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1966. E l m a n , L., B l i x t , S., & S a w i c k i , R. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u t o f f s c o r e s on a WISC-R i n t h e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e  S c h o o l s , 1981, J_8, 4 2 6 - 4 2 8 . E v a n s , B., & W a i t e s , B. IQ a n d m e n t a l t e s t i n g . L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : The M a c - M i l l a n P r e s s L t d . , 1981. F i n a n c i a l Post., The: C a n a d i a n M a r k e t s 1983 ( 5 8 t h E d . ) . V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : M c C l e a n H u n t e r L i m i t e d , 1982. F o x , L. H. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a c a d e m i c a l l y g i f t e d . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1981, 3_6(10), 1103-1111. F r a n k s , F. L. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o map s t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , G e o r g e P e a b o d y C o l l e g e f o r T e a c h e r s , N a s h v i l l e , T e n n . , 1974. F r e eman, J . G i f t e d c h i l d r e n - T h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t . B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y P a r k P r e s s , 1979. F r e n c h , J . L. The g i f t e d . I n M. V. W i s l a n d ( E d . ) , P s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l d i a g n o s i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1974. G a l l a g h e r , J . J . T e a c h i n g t h e g i f t e d c h i l d . B o s t o n , M a s s . : A l l y n & B a c o n I n c . , 1975a. G a l l a g h e r , J . J . The g i f t e d c h i l d i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1975b. G e a r G. H. A c c u r a c y o f t e a c h e r j u dgment i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e l l e c u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n : A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1976a, 2 0 ( 4 ) , 4 7 8 - 489. 150 G e a r , G. H. E f f e c t s o f t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d on t e a c h e r s ' a c c u r a c y i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1 9 7 5 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1976b, 36, 6548A-6549A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 6 - 0 1 , 1837 G e a r G. H. E f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g on t e a c h e r a c c u r a c y i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The G i f t e d C h i l d  Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2 2 ( 1 ) , 90-97. G i b s o n , E. J . D e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r c e p t i o n : D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of d e p t h c o m p a r e d w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s y m b o l s . I n R. E. H a r t l e y & E. L. H a r t l e y ( E d s . ) , R e a d i n g s i n  p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : C r o w e l l , 1965. G l a s n a p p , D. R., I s s a c , R., H i t z , J . , & C a r l t o n , R. Use o f  d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d  s t u d e n t s . L a w e r e n c e , K a n s a s : U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s , 1981 . ("ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 209 823) G l a s s , G. V., & S t a n l e y , J . C. S t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s i n e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1970. G o o d e n o u g h , F. L. M e a s u r e m e n t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e by d r a w i n g s . Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , N.Y.: W o r l d Book, 1926. G o r d o n , E. M., & Thomas, A. C h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r i a l s t y l e a n d t e a c h e r s ' a p p r a i s a l o f t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e . J o u r n a l of S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 5, 2 9 2 -300. G r o t h , N. M o t h e r s o f g i f t e d . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1975, j _ 9 ( 3 ) , 2 1 7 - 2 2 2 . G u i l f o r d , J . P. P s y c h o m e t r i c m e t h o d s . New Y o r k : McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1954. H a l l a h a n , D. P, & K a u f f m a n , J . M. E x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n (2nd e d . ) . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1982. H a r r i s , D. B. C h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s a s m e a s u r e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1963. H a u c k , B. B., & F r e e h i l l , M. F. The g i f t e d - c a s e s t u d i e s . Dubuque, Iowa: W i l l i a m C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. 151 H i r s c h , F. J . , & H i r s c h , S. J . Q u i c k t e s t a s a s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1980, J_7, 37-39. H i t c h f i e l d , E. M. I n s e a r c h o f p r o m i s e . L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : Longman G r o u p L t d . , 1973. H o r w i t z , E. H. E d u c a t i n g t h e g i f t e d c h i l d . The G i f t e d  C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1974, 18(1), 18-19. H o y t , C. T e s t r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e d by a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . P s y c h o m e t r i k a , 1941, 6, 153-160. H u l l , C. H., & N i e , N. H. S t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ( U p d a t e 7-9) . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1981. Humes, C. W., J r . , & E b e r h a r d t , D. G. The m u l t i - l e v e l a p p r o a c h t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n g i f t e d p u p i l s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e G i f t e d a n d  T a l e n t e d Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l , 1977, 3 ( 1 ) , 10-16. H u n t , J . McV. I n t e l l i g e n c e and e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s , 1961. J a c o b s , J . C. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a s a f u n c t i o n o f s c h o o l l e v e l . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1971, 8, 140-142. J e n s e n , A. R. E d u c a b i l i t y a n d g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s . L o n d o n : M e t h u e n , 1973. J o h n s o n , D. L. Check l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r s c r e e n i n g t h e g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d . I n J o h n s o n , D. L. Summary o f  s t u d i e s a n d u s e s o f t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d c r e a t i v i t y  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s ( S I C C S ) . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t No. 1, I n s t i t u t e o f Human R e s o u r c e s , A l b u q u e r q u e , New M e x i c o , 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 144 970) J o r d a n , T. E. D e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e x c e p t i o n a l s t a t u s a t age s i x y e a r s . C o n t e m p o r a r y E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 1 ( 4 ) , 4-19. K a r n e s , F. A., & Brown, K. E. C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e S I T w i t h t h e WISC-R f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1979, 16, 478-480. Kaufman, A. S. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f WPPSI IQs t o s e x and o t h e r b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 29, 354-357. 1 52 K e l l a m , S. G., & S c h i f f , S. K. A d a p t a t i o n a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h i n t h e f i r s t g r a d e c l a s s r o o m o f an u r b a n c o m m u n i t y . A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n : P s y c h i a t r i c R e s e a r c h  R e p o r t s , 1967, 2_, 7 9 - 9 1 . K e n n e t t , K. F. I n t e l l i g e n c e a nd s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n a C a n a d i a n s a m p l e . A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 1972, _ 8 , 45-50. K e o g h , B. K., & S m i t h , C. E. E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l l y h i g h p o t e n t i a l a n d h i g h r i s k c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 8 ( 4 ) , 2 8 5-290. K e p h a r t , N. C. The s l o w l e a r n e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : C h a r l e s M e r r i l l , 1960. K e r l i n g e r , F. N., & P e d h a z u r , E. J . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n i n  b e h a v i o r i a l r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , & W i n s t o n , 1973. K h a t e n a , J . E d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e g i f t e d . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1982. K i n c a i d , D. A s t u d y o f h i g h l y g i f t e d e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1969, _ 3 ( 4 ) , 2 6 4 - 2 6 7 . K n a p i k , I . , L e v e r t , G., N e a g l e , C , & S c h o l l e r , R. The  M a c m i l l a n s p e l l i n g s e r i e s . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f C anada L i m i t e d , 1961. K o p p i t z , E. M. E m o t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s on human f i g u r e d r a w i n g s o f s h y a n d a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, T2, 466-468. K o p p i t z , E. M. E x p e c t e d and e x c e p t i o n a l i t e m s on human f i g u r e d r a w i n g s and IQ s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n age 5 t o 12. J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 23_, 8 1 - 8 3 . Kough, J . , & De Haan, R. T e a c h e r g u i d a n c e h a n d b o o k . C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , 1974. K r a m e r , A. The g i f t e d c h i l d a s f r e a k : B r i l l i a n c e a s h a n d i c a p . I n B.M. S h o r e , F. Gagne, S. L a r i v e e , R.H. T a l i , & R.E. T r e m b l a y ( E d s . ) , F a c e t o F a c e . New Y o r k : T r i l l i u m P r e s s , I n c . , 1983. L a n d i g , H. L., & Nausmann, T. F. A s p e c t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n g i f t e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2 2 ( 1 ) , 8 5 - 8 9 . 1 53 L i k e r t , R. A. A t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s . A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1932, 22, 140-155. L o w e r a n c e , D., & A n d e r s o n , H. N. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e  WISC-R and t h e R e n z u l l i - H a r t m a n S c a l e f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f g i f t e d " p l a c e m e n t . ' , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a : P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , A p r i l , 1977. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 139 140) L u n d y , R. A., C a r e y , R. W., & M o o r e , R. K. D i m e n s i o n s o f  l e a r n i n g f o r t h e h i g h l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : P a l o A l t o U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , 1977. M a i e r , N. T e a c h i n g t h e g i f t e d , c h a l l e n g i n g t h e a v e r a g e . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o G u i d a n c e C e n t r e , 1982. M a r l a n d , S. P. J r . E d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d ( V o l . 2 ) : B a c k g r o u n d p a p e r s ( a p p e n d i c e s ) . U.S. D e p t . o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n a n d W e l f a r e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1971. M a r l a n d , S. P. E d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d ( V o l . 1 ) . U.S. D e p t . o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1972. M a r t i n s o n , R. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g i f t e d : b r i e f f o r m . I n M a r t i n s o n , R. A g u i d e t o w a r d b e t t e r t e a c h i n g o f t h e g i f t e d o r i n R. E. S i m p s o n , & R. M a r t i n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r t h e g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e  C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y 1961. M a r t i n s o n , R. A. C u r r i c u l u m e n r i c h m e n t f o r t h e g i f t e d i n  t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1968. M a r t i n s o n , R. A. C h i l d r e n w i t h s u p e r i o r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . I n L. M. Dunn ( E d . ) , E x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n  t h e s c h o o l s : S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n t r a n s i t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , 1973. M a r t i n s o n , R. A. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a nd  t a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : V e n t u r a C o u n t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e 1974a. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) 1 54 M a r t i n s o n , R. I n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n R. M a r t i n s o n , The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e 1974b. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) M a r t i n s o n , R. A., & L e s s i n g e r , L. M. P r o b l e m s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d p u p i l s . I n J . J . G a l l a g h e r ( E d . ) , T e a c h i n g g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . B o s t o n , M a s s . : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , I n c . , 1966. M c C a l l , R. B., H o g a r t y , P. S., & H u r l b u r t , N. T r a n s i t i o n s i n i n f a n t s e n s o r i - m o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d IQ. A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1972, 27, 7 2 8 - 7 4 8 . M e e k e r , M. A r a t i n g s c a l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . I n B. C h e r r y ( E d . ) , The i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d  s t u d e n t : H i s n a t u r e and h i s n e e d s . M a n a t e e C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 135 173) M e h r e n s , W. A., & Lehmann, I . J . S t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n  e d u c a t i o n ( 3 r d e d . ) . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , a n d W i n s t o n , 1980. M e r e d i t h , P., & L a n d i n , L. 100 a c t i v i t i e s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a : F e a r o n P u b l i s h e r s , 1957. M i l e y , J . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t a l e n t e d p u p i l s c h e c k l i s t . I n 0. Watson & C. T ongue, S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975a. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) M i l e y , J . Check l i s t f o r f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l s . J . M i l e y , C o o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e G i f t e d , F l o r i d a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Dade C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , o r i n 0. W a t s o n & C. T ongue, S u g g e s t i o n s  f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975b. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) 1 55 M i l e y , J . Check l i s t f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n . I n 0. Watson & C. T ongue, S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and  t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975c. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . R e p o r t on e d u c a t i o n 1980-81. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1982. M o o r e , W. D., Hahn, W. G., & B r e n t a l l , L. C. A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n : A c o m p a r i t i v e a p p r o a c h . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1978, 4_4, 6 1 8 -619. M o r r i s o n , D. M u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l m ethod (2nd ed.).new Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1976. N a t i o n a l f a c t s s h e e t on t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . I n E d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d , U.S. d e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o vernment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1971. N e l s o n , L. R. G u i d e t o LERTAP use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D u n e d i n , New Z e a l a n d : U n i v e r s i t y of O t a g o , 1974. Newton-, M. R. , & Brown, R. D. A p r e v e n t a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o b l e m s i n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I n E. M. Bower & W. G. H o l l i s t e r ( E d s . ) , B e h a v i o r s c i e n c e  f r o n t i e r i n e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1967. N i e , N. G., H u l l , C. H., J e n k i n s , J . , S t e i n b r e n n e r , K., & B e n t , D. H. S t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (2nd e d . ) . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1975. N o l t e , J . N e a r l y . . . e v e r y t h i n g y o u ' v e a l w a y s w a n t e d t o  know a b o u t t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . Wawatosa, W i s e . : W i s c o n s i n C o u n c i l f o r t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d , 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 140 553) N o r t h C a r o l i n a D i v i s i o n F o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n S t a f f . P a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n f o r m a t t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d l e v e l . From N o r t h C a r o l i n a D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d S e c t i o n and D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a o r i n Tongue, C , & S p e r l i n g , C. An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m o d e l : G i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N.C., 1976. ( E RIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 125 226) 1 56 N u n n a l l y , J . C. P s y c h o m e t r i c t h e o r y . New Y o r k : McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1967. O l d r i d g e , 0. A., & A l l i s o n , E. E. R e v i e w o f t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ( W P P S I ) . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 1968, 5 ( 4 ) , 3 47-348. O ' N e i l l , K. K. P a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t : A key t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2 2 ( 2 ) , 2 3 5 - 2 4 2 . O n t a r i o M i n s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m s and s e r v i c e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , A u t h o r , 1 971 . P a s s o w , H. A. The n a t u r e of g i f t e d n e s s and t a l e n t . G i f t e d  C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 2 5 ( 1 ) , 5-10. P a y n e , J . S., P a t t o n , J . R., K a u f f m a n , J . M., Brown, G. B., & P ayne R. A. E x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n f o c u s ( 3 r d e d . ) . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1983. P e d u l l a , J . J . , A i r a s i a n , P. W., & Madaus, G. F. Do t e a c h e r 0 r a t i n g s and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t r e s u l t s o f s t u d e n t s y i e l d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n ? A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h  J o u r n a l , 1980, 17(3), 303-307. P e g n a t o , C. V. An e v a l u a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n i t i a l m e thods o f s e l e c t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 8 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1958, j_9, 1254A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 58-07, 298) P e g n a t o , C. V., & B i r c h , J . W. L o c a t i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . . . a c o m p a r i s o n o f m e t h o d s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1959, 25, 300-304. P f l e g e r , L. R. R e s e a r c h and g u i d a n c e l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e s :  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a nd p r o g r a m m i n g g i f t e d a nd t a l e n t e d  s t u d e n t s ^ M a d i s o n / W i s c o n s i n , 1977. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 138 001) P i c k a r d , P. M. I f y o u t h i n k y o u r c h i l d i s g i f t e d . L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1976. P i n e s , M. Why some 3 - y e a r - o l d s g e t A's -- a n d some g e t C's. The New Y o r k T i m e s M a g a z i n e , J u l y 6, 1969, pp. 4-5; 10; 12-17. 157 P o h l , R. T e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 7 0 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1970, 3_, 2237A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 0 - 2 1 , 037) P r e s s e y , S. P. C o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d n u r t u r e o f g e n i u s . I n W. B. B a r b e , P s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d :  S e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . New Y o r k : C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1965. R e n z u l l i , J . , & H a r t m a n , R. K. The R e n z u l l i - H a r t m a n s c a l e  f o r r a t i n g b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s . A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1971 o r i n : R e n z u l l i , J . , & H a r t m a n , R. K. Out o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n , 1971, 3_8, 2 4 3 - 2 4 8 . R e n z u l l i , J . S., & S m i t h , L. H. Two a p p r o a c h e s t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1977, 43, 5 12-518. R o b i n s o n , H., R o e d e l l , W., & J a c k s o n , N. R a t i n g summary  f o r m . S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n : A u t h o r s , 1979a. R o b i n s o n , H. B., R o e d e l l , W. C , J a c k s o n , N. E. The g i f t e d  a n d t h e t a l e n t e d : T h e i r e d u c a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . C h i c a g o , 1 1 1 . : The N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1979b. R o e d e l l , W. C , J a c k s o n , N. E. , & R o b i n s o n , H. B. G i f t e d  young c h i l d r e n . S e a t t l e , Wash.: U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n , J a n u a r y 1979. R o g o l s k y , M. M. S c r e e n i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n : A r e v i e w and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . J o u r n a l of S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 7, 18-27. R o t h , J . , & Sussman, S. E d u c a t i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : Y o r k B o r o u g h B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , 1972. ( O n t a r i o Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ON00555) R u b e n z e r , R. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d p r o g r a m s . The G i f t e d C h i l d  Q u a r t e r l y , 1979, 2 3 ( 2 ) , 3 0 4-314. S a n b o r n , M. P. A s t a t e w i d e p r o g r a m i n t h e d i s c o v e r y and g u i d a n c e o f g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . I n J . C. S t a n l e y , W. C. G e o r g e , & C. H. S o l a n a ( E d s . ) , E d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s  and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d i g i e s . B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d : The J o h n H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. 158 . S a n d e r l i n , O. G i f t e d c h i l d r e n : How t o i d e n t i f y a nd t e a c h  them. New Y o r k : A. S. B a r n e s & Company, 1979. S a t t l e r , J . M. A s s e s s m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e and  s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s ( 2 n d e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n & B a c o n , I n c . , 1982. S c a r r - S a l a p a t e k , S. L e a r n i n g , i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g . I n M. H. Marx & M. E. Bunch ( E d s . ) , F u n d a m e n t a l s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1977. S c h e r m a n n , A. A r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e ' s a p p r o a c h t o g i f t e d n e s s . I n E. P. W i l l e n b e r g ( C h a i r m a n ) , Spec i a l  e d u c a t i o n : S t r a t e g i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g f o r t h e C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , T o r o n t o , C a n a d a , A p r i l , 1966. C i t e d i n J . C a r r o l l , I d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d a nd c r e a t i v e s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n : T oward a m u l t i p l e m o d el o f a s s e s s m e n t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g of t h e A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n of t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 137 638) S c h e r r , S. S., P a s e w a r k , R. A., & S a y w e r , R. N. R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Vane k i n d e r g a r t e n t e s t and W e c h s l e r p r e s c h o o l and p r i m a r y s c a l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . J o u r n a l o f  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 29, 4 66-468. S c o t t , E. T e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l . P a l o s V e r d e U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , C a l i f o r n i a , o r i n M a r t i n s o n , R. The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) S e a g o e , M. V. Terman a n d t h e g i f t e d . The E l e m e n t a r y  P r i n c i p a l , 1972, 5J_, 76-78. S e l l i n , D. F., & B i r c h , J . W. P s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t  o f g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d l e a r n e r s . R o c k v i l l e , M a r y l a n d : A s p e n S y s t e m s C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981. Shaw, M. C , & McCuen, J . T. The o n s e t of a c a d e m i c u n d e r -a c h i e v e m e n t i n b r i g h t c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1960, 5 3 ( 3 ) , 103-108. 1 59 S i m p s o n , R., & M a r t i n s o n , R. A d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., and M a r t i n s o n , R. A. E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a  l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. S i s k , D. A. What i f y o u r c h i l d i s g i f t e d ? I n t h e Y e a r b o o k  of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( 4 t h e d . ) . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : M a r q u i s A c a d e m i c M e d i a , 1978-1979. S m i t h , K. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e use o f " d o u b l e - c h o i c e " i t e m s i n t e s t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 1958, 5J_, 3 8 7 - 3 8 9 . S m i t h , S. A., & S a l a n t o , J . An a p p r o a c h t o p r e s c h o o l e v a l u a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1971, 8, 142-147. S o n t a g , L. W. , B a k e r , C. T., & N e l s o n , V. L. M e n t a l g r o w t h  and p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t : A l o n g t i t u d i n a l s t u d y . M o n o g r a p h s of t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1958, 23, ( 2 , S e r i a l No. 6 8 ) . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d b o o k , O n t a r i o , C a n a d a : O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1981. S p e n c e r , D. C l a s s r o o m f a i l u r e t o s p o t g i f t e d . The T i m e s  E d u c a t i o n a l S u p p l e m e n t , M a r c h 26, 1982, Number 3430, p . 6 . S t a n l e y , J . C , & H o p k i n s , K. D. E d u c a t i o n a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l measurement and e v a l u a t i o n . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1972. S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . 1981 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a . O t t a w a , O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1982. S t e v e n s o n , H. W. , P a r k e r , T., W i l k i n s o n , A., Hegan, A., & F i s h , E. P r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 68, 507 - 5 1 7 . S t o v a l l , B. S t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n s h e e t . I n 0. Watson & C. Tongue ( E d s . ) S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d  a n d t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a : R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1975. ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) 1 60 Tannenbaum, A. J . H i s t o r y Of I n t e r e s t I n The G i f t e d . I n N. B. H e n r y ( E d . ) , E d u c a t i o n F o r The G i f t e d . t h e F i f t y - s e v e n t h Y e a r b o o k Of The N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y F o r The S t u d y Of  E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y Of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1958. Tannenbaum, A. J . P r e - s p u t n i k To P o s t W a t e r g a t e C o n c e r n A b o u t The G i f t e d . I n W. B. B a r b e & J . S. R e n z u l l i ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y And E d u c a t i o n Of The G i f t e d ( 3 r d E d . ) . New Y o r k : I r v i n g t o n P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1981. T a t s u o k a , M. M. D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s : The s t u d y o f g r o u p  d i f f e r e n c e s , (Number 6 ) . C h a m p a i g n , 1 1 1 . : The I n s t i t u t e f o r P e r s o n a l i t y and A b i l i t y T e s t i n g , 1969. T a y l o r , C. W. I n s t r u c t i o n a l m e d i a and c r e a t i v i t y . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1968. T e m p e s t , N. R. T e a c h i n g c l e v e r c h i l d r e n 7-11. L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1974. Terman, L. M. G e n e t i c s t u d i e s o f g e n i u s : M e n t a l and p h y s i c a l t r a i t s o f a t h o u s a n d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n (VoT. 1 ) . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925. Terman, L. M. S c i e n t i s t s and n o n s c i e n t i s t s i n a g r o u p o f 800 g i f t e d men. P s y c h o l o g i c a l M o n o g r a p h s , 1954, 68^ 1-41 . Terman, L. M., & M e r r i l l , M. A. S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n t e l l i g e n c e  s c a l e m a n u a l f o r s e c o n d r e v i s i o n f o r m L-M. B o s t o n , M a s s . : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1960. Terman, L. M., & M e r r i l l , M. A. S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n t e l l i g e n c e  s c a l e ( t h i r d r e v i s i o n Form L-M"| Norms E d i t i on) . B o s t o n , M a s s . : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1973. Terman, L.M., & Oden, M. H. G e n e t i c s t u d i e s o f g e n i u s : The  g i f t e d c h i l d grows up: T w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w - u p o f a  s u p e r i o r g r o u p ( V o l . 4 ) . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947. Thomas, A., & C h e s s , S. Temperament and d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r / M a z e l P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. 161 Thompson, M. D. B e h a v i o r i a l d e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d . Thompson, M. D., O f f i c e o f R e s e a r c h a n f F i e l d S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 2 9 0 1 . C a t h e d r a l of L e a r n i n g , P i t t s b u r g h , P e n n s y l v a n i a 15260, o r i n B e h a v i o r a l  d e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d . P i t t s b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y , P e n n s y l v a n i a O f f i c e o f R e s e a r c h and F i e l d S e r v i c e s , 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 093 108) Timm, N. H. M u l t i v a t i a t e a n a l y s i s w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s i n  e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s / C o l e U b l i s h i n g Company, 1975. T o r r a n c e , E. P. T o r r a n c e t e s t o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : P e r s o n n e l P r e s s , 1966. T u t t l e , F. B., & B e c k e r , L. A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980. U l i c h , R. T h r e e t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l wisdom: S e l e c t i o n s f r o m g r e a t d o c u m e n t s (2nd e d . ) . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. V a n e , J . R. The Vane k i n d e r g a r t e n t e s t . B r a n d o n , V e r m o n t : C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1968. V a n e , J . R., & E i s e n , V. The Goodenough draw-a-man t e s t and s i g n s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1962, j_8, 2 76-279. V e r n o n , P. E., Adamson, G., & V e r n o n , D. F. The p s y c h o l o g y  and e d u c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . L o n d o n : M e t h u e n & Co. L t d . , 1977. W a d d e l l , D. D. The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t : An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i c a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e s i n c e t h e 1972 r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, J _ 8 ( 3 ) , 2 0 3-209. W e c h s l e r , D. W e c h s l e r i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1949. W e c h s l e r , D. W e c h s l e r a d u l t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1955. W e c h s l e r , D. M a n u a l f o r t h e W e c h s l e r p r e s c h o o l and p r i m a r y  s c a l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1967. 1 62 W e c h s l e r , D. W e c h s l e r i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n - r e v i s e d . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974a. W e c h s l e r , D. R a t i o n a l e o f t h e W e c h s l e r p r e s c h o o l a n d p r i m a r y s c a l e . I n A. J . E d w a r d s ( E d . ) , S e l e c t e d p a p e r s  o f D a v i d W e c h s l e r . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1974b. W e c h s l e r , D. W e c h s l e r a d u l t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e - r e v i s e d . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1981. W e i s e , P., M e y e r s , C. E., & T u e l , J . K. PMA f a c t o r s , s e x and t e a c h e r n o m i n a t i o n i n s c r e e n i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n g i f t e d . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 1965, 2 5 ( 2 ) , 59 7 - 6 0 3 . W e s l e y , F., & S u l l i v a n , E. Human g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t : A  p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h . New Y o r k : Human S c i e n c e s P r e s s , 1980. W h i t e , B. L., K a b a n , B. T., & A t t a n u c c i , J . S. The o r i g i n s  of human c o m p e t e n c e : The f i n a l r e p o r t o f t h e H a r v a r d  p r e s c h o o l p r o j e c t . L e x i n g t o n , M a s s . : D.C. H e a t h and Company, 1979. W h i t e , K. R. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1982, 9 J _ ( 3 ) , 4 6 1 - 4 8 1 . W i l l e r m a n , L., & F r i e d l e r , M. F. I n t e l l e c t u a l p r e c o c i o u s p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : E a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c  P s y c h o l o g y , 1977, _3J_, 13-20. W i l s o n , C. U s i n g t e s t r e s u l t s a n d t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n i n i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d p u p i l s . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e , 1963, 4J_, 7 2 0 - 7 2 1 . W o o d l i f f e , H. M. T e a c h i n g g i f t e d l e a r n e r s : A handbook f o r t e a c h e r s . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1977. Y s s e l d y k e , J . E., S a b a t i n o , D. A., & Lamanna, J . C o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e Pe a b o d y i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t w i t h e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l -d r e n . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1973, _ 0 , 200-204. 1 63 Zax, M., & Cowen, E. L. R e s e a r c h on e a r l y d e t e c t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n y o u n g s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I n C. D. S p i e l b e r g e r ( E d . ) , C u r r e n t t o p i c s i n  c l i n i c a l and c o m m u n i t y p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1969, 67-108. Z e i t l i n , S. K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g : E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  o f p o t e n t i a l h i g h - r i s k l e a r n e r s . S r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. Z e t t e l , J . G i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m a n a t i o n w i d e  p e r s p e c t i v e . R e s t o n , V a . : C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1980. Z i v , A. C o u n s e l l i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o G u i d a n c e C e n t r e , 1977. APPENDIX A S c r e e n i n g T e s t R e f e r e n c e s 1 65 S c r e e n i n g T e s t R e f e r e n c e s A d a i r , N., & B l e s c h , G. ABC i n v e n t o r y . M u s k e g o n , M i c h i g a n : T e s t M a k e r , I n c . , 1965. A h r , A. E. S c r e e n i n g t e s t o f a c a d e m i c r e a d i n e s s . S k o k i e , I l l i n o i s : P r i o r i t y I n o v a t i o n s , I n c . , 1966. A h r , A. E., & S i m o n s , B. P a r e n t r e a d i n e s s e v a l u a t i o n od  p r e s c h o o l e r s . S k o k i e , I l l i n o i s : P r i o r i t y I n o v a t i o n s , I n c . , 1969. A n d e r h a l t e r , 0. F. S c h o o l r e a d i n e s s t e s t . B e n s e n v i l l e , I l l i n o i s : S c h o l a s t i c T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1977. A u s t i n , J . J . , L a f f e r t y , C , L e a s k e , F., & C o u s i n o , F. The  s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s c h e c k l i s t . M u s k e g o n , M i c h i g a n : R e s e a r c h C o n c e p t s , 1968. Banham, K. N. M a t u r i t y l e v e l f o r s c h o o l e n t r a n c e a n d r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1959. B a n n a t y n e , A. B a n n a t y n e s y s t e m . L a F a y e t t e , L o u i s i a n a : L e a r n i n g S y s t e m s P r e s s , 1970. B e n d e r , L. B e n d e r v i s u a l - m o t o r G e s t a l t t e s t . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : W e s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e v i c e s , 1938. B e r r y , K., & B u k t e n i c a , N. D e v e l o p m e n t a l t e s t o f v i s u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : F o l l e t t E d u c a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1967. B i n i o n , H. S., & B e c k , R. L. B i n i o n - B e c k r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s  t e s t f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t g r a d e . M u n s t e r , I n d i a n a : P s y c h o m e t r i c A f f i l i a t e s , 1945. Boehm, A. E., S l a t e r , B. R. C o g n i t i v e s k i l l s a s s e s s m e n t  b a t t e r y . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1974. B r e n n e r , A. A n t o n B r e n n e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l G e s t a l t t e s t o f  s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : W e s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s , 1964. B u r g e r , S., & P e r l m a n , E. The K-Q k i n d e r g a r t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : S. B u r g e r & E. P e r l m a n , 1972. 1 66 B u r k s , H. F. A c a d e m i c r e a d i n e s s s c a l e . H u n t i n g t o n B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a : A r d e n P r e s s , 1968. C a d w e l l , B. M. P r e s c h o o l i n v e n t o r y r e v i s e d e d i t i o n - 1970. P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , 1970. C a r r o w - W o o l f o i k , E. S c r e e n i n g t e s t f o r a u d i t o r y c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f l a n g u a g e . A u s t i n , T e x a s : L e a r i n i n g C o n c e p t s , I n c . , 1973. C l y m e r , T., & B a r r e t t , T. C. C l y m e r - B a r r e t t p r e r e a d i n g  b a t t e r y . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : P e r s o n n e l P r e s s , 1969. C o c h r a n , E. V., & S h a n n o n , J . L. The a p e l l t e s t : A s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m o f e a r l y l e a r n i n g l e v e l s . O r a n g e , C a l i f o r n i a : E d c o d y n e C o r p o r a t i o n , 1969. D a b e r o n R e s e a r c h . D a b e r o n . P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n : D a b e r o n R e s e a r c h , 1972. D e R e n z i , Z., & V i g n o l o , Q. The t o k e n t e s t . B r a i n , 1962, 85, 6 6 5 - 6 7 8 . D i N o l a , A. J . , K a m i n s k y , B. P., & S t e r n f i e l d , A. E. P r e s c h o o l a n d k i n d e r g a r t e n p e r f o r m a n c e p r o f i l e . R i d g e f i e l d , New J e r s e y : E d u c a t i o n a l P e r f o r m a n c e A s s o c i a t e s , 1970. D o l l , E. V i n e l a n d s o c i a l m a t u r i t y s c a l e . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1965. Dunn, L. M. Peabody p i c t u r e v o c a b u l a r y t e s t . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1959. E n g e l m a n n , S. E. The b a s i c c o n c e p t i n v e n t o r y . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967. F r a n k e n b u r g , W., & Dodds, J . B. D e n v e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t . D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o : L a d o c a P r o j e c t a n d P u b l i s h i n g F o u n d a t i o n , I n c . , 1968. F r o s t i g , M. N., L e F e v e r , D., & W h i t t l e s e y , J . F r o s t i g  d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e s t o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1966. G a t e s , A. I . , & M a c G i n i t i e , W. H. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g  t e s t . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1969. 167 G o ldman, R., & F r i s t o e , M. Goldman F r i s t o e t e s t o f  a r t i c u l a t i o n . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1969. G o ldman, R., F r i s t o e , M., & Woodcock, R. Goldman F r i s t o e  Woodcock t e s t o f a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n e s o t a : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1970. H a i n s w o r t h , P., & H a i n s w o r t h , R. P r e s c h o o l s c r e e n i n g  s y s t e m . P a w t u c k e t , Rhode I s l a n d : P. H a i n s w o r t h & R. H a i n s w o r t h , 1974. H a i n s w o r t h , P., & S i q u e l a n d , M. The m e e t i n g s t r e e t s c h o o l  s c r e e n i n g t e s t . P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d : P. H a i n s w o r t h & M. S i q u e l a n d , 1969. H a r r i s , A. J . , & S i p a y , E. R. The M a c m i l l a n r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1970. H a r r i s o n , M. L., & S t r o u d , J . B. The H a r r i s o n - S t r o u d  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s p r o f i l e s . B o s t o n , M a s s . : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1956. H a r t l a g e , L. C , & L u c a s , D. G. P r e r e a d i n g e x p e c t a n c y s c r e e n i n g s c a l e s . J a c k s o n v i l l e , I l l i n o i s : P s y c h o l o g i s t s and E d u c a t o r s , I n c . , 1973. H a w o r t h , M. P r i m a r y v i s u a l - m o t o r t e s t . New Y o r k : G r u n e and S r a t t o n , I n c . , 1970. H e s s , R. J . Hess s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s s c a l e . J o h n s t o w n , P e n n s y l v a n i a : M a f e x A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1975. I l g , F. L., Ames, L. B., & H a i n e s , J . The G e s e l l  d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e s t s . L u m b e r v i l l e , P e n n s y l v a n i a : P r o g r a m s f o r E d u c a t i o n , 1971. J a n s k y , J . J a n s k y m o d i f i e d s c r e e n i n g i n d e x . Towson, M a r y l a n d : The O r t o n S o c i e t y , I n c . , 1973. J a n s k y , J . , & de H i r s c h , K. J a n s k y s c r e e n i n g i n d e x . New Y o r k : M a t t - J a n s k y , 1972. J o r d a n , F. L., & M a s s e y , J . S c h o o l r e a d i n e s s s u r v e y . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , I n c . , 1 969. K a l l s t r o m , C. The y e l l o w b r i c k r o a d . A u s t i n , T e x a s : L e a r n i n g C o n c e p t s , I n c . , 1975. 1 68 K a t z , J . K i n d e r g a r t e n a u d i t o r y s c r e e n i n g t e s t . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : F o l l e t t E d u c a t i o n C o r p o r a t i o n , 1971. K o p p i t z , E. M. D r a w - a - p e r s o n - K o p p i t z s c o r i n g s y s t e m . New Y o r k : G r u n e and S t r a t t o n , I n c . , 1968. L e e , J . M, & C l a r k , W. W. L e e - C l a r k r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962. L e e , L. L. N o r t h w e s t e r n s y n t a x s c r e e n i n g t e s t . E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. M a r d e l l Z., & G o l d e n b e r g , D. D I A L . H i g h l a n d P a r k , I l l i n o i s : D I A L , I n c . , 1974. McHugh, W. j . , & M c P a r l a n d , M. M c H u g h - M c P a r l a n d r e a d i n g  r e a d i n e s s t e s t . H a y w a r d , C a l i f o r n i a : C a l - s t a t e B o o k s t o r e , 1968. McLoed, P. H. L i p p i n c o t t r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t . P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a : J . P. L i p p i n c o t t Company, 1 973. M o n r o e , M. R e a d i n g a p t i t u d e t e s t . B o s t o n , M a s s . : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1935. Mon r o e , M. , M a n n i n g , J . C , Wepman, J . M. , & G i b b , E. G. I n i t i a l s u r v e y t e s t . G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n & Company, 1972. Murphy, H. A., & D u r r e l l , D. D. M u r p h y - P u r r e l l r e a d i n g  r e a d i n e s s a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1965. N u r s s , J R., & M c G a u v r a n , M. E. M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n e s s  t e s t . New Y o r k : P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1976. P e r c i v a l , R., & P o x o n , S. D a l l a s p r e s c h o o l s c r e e n i n g t e s t . R i c h a r d s o n , T e x a s : D a l l a s E d u c a t i o n a l D i a g n o s t i c a n d D e v e l o p m n t C e n t e r , 1968. P r a t t , W. E., S t o u f f e r , G. W., Y o u n g , R. V., & W h i t m e r , C. A. A m e r i c a n s c h o o l r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t , r e v i s e d . I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d i a n a : Bobbs M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1964 R h o a d e s , W. M. D e l c o r e a d i n e s s t e s t . M e d i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a : D e l c o R e a d i n e s s T e s t , 1970. R i l e y , C. M. D. R i l e y p r e s c h o o l d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g  i n v e n t o r y . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : W e s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s , 1969. 1 69 R o a c h , J , & K e p h a r t , K. P u r d u e p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r s u r v e y . C o l u m b u s , O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1966. R o d r i e g u e s , M. C , V o g l e r , W. H., & W i l s o n , J . F. A n a l y s i s  o f r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s : R e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s . B o s t o n , M a s s . : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1972. S a u e r , C. E. The c o n t e m p o r a t y s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s t e s t . B i l l i n g s , M o n t a n a : M o n t a n a R e a d i n g P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970. S c o t t , R., N e l s o n , J . , & D u n b a r , A. N. LRS s e r i a t i o n t e s t . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1968. S l i n g e r l a n d , B. H. P r e - r e a d i n g s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s : E d u c a t o r s P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1 969. S l o s s a n , R. L. S l o s s a n i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n and  a d u l t s . E a s t A u r o r a , New Y o r k : S l o s s a n E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961. S p r i g l e , H. A. S p r i g l e s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s t e s t . J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l o r i d a : L e a r n i n g t o L e a r n s c h o o l , I n c . , 1 965. S t e i n b a c h , *M. N. The S t e i n b a c h t e s t o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . B e n s e n v i l l e , I l l i n o i s : S c h o l a s t i c T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1966. S t e r n , C. E c h o i c r e s p o n s e i n v e n t o r y f o r c h i l d r e n . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : C. S t e r n , 1969. T h a c k r a y , D., & T h a c k r a y , L. T h a c k r a y r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s  p r o f i l e s . K e n t , E n g l a n d : H o dder & S t o u g h t o n E d u c a t i o n a l , 1974. Thompson, G. R. P r i m a r y a c a d e m i c s e n t i m e n t s c a l e . S k o k i e , I l l i n o i s : P r i o r i t y I n o v a t i o n s , I n c . , 1968. T h u r s t o n e , T. G. PMA r e a d i n e s s l e v e l . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : S c i e n c e r e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1974. V a l e t t , R. E. V a l e t t d e v e l o p m e n t a l s u r v e y . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , I n c . , 1966. V a l e t t , R. E. An i n v e n t o r y o f p r i m a r y s k i l l s . B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a : L e a r S e i g l e r I n c . / F e a r o n P u b l i s h e r s , 1970. V a n e , J . R. The Vane k i n d e r g a r t e n t e s t . B r a n d o n , V e r m o n t : C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y P u b l i s h i n g Comapny, I n c . , 1968. Van Wagenen, M. J . , & K l a e g e r , M. L. G. Van Wagenen r e a d i n g  r e a d i n e s s t e s t . M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a : Van Wagenen P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r i e s , 1958. W a r n e r , S., & M y e r s , W. R e a d i n g i n v e n t o r y p r o b e . F o r t L a u d e r d a l e , F l o r i d a : A m e r i c a n T e s t i n g Company, 1973. W a t s o n , G. M. Watson r e a d i n g - r e a d i n e s s t e s t . A g i n c o u r t , O n t a r i o : Book S o c i e t y o f C a n a d a , L i m i t e d , 1960. W i l s o n , A. R., & R o b e c k , M. C. K i n d e r g a t e n e v a l u a t i o n o f  l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l . New Y o r k , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1969. APPENDIX B T e a c h e r and P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e f e r e n c e s 1 72 T e a c h e r a n d P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e f e r e n c e s B a r r o n F. K i n d e r g a r t e n c h e c k l i s t . I n F. B a r r o n , The  measurement o f c r e a t i v i t y o r i n D. K. W h i l l a ( E d ) , Handbook o f measurement and a s s e s s m e n t i n b e h a v i o r a l  s c i e n c e s . M e n l o P a r k : A d d i s o n W e s l e y , 1968 o r i n R. M a r t i n s o n , The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a nd  t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e , 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) B r a z o s p o r t I n d e p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S t a f f . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . I n R. E. S i m p s o n & R. M a r t i n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s f o r  g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. B r a z o s p o r t I n d e p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S t a f f . P u p i l i n v e n t o r y . I n R. E. S i m p s o n , & R. M a r t i n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a  l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. C i h a , T. E., H a r r i s ' , R. , & H o f f m a n , C. I l l i n o i s p a r e n t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ( p a r e n t  i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t ) . R o c k f o r d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , T~21 S o u t h S t a n l e y S t r e e t , R o c f o r d , I l l i n o i s , 6 1102, 1974. C l a r k , C , & D y e r E. K i n d e r g a r t e n c h e c k l i s t . C l a r k , C , & D y e r E., Compton; P e t e r s o n , L., P a r a m o n t ; L u n d , M., M a n h a t t a n B e a c h ; L a n t z , B., D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h and G u i d a n c e , O f f i c e o f L o s A n g e l e s C o u n t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s . D a v i s J o i n t U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S t a f f . D a v i s J o i n t U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t m e n t a l l y g i f t e d m i n o r r e f e r r a l . I n Kough, J . , and De Haan, R. T e a c h e r ' s G u i d a n c e  Handbook. C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , 1965, o r i n R. M a r t i n s o n , The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d a nd  t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e , 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 194) 173 J o h n s o n , D. L. Check l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r s c r e e n i n g t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . I n J o h n s o n , D. L. Summary o f  s t u d i e s a n d u s e s o f t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s ( S I C C S ) . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t No. 1, I n s t i t u t e of Human R e s o u r c e s , A l b u q u e r q u e , New M e x i c o , 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 144 970) L o s A n g e l e s U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S t a f f . A l t e r n a t e t e a c h e r s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. E d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A  r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. M a n a t e e C o u n t y S c h o o l B o a r d S t a f f . M a natee C o u n t y p r o g r a m f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d r e f e r r a l GK. C h e r r y , B. M a n a t e e C o u n t y p r o g r a m f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d p u p i l p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s , M a n a t e e , F l o r i d a and i n B. C h e r r y ( E d . ) , The i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t : H i s  n a t u r e and h i s n e e d s . M a n a t e e C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , 1976. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 135 173) M a r t i n s o n , R. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g i f t e d : b r i e f f o r m . I n M a r t i n s o n , R. A g u i d e t o w a r d b e t t e r t e a c h i n g o f t h e g i f t e d o r i n R. E. S i m p s o n , & R. M a r t i n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r t h e g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e  C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y 1961. M a r t i n s o n , R. I n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n R. M a r t i n s o n , The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e 1974. ( E RIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) M e e k e r , M. A r a t i n g s c a l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . I n B. C h e r r y ( E d . ) , The i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d  s t u d e n t : H i s n a t u r e and h i s n e e d s . M a n a t e e C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 135 173) M i l e y , J . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t a l e n t e d p u p i l s c h e c k l i s t . J . M i l e y , C o o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e G i f t e d , F l o r i d a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Dade C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , o r i n 0. Watson & C. T o n g u e , S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d a n d  t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) 1 74 M i l e y , J . C h e c k l i s t f o r f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l s . J . M i l e y , C o o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e G i f t e d , F l o r i d a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Dade C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , o r i n 0. W a t s o n & C. T o n g u e , S u g g e s t i o n s  f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975. ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) M i l e y , J . Check l i s t f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n . J . M i l e y , C o o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e G i f t e d , F l o r i d a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Dade C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , o r i n 0. W a tson & C. T o n g u e , S u g g e s t i o n s  f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) N o r t h C a r o l i n a D i v i s i o n F o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n S t a f f . P a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n f o r m a t t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d l e v e l . From N o r t h C a r o l i n a D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d S e c t i o n a n d D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a o r i n Tongue, C , & S p e r l i n g , C. An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m o d e l : G i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N.C., 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 125 226) R e n z u l l i , J . , & H a r t m a n , R. K. The R e n z u l l i - H a r t m a n s c a l e f o r r a t i n g b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s . I n R e n z u l l i , J . , & H a r t m a n , R. E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n , 3_8(3), November 1971, pp. 211-21 4 , 2 43-248, o r i n S y p h e r s , D. F. G i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n :  P r a c t i c a l p r o g r a m m i n g f o r t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s . A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a . R o b i n s o n , H., R o e d e l l , W., & J a c k s o n , N. R a t i n g summary f o r m . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t R e s e a r c h G r o u p , G u t h r i e Annex 2, N I - 2 0 , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 98195. S c o t t , E. T e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l . P a l o s V e r d e U n i f i e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , C a l i f o r n i a , o r i n M a r t i n s o n , R. The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . N a t i o n a l / S t a t e L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on t h e G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d . L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , V e n t u r a C o u n t y , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , J u n e 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 104 094) 175 S i m p s o n , R., & M a r t i n s o n , R. A d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., a n d M a r t i n s o n , R. A. E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a  l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. : P a r e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a  l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. P a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. E d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s f o r  g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. T e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n of p u p i l . I n S i m p s o n , R. E., & M a r t i n s o n , R. E d u c a t i o n a l  p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s : A r e p o r t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a  l e g i s l a t u r e . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. S t o v a l l , B. S t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n s h e e t . S t o v a l l , B., T a l e n t D e v e l o p m e n t D i r e c t o r C h a r l o t t e - M e c k l e n b u r g S c h o o l s , C h a r l o t t e , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , o r i n 0. Watson & C. T ongue, S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d  s t u d e n t s . N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R a l e i g h D i v i s i o n f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 111 167) Thompson, M. D. B e h a v i o r i a l d e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d . Thompson, M. D., O f f i c e of R e s e a r c h a n f F i e l d S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 2 9 0 1 . C a t h e d r a l o f L e a r n i n g , P i t t s b u r g h , P e n n s y l v a n i a 15260, o r i n B e h a v i o r a l  d e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e g i f t e d . P i t t s b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y , P e n n s y l v a n i a O f f i c e o f R e s e a r c h a n d F i e l d S e r v i c e s , 1974. ( E R IC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 093 108) W a i t j e n W. P a r e n t s c o n c e p t o f t h e c h i l d a s a l e a r n e r . W a i t j e n , W., B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h a n d F i e l d S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of M a r y l a n d , C o l l e g e P a r k , M a r y l a n d , 20740. W e i n e r , J . J . A t t i t u d e s c a l e t o w a r d t h e g i f t e d . I n W i e n e r , J . L. The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s a n d A t t i t u d e s o f T e a c h e r s Toward G i f t e d C h i l d r e n ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 6 0 ) . 176 APPENDIX C T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F i r s t E d i t i o n 178 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Kindergarten Teacher: As a kindergarten teacher, your kind assistance is being sought in the construction of the attached questionnaire. The questionnaire is being used in a study of the identification of academically able kinder-garten children. The purpose of this study is to obtain information which may assist in the development of a questionnaire to identify academically able kindergarten children in an efficient and economic way. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A- Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. It would be greatly appreciated if you would kindly complete the attached questionnaire on several students from your class, as part of the preliminary study for the questionnaire. As you complete the ques-tionnaire, place beside each question your comments about the construction of the question. Your critique of the questions w i l l be highly valued. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. After read-ing the questionnaire, you may not wish to participate. Please note that the complete questionnaire w i l l be treated confidentially and that the data w i l l be used for research purposes only, the prime purpose being the development of a relevant questionnaire. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Dr. Stanley A. Perkins Professor Special Education Encl. PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e l i s t t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e a c h c h i l d f o r whom y o u p r e p a r e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1. C h i l d ' s I n i t i a l s ( O p t i o n a l ) : 2. Sex o f C h i l d : M a l e : F e m a l e : 3. D a t e o f C h i l d ' s B i r t h : 4. D a t e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 5. S c h o o l Code: 6. K i n d e r g a r t e n : A.M. P.M. D a y c a r e : A.M. P.M. 7. E n r o l l m e n t o f S c h o o l 8. T e a c h e r : Number o f Y e a r s T e a c h i n g : 9. G r a d e L e v e l s T a u g h t : 10. P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n : ( a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n ) 10.1 Number of w o r k s h o p s : 10.2 Number o f c o n f e r e n c e s : 10.3 Number o f c o u r s e s : 10.4 Names o f c o u r s e s : 10.5 O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) : 180 PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE T e a c h e r s i n a k i n d e r g a r t e n s e t t i n g a r e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s on a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s . The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w i l l h e l p t o i n c r e a s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e f o r e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t , and e c o n o m i c measurement i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w i l l h e l p w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y anonymous. Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y . A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e y o u may n o t w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e . R e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . I t s h o u l d t a k e no more t h a n t e n m i n u t e s p e r c h i l d o f y o u r v a l u a b l e t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . W h i l e a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s , i f y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f an a n s w e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n , i t w o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d i f y o u w o u l d v e r i f y t h e q u e s t i o n by a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k s ( e . g . , " I s t h e s t u d e n t a b l e t o t e l l d i r e c t i o n s s u c h a s , e a s t , w e s t , n o r t h , a n d s o u t h ? " Ask t h e s t u d e n t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t compass d i r e c t i o n s . ) Use t h e s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t a s an a i d . P l e a s e r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , u s i n g t h e st a m p e d e n v e l o p e w h i c h i s e n c l o s e d . Thank y o u f o r y o u r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . Answer S c a l e f o r Q u e s t i onna i r e The a n s w e r s c a l e i s b a s e d on a f o u r - p o i n t s y s t e m c a l l e d a " l i k e r t " s c a l e . The p u r p o s e f o r t h e l i k e r t s c a l e was t h e f o l l o w i n g : K i n d e r g a r t e n o r p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n age c h i l d r e n may be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a p o r t i o n o f a t a s k , b u t may be u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e e n t i r e t a s k . I n a c a s e where t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o m p l e t e o n l y a p o r t i o n o f a t a s k , a s c o r e o f ' o c c a s i o n a l l y ' o r ' r a r e l y ' ( w h i c h a r e r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n t h e two e x t r e m e s s c o r e s o f ' f r e q u e n t l y ' o r ' n e v e r ' ) may be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e . 181 Answer Key S c o r e f o r q u e s t i o n s D e f i n i t i o n s 4 F r e q u e n t l y O f t e n , many t i m e s 3 -- O c c a s i o n a l l y Now a n d t h e n ; s o m e t i m e s 2 — R a r e l y I n f r e q u e n t l y ; s e l d o m 1 -- N e v e r Not e v e r ; n o t a t a l l ; a t no t i m e TEACHER NOMINATION FORM Q u e s t i o n s A n s w e r s C i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e r a t i n g 1. The c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y i s a d v a n c e d f o r h i s a g e . The c h i l d u s e s a nd knows t h e m e a n i n g o f words s u c h as l a n g u a g e , f r i g h t e n , moment, t h e r m o m e t e r , b e l i e v e . 2. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o s p e l l a l o u d a t l e a s t f i v e w o r ds c o r r e c t l y , e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom. 3. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t w i t h c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s , e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom. 4. Does t h e c h i l d seem u n u s u a l l y t a l e n t e d i n t e l l i n g h i s / h e r own o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s o r r h y m e s , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h i s b e y o n d h i s / h e r age l e v e l ? 5. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x l a b e l s i n t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e o r a t home, s u c h a s SOUP, EGGS, MILK, J U I C E , F I S H , POISON. 6. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x s t r e e t s i g n s s u c h a-S STOP, GO, SLOW, WET, WALK, E X I T . 7. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d a s e n t e n c e o f a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s . 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 82 8. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d an e n t i r e book s u c h as The C a t and t h e H a t , M o t h e r G o o s e , Sesame S t r e e t , a n d A r e You My M o t h e r ? 4 3 2 1 9. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , and t h i n g s 4 3 2 1 10. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , and t h i n g s (See c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t ) 4 3 2 1 11. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , a n d t h i n g s . (See c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t ) 4 3 2 1 12. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t a c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . I f t h e a nswer t o Q u e s t i o n 12 i s ( 4 ) , (3) o r ( 2 ) , p l e a s e h a v e t h e c h i l d p r i n t a s e n t e n c e of a t l e a s t t h r e e w o r d s on t h e c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t . 4 3 2 1 13. The c h i l d h a s w r i t t e n a l e t t e r o r a n o t e t o a f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e o f a t l e a s t two s e n t e n c e s i n l e n g t h . 4 3 2 1 14. The c h i l d i s a b r e t o c o u n t a l o u d a s e r i e s o f numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o r e c i t e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n a c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 15. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e w r i t t e n numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 1 83 16. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f p l a c e v a l u e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (j/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y f o r t h e c h i l d . ( P l a c e v a l u e : u n i t s and t e n s ) . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 17. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 2 o ' c l o c k , 6 o ' c l o c k . 4 3 2 1 18. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h a l f - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 4:30 o r h a l f p a s t f o u r . 4 3 2 1 19. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r q u a r t e r - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 3:15 o r q u a r t e r p a s t t h r e e , 6:45 o r q u a r t e r t o s e v e n . 4 3 2 1 20. The c h i l d i s a c t u a l l y a b l e t o buy a 10$ i t e m , pay f o r t h i s i t e m , a n d know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 250, when u s i n g r e a l money. 4 3 2 1 21. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y t h e p u r c h a s e of a 5$ i t e m i n a s t o r e , and know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 25$. 4 3 2 1 22. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y , i n 30 s e c o n d s o r l e s s , m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s : I f an i t e m c o s t s 10$, how much c h a n g e w o u l d one r e c e i v e f r o m 25$? 4 3 2 1 23. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , 2,6,7,3,5. 4 3 2 1 24. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f o u r d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 4,9,7,6, t h e c h i l d s a y s 6,7,9,4. 4 3 2 1 25. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 3 , 9,5,4,1, t h e c h i l d s a y s 1,4,5,9,3. 4 3 2 1 26. The c h i l d knows h i s / h e r own t e l e p h o n e number. 4 3 2 1 184 27. The c h i l d knows t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers o f a t l e a s t two f r i e n d s a n d / o r r e l a t i v e s . ( I f y o u a r e u n s u r e of t h e c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t y , a s k t h e c h i l d t o r e p e a t t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers.) 4 3 2 1 28. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s a nd knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c i r c l e , s q u a r e , t r i a n g l e a n d d i a m o n d . P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i f t h e c h i l d knows t h e s h a p e : O — • A 0 — 29. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two o f t h e f o u r p o i n t s on t h e c o m p a s s . F o r e x a m p l e , two o u t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : n o r t h , e a s t , s o u t h , w e s t . ( R e f e r t o t h e c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t i f n e c e s s a r y . ) 30. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h among t h e f o u r compass p o i n t s , e a s t , w e s t , n o r t h , a nd s o u t h . (Does t h e c h i l d know a l l f o u r p o i n t s ? ) 3 1 . The c h i l d i s a b l e t o name a t l e a s t t h r e e m a i n s t r e e t s i n h i s / h e r own t o w n / c i t y . 32. The c h i l d shows r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t a s k s a s s i g n e d . 33. The c h i l d c a n work i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n . 34. The c h i l d h a s a h i g h commitment t o t a s k s a s s i g n e d . 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 35. The c h i l d i s c o n s t a n t l y c u r i o u s a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s a nd s e e k i n g r e s p o n s e s a b o u t a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s . 4 3 2 1 185 36. O t h e r comments a b o u t t h e c h i l d , (a) (b) 186 9. S i m i l a r i t i e s : 10 CHILD'S WORKSHEET E x a m p l e : Ask t h e c h i l d how t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r ds a r e s i m i l a r : A p p l e P e a r O r a n g e Orange B a l l Sun Hat C o a t S hoes F r u i t s A l l a r e r o u n d C l o t h i n g D i f f e r e n c e s O r a n g e -- You e a t i t . B a l l -- You p l a y w i t h i t . Sun -- I t s h i n e s i n t h e s k y d u r i n g t h e d a y . 11. S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s : G i v e b o t h a n s w e r s . ( a ) D i f f e r e n c e s : Answer a s a b o v e i n No. 10 (b) S i m i l a r i t i e s : A l l a r e r o u n d . 12. C h i l d p r i n t s a c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e o f a t l e a s t 3 w o r d s . 187 Q u e s t i o n s 29 a n d 30: Compass P o i n t s : S a y : "These l e t t e r s b e l o w s t a n d f o r t h e f o u r d i r e c t i o n s on a c o m p a s s . T e l l me what "N" s t a n d s f o r , what "W" s t a n d s f o r , what "S" s t a n d s f o r , and what "E" s t a n d s f o r . N W E S T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S e c o n d E d i t i o n J89 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Kindergarten Teacher: As a kindergarten teacher your kind assistance is being sought in the construction of the attached questionnaire. The questionnaire is being used in a study of the identification of above average and average academic a b i l i t i e s of kindergarten children. The purpose of this study is to obtain information which may assist in the development of a question-naire to identify academic a b i l i t i e s in academically able and average kin-dergarten children in an effective, efficient, and economic way. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. As the attached questionnaire needs to have a r e l i a b i l i t y study done, your assistance in conducting the r e l i a b i l i t y study w i l l be greatly appreci-ated. This w i l l require completing the questionnaire on two separate occasions at least one week apart on the same child in your class. Please complete the questionnaire on the kindergarten child who has been identi-fied by number from the class record sheet. As you complete the question-naire, place beside each question your comments about the construction of the question. Your critique of the questions w i l l be highly valued. Please return the questionnaire to the researcher promptly, using the stamped envelope which is enclosed so that the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis can be done as soon as possible. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. After reading the questionnaire, you may not wish to participate. Please note that the complete questionnaire w i l l be treated confidentially and that the data w i l l be used for research purposes only, the prime purpose being the development of a relevant questionnaire. Thank you for your kind assistance. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Dr. Stanley A. Perkins Professor Special Education /<?0 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Kindergarten Teacher: As a kindergarten teacher your kind assistance is being sought in the construction of the attached questionnaire. The questionnaire is being used in a study of the identification of above average and average academic a b i l i t i e s of kindergarten children. The purpose of this study is to obtain information which may assist in the development of a ques-tionnaire to identify academic a b i l i t i e s in academically able and average kindergarten children in an effective, efficient, and economic way. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. As the attached questionnaire needs to have a r e l i a b i l i t y study done before i t can be used in the main study, your assistance in conducting the r e l i a b i l i t y study w i l l be greatly appreciated. This w i l l require completing the questionnaire on two separate occasions at least one week apart on the same child in your class. Please complete the questionnaire on a kindergarten child who has average academic a b i l i t i e s . As you com-plete the questionnaire, place beside each question your comments about the construction of the question. Your critique of the questions w i l l be highly valued.. Please return the questionnaire to the researcher promptly, using the stamped envelope which is enclosed so that the statis-t i c a l analysis can be done as soon as possible. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. After reading the questionnaire, you may not wish to participate. Please note that the complete questionnaire w i l l be treated confidentially and that the data w i l l be used for research purposes only, the prime purpose being the development of a relevant questionnaire. Thank you for your kind assistance. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Stanley A. Perkins Professor Special Education T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Kindergarten Teacher: As a kindergarten teacher, your kind assistance is being sought in the construction of the attached questionnaire. The questionnaire is being used in a study of the identification of academically able kinder-garten children. The purpose of this study is to obtain information which may assist in the development of a questionnaire to identify academically able kindergarten children in an effective, efficient, and economic way. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. As the attached questionnaire needs to have a r e l i a b i l i t y study done before i t can be used in the main study your assistance in conducting the r e l i a b i l i t y study w i l l be greatly appreciated. This w i l l require complet-ing the questionnaire on two separate occasions at least one week apart on the same child in your class. Please complete the questionnaire of your most academically able child. . As you complete the questionnaire, place beside each question your comments about the construction of the question. Your critique of the questions w i l l be highly valued. Please return the questionnaire to the researcher promptly using the stamped envel-ope which is enclosed so that the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis can be done as soon as possible. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. After reading the questionnaire, you may not wish to participate. Please note that the complete questionnaire w i l l be treated confidentially and that the data w i l l be used for research purposes only, the prime purpose being the development of a relevant questionnaire. Thank you for your kind assistance. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Dr. Stanley A. Perkins Professor Special Education Encl. PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e l i s t t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e a c h c h i l d f o r whom y o u p r e p a r e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1. Code Number: 2. Sex o f C h i l d : M a l e : F e m a l e : 3. D a t e o f C h i l d ' s B i r t h : y e a r month day 4. D a t e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 5. K i n d e r g a r t e n : A.M. P.M. D a y c a r e : A.M. P.M. 6. E n r o l l m e n t o f S c h o o l 7. T e a c h e r : Number o f Y e a r s T e a c h i n g : 8. G r a d e L e v e l s T a u g h t : 9. P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n : ( a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n ) 9.1 Number of w o r k s h o p s : 9.2 Number of c o n f e r e n c e s : 9.3 Number o f c o u r s e s : 9.4 Names of c o u r s e s : 9.5 O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) : 10. The c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a v e r a g e a b o v e a v e r a g e o t h e r 1 93 11. Name one o r two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h y o u t h i n k w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t a c h i l d h as a b o v e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a. b. 12. Name one o r two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h y o u t h i n k w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t a c h i l d h a s a v e r a g e a b i l i t y f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a . b. 194 PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may a s s i s t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t , a n d e c o n o m i c measurement i n s t r u m e n t t o i d e n t i f y k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h a v e r a g e a nd ab o v e a v e r a g e a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y a n d y o u may w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . I t s h o u l d t a k e no l o n g e r t h a n 10 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s assumed t h a t i f y o u a g r e e t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n y o u w i l l h ave g i v e n y o u r c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . Thank y o u f o r y o u r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . Answer S c a l e f o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The a n s w e r s c a l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f q u e s t i o n s i s b a s e d on a y e s - n o r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . I f t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k , c i r c l e " y e s " . I f t h e c h i l d i s u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k , c i r c l e "no". A few q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c h e c k mark r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . P l e a s e p l a c e a c h e c k mark (\/) i n f r o n t o f t h e b e s t a n s w e r f o r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . TEACHER NOMINATION FORM Q u e s t i o n s C i r c l e y o u r a n s w e r 1. The c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y i s a d v a n c e d f o r h i s ag e . The c h i l d u s e s a n d knows t h e m e a n i n g o f words s u c h a s l a n g u a g e , f r i g h t e n , moment, t h e r m o m e t e r , b e l i e v e . YES NO 2. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o s p e l l a l o u d a t l e a s t f i v e w o r ds c o r r e c t l y ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom). YES NO 3. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t w i t h c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a t l e a s t f i v e words ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom). YES NO 4. Does t h e c h i l d seem u n u s u a l l y t a l e n t e d i n t e l l i n g h i s / h e r own o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s o r r h y m e s , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h i s b e y o n d h i s / h e r age l e v e l ? YES NO 195 5. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x l a b e l s i n t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e o r a t home, s u c h a s SOUP, EGGS, MILK, J U I C E , F I S H , POISON. YES NO 6. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x s t r e e t s i g n s s u c h a s STOP, GO, SLOW, WET, WALK, E X I T . YES NO 7. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d a s e n t e n c e o f a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s . YES NO 8. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d an e n t i r e book s u c h a s The C a t and t h e H a t , M o t h e r G o o s e , Sesame S t r e e t , a n d A r e You My M o t h e r ? YES NO 9. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , and t h i n g s YES NO 10. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , and t h i n g s (See c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t ) YES NO 11. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , a n d t h i n g s . (See c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t ) YES NO 12. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i r f t a c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . YES NO 13. The c h i l d h a s w r i t t e n a l e t t e r o r a n o t e o f a t l e a s t two s e n t e n c e s i n l e n g t h t o a f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e . YES NO 14. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o u n t a l o u d a s e r i e s o f numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o r e c i t e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 15. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e w r i t t e n numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 1 96 16. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g of p l a c e v a l u e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (i/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y f o r t h e c h i l d . ( P l a c e v a l u e : u n i t s and t e n s ) . 1 t o 10 11 t o 20 21 t o 30 30 + 17. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 2 o ' c l o c k , 6 o ' c l o c k . YES NO 18. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h a l f - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 4:30 o r h a l f p a s t f o u r . YES NO 19. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r q u a r t e r - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 3:15 o r q u a r t e r p a s t t h r e e , 6:45 o r q u a r t e r t o s e v e n . YES NO 20. The c h i l d i s a c t u a l l y a b l e t o buy a 100 i t e m , pay f o r t h i s i t e m , and know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 250, when u s i n g r e a l money. YES NO 21. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y t h e p u r c h a s e o f a 5C i t e m i n a s t o r e , and know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 250. YES NO 22. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y , i n 30 s e c o n d s o r l e s s , m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s : I f an i t e m c o s t s 100, how much c h a n g e w o u l d one r e c e i v e f r o m 250? YES NO 23. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , 2,6,7,3,5. YES NO 24. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f o u r d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 4,9,7,6, t h e c h i l d s a y s 6,7,9,4. YES NO 25. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 3 , 9 , 5 , 4 , 1 , t h e c h i l d s a y s 1,4,5,9,3. YES NO 26. The c h i l d knows h i s / h e r own t e l e p h o n e number. YES NO 1 97 27. The c h i l d knows t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers o f a t l e a s t two f r i e n d s a n d / o r r e l a t i v e s . ( I f y o u a r e u n s u r e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t y , a s k t h e c h i l d t o r e p e a t t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers.) YES NO 28. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s a nd knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c i r c l e , s q u a r e , t r i a n g l e a n d d i a m o n d . P l a c e a c h e c k mark (i/) i f t h e c h i l d knows t h e s h a p e : O — • A o — 29. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two o f t h e f o u r p o i n t s on t h e c o m p a s s . F o r e x a m p l e , two o u t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : n o r t h , e a s t , s o u t h , w e s t . ( R e f e r t o t h e c h i l d ' s w o r k s h e e t i f n e c e s s a r y . ) YES NO 30. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h among t h e f o u r compass p o i n t s , e a s t , w e s t , n o r t h , a nd s o u t h . (Does t h e c h i l d know a l l f o u r p o i n t s ? ) YES NO 31. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o name a t l e a s t t h r e e m a i n s t r e e t s i n h i s / h e r own t o w n / c i t y . YES NO 32. The c h i l d shows r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t a s k s a s s i g n e d . YES NO 33. The c h i l d c a n work i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n . YES NO 34. The c h i l d h a s a h i g h commitment t o t a s k s a s s i g n e d . YES NO 35. The c h i l d i s c o n s t a n t l y c u r i o u s a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s a nd s e e k i n g r e s p o n s e s a b o u t a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s . YES NO 1 98 36. O t h e r comments a b o u t t h e c h i l d , ( a ) (b) 199 CHILD'S WORKSHEET 9. S i m i l a r i t i e s : E x a m p l e : Ask t h e c h i l d how t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s a r e s i m i l a r : A p p l e ) P e a r ) F r u i t s O r a nge ) Orange ) B a l l ) A l l a r e r o u n d Sun ) Hat ) C o a t ) C l o t h i n g S h o e s ) 10. D i f f e r e n c e s : O r a n g e -- You e a t i t . B a l l -- You p l a y w i t h i t . Sun -- I t s h i n e s i n t h e s k y d u r i n g t h e d a y . 11. • S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d D i f f e r e n c e s : G i v e b o t h a n s w e r s . (a) D i f f e r e n c e s : A nswer a s a b o v e i n No. 10 (b) S i m i l a r i t i e s : A l l a r e r o u n d . Q u e s t i o n s 29 and 30: Compass P o i n t s : S a y : "These l e t t e r s b e l o w s t a n d f o r t h e f o u r d i r e c t i o n s on a c o m p a s s . T e l l me what "N" s t a n d s f o r , what "W" s t a n d s f o r , what "S" s t a n d s f o r , a n d what "E" s t a n d s f o r . N W E S 200 T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e -- T h i r d E d i t i o n T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Teacher: An important research study on the abil i t y levels of average and above average kindergarten children is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A- Perks, for the completion of her Doctorate in Education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. Since i t is important to obtain as many responses as possible from you as teacher of kindergarten children, i t would be greatly appreciated i f you would complete the teacher questionnaire. Statistical analysis can only be completed after questionnaires have been returned from a high number of participating teachers. A l l data w i l l be treated confidentially and w i l l be used for research purposes only. Your replies w i l l be highly valued. Thank you for your kind assistance. Sincerely yours, Barbara A. Perks Stanley A. Perkins Research Supervisor Special Education 20Z T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Teachers: As a kindergarten teacher, your kind assistance is being sought in responding to the attached questionnaire. The efficiency and effective-ness of the questionnaire when used for identification of above average and average academic a b i l i t i e s of kindergarten children is under investi-gation. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of Brit-ish Columbia. School has agreed to participate in this research project involving kindergarten children's a b i l i t i e s . The children whose names and code numbers appear on this l i s t have been randomly selected as possible participants in this research project. These children w i l l be asked to take part in two testing sessions of approximately one half hour each. This testing involves academic questions which are usually enjoyed by children. Children's names w i l l not appear on the test forms, and a l l forms w i l l be returned to the University of British Columbia for scoring. Parents and teachers of the randomly selected children are being asked to complete a questionnaire about the selected children's academic a b i l i t i e s . Names of the children w i l l not appear on the questionnaire; thus the questionnaires and tests are coded so that s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data can be completed. A l l questionnaires are to be returned to the researcher using stamped addressed envelopes which are enclosed. It should take no longer than 15 minutes of your time, to complete the attached que s t ionna ire. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary, and you may withdraw from the project at any time. We would, however, greatly appreciate your involvement in this research. Please note that a l l questionnaires and tests w i l l be treated confi-dentially, and that data w i l l be used for research pruposes only, the prime purpose being the development of an effective, economic, and efficient identification method of kindergarten children's a b i l i t i e s . Thank you for your kind assistance. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Dr. Stanley A. Perkins Professor, Special Education 203 PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e l i s t t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e a c h c h i l d f o r whom y o u p r e p a r e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f t h e a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n i s z e r o p l e a s e r e c o r d t h e z e r o . 1. Code Number: 2. Sex o f C h i l d : M a l e : F e m a l e : 3. D a t e o f C h i l d ' s B i r t h : y e a r month day 4. D a t e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : y e a r month day 5. K i n d e r g a r t e n : A.M. P.M. D a y c a r e : A.M. P.M. 6. P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n : ( a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n ) 6.1 Number o f w o r k s h o p s d e a l i n g w i t h a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e ) c h i l d r e n : 6.2 Number o f c o n f e r e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e ) c h i l d r e n : 6.3 Number o f c o u r s e s d e a l i n g w i t h a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e ) c h i l d r e n : 6.4 Names of c o u r s e s d e a l i n g w i t h a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e ( a b o v e a v e r a g e ) c h i l d r e n : 7. The c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l o v e r a l l a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a v e r a g e a b o v e a v e r a g e o t h e r 8. R a t e t h i s c h i l d ' s a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : L e v e l s o f A b i l i t i e s : K i n d e r g a r t e n A v e r a g e Above A v e r a g e R e a d i n g A b i l i t y S p a t i a l R e a s o n i n g A b i l i t y Memory A b i l i t y M a t h A b i l i t y L a n g u a g e A b i l i t y 204 9. R a t e t h i s c h i l d ' s commitment t o t h e a c a d e m i c t a s k s a s s i g n e d . A v e r a g e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l Above a v e r a g e k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l 10. Name one o r two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h y o u t h i n k w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d h a s a b o v e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a. b. 11. Name one o r two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h y o u t h i n k w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d has a v e r a g e a b i l i t y f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r a d e l e v e l . a. b. 205 PERKS TEACHER NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may a s s i s t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t , a n d e c o n o m i c measurement i n s t r u m e n t t o i d e n t i f y k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h a v e r a g e and ab o v e a v e r a g e a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y a n d y o u may w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . I t s h o u l d t a k e no l o n g e r t h a n 15 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s assumed t h a t i f y o u a g r e e t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n y o u w i l l h a v e g i v e n y o u r c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . Thank y o u f o r y o u r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . The a n s w e r s c a l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f q u e s t i o n s i s b a s e d on a y e s - n o r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . I f t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k , c i r c l e " y e s " . I f t h e c h i l d i s u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k , c i r c l e "no". A few q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c h e c k mark r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . P l e a s e p l a c e a c h e c k mark (1/) i n f r o n t o f t h e b e s t a n s w e r f o r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . P l e a s e a n s w e r a l l q u e s t i o n s . A s p a c e i s p r o v i d e d a f t e r q u e s t i o n #43 f o r e x t r a comments. Answer S c a l e f o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e TEACHER NOMINATION FORM Q u e s t i o n s C i r c l e y o u r a n s w e r 1 . (a) The c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y i s a d v a n c e d . The c h i l d u s e s a n d knows t h e m e a n i n g o f words s u c h a s l a n g u a g e , f r i g h t e n , moment, t h e r m o m e t e r , b e l i e v e . Can t h e c h i l d i d e n t i f y a l l f i v e words l i s t e d a b o v e ? YES NO (b) I f y o u r a n s w e r t o (a) was " y e s " p l e a s e g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f t h e c h i l d ' s a d v a n c e d v o c a b u l a r y : ( i ) ( i i ) 2. ( a ) The c h i l d i s a b l e t o s p e l l a l o u d a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s c o r r e c t l y ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom). YES NO 206 (b) I f y o u r a n s w e r t o ( a ) was " y e s " p l e a s e g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f w o r d s t h e c h i l d c a n s p e l l a l o u d : ( i ) ( i i ) 3. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t w i t h c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom). YES NO 4. Does t h e c h i l d seem u n u s u a l l y t a l e n t e d i n t e l l i n g h i s / h e r own o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s o r r h y m e s , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h i s b e y o n d h i s / h e r age l e v e l ? YES NO 5. ( a ) The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x l a b e l s i n t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e o r a t home, s u c h a s SOUP, EGGS, MILK, J U I C E , F I S H , POISON. YES NO (b) P l e a s e g i v e some o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f l a b e l s o r b r a n d names w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e a d s : ( i ) ( i i ) 6. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , a n d t h i n g s ( e . g . , a p p l e s , p e a r s , o r a n g e s = f r u i t s ; men, women, c h i l d r e n = p e o p l e ; V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a , Edmonton = c i t i e s ) . YES NO 7. ( a ) The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x s t r e e t s i g n s s u c h a s STOP, GO, SLOW, WET, WALK, E X I T . YES NO (b) P l e a s e g i v e some o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f s t r e e t s i g n s o r r o a d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w h i c h t h e c h i l d c a n r e a d : ( i ) ( i i ) 8. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d a s e n t e n c e o f a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s . YES NO 207 9. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d e n t i r e b o o k s s u c h a s The C a t a n d t h e H a t , M o t h e r G o o s e , Sesame  S t r e e t , and A r e You My M o t h e r ? Can t h e c h i l d r e a d a l l o f t h e b o o k s l i s t e d a b o v e ? YES NO 10. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , a n d t h i n g s ( e . g . , o r a n g e = y o u e a t i t , b a l l = y o u p l a y w i t h i t , a boy = y o u n g e r p e r s o n , man = o l d e r p e r s o n , g r o c e r y = p l a c e where y o u buy f o o d , p o s t o f f i c e = p l a c e where y o u buy s tamps f o r l e t t e r s ) . YES NO 11. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t a c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . YES NO 12. The c h i l d h a s w r i t t e n a l e t t e r o r a n o t e o f a t l e a s t two s e n t e n c e s i n l e n g t h t o a f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e . YES NO 13. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o u n t a l o u d a s e r i e s o f numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e c i t e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 30 30 + 14. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e w r i t t e n numbers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t f i v e numbers i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 1 t o 30 30 + 15. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f p l a c e v a l u e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : P l a c e a c h e c k mark (/) i n f r o n t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y f o r t h e c h i l d . ( P l a c e v a l u e : u n i t s and t e n s ) . 1 t o 30 30 + 16. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 2 o ' c l o c k , 6 o ' c l o c k . YES NO 17. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r h a l f - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 4:30 o r h a l f p a s t f o u r . YES NO 18. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e f o r q u a r t e r - h o u r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , 3:15 o r q u a r t e r p a s t t h r e e , 6:45 o r q u a r t e r t o s e v e n . 19. The c h i l d i s a c t u a l l y a b l e t o buy a 10$ i t e m , pay f o r t h i s i t e m , a n d know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 25$, when u s i n g r e a l money. 20. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y t h e p u r c h a s e o f a 5$ i t e m i n a s t o r e , and know how much c h a n g e t o r e c e i v e f r o m 25$. 2 1 . The c h i l d i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e m e n t a l l y , i n 30 s e c o n d s o r l e s s , m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s : I f an i t e m c o s t s 10$, how much c h a n g e w o u l d one r e c e i v e f r o m 25$? 22. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , 2,6,7,3,5. 23. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f o u r d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 4,9,7,6, t h e c h i l d s a y s 6,7,9,4. • 24. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e p e a t , a f t e r an a d u l t , a s e r i e s o f f i v e d i g i t s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m memory. F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , 3 ,9,5,4,1, t h e c h i l d s a y s 1,4,5,9,3. 25. The c h i l d knows h i s / h e r own t e l e p h o n e number. 26. The c h i l d knows t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers o f a t l e a s t two f r i e n d s a n d / o r r e l a t i v e s . ( I f y o u a r e u n s u r e of t h e c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t y , a s k t h e c h i l d t o r e p e a t t h e t e l e p h o n e numbers.) 27. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s and knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e , t h e s q u a r e .J~] 28. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s and knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e , t h e t r i a n g l e ,/\ 29. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s and knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e , t h e d i a m o n d . A 30. The c h i l d r e c o g n i z e s a n d knows t h e name o f t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e , t h e pyramid./v. 208 YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO 209 31 32 33 The c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw and c o r r e c t l y l a b e l a s q u a r e . Q The c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw and c o r r e c t l y l a b e l a t r i a n g l e . / \ The c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw a n d c o r r e c t l y l a b e l a d i a m o n d . ^ 34. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw and c o r r e c t l y l a b e l two i n t e r s e c t i n g c i r c l e s . 35. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two of t h e f o u r p o i n t s on t h e c o m p a s s . F o r e x a m p l e , two o u t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : n o r t h , e a s t , s o u t h , w e s t . YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO 36 N W E S The c h i l d i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r compass p o i n t s , e a s t , w e s t , s o u t h . (Does t h e c h i l d know a l l among t h e n o r t h , a n d f o u r p o i n t s ? ) 37. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o name a t l e a s t t h r e e m a i n s t r e e t s i n h i s / h e r own t o w n / c i t y . 38. The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s among p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , and t h i n g s ( e . g . , s i m i l a r i t i e s : a b a l l a n d an o r a n g e = r o u n d , d i f f e r e n c e s : a b a l l = y o u p l a y w i t h i t , an o r a n g e = y o u e a t i t ; s i m i l a r i t i e s : a boy and a man = p e o p l e , d i f f e r e n c e s : a g i r l = y o u n g e r p e r s o n , a woman = o l d e r p e r s o n ; s i m i l a r i t i e s : a r i v e r a n d a m o u n t a i n = f e a t u r e s on t h e e a r t h , d i f f e r e n c e s : a r i v e r = w a t e r , a m o u n t a i n = h i g h p a r t o f l a n d ) . 39. The c h i l d c a n c o m p l e t e a 30 p i e c e j i g s a w p u z z l e w i t h i n two m i n u t e s . 40. The c h i l d c a n c o m p l e t e a maze w i t h s i x c o r n e r t u r n s w i t h i n 30 s e c o n d s . Maze e x a m p l e : YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO 210 41 42, The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t a w e a t h e r g r a p h and a g e o g r a p h i c a l map o f h e r / h e r own n e i g h b o u r h o o d . W e a t h e r g r a p h e x a m p l e : ' • • • * G e o g r a p h i c a l map e x a m p l e : The c h i l d map where s t o r e a r e i n t e r p r e t 1 X L Streei Name 76 «f i s a b l e t o e x p l a i n by a g e o g r a p h i c a l h i s / h e r h o u s e , s c h o o l , and c l o s e s t l o c a t e d . The c h i l d i s a b l e t o b o t h i t e m s : a w e a t h e r g r a p h and a map o f h i s / h e r own n e i g h b o r h o o d , The c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw a p e r s o n i n p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n s ( e . g . , mouth i s b i g g e r t h a n one e y e ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p e r s o n w o u l d i n c l u d e a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g numbered c a t e g o r i e s . 1. C o m p l e t e f i g u r e i n c l u d i n g h e a d , e y e s , n o s e , m outh, body, a r m s , l e g s , and f e e t 2. H a i r a n d / o r e a r s 3. F i n g e r s and h a n d s 4. C l o t h e s -- two b a s i c i t e m s ( e . g . , d r e s s , t r o u s e r s ) ; two s p e c i f i c i t e m s ( e . g . , n e c k l a c e , h a t , s h o e s , b e l t , b u t t o n s ) 5. A t l e a s t one of t h e f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s : e y e b r o w s , e y e l a s h e s , e a r s , n o s t r i l s , l i p s ) . The c h i l d c a n c o m p l e t e a f i g u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s d e t a i l s f r o m a l l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d a b o v e . YES NO YES NO 43. O t h e r comments a b o u t c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s t o p e r f o r m v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l , o r s p a t i a l t a s k s . E x t r a Comments APPENDIX D P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F i r s t E d i t i o n 213 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A FACULTY OF EDUCATION 2125 MAIN M A L L UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Dear Parents: As a parent of a kindergarten child, your kind assistance is being sought in the construction of the attached questionnaire. The question-naire is being used in a study of the identification of academically able kindergarten children. The purpose of this study is to obtain information which may assist in the development of a questionnaire to identify academ-ical l y able kindergarten children in an efficient and economic way. This study is being conducted by the writer, Barbara A. Perks, for completion of her doctorate in education, under the supervision of Dr. Stanley A. Perkins, Professor of Special Education, University of British Columbia. It would be greatly appreciated i f you would kindly complete the attached questionnaire as i t applies to your child. As you complete the questionnaire, please place beside each question your comments about the construction of the question. Your critique of the questions w i l l be highly valued. Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. After reading the questionnaire, you may not wish to participate. Please note that the complete questionnaire w i l l be treated confidentially, and that the data w i l l be used for research purposes only, the prime purpose being the development of a relevant questionnaire. Yours truly, Barbara A. Perks Doctoral Candidate Dr. Stanley A. Perkins Professor Special Education Encl. PERKS PARENT NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e l i s t t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r y o u r c h i l d . 1. C h i l d ' s I n i t i a l s ( o p t i o n a l ) 2. Sex o f C h i l d : M a l e : F e m a l e : 3. D a t e o f C h i l d ' s B i r t h : 4. D a t e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : .  5. S c h o o l Code: 6. K i n d e r g a r t e n : A.M. P.M. D a y c a r e : A.M. P.M. 7. Number o f a d u l t s i n t h e home: 7.1 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h a d u l t i n t h e Home t o t h e C h i l d : 8. F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n : E m p l o y e d by: W o r k i n g a t Home: 9. M o t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n : E m p l o y e d by: W o r k i n g a t Home: 10. F a m i l y r e s i d e n c e . P l e a s e c h e c k b e l o w : 10.1 A p a r t m e n t 10.2 D u p l e x 10.3 S i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g 215 1 1 . S i b l i n g s : 11.1 Number o f B r o t h e r s 11.2 A ges o f B r o t h e r s 11.3 Number o f S i s t e r s 11.4 A ges o f S i s t e r s 11. P a r e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n l e v e l : F a t h e r M o t h e r 12.1 G r a d e 8 o r b e l o w 12.2 G r a d e 9-10 12.3 G r a d e 11-12 12.4 P o s t S e c o n d a r y ( n o t u n i v e r s i t y ) 12.5 P o s t s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) 12.6 P o s t s e c o n d a r y ( g r a d u a t e ) 216 PERKS PARENT NOMINATION QUESTIONNAIRE P a r e n t s know t h e i r own c h i l d r e n b e t t e r t h a n a n yone e l s e knows them. The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w i l l h e l p t o i n c r e a s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f y o u r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e f o r e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t , a n d e c o n o m i c measurement i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w i l l h e l p w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y . A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e y o u may n o t w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y anonymous and r e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . I t s h o u l d t a k e no more t h a n 15 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . W h i l e a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s , i f y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f an a n s w e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n , i t w o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d i f you w o u l d a s k y o u r c h i l d t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k s . ( F o r e x a m p l e , " I s y o u r c h i l d a b l e t o t e l l d i r e c t i o n s s u c h a s , e a s t , w e s t , n o r t h , a n d s o u t h ? " Ask y o u r c h i l d t o t e l l y o u t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e v a r i o u s compass p o i n t s . ) Use t h e s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t a s an a i d . P l e a s e r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , u s i n g t h e st a m p e d e n v e l o p e w h i c h i s e n c l o s e d . Thank y o u f o r y o u r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . Answer S c a l e f o r Q u e s t i onna i r e The a n s w e r s c a l e i s b a s e d on a f o u r - p o i n t s y s t e m c a l l e d a " l i k e r t " s c a l e . The p u r p o s e f o r t h e l i k e r t s c a l e was t h e f o l l o w i n g : K i n d e r g a r t e n o r p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n age c h i l d r e n may be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a p o r t i o n o f a t a s k , b u t may be u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e e n t i r e t a s k . I n a c a s e where t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o c o m p l e t e o n l y a p o r t i o n o f a t a s k , a s c o r e o f ' o c c a s i o n a l l y ' o r ' r a r e l y ' ( w h i c h a r e r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n t h e two e x t r e m e s s c o r e s o f ' f r e q u e n t l y ' o r ' n e v e r ' ) may be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e . 217 Answer Key S c o r e f o r q u e s t i o n s 4 -- F r e q u e n t l y 3 -- O c c a s i o n a l l y 2 — R a r e l y 1 -- N e v e r Def i n i t i o n s O f t e n , many t i m e s Now and t h e n ; s o m e t i m e s I n f r e q u e n t l y ; s e l d o m Not e v e r ; n o t a t a l l ; a t no t i m e PARENT NOMINATION FORM Q u e s t i o n s A n s w e r s C i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e r a t i n g Y o u r c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y i s a d v a n c e d f o r h i s age l e v e l . He u s e s and knows t h e m e a n i n g o f wo r d s s u c h as l a n g u a g e , f r i g h t e n , moment, t h e r m o m e t e r , b e l i e v e . I f y o u r a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n No. 1 was (4) " f r e q u e n t l y " , p l e a s e g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f y o u r c h i l d ' s a d v a n c e d v o c a b u l a r y : ( a ) (b) Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o s p e l l a l o u d a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s c o r r e c t l y ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t d o g , d a d , mom). I f y o u r a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n No. 3 was " y e s " p l e a s e g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f words t h a t y o u r c h i l d c a n s p e l l a l o u d : ( a ) •  (b) 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 5. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r i n t w i t h c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s ( e . g . , h i s own name, c a t , d o g , d a d , mom). 4 3 2 1 218 6. Does y o u r c h i l d seem u n u s u a l l y t a l e n t e d i n t e l l i n g h i s / h e r own o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s o r rh y m e s , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h i s bey o n d h i s / h e r age l e v e l ? 4 3 2 1 7. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x l a b e l s i n t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e o r a t home, s u c h a s SOUP, EGGS, MILK, J U I C E , F I S H , POISON. 4 3 2 1 8. P l e a s e g i v e some o t h e r e x a m p l e s of l a b e l s o r b r a n d names w h i c h y o u r c h i l d r e a d s : ( a ) (b) 9. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d s i x s t r e e t s i g n s s u c h a s STOP, GO, SLOW, WET, WALK, E X I T . 4 3 2 1 10. P l e a s e g i v e some o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f s t r e e t s i g n s o r r o a d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w h i c h y o u r c h i l d c a n r e a d : (a) (b) 11. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d a s e n t e n c e o f a t l e a s t f i v e w o r d s . 4 3 2 1 12. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e a d an e n t i r e book s u c h a s D r . S u e s s , Sesame S t r e e t , a n d A r e You My M o t h e r ? 4 3 2 1 13. Y o u r c h i l d i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y