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Career maturity of grade nine students in British Columbia : a rural/urban comparison 1978

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CAREER- MATURITY OP GRADE NINE STUDENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A RUMl/URBAN COMPARISON GEORGE JOHN TESLA B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FtTIPILLMENT CLF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE CLP MASTER CP ARTS xn THE FACULTY CP GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept this thesis as conforBLing to the reqijiired standard THE UiriYERSlTY CP BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1978 George John T e s l a , 1978 In presenting th is thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date / March 1978 ABSTRACT The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t u d i e d the comparative e f f e c t s o f geographical l o c a t i o n and gender on career m a t u r i t y and knowledge of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n of grade nine students i n B r i t i s h Coltimbia. In a d d i t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . One hundred and f i f t y - t w o academic students from v a r y i n g socioeconomic backgrounds were s e l e c t e d f o r the study. The sub- j e c t s , none of whom had access t o any form of career education program, were draxm from e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s from two r u r a l h i g h schools and one urban j u n i o r h i g h school. The schools i n question were s e l e c t e d by d i s t r i c t school superintendents, and the c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d by l o c a l school a u t h o r i t i e s . In a l l , e i g h t y - e i g h t r u r a l students ( t h i r t y - s i x male and f i f t y - t w o female) and s i x t y - f o u r urban students ( t h i r t y male and t h i r t y - f o u r female) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. A review of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to career m a t u r i t y revealed mixed and i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t i n g t o the v a r i a b l e s of l o c a t i o n and sex. Studies have shown th a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between knowledge of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and career m a t u r i t y . I t was hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n career m a t u r i t y between urban and r u r a l students nor between males and females, as measured by the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory, A t t i t u d e S c a l e . I t was a l s o hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n knowledge of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n between r u r a l and urban students nor between males and females, as measured by the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory, Occupational Information t e s t . The r e s u l t s of the study supported these r e s e a r c h hypotheses. In a d d i t i o n , i t was hypothesized that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y - i i i i i s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between occupational i n f o r m a t i o n and care e r m a t u r i t y . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study r e v e a l e d a Pearson r of .40 between the two v a r i a b l e s , and t h i s hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . Reasons p o s t u l a t e d f o r f a i l u r e to r e j e c t the f i r s t f o u r hypotheses i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) Trained c o u n s e l l o r s were employed i n the r u r a l s c h o o l s , whereas none e x i s t e d i n the urban s c h o o l , (b) Recent s o c i o l o g i c a l developments i n the sphere of women's l i b e r a t i o n movements have g r e a t l y increased the v a r i e t y o f occupations a v a i l a b l e t o women. This i n t u r n may have in c r e a s e d the apprehension of-females to make . occu p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , (c) Vast improvements i n the communications media and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d the f a c t o r o f i s o l a t i o n f o r r u r a l s tudents, r e s u l t i n g i n r e d u c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l and urban experiences and a c q u i s i t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A p o s t e r i o r i comparison of the sample's mean scores w i t h the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n norms on both measures re v e a l e d t h a t , w h i l e B r i t i s h Columbia students scored lower i n career m a t u r i t y , they scored s i g n i f i - c a n t l y higher i n knowledge o f occupational i n f o r m a t i o n . This comparison tends t o i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e students may possess adequate o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , they may not possess s u f f i c i e n t career m a t u r i t y t o make appro p r i a t e c a r e e r choices without concurrent h e l p i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 jfeture of the Problem 4 Purpose of the Study 6 Definition of Terms 7 Vocation/Career . . 7 Career Maturity 7 Occupational Information 8 Urban 8 Rural 8 Implications of the Study 9 Limitations of the Study 10 Overview of the Study 11 II. REVTEw~ OF L3TERATTJRE 12 Developmental Theories of Vocational Choice 12 History of Developmental Theories 12 Major Theorists 15 Ginzberg 13 Super 15 Tiedeman 18 Other Developmental Theorists 21 Career Maturity 22 Major Studies Related to Career Maturity 25 Career Pattern Study 25 Readiness for Vocational Planning 27 Vocational Development Project . . . . . . . 28 Variables Influencing Career Maturity 31 V CHAPTER PAGE P e r s o n a l i t y 32 I n t e l l i g e n c e • 32 Self-Concept 32 Socioeconomic Status . . . . . . . . . . . 33 E t h n i c i t y 33 School Curriculum 34 Educational Attainment 34 C o u n s e l l i n g 35 Sex 35 L o c a t i o n • 35 Formulation o f the Study 36 Hypotheses • • • • 3& I I I . METHODOLOGY OF THE THESIS RESEARCH 39 Overview 39 Research Design 39 Sample 39 Demographic Study o f Schools . . . . . . . . 40 T e s t i n g Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Career M a t u r i t y Inventory A t t i t u d e Scale 42 Career M a t u r i t y Inventory Competence Test • 42 Student Questionnaire 44 T e s t i n g and Data C o l l e c t i o n 44 Data A n a l y s i s • 44 IV. RESULTS AM) DISCUSSION 46 Comparison of Urban and Rur a l Career M a t u r i t y 46 Comparison of Urban and Rural Occupational Information . • 48 v i CHAPTER PAGE Comparison of Male and Female Career Maturity 50 Comparison of Male and Female Occupational Information • 52 Relationship of Career Maturity and Occupational Information • 52 Analysis of Responses to Items i n the CMI Occupation Information Test 55 Comparison with Norms . . . . . . . . 55 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 60 Overview and Summary of Results 60 Implications of the Study 63 Suggestions for Future Research 67 REFERENCES 6$ APPENDIX A. A MODEL OF CAREER MATURITY IN ADOLESCENCE . . 76 APPENDIX B. SCHOOL DISTRICTS WITH OVER 15% OF LABOUR FORCE INVOLVED IN PRIMARY INDUSTRY 77 APPENDIX C. STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 78 APPENDIX D. SAMPLE OF LETTER OF REQUEST TO SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS 79 APPENDIX E. RESPONSE HIGHLIGHTS OF STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 81 v i i LIST OP TABLES Tables D e s c r i p t i o n Page I MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, Al© ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE.CAREER MATURITY HWENTORY,. . ATTITUDE SCALE 47 I I MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE CAREER MATURITY DIVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION' TEST 49 I I I MEANS, VARIANCES, Al© STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER Al© LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE 51 IV MEANS, VARIANCES, AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST 53 V PEARSON R CORRELATIONS BET/WEEN THE ATTITUDE SCALE AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST OF THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY 54 V I COMPARISON OF CORRECT RESPONSES BY GENDER AND LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST 56 V I I COMPARISON WITH GRADE NINE NORMS FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY ATTITUDE SCALE 57 V I I I COMPARISON WITH OTHER GRADE NORMS FOR THE CAREER MATURITY niVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORI'IATION TEST 59 v i i i ACKNWLEDGEMEOTS I wish to express my thanks to those people who helped make com- p l e t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . My chairman, Dr. W i l l i a m Borgen, f o r h i s encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e . The t h e s i s committee, Dr. C a r l Chiko, and Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestions. Dr. Todd Rogers and Mr. Frank Ho f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n computer work. Joan Peters f o r t h e e x c e l l e n t job done i n t y p i n g the t h e s i s . Rose and Christopher f o r t h e i r l o v e and encouragement. 1x w i t h l o v e t o R o s e a n d C h r i s t o p h e r CHAPTER I Int r o d u c t i o n to the Study Since the t u r n of the century the concept o f v o c a t i o n a l o r career development has undergone a great deal o f change. Theories of i n d i v i d u a l developmental psychology presented by such w e l l known t h e o r i s t s as Mkslow (1954) and E r i k s o n (1963) have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the understanding of career development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of career c h o i c e . Former s i m p l i s t i c views o f career c h o i c e , although perhaps adequate i n the p a s t , are no longer acceptable i n our h i g h l y complex, mobile s o c i e t y . Career c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s who attempted to match a person's overt a p t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a job' now view the s e l e c t i o n of a career i n a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t way. A l l f a c e t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s existence must be understood, f o r a caree r encompasses not o n l y the work a person does, but h i s t o t a l l i f e s t y l e . In the p a s t , c a r e e r c h o i c e was deemed to c o n s i s t o f a d e c i s i o n taken at a po i n t i n time. L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was gi v e n to the developmental nature o f t h i s concept. Current t h e o r i s t s such as Ginzburg, Super, C r i t e s , and others emphasize the f a c t t h a t career choice i s a develop- mental process i n which a person i n t e g r a t e s the sum of h i s experiences. C r i t e s (1969) conceptualizes the s e l e c t i o n of an occupation as bein g com- posed o f a s e r i e s of events o r a c t s which occur over a cons i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f time. The process u s u a l l y encompasses the t e n years from the end o f childhood to the beginning o f youth and l a r g e l y terminates when a person enters an occupation. Career choice development i s e s s e n t i a l l y continuous and l a r g e l y i r r e v e r s i b l e . The importance of p r o p e r l y sequenced and o r d e r l y career choice development, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the j u n i o r h i g h school l e v e l , has been 1 2 emphasized by many researchers* Results of poor career choice develop- ment are evidenced by the l a r g e number of a d u l t s who are i n h e r e n t l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . Those persons i n many cases must seek p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the r e s o l u t i o n of career c r i s e s . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the choice process g e n e r a l l y encompasses adolescence and young adulthood. In order to u n d e r l i n e the f a c t t h a t some people make more r e a l i s t i c and s a t i s f y i n g career choices than o t h e r s , Super (1957) introduced the concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . C r i t e s (196*5) f u r t h e r expanded t h i s concept and introduced standardized instruments to q u a n t i f y career m a t u r i t y and r a t e people on t h i s developmental continuum. Chapter I I w i l l deal f u r t h e r w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l development of t h i s con- cept and r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Decisions w i t h respect to course and c u r r i c u l u m choice which are f o r c e d on c h i l d r e n at the j u n i o r h i g h school l e v e l i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e educational and v o c a t i o n a l choices (Super and Overstreet, I960). I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t j u n i o r h i g h school aged students have not been prepared to make such d e c i s i o n s ( B a r t l e t t , 1971)• Even a t the s e n i o r h i g h school l e v e l , approximately 30% of students are undecided about t h e i r f u t u r e occupations; a s i m i l a r percentage are u n r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r choices ( C r i t e s , 1969)* Westbrook (1976) r e p o r t e d on a study of n i n t h grade students that those students making app r o p r i a t e ( d e f i n e d as a h i g h degree of agreement between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n e r a l a b i l i t y l e v e l , i n t e r e s t l e v e l i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of work, and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e ) career choices were found to be more career mature than those who d i d not. Campbell and Parsons (1972) pointed out t h a t the j u n i o r h i g h school years are c l e a r l y a time of s i g n i f i c a n c e , and have major consequences f o r the students' f u t u r e p l a n s . E r i k s o n (1963) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the 3 junior high school years are the beginning of development of a more specific identity which i n turn influences vocational identity and sub- sequent development. The most c r i t i c a l vocational behavior at the junior high school lev e l , according to Super and Overstreet (i960-) and confirmed by Gribbons and Lohnes (1968), i s the readiness for vocational planning and looking ahead. Those students who display mature vocational behavior inevitably cope successfully with vocational tasks as young adults. That i s not to say that they have to implement career choices at that time, but they must possess appropriate attitudinal maturity for this stage of development. The student- must be aware that he w i l l eventually be forced to make a decision concerning his future and should start ex- ploring occupations, asking questions, and planning ahead. Super and Overstreet (i960) state that grade nine students are at that stage of personal development when they are willing to accept responsibility for making their own plans and choices. However, studies have shown that the typical ninth-grader does not understand himself nor his potentialities as well as he should, and question his a b i l i t y to choose between levels and fields of endeavor as reflected i n the curricu- l a r alternatives open to him. Super and Overstreet add that at this stage of development when adolescents are beginning to be called upon to make a series of prevocational and vocational choices, they need experiences which help them to develop better self-understanding and self-acceptance. They also need a general framework of occupational information as well as the knowledge of how to f i t into that framework. In spite of the overwhelming evidence that properly sequenced career development i s crucial i n the junior high school years, counselling has not been given the required emphasis* It i s the opinion of the author 4 that school counselling that does occur, is that of a crisis nature. Career exploration programs and the dispensing of occupational informa- tion have not yet been developed to a sophisticated level; career counselling has the appearance of a reluctant band aid treatment. Most of the students that the researcher has been in contact with, had selected courses and curricula with little or no prior discussion with either parents, teachers, or counsellors. Dissatisfaction with school, boredom, and future career floundering are largely the inevitable results. As Miller (1964) has pointed out, the junior high school years show early manifestations of potential dropout behaviors such as alienation toward school, poor academic performance, delinquency, and general behavior problems. Frequently those who are handicapped in their educational- vocational development represent future national problems. A large per- centage of those unemployed are between the ages of 16 and 24« Those individuals, for the greater part, are not in possession of marketable skills, perhaps a result of lack of planning and counselling during their early high school years. Students at the exploration stage of development encompass the whole spectrum of career maturity. Some are able to make meaningful preliminary decisions, particularly those who were raised in culturally and educa- tionally stimulating environments. Others, perhaps the majority, are not prepared to make such decisions. Nature of the Problem It appears then, that there is evidence to suggest that students at the junior high school level who are more career mature than their peers are better able to make realistic and thoughtful occupational decisions. The literature (reviewed in detail in Chapter Ii) reveals a plethora 5 of v a r i a b l e s t h a t are p r e d i c t o r s of career m a t u r i t y . Studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f v a r i a b l e s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , socioeconomic s t a t u s , geographical l o c a t i o n , sex, p e r s o n a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , e t h n i c o r i g i n , and school c u r r i c u l u m , have produced mixed and i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s study i s the comparison o f the c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f urban and r u r a l school c h i l d r e n . A review of l i t e r a t u r e has shown th a t the e f f e c t o f geographical l o c a t i o n has not been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . Super and Overstreet's (i960) i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d no s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y scores of r u r a l and urban students. However, t h e i r r u r a l sample i n c l u d e d students who were d a i l y commuters to an urban s c h o o l , arid they d i d not appear to have been subjected to the i s o l a t i o n , l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n , l a c k o f a v a r i e t y o f r o l e models g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r u r a l students. Other s t u d i e s (Asbury, 1968; Campbell and Parsons, 1972) focused p r i m a r i l y on the socioeconimc d i f f e r e n c e s . They compared r u r a l disadvantaged students w i t h urban non-disadvantaged students. No comparative u r b a n / r u r a l s t u d i e s i n - v o l v i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f socioeconomic l e v e l s have been performed, t o the best knowledge o f the rese a r c h e r . S i m i l a r l y , the que s t i o n o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n regard to career m a t u r i t y has not been r e s o l v e d . Although C r i t e s (1976), i n h i s recent l o n g i t u d i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s on t h i s dimension, he does not appear t o have g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the v e r y recent s o c i a l changes which can be a t t r i b u t e d to women's arguments f o r equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n the workplace. The r e s u l t a n t increa s e i n occupations open t o women may have a l t e r e d the s t a t u s quo. Of equal i n t e r e s t to t h i s study i s the p a r t t h a t knowledge o f 6 occupations p l a y s i n the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y . C r i t e s (1969) s t a t e s t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s one of the i n d i c e s of career m a t u r i t y . JLh 1963, Nelson r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who showed more knowledge about occupations tended to be from higher socioeconomic l e v e l s , i n the higher grade l e v e l s , and from urban environments. Personal contact as a method of l e a r n i n g seemed to have produced the g r e a t e s t depth o f understanding about occupations. Wehrly (1973) noted t h a t s i n c e l e a r n i n g about occupations i s gained through personal c o n t a c t , urban c h i l d r e n would have g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to acquire t h i s knowledge. V i c a r i o u s l e a r n i n g through books and the media i s a l s o a source of i n f o r m a t i o n . But as Wehrly (l973)> L i f t o n (1959) and Arbuckle (1963) p o i n t o u t , these sources f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t , present an u n r e a l and d i s t o r t e d viev; of occupations. In view of the tremendous p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f cable t e l e v i s i o n which now o f f e r s as great a v a r i e t y to r u r a l coimnunities as to urban communities, i t i s not f u l l y known to what extent t h i s phenomenon has a l t e r e d the l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge i n d i v e r s e geographical areas. Purpose of the Study The l e v e l of career m a t u r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l i s a u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r of success i n making a r e a l i s t i c and a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I t i s a l s o evident t h a t there e x i s t incomplete and i n c o n c l u s i v e data on many of the v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y geo- g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and sex. Pew, i f any i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been con- ducted i n Canada. To t h i s end, a study was formulated to compare the career m a t u r i t y of urban, r u r a l , male, and female grade nine students i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S p e c i f i c a l l y three major o b j e c t i v e s of the r e s e a r c h can be o u t l i n e d : (a) to compare the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y of r u r a l and urban grade nine students, (b) to compare the l e v e l of career 7 m a t u r i t y of female and male students w i t h i n and across urban and r u r a l environments, and ( c ) to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y , and the e f f e c t o f geographical l o c a t i o n on occupational i n f o r m a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms In the previous s e c t i o n s , s e v e r a l terms have been mentioned whose d e f i n i t i o n should f a c i l i t a t e understanding of the nature of the study. These d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w . Yo cation/Career U n t i l r e c e n t l y the t r a d i t i o n a l terms " v o c a t i o n " and " v o c a t i o n a l " have been used q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n l i t e r a t u r e . However, the s p e c i a l i z e d meanings commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these terms (such as jolt, p r o f e s s i o n ) had a tendency to minimize the process aspect of human development. Thus the term " c a r e e r " has been g i v e n recent prominence. T o l b e r t (1974) p r o - v i d e s an acceptable d e f i n i t i o n o f both terms. Career r e f e r s to the succession o f occupations i n which one engages i n a l i f e t i m e , whereas v o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a s p e c i f i c work r o l e . The term development i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s evolvement and change due t o v a r i o u s changeable economic, s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . l h viev; of the c u r r e n t usage, the study w i l l employ the term career unless r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to s t u d i e s i n which the term v o c a t i o n ( a l ) has been used. Career M a t u r i t y This construct has been d e f i n e d by C r i t e s (1969) as r e f e r r i n g to the m a t u r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior as i n d i c a t e d by the s i m i l a r i t y between h i s behavior and that of the o l d e s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i s develop- mental stage. In t h i s study, i t i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined i n terms of (a) A t t i t u d e s and (b) Competencies. A t t i t u d i n a l measures i n c l u d e 8 such c l u s t e r s as (a) Involvement i n the choice process, (h) O r i e n t a t i o n towards work, (c) Independence i n decision-making, (d) Preference f o r choice f a c t o r s , and (e) Conceptions of choice process. The Competency dimension i s made up of those c o g n i t i v e or ego f u n c t i o n s which i n v o l v e such processes as problem-solving i n decision-making, p l a n n i n g , knowledge of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s e l f - a p p r a i s a l , and g o a l s e l e c t i o n . Re- search has shown that career m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h age and grade. Occupational Information Hoppock (1967) d e f i n e s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as meaning any and a l l kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g any p o s i t i o n , j o b , or occupation, provided t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l to a person who i s choosing an occupation. i & p l o r a t i o n Stage The E x p l o r a t i o n stage of development i s one o f f o u r l i f e stages i d e n t i f i e d by Super ( l957)» I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , r o l e t r y - o u t , o c cupational e x p l o r a t i o n i n s c h o o l , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and p a r t - time work. This stage begins approximately at age 15 and terminates approximately at age 24* I t i s f o l l o w e d by the Establishment stage. Urban Por the purposes of t h i s study, urban w i l l be considered to be a densely populated, i n c o r p o r a t e d community o f more than 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n and possessing a d i v e r s e i n d u s t r i a l base. Less than 15% of the labour f o r c e i s employed i n primary i n d u s t r i e s . R ural There appear t o be no adequate d e f i n i t i o n s o f the term " r u r a l " i n l i t e r a t u r e . The d e f i n i t i o n o f r u r a l i n census l i t e r a t u r e i s e q u a l l y con- f u s i n g . R u r a l has d i f f e r e n t meanings when viewed h i s t o r i c a l l y , 9 s t a t i s t i c a l l y , o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y (Warren, 1977)' For the purposes of t h i s study, a d e f i n i t i o n of r u r a l has been formulated based on two c r i t e r i a : 1. Percentage o f the la b o u r f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n primary i n d u s t r i e s such as mining, l o g g i n g , f i s h i n g , and a g r i c u l t u r e . 2. Base of a c c e s s i - b i l i t y to a l a r g e urban centr e . The percentages o f the la b o u r f o r c e i n the v a r i o u s school d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n v o l v e d i n primary i n d u s t r i e s ranges from a h i g h o f 33% to a low of 1.7%. Prom a knowledge of B r i t i s h Columbia geography and f o r p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the researcher chose a f i g u r e o f 15% (labour f o r c e i n primary i n d u s t r y ) to d i f f e r e n t i a t e r u r a l from urban. Appendix B, page 77 enumerates B.C. School D i s t r i c t s w i t h 15% or more of the labour f o r c e engaged i n primary i n d u s t r y . The c r i t e r i o n o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a l a r g e urban centre has been decided s u b j e c t i v e l y . I t was assumed t h a t few people would be w i l l i n g to commute t o work more than 70 m i l e s . Thus the m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n would be employed i n a r u r a l environment. For the purposes o f t h i s study then, r u r a l i s defined as having 15% or more o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n primary i n d u s t r i e s and being more than 70 m i l e s from a l a r g e urban c e n t r e . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study I f the study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y of urban students does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t o f r u r a l s t u d e n t s , t h i s would i n d i c a t e that f a c t o r s other than geographical l o c a t i o n have an important e f f e c t , s i n c e the m a j o r i t y o f research s t u d i e s suggest that the career m a t u r i t y of urban students should be g r e a t e r than t h a t o f r u r a l students. I f , c o n t r a r y to the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s , the female grade nine 10 students are not more career mature than the males, i t may be assumed that recent social changes may have played a part. If the results show that a positive relationship exists between occupational information and career maturity, i t may be assumed that improved and expanded occupational literature in elementary grades and in junior high school would significantly improve the students' ability to choose appropriate and realistic courses and curricula. In conclusion, i f the measures used to quantify career maturity prove to be useful, these measures could be effectively used in diagnosing and assessing counselling requirements of students at the early exploratory stage of career development. Limitations of the Study 1 . Only grade nine students were employed in the study, which makes generalization to other groups somewhat hazardous. 2. Only students enrolled in an academically as opposed to a vocationally oriented curriculum were employed, consequently generaliza- tion to students enrolled in other types of curricula would be hazardous. 3. The students in the study were drawn from schools in the Greater Vancouver area and the Southern Interior of British Columbia, making the study specific to the areas involved. Generalization to the whole pro- vince should be possible but would require further investigation. 4. The students in this sample were not exposed to career explora- tion programs. Consequently, generalizations from this study can only be extended to the grade nine school population which has not been exposed to such programs. 11 Overview o f the Study The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the study j u s t o u t l i n e d progresses as f o l l o w s * Chapter I I contains a d e s c r i p t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l r e n d i t i o n of t h e o r i e s of career development and a revievr of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to career m a t u r i t y . I t concludes w i t h hypotheses r e s u l t i n g from the review o f l i t e r a t u r e . A d i s c u s s i o n of the methodology employed i n the study f o l l o w s . The t h e s i s concludes w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s of the study w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s , and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I I Review o f l i t e r a t u r e R e l a ted to Career M a t u r i t y The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present the e v o l u t i o n o f develop- mental t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e . I t concludes w i t h a summary o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to career m a t u r i t y and hypotheses d e r i v e d from t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . Developmental Theories o f V o c a t i o n a l Choice Theories o f career choice focus on a v a r i e t y o f aspects o f human development. Herr and Cramer (1972) have c l a s s i f i e d them i n t o T r a i t - a n d - P a c t o r o r A c t u a r i a l , D e c i s i o n Theory, S o c i o l o g i c a l emphases, Psycho- l o g i c a l emphases, and Developmental emphases. T o l b e r t (1974) has c l a s s i f i e d the t h e o r i e s i n t o (a) Developmental, (b) Needs, (c) Psycho- a n a l y t i c a l , (d) S o c i o l o g i c a l , (e) Decision-Making and E x i s t e n t i a l . While a l l these t h e o r i e s are not mutually e x c l u s i v e , some f o s t e r p a r t i c u l a r emphases as evidenced by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n terminology. Developmental t h e o r i e s , f o r example, focus on developmental s t a t e s , t a s k s o r phases, t y p i c a l l y as aspects o f a l i f e - l o n g process. An important aspect o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l approach i s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a human bein g i s c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g i n ps y c h o s o c i a l and career areas. A l l phases of h i s p a s t , present and f u t u r e l i f e must be considered. Of equal importance i s the i n f l u e n c e o f the environment on h i s development. Since t h i s study i s based on aspects o f developmental t h e o r i e s , i t i s considered worthwhile t o look a t the h i s t o r y , major t h e o r i e s and t h e i r t h e o r i s t s , and v a r i o u s major and minor s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developmental t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l choice. H i s t o r y o f Developmental Theories That v o c a t i o n a l choice i s a developmental process r a t h e r than a 12 13 choice made at a p o i n t i n time was f i r s t p o s t u l a t e d by Beuhler (1933) w n ° d e l i n e a t e d l i f e stages according t o b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t ages a t which these behaviors were most prominent. She p o s t u l a t e d s e v e r a l stages i n the choice process. Beuhler p l o t t e d l i f e stages along an age continuum from dependence at an e a r l y age to l a t e r stages marked by independence which increases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Ginzberg and a s s o c i a t e s ( l 9 5 l ) have been c r e d i t e d by many researchers f o r having brought i n t o focus the f a c t the v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s had not developed a sound t h e o r e t i c a l base i n v o c a t i o n a l choice development. Super (1953) agreed w i t h the b a s i s of Ginzberg*s c r i t i c i s m s o f v o c a t i o n a l psychology and v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Very l i t t l e work had been done i n theory c o n s t r u c t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s being "busy p r a c t i t i o n e r s anxious to improve t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g techniques, the research-minded among them devoting what time they can to d e v i s i n g b e t t e r techniques" (Ginzberg et a l , 1 9 5 l ) « Ginzberg's c r i t i c i s m s gave a much needed impetus f o r i n t e n s i f i e d research i n t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l development. Major T h e o r i s t s The major t h e o r i s t s of the developmental approach are Super, Ginzberg, and Tiedeman. Lesser c o n t r i b u t o r s to the development of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l approach are B e i l i n , Flanagan, C r i t e s , and Gribbons and Lo lines. Ginzberg. Ginzberg i d e n t i f i e d three stages i n the development o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , based on ego f u n c t i o n s and emotions. The f i r s t stage, termed " f a n t a s y " , occurs at about the age of three o r f o u r . At t h i s stage occupations are s e l e c t e d by c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s o f " f u n c t i o n p l e a s u r e . " L i t t l e boys are i n t r i g u e d by b r i g h t f i r e engines o r by 14 t e l e v i s i o n p o r t r a y a l s of cowboys o r p i r a t e s . L i t t l e g i r l s may be i n t r i g u e d by the same "occupations" or wish to model t h e i r mothers o r female a d u l t acquaintances. These choices are products of f a n t a s i e s , daydreams, and a d e s i r e to grow up, r a t h e r than expressions based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . By the t e n t h or eleventh year more r e a l i s m i s brought to bear, perhaps as a r e s u l t o f a b i l i t y to cope w e l l i n school o r i n v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s . At t h i s stage the c h i l d begins to formulate t e n t a t i v e c h o i c e s . This stage i s named the " t e n t a t i v e " stage and l a s t s from about t e n years of age t o graduation from h i g h school a t 17 o r 18. I t i s marked by sharpening of time p e r s p e c t i v e s , a g r e a t e r awareness o f s e l f and the r e a l i t y b a r r i e r s to c h o i c e . Choices are based on self-image which i s not yet f i r m , and l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t r a i n i n g and work. F o l l o w i n g the t e n t a t i v e stage i s the " r e a l i s t i c " stage, where r e a l i t y p r e s s u r e s , such as h i g h school g r a d u a t i o n and the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a d e c i s i o n must be made f o r the f u t u r e , are f o r c e d on the i n d i v i d u a l . This i s the p e r i o d (age 17—young adulthood) i n which choices are made. Compromises are n e g o t i a t e d between r e a l i t y f a c t o r s such as job r e q u i r e - ments and educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s . The r e a l i s t i c stage i s formed o f t h r e e sub-stagess (a) E x p l o r a t i o n , i n which oppor- t u n i t i e s are i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r v i r t u a l l y the l a s t time and options are checked out; (b) C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , d u r i n g which p e r i o d the i n d i v i d u a l a c t u a l l y makes a ch o i c e w h i l e compromising between r e a l i t y and personal f a c t o r s ; and (c) S p e c i f i c a t i o n , where choi c e i s d e l i m i t e d and the i n d i v i d u a l becomes q u i t e s p e c i f i c w h i l e t a k i n g steps to implement h i s d e c i s i o n . 15 Although d u r i n g the f i r s t p o s t u l a t i o n of h i s theory Ginzberg s t r e s s e d the i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y o f the choice-process, he has since r e v i s e d h i s p o s i t i o n to accommodate the ever quickening changes i n economic and s o c i a l environments of the s e v e n t i e s . "Instead of a more o r l e s s f i n a l choice i n the e a r l y o r middle t w e n t i e s , the choice process i s c o e x i s t i v e w i t h a person's working l i f e ; he may re-open the i s s u e a t any time." (Ginzberg, 1972,.p. 169) Super. Donald E. Super i s considered t o be one o f the foremost t h e o r i s t s . o f v o c a t i o n a l development. Drawing upon a wide range of r e - search and t h e o r i e s of development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of measurement, and o c c u p a t i o n a l adjustment, he p u b l i s h e d , a theory of voca- t i o n a l development i n 1953* He focused on f o u r major elements: voca- t i o n a l l i f e s t ages, v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , t r a n s l a t i n g the s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t o a v o c a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , and career p a t t e r n s . Underlying h i s theory i s the concept t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r development i s one p a r t of h i s t o t a l development. His comprehensive theory i s summarized i n a s e r i e s of t e n p r o p o s i t i o n s (Super, 1953* PP» 189-190): 1. People d i f f e r i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 2. They are q u a l i f i e d , by v i r t u e o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each f o r a number of occupations. 3» Each of these occupations r e q u i r e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , w i t h t o l e r a n c e s wide enough, however, t o allovr both some v a r i e t y o f occupations f o r each i n d i v i d u a l and some v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n each occupation. 4. V o c a t i o n a l preferences and competencies, the s i t u a t i o n s i n which people l i v e and work, and hence t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s change w i t h 16 time and experience (although self-concepts are generally f a i r l y stable from late adolescence until late maturity), making choice and adjustment a continuous process* 5» This process may be summed up i n a series of l i f e stages characterized as those of growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline, and those stages may i n turn be subdivided into (a) the fantasy, tentative and r e a l i s t i c phases of the exploration stage, and (b) the t r i a l and stable phases of the establishment stage. 6. The nature of the career pattern (that i s , the occupational level and the sequence, frequency, and duration of t r i a l and stable jobs) i s determined by the individual's parental socioeconomic l e v e l , mental a b i l i t y , and personality characteristics, and by the opportunities to which he i s exposed. 7. Development through the l i f e stages can be guided, partly by f a c i l i t a t i n g the process of maturation of a b i l i t i e s and interests, and partly by aiding i n rea l i t y testing and i n the development of the s e l f - concept. 8. The process of vocational development i s essentially that of developing and implementing a self-concept—it i s a compromise process i n which the self-concept i s a product of the interaction of inherited aptitudes, neural and endocrine make-up, opportunity to play various roles, and evaluation of the extent to which the results of role playing meet with the approval of superiors and fellows. 9. The process of compromise between individual and social factors, between self-concept and r e a l i t y , i s one of role-playing, whether the role i s played i n fantasy, in the counselling interview, or i n real l i f e a c t ivities such as school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry jobs. 17 10. Work s a t i s f a c t i o n s and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n s depend upon the extent to which the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s adequate o u t l e t s f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and values; they depend upon h i s e s t a b l i s h - ment i n a type of work, a work s i t u a t i o n , and a way of l i f e i n which he can play the kind of r o l e which h i s growth and exploratory experiences have l e d him to consider congenial and appropriate. Following the lead of Ginzberg, Super (1957) modified and f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d four l i f e stages: ( l ) Growth, (2) Exploration, (3) E s t a b l i s h - ment, and (4) Decline. Growth (conception—1 4 or 15) i s characterized by the development of the self-concept through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with key f i g u r e s at home and school, dominance of needs and fantasy, the i n c r e a s i n g importance of in t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s with increasing s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e a l i t y t e s t i n g . This stage i s f u r t h e r subdivided into three substages: (a) fantasy (4-10), (b) i n t e r e s t ( l l - 1 2 ) , and (c) capacity (13-14) where a b i l i t i e s are given more weight and job t r a i n i n g requirements are con- sidered. The i n d i v i d u a l i s now ready f o r the next stage. Exploration (15-24) i s characterized by self-examination, r o l e t r y - out, occupational exploration i n school, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and p a r t - time work. This stage also consists of three substages: (a) t e n t a t i v e (15-17)» (b) t r a n s i t i o n (18-21), and (c) t r i a l (22-24) where a seemingly appropriate choice i s made, a job i s obtained and t r i e d out. Successful completion of t h i s stage leads to the Establishment Stage. Establishment (24-64) i s characterized by t r i a l , and some f l u c t u a - t i o n and s h i f t i n g u n t i l a su i t a b l e niche i s found. Energies are d i r e c t e d at b u i l d i n g a career. This stage i s subdivided into three sub- stages: (a) t r i a l (25-30), (b) s t a b i l i z a t i o n (31-44) and, (c) maintenance (45-64). 18 D e c l i n e (65- ) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e c l i n e i n mental and p h y s i c a l powers and work a c t i v i t y changes* Super (1963) modified and expanded these l i f e stages to i n c l u d e developmental tasks at each stage, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the E x p l o r a t o r y and Establishment stages* In a d d i t i o n to developmental t a s k s , Super described the a t t i t u d e s and behaviors a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these v o c a t i o n a l developmental t a s k s * He suggested that these i d e n t i f i a b l e stages, t a s k s , and behaviors can be used i n a s s e s s i n g v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . Super recognized t h a t very l i t t l e work had been done i n the f i e l d o f v o c a t i o n a l choice development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c r i t i c a l E x p l o r a - t i o n stage o f a person's l i f e . He placed more emphasis than Ginzberg on v o c a t i o n a l choice development as a continuous process and c a s t i g a t e d v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s and students o f human behavior f o r s i n g u l a r l y n e g l e c t i n g t h i s process "as though l i f e were s t a t i c a f t e r the f i r s t f u l l time job i s found". (Super, 1957)* He a l s o c i t e d Ginzberg and a s s o c i a t e s f o r f a l l i n g i n t o the same t r a p o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y as others i n not pro- p e r l y emphasizing t h a t v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a process, not a moment. Super p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis than Ginzberg on the r o l e of f a m i l y and self-concept i n v o c a t i o n a l development than on the par t played by the ego f u n c t i o n and emotions* He c h a r a c t e r i z e d adolescence as a p e r i o d o f c u l t u r a l adaptation during which the adolescent matures c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and emotionally. The adolescent makes a t r a n s i t i o n from c h i l d - hood to adulthood and engages i n a process of e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l f and the world of work i n three primary areas o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n : home, s c h o o l , and work. Tiedeman. D. Tiedeman i s another major c o n t r i b u t o r to the theory o f caree r choice development. Tiedeman (Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963) r e f e r s 19 t o h i s work as the Career Development System, r a t h e r than a t h e o r y . Although Tiedeman (l96l) c r e d i t s Super f o r having provided a c l e a r o u t - l i n e of v o c a t i o n a l development and i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , he s t r e s s e s t h a t there remains an omission, that i s , an e x p l i c i t statement o f the process of d e c i s i o n i n v o c a t i o n a l development and "the s t r u c t u r e of d e c i s i o n (which) must be s p e c i f i e d before i n v e s t i g a t o r s of the theory of v o c a t i o n a l development can enter new phases" (p. 15 )• He analyses v o c a t i o n a l de- velopment by each of s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h regard to s c h o o l , work, and l i f e which a person makes as he matures. He d i v i d e s the problem of d e c i d i n g i n t o two p e r i o d s , (a) a p e r i o d of a n t i c i p a t i o n — a n d (b) a p e r i o d of implementation or adjustment. Tiedeman discusses the above two periods of decision-making i n terms of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . He considers the l o c u s of career development to be i n a presumably cont i n u o u s l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g ego i d e n t i t y as i t i s formed from experience. For a d e c i s i o n to be made, a person must f i r s t experience a problem t h a t makes h i s present s i t u a t i o n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Various f a c t o r s must be considered and a choice must be made i n order t o s o l v e the problem. T h i s i s the process o f d i f f e r e n t i a - t i o n . Once t h i s choice i s made, i n t e g r a t i o n takes p l a c e , t h a t i s , an adjustment of the person w i t h the new s i t u a t i o n which r e s u l t e d from t h a t c h o i c e . I f i n t e g r a t i o n i s not s u c c e s s f u l , the i n d i v i d u a l must r e t h i n k h i s choice and r e c o n s i d e r the f a c t o r s t h a t f i g u r e d i n h i s d e c i s i o n . Closure r e s u l t s when d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t s are p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e d . The developmental decision-making process of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i s formed of s e v e r a l steps which may be repeated throughout one's l i f e - time. The phase of a n t i c i p a t i o n or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o n s i s t s of f o u r steps 20 (Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963): 1. E x p l o r a t i o n . Various goals are c o n s i d e r e d , courses of a c t i o n are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , p r a c t i c a l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of each i s considered. 2. C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . This step i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r e p a r a t i o n to move i n a s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n , s t a b i l i z a t i o n of thought, and readiness to i n v e s t along d e s i r a b l e l i n e s . 3. Choice. A choice of d e c i s i o n i s a r r i v e d a t . I t i s dependent on the adequacy of the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n process that l e d to the c h o i c e . 4« C l a r i f i c a t i o n . T his i s the concluding phase of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Involved i s a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the choice and a review and r e s o l u t i o n of doubts and u n c e r t a i n t i e s * The i n d i v i d u a l completes h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t i n the new s i t u a t i o n . Implementation o r adjustment i s the process of I n t e g r a t i o n . I t i s made up of three phases s 1. Induction. In t h i s phase the i n d i v i d u a l enters the new s i t u a - t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n or new group i s s u p e r i o r to the i n d i v i d u a l and supersedes some of the aspects of s e l f . 2. Reformation. Here the i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s t o r e a s s e r t h i m s e l f on the group. He i s not simply a r e c i p i e n t o f the group's demands. He i s accepted. 3. I n t e g r a t i o n . This occurs when a balance i s reached between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s need and the group's demands. A new s e l f - c o n c e p t i s a t t a i n e d w i t h i n the context of the new group. Although Tiedeman does not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e l i n e a t e l i f e stages i n h i s problem s o l v i n g schema, he r e l i e s h e a v i l y on E r i k s o n ' s (1959) stages of ego i d e n t i t y . These ego development stages seem t o p a r a l l e l the career stages as formulated by Super. Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963) l i s t the 21 discontinuities at which point decision-making becomes necessary: 1. Selection of part-time employment while i n school and after- wards , 2. Selection of school subjects to be taken i n junior high school, 3» Selection of subjects to be taken i n high school, 4» Selection of college, 5. Selection of program of study at college, 6. Selection of a graduate school, 7» Selection of f i r s t full-time position, 8. Selection of another position when dissatisfaction arises over a former position, and 9» Retirement. Tiedeman has, however, omitted several very relevant choice points since he has obviously dealt with middle or upper class college-bound population. The omissions that effect a large segment of population (the lower middle and lower class) would include such discontinuities as (a) whether to drop out or continue to adopt a trade, (b) whether to get married or continue i n school. These discontinuities are obviously only a very few of many, but surely must confront a large number of individuals Other Developmental Theorists Beilen (1955) and Samler (1953) are considered by Tolbert (1974) to be two other major contributors to the theory of vocational development. Beilen c l a r i f i e d the distinction between vocational choice and vocational development and suggested that both concepts are needed i n the study of vocational behavior. According to Beilin (1955) the distinction between vocational choice and vocational development i s temporal in nature; the former refers to a specific action taken at a particular point i n time, 22 whereas the l a t t e r r e f e r s to an ongoing process* He, l i k e Super and Ginzberg, r e l a t e d general development concepts, such as c o n t i n u i t y , i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y , and i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y t o v o c a t i o n a l development theory. Joseph Samler, a v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i s t , a l s o emphasized the developmental aspects o f v o c a t i o n a l behavior and sel f - c o n c e p t i n the p r a c t i c a l i n t e r v i e w s e t t i n g . He st r e s s e d the need f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to promote v o c a t i o n a l development and c h o i c e , as w e l l as the occupational i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t conveys the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e and pressures o f work and the nature o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n the f u t u r e . Career M a t u r i t y 3h c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the process o f development of v o c a t i o n a l choice (which Super described as a s e r i e s o f choices r e s u l t i n g i n the e l i m i n a - t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s narrowing down to an occ u p a t i o n a l choice) Super brought i n the concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . One of the necessary and l o g i c a l outcomes, both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , o f the developmental t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s the con- cept of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . As a person grows p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and p s y c h o s o c i a l l y , he a l s o matures i n the v o c a t i o n a l sense, i . e . i n the a b i l i t y to make independent d e c i s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f and p l a n ahead. Super (l957) s t a t e s t h a t one of the f a i l u r e s o f developmental psychology had been the f a i l u r e to i n c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f other types o f m a t u r i t y , emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l . . He was instrumental i n developing the concept of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y when he found that a d e f i n i t i o n of i t was necessary f o r a major developmental study, the Career P a t t e r n Study (Super and Overstreet, i960). He needed 23 a b a s i s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a y a r d s t i c k against which to measure v o c a t i o n a l development, and as a guide f o r the s e l e c t i o n of data which can be s c a l e d f o r i t s measurement. Super defined v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n terms of types of behavior and used the term to "denote the degree of development, the place reached on the continuum of v o c a t i o n a l development from e x p l o r a - t i o n to d e c l i n e " . (Super, 1957, p. 186). He described v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y as " v o c a t i o n a l age", c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r to mental age i n e a r l y adolescence (as i n the measurement o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ) but p r a c t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n l a t e adolescence and e a r l y adulthood because more d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made i n the development curve at l a t e r stages of development. He s t a t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y can a l s o be described both i n terms of the gross u n i t s of behavior which c o n s t i t u t e the l i f e stages, and i n terms o f s m a l l e r and more r e f i n e d u n i t s o f behavior manifested i n coping w i t h the developmental tasks o f a g i v e n l i f e stage. Super (l957) suggested f i v e b a s i c dimensions o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . These dimensions p r i m a r i l y r e f e r r e d to behavior o f adolescents i n the E x p l o r a t i o n stage of development. However, as Super pointed o u t , these dimensions can be used i n v a r y i n g degrees f o r people i n the establishment, and d e c l i n e stages, p a r t i c u l a r l y when we c o n s i d e r the c r i s i s p o i n t s i n careers throughout a l i f e t i m e , such as job changes, disappearance of t r a d e s , and post-retirement d e c i s i o n s . These dimensions are as f o l l o w s ! 1. O r i e n t a t i o n to v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , 2. Information and Planning, 3. Consistency of v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , 4. C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of t r a i t s , and 5« Wisdom of v o c a t i o n a l preferences. 24 As a r e s u l t o f f u r t h e r research these dimensions o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y were m o d i f i e d , r e f i n e d , and p a r c e l l e d i n t o i n d i c e s . Super and Overstreet (i960) have o u t l i n e d these as l i s t e d below: Dimension I O r i e n t a t i o n to V o c a t i o n a l Choice. IA Concern w i t h Choice. IB Use of Resources. Dimension I I Information and Planni n g . IIA S p e c i f i c i t y o f Information. I I B S p e c i f i c i t y of Planning. IJJC Extent of Planning A c t i v i t y . Dimension I I I Consistency of V o c a t i o n a l Preferences* I I I A Consistency w i t h i n F i e l d s * (Roe, 1956) I I I B Consistency w i t h i n Levels* II I C Consistency w i t h i n F a m i l i e s . Dimension IV C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f T r a i t s . IVA P a t t e r n i n g o f I n t e r e s t s . IVJ3 I n t e r e s t M a t u r i t y . IVC L i k i n g f o r Work. IVD P a t t e r n i n g o f Work Values. PTE D i s c u s s i o n o f Rewards of Work. IVF Acceptance of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Dimension V V o c a t i o n a l Independence. VA Independence o f Work Experience. Dimension V I Wisdom of V o c a t i o n a l Preferences. VIA Agreement: A b i l i t y and Preference. VTB Agreement: I n t e r e s t s and Preference. VIC Agreement: I n t e r e s t and Fantasy Preference. 25 VXD Agreement: Level of I n t e r e s t s and Preference. VIE Socioeconomic A c c e s s i b i l i t y . Major Studies Belated t o Career M a t u r i t y The concept of career m a t u r i t y has undergone a great deal of r e s e a r c h s i n c e i t s f i r s t f o r m u l a t i o n by Super. A consid e r a b l e amount o f m o d i f i c a t i o n has come about as a consequence. Major res e a r c h s t u d i e s by John C r i t e s ( V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t ) , Gribbons and Iohnes (Readiness f o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) , and Super (Career P a t t e r n Study) have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the understanding of t h i s phenomenon. These three major s t u d i e s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding of the concept of Career M a t u r i t y are reviewed below. Career P a t t e r n Study Most of the r e s e a r c h i n v o c a t i o n a l development p r i o r to the Career P a t t e r n Study (e.g. Ginzberg) had been c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n nature. Super saw the l i m i t a t i o n s i n such s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of c a r e e r development, and i n i t i a t e d a 20 year l o n g i t u d i n a l study i n 1950-51 on 142 boys who were i n t h e i r n i n t h grade w i t h a view to s t u d y i n g t h e i r development i n t o the Establishment stage a t around age 35• Super s e l e c t e d h i s sample from Middletown, New York, presumably because he f e l t the community and school systems had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l a r g e segment of American c u l t u r e and thus would al l o w c o n s i d e r a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s to be made from the f i n d i n g s (Osipow, 1973). Super and Overstreet (i960) produced the f i r s t major monograph e n t i t l e d "The V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y o f Ninth Grade Boys" as p a r t of the Career P a t t e r n Study. As a r e s u l t o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , the c o n s t r u c t o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y underwent some m o d i f i c a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t 26 refers to early adolescence. Several indices were found to be inadequate for that stage of development. These were consistency of Vocational Preferences, Crystallization of Traits (such as vocational interests and attitudes toward work), Vocational Independence, and Wisdom of Vocational Preferences (as judged by a b i l i t i e s , measured interests, and socio- economic accessibility). Although these indices may be important i n other respects, such as prediction of success, or may become significant at later stages of development, Super sees them as unrelated to vocational maturity i n grade nine. Tolbert (1974) summarized the findings of the Career Pattern Study by the following observations: A. The vocational maturity of ninth-grade boys i s characterized by; 1. An awareness of the need to make vocational and educational choices• 2. An acceptance of the responsibility for making plans and decisions• 3. Some planning and participation i n information-getting a c t i v i - t i e s . 4» A lack of readiness to decide upon specific direction or occupation. 5. lack of knowledge about work and training opportunities, failure to u t i l i z e resources to obtain information, and l i t t l e self-understanding. B. Phenomena that tend to predict later occupational success (in terms of effective coping behaviors such as " t r i a l " , "instrumental", and "establishing" are: 1. Occupational information i n the ninth and twelfth grades. 2. Planning i n the ninth and twelfth grades. 27 3« I n t e r e s t m a t u r i t y (as measured by the Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank) i n the n i n t h and t w e l f t h grades. 4« C o r r e l a t i o n between the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t i e s and those r e q u i r e d by the occupation i n which he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n grade twelve. 5. Information about t r a i n i n g and education f o r the p r e f e r r e d occupation i n grade twelve. 6. Several "conventional" school v a r i a b l e s such as p a r e n t a l s o c i o - economic l e v e l , s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , grades, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school and community s e r v i c e s . 7» Awareness of choices to be made, i n f o r m a t i o n obtained, and the planning to be done, i n both n i n t h and t w e l f t h grades. Readiness f o r V o c a t i o n a l Planning (RVP) Gribbons and Iohnes, s t i m u l a t e d by the Career P a t t e r n Study r e s e a r c h on v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , i n i t i a t e d a s i m i l a r study i n 1958, s h o r t e r and more r e s t r i c t e d i n scope. T h e i r primary focus was on readiness f o r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . This t e n year study f o l l o w e d the progress of a s o c i e t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f 110 boys and g i r l s from grade n i n e . Since a measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y was needed, Gribbons and Iohnes (1968) developed a semi-structured i n t e r v i e w schedule which c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s * 1. The f a c t o r s i n c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e , i n c l u d i n g knowledge of a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and values i n r e l a t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m ; courses i n va r i o u s c u r r i c u l a ; r e l a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m choice to oc c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 2. The f a c t o r s i n occupational c h o i c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a b i l i t i e s and in f o r m a t i o n about occupations. 3. A b i l i t y to d e s c r i b e strengths and weaknesses, and t o r e l a t e them to educational and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . 28 4» Accuracy i n e s t i m a t i n g a b i l i t i e s and achievements, p a r t i c u l a r l y on academic a b i l i t y t e s t s c o r e s . 5. Adequacy of the evidence the i n d i v i d u a l uses i n s e l f - r a t i n g s . 6. Awareness of i n t e r e s t s , and how they r e l a t e to occ u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 7. Awareness of v a l u e s , and how they r e l a t e to v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t i e s of the EVP v a r i a b l e s a g a i n s t c r i t e r i a o f car e e r adjustment. The i n v e s t i - gators found that EVP scores c o l l e c t e d i n grade 8 appear to have as much p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m choice as do scores on the same v a r i - a b les one and one-half years l a t e r , when students are t h a t much more mature and have a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . They a l s o found that EVP scores were not a p p r e c i a b l y r e l a t e d to socioeconomic l e v e l o f f a m i l y , but were r e l a t e d to the socioeconomic l e v e l o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . i n summary, e i g h t h grade scores were b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s than t e n t h grade scores (an unexpected r e s u l t ) o f the extent o f edu c a t i o n a l and cu r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , and post h i g h school c a r e e r adjustment. Lack o f in c r e a s e o f EVP scores w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l age r a i s e d doubts about the v a l i d i t y o f the s c a l e s , concepts, and methodology, (Super, 1 9 6 9 ) , and C r i t e s (19&9) r a i s e d questions about the "low-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v o c a t i o n a l behavior and grade l e v e l " . V o c a t i o n a l Development Pr o j e c t (VDP) Another major l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study was the V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d by John C r i t e s w h i l e he was as s o c i a t e d w i t h Super's Career P a t t e r n Study. The primary purpose o f the study was to develop a sta n d a r d i z e d , easy-to-use measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . The VDP i s r e l a t e d to and i s based on Super's theory of 29 c a r e e r development. The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample used f o r the f i r s t round of t e s t i n g t h i s measure (the A t t i t u d e Scale) c o n s i s t e d of 2,822 subjects who were about e q u a l l y d i v i d e d by sex and i n grades 5 through 12 of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa school system. The p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s c i t y a t the time of i n i t i a l t e s t i n g was 92,000. I t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i r l y d i v e r s i f i e d economy, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( C r i t e s , 197l)« C r i t e s (1965) r e v i s e d Super's d e f i n i t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y by combining the three dimensions, O r i e n t a t i o n to V o c a t i o n a l Choice, Information and P l a n n i n g , and C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of T r a i t s i n t o two dimen- sions r e p r e s e n t i n g the a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e domains: V o c a t i o n a l Choice A t t i t u d e s and V o c a t i o n a l Choice Competencies. lie d e l e t e d the V o c a t i o n a l Independence dimension, but kept Consistency of V o c a t i o n a l Preferences and Wisdom of V o c a t i o n a l Preferences i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of a model of career m a t u r i t y i n adolescence. C r i t e s ' model of career m a t u r i t y (1965) i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l model organized according to f o u r dimensions: Consistency of Career Choices, Realism of Career Choices, Career Choice Competencies, and Career Choice A t t i t u d e s . Each dimension i s d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i a b l e s . Consistency of Career Choices i s subdivided i n t o Time, F i e l d , and L e v e l . Realism of Career Choices i s subdivided i n t o A b i l i t i e s , I n t e r e s t s , P e r s o n a l i t y , and S o c i a l C l a s s , w h i l e Career Choice Competencies are grouped by Problem- S o l v i n g , P l a n n i n g , Occupational Information, S e l f - A p p r a i s a l , and Goal S e l e c t i o n . Career Choice A t t i t u d e s i n c l u d e Involvement, O r i e n t a t i o n , Independence, Preference, and Conception. Appendix A, p. 76 , shows a graphic p o r t r a y a l of the model of Career M a t u r i t y . To date C r i t e s has developed s c a l e s to measure two dimensions, V o c a t i o n a l Choice A t t i t u d e s and V o c a t i o n a l Choice Competencies. These 30 s c a l e s w i l l be discussed at g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Measurement. One of the r e s u l t s o f the V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t was the development o f an easy-to-use i n v e n t o r y f o r the measure o f a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s i n v o c a t i o n a l development s u i t a b l e f o r grade 5 to 12, and a l s o u s a b l e w i t h c o l l e g e s e n i o r s . ( T o l b e r t , 1974)* Research w i t h the Voca- t i o n a l Development Inventory (VDl) A t t i t u d e Scale r e s u l t e d i n some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s . C u r r i c u l a r groups at the same educational l e v e l d i f f e r e d i n the ma t u r i t y o f t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l choice a t t i t u d e s , w i t h the students i n the more v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a being l e s s mature than o t h e r s . Adolescents from l e s s favoured socioeconomic circumstances and m i n o r i t y e t h n i c and r a c i a l groups were l e s s v o c a t i o n a l l y mature. V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y was r e l a t e d to v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and readiness f o r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y was not r e l a t e d to socioeconomic l e v e l , number of s i b l i n g s , o r previous work experience at the grade nine l e v e l . Low to moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a - t i o n s were r e v e a l e d on i n t e l l e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s , such as I.Q» and S c h o l a s t i c Aptitude t e s t s . The more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature were more t a s k - o r i e n t e d and b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . Mixed conclusions were drawn reg a r d i n g the e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g on v o c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y , although C r i t e s s t a t e s t h a t some r e l i a b l e evidence e x i s t s t o support the assump- t i o n t h a t both group and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g help i n c r e a s e m a t u r i t y of v o c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s . A c o l l e g e o r i e n t a t i o n program r e s u l t e d i n marked g a i n s , whereas an occupations course and l i f e career game d i d not ( C r i t e s , 1971). A major c r i t i c i s m of the st u d i e s j u s t discussed appears to be th a t of sampling. Although a l l the major s t u d i e s claimed to use a c r o s s - 31 s e c t i o n of socioeconomic s t a t u s (s.e.s«)» the samples were s e l e c t e d from a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e , and not on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s * C e r t a i n l y , the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample from Cedar Rapids, Iowa i n C r i t e s 1 study i s not the same as a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample from New York C i t y . In order to counter t h i s c r i t i c i s m C r i t e s (1973) cautions the researcher u s i n g h i s t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l that the norms are not n a t i o n a l , and t h a t the researcher i s advised to develop norms f o r h i s own area. Super's sample (Super and Overstreet, i960) i n v o l v e d o n l y boys s e l e c t e d at the grade nine l e v e l i n the mid s i z e d community (40,000) of Middletown, New York, which i s w i t h i n easy d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e of the m e t r o p o l i s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from these samples appear to be l i m i t e d by v i r t u e of t h e i r geographic l o c a t i o n s . V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g Career M a t u r i t y A review of l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a great deal of r e s e a r c h has been undertaken i n the f i e l d of c a r e e r development of adolescents and young a d u l t s . In the main, t h i s r e s e a r c h has y i e l d e d c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g \weaknesses i n e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o r measures, or both. The r e s u l t s a l s o p o r t r a y the r e l a t i v e youth of the concept of career m a t u r i t y i n comparison to other c o n s t r u c t s and i n d i c a t e that more extensive s t u d i e s need to be undertaken. The f i n a l r e s u l t s o f l o n g i t u d i - n a l s t u d i e s , l i k e the Career P a t t e r n Study and the V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t , have not been pu b l i s h e d t o date. Presumably these w i l l r e s o l v e some of the c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l attempt to summarize the r e s u l t s o f v a r i o u s s t u d i e s d e s c r i b i n g the e f f e c t s of v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s e l f - c o n c e p t , socioeconomic s t a t u s , e t h n i c i t y , school c u r r i c u l u m , c o u n s e l l i n g , educational attainment, sex, and geographical l o c a t i o n on career m a t u r i t y . 32 P e r s o n a l i t y M a r t i n Bohn (1966) i n v e s t i g a t e d Super's c l a i m t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i s r e l a t e d to other p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s * He found t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h m a t u r i t y scores (as measured by the I n t e r e s t M a t u r i t y Scale o f the Strong "Vocational I n t e r e s t Blank) were r e l a t e d to more mature p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as measured by the A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t . The high scores were found to be, on the average, more achievement o r i e n t e d , more independent, more s o c i a b l e , more s e n s i t i v e , more p e r s u a s i v e , and l e s s prone to be s e l f - c r i t i c a l or to admit p e r s o n a l i t y shortcomings. W i l l i s B a r t l e t t (1968) corroborated Bonn's f i n d i n g s and suggested t h a t the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the development o f v o c a t i o n a l behavior i s analogous t o the develop- ment of mature p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n t e l l i g e n c e Studies by v a r i o u s researchers ( C r i t e s , 19̂ 9» Lawrence and Brown, 1976} Maynard and Hansen, 1970; Super and Bohn, 1970) a l l tend to agree th a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h career m a t u r i t y . Of note i s Maynard and Hansen's study on career m a t u r i t y of b l a c k and white i n n e r - c i t y youth and white suburban boys. Although career m a t u r i t y scores d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s a l l but disappeared when i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s were taken i n t o account. Self-Concept Lawrence and Brown (197&) found t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t appeared to have a d i f f e r e n t impact on career m a t u r i t y f o r t w e l f t h graders depending on the race and sex of the s u b j e c t . Self-concept was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r f o r o n ly c e r t a i n aspects o f career m a t u r i t y and the researchers suggested t h a t i t has more v a l i d i t y f o r white males than f o r females or b l a c k s . 33 Jones et a l . (1975) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x i s t between s o c i a l c l a s s and s e l f - c o n c e p t , and career m a t u r i t y o f female adolescents. D i l l a r d ' s (1976) study d i d not support Super's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t there i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between self - c o n c e p t and career m a t u r i t y . Socioeconomic Status This v a r i a b l e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y . Although some r e - searchers ( A n s e l l and Hansen, 1971; C r i t e s , 1965; Jones et a l . , 1975; Super and Ove r s t r e e t , I 9 6 0 ; D i l l a r d , 1976) found that socioeconomic s t a t u s p r e d i c t s the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y , others (Lawrence and Brown, 1976; Campbell and Parsons, 1972) do not agree w i t h these f i n d i n g s . Campbell and Parsons d i f f e r e n t i a t e d disadvantaged from non-disadvantaged subjects by r e f e r r i n g to census s t a t i s t i c s f o r per c a p i t a income, educa- t i o n a l l e v e l of pa r e n t s , and housing. They r e p o r t e d t h a t , although c e r t a i n important d i f f e r e n c e s between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students were observed, the d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r one group. Disadvantaged students gave more thought to school plans and f u t u r e j o b s , whereas the non-disadvantaged students e x h i b i t e d higher career m a t u r i t y scores and occ u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s . The i n v e s t i - gators suggest that the community v a r i a b l e confounded some of the r e s u l t s i . e . a person sees h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the world of h i s l o c a l community and the i d e a o f being disadvantaged o r non-disadvantaged i s r e l e v a n t o n l y w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l m i l i e u . E t h n i c i t y Studies r e s e a r c h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ethnic group and car e e r m a t u r i t y by Lawrence and Brown (l976), Moracco (1976), and Lo Cascio et a l . (1976) contend that there e x i s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between ethnic o r i g i n and career m a t u r i t y . These s t u d i e s do not agree 54 w i t h the r e s u l t s obtained by A n s e l l and Hansen (l97l) and >fe,ynard and Hansen (l970). A n s e l l and Hansen i n d i c a t e d t h a t other f a c t o r s such as socioeconomic status and not e t h n i c i t y were p r e d i c t i v e o f career m a t u r i t y . I t appears t h a t belonging to a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group o r race i s not p r e d i c t i v e o f career m a t u r i t y . Other v a r i a b l e s , such as socioeconomic l e v e l and i n t e l l i g e n c e need to be examined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e t h n i c i t y . School Curriculum There appears to be l i t t l e r e s e a r c h undertaken i n connection w i t h school c u r r i c u l a , types o f s c h o o l s , and t h e i r e f f e c t on career m a t u r i t y . One such study was done by Herr and E n d e r l e i n (1976) who i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y scores and school system and f o u r d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a . School d i f f e r e n c e s accounted f o r d i f f e r - ences i n the career m a t u r i t y of students at the n i n t h grade and i n the amount o f m a t u r i t y which occurred from grade nine to grade twelve. In terms of c u r r i c u l a , the study demonstrated t h a t students i n academic and business c u r r i c u l a , scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than students i n general and v o c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a . Background d i f f e r e n c e s appeared to account f o r c u r r i c u l u m choice and these i n t u r n a f f e c t e d career m a t u r i t y scores. Rate and l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y was i n f l u e n c e d by school and c u r r i c u l u m e f f e c t s . E ducational Attainment W i l l i s B a r t l e t t (1968) i n h i s study of manpower t r a i n e e s , corrobo- r a t e d C r i t e s ' statement t h a t career m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h grade and educational l e v e l a t t a i n e d . He found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between career m a t u r i t y scores based on the s u b j e c t ' s age, but he found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between career m a t u r i t y scores and educational l e v e l . 35 C o u n s e l l i n g Anderson and Hermann (1957) t e s t e d the e f f e c t o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g on the c a r e e r development and maturation of j u n i o r h i g h school g i r l s . They found t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t and suggested that g i r l s a t the e i g h t h grade l e v e l are developmentally ready f o r p r e l i m i n a r y career p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Sex Although Anderson and Heimann d i d not compare career m a t u r i t y of hoys and g i r l s , other s t u d i e s have looked at t h i s v a r i a b l e . C r i t e s (l97l) d i d not f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s to e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n to sex and career m a t u r i t y . The r e s u l t s o f a s i x year l o n g i t u d i n a l study has l e d C r i t e s to a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n , while at the grade seven l e v e l he found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of boys and g i r l s , t h e r e a f t e r g i r l s vrere found to be r e l i a b l y more mature i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards the career decision-making process ( C r i t e s , 1976). A l s o , s t u d i e s by Lawrence and Brown (1976), Smith and Herr (1972) and Herr and E n d e r l e i n (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t g i r l s score higher i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y measures than boys i n the same grade l e v e l . These f i n d i n g s tend to agree w i t h r e s e a r c h conducted on other m a t u r i t y measures i . e . t h a t g i r l s mature s e x u a l l y , emotionally and developmentally at an e a r l i e r age than boys during the adolescent p e r i o d . Location Geographical l o c a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t on career m a t u r i t y has not been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . Super and Overstreet (i960) suggested t h a t r u r a l boys appeared to be more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature than urban boys due to work experiences on farms, experiences t h a t help them see i n a more c l e a r - c u t yet i s o l a t e d manner c e r t a i n v o c a t i o n a l patterns being f o l l o w e d . Asbury 36 (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o r r e l a t e s of the career m a t u r i t y o f disadvantaged Appalachian grade ei g h t p u p i l s * He compared t h e i r mean career m a t u r i t y scores w i t h the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample f o r the 'Vocational Development Inventory ( C r i t e s , 1971) which was made up of predominantly middle c l a s s Iowa students* The r e s u l t s o f Asbury's study i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean scores f o r the Appalachian disadvantaged students* Campbell and Parsons (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students from f o u r unnamed d i f f e r e n t geographical areas i n the U.S. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e i r r e s u l t s were i n c o n c l u s i v e . Formulation o f the Study On the b a s i s o f the review of l i t e r a t u r e concerning career m a t u r i t y and the importance pl a c e d by researchers and t h e o r i s t s on t h i s concept as i t concerns r e a l i s t i c and appr o p r i a t e c a r e e r c h o i c e s , a study was con- ducted which compared the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of geographic l o c a t i o n , sex, and l e v e l o f oc c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the care e r m a t u r i t y o f grade nine students. This age group was s e l e c t e d s i n c e i t i s at t h i s age and grade l e v e l t h a t the school system f o r c e s the sometimes i r r e v e r s i b l e course and c u r r i c u l a r choices on students. I t i s important f o r both the students and s o c i e t y t h a t these choices are not made i n a haphazard manner. A review o f t e s t i n g instruments (Sorenson, 1974) revealed, the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory (CMl) developed by J.O. C r i t e s (1973) was the most appropriate measure o f career m a t u r i t y . Hypotheses F i v e major n u l l hypotheses r e s u l t e d from the review of l i t e r a t u r e . Hypothesis I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean • 37 scores on the CUE A t t i t u d e Scale between urban and r u r a l grade nine students (<*= .05) • On the b a s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed, i t seems p o s s i b l e that urban students would score higher on t h i s measure than r u r a l students. Asbury (1968) and Crabtree and Hales (1974) found r u r a l c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y l e s s career mature than urban c h i l d r e n . Various reasons are o f f e r e d . R u r a l c h i l d r e n have fewer r o l e models than urban c h i l d r e n and l e s s frequent s o c i a l contact w i t h people from d i v e r s e occupations. Less adequate fund- i n g f o r school programs may be a v a i l a b l e and g e n e r a l l y there i s l e s s v a r i e t y i n part-time j o b s . ( P i e t r o f e s a , 1974)* Asbury (1968) suggested t h a t disadvantaged r u r a l students i n h i s study were l e s s v o c a t i o n a l l y mature s i n c e t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l development was not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the r e a l i s m o f t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . On the other hand, Super found no s i g n i f i - cant d i f f e r e n c e s between urban and r u r a l students. Given the s p a r c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s l o c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to p r e - d i c t the outcome of t h i s comparison. Hypothesis I I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean scores on the CMI Occupational Information t e s t between urban and r u r a l grade ni n e students .05). Some previous s t u d i e s have shown a l a c k of strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent's occupations and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge. (Wehrly, 1973). Perhaps t h i s same c o n c l u s i o n a p p l i e s to c h i l d r e n from r u r a l and urban s i t u a t i o n s . However, Nelson (1963) r e p o r t e d t h a t urban c h i l d r e n possess more knowledge about occupations than r u r a l c h i l d r e n . In view of the mixed r e s u l t s from v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t a d i r e c t i o n f o r the second hypothesis. 38 Hypothesis I I I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the mean scores of the COT A t t i t u d e Scale between boys and g i r l s at the grade nine l e v e l (CX= .05) On the b a s i s o f the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o p r e - d i c t a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n car e e r m a t u r i t y at the grade nine l e v e l . Hypothesis IV There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the mean scores of the COT Occupational Information t e s t : between boys and g i r l s a t the grade nine l e v e l (0(= .05). Hypothesis V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Pearson r ) between scores on the COT Occupational Information t e s t and the scores on the COT A t t i t u d e Scale (<X= .05). On the b a s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, i t appears p o s s i b l e to p r e - d i c t a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge and career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y . Crabtree and Hales (1974) found students l a c k i n g i n occ u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to be l e s s career mature than those w i t h ready access to oc c u p a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and d i r e c t occupational con- t a c t . E h r l e (1970) i m p l i e d t h a t students without s u f f i c i e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n l a c k the means w i t h which to t h i n k about the f u t u r e r e a l i s t i - c a l l y . Westbrook (1976b) found a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .43 to e x i s t between occupational i n f o r m a t i o n and career m a t u r i t y as measured by the COT. CHAPTER I I I Methodology of the Thesis Research Overview The purpose o f the study was t o compare the p r e d i c t i v e value o f geographical l o c a t i o n and gender of grade nine students on the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : (a) Career A t t i t u d e M a t u r i t y and (b) Occupational Informa- t i o n . From a t h e o r e t i c a l as w e l l as a p r a c t i c a l viewpoint i t was al s o d e s i r a b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between oc c u p a t i o n a l informa- t i o n and career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y . Research Design A d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d survey was employed i n t h i s study. This t e c h - nique was s e l e c t e d because n e i t h e r treatments nor c o n t r o l groups were necessary f o r t h i s r e s earch. What was r e q u i r e d was to measure e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s and l e v e l s o f experience. Sample Subjects f o r t h i s study were 152 grade nine students i n academic programs from three h i g h schools. One school i s l o c a t e d i n the Greater Vancouver area and the other two are l o c a t e d i n the Southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The intended sample ( s e l e c t e d by school a u t h o r i t i e s ) was to c o n s i s t of 90 urban and 90 r u r a l students* d i v i d e d e q u a l l y by sex. Absenteeism and s p o i l e d measures reduced the sample to 88 r u r a l students (36 males and 52 females) and 64 urban students (30 males and 34 females). Neither I.Q. scores nor socioeconomic i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the subjects were a v a i l a b l e to the researcher. A maximum p o l a r i t y o f urban and r u r a l schools was d e s i r a b l e f o r the examination o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . This p o l a r i t y was attempted by a s e l e c t i o n of school d i s t r i c t s from an a n a l y s i s o f census s t a t i s t i c s 39 40 (Appendix B, p. 77)• L e t t e r s r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s study were sent to D i s t r i c t Superintendents of Schools (Appendix D, p. 79) i n the s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t s and consenting r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d by m a i l and telephone. The D i s t r i c t Superintendents s e l e c t e d the schools which they f e l t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the school d i s t r i c t . Demographic Study of Schools I t was f e l t t hat a demographic d e s c r i p t i o n of the three schools i n v o l v e d i n the study would be d e s i r a b l e i n order to help i l l u m i n a t e the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study. The urban school i s a modern, well-equipped open-classroom j u n i o r secondary school l o c a t e d i n a heavily-populated i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n - t i a l suburb of Vancouver. The school's p o p u l a t i o n i s approximately 900. No c o u n s e l l o r s are on s t a f f and no career e x p l o r a t i o n programs are i n e f f e c t . Instead, each teacher serves as a guidance c o u n s e l l o r whenever a student r e q u i r e s h e l p . The l a r g e r of the two r u r a l schools i s l o c a t e d i n a small town (p o p u l a t i o n 2,000) whose main f u n c t i o n i s to provide s e r v i c e s to the surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l community. The s c h o o l , comprising 850 students from grade 9 to 12, i s a standard two-story s t r u c t u r e and c o n t a i n s a l a r g e l i b r a r y and auditorium. The students appeared w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d and courteous. A congenial rapport was observed between them and the t e a c h i n g s t a f f , three of whom serve as part-time c o u n s e l l o r s . A career education program i s i n e f f e c t but i s not a v a i l a b l e to grade nine students. The community's source of revenue i s a g r i c u l t u r e ( f r u i t farming) which accounts f o r the c h r o n i c seasonal unemployment t y p i c a l o f a r u r a l community. The smaller of the r u r a l schools i s l o c a t e d i n a small community (p o p u l a t i o n 800) which serves as a centre f o r a ranching and f r u i t growing 41 r e g i o n . Seasonal unemployment i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s area. The school's 280 students are e n r o l l e d i n grades 9 to 12. V i r t u a l l y no p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l o r c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n the v i l l a g e , the o n l y l i b r a r y b e i n g the school l i b r a r y . Two of the school's teachers serve as p a r t - time c o u n s e l l o r s . No career e x p l o r a t i o n o r guidance programs ar e a v a i l - a b l e . Most o f the teachers on s t a f f commute d a i l y from a l a r g e r community 45 m i l e s d i s t a n t . Although the two r u r a l schools have p h y s i c a l d i f f e r - ences , the students appear to have s i m i l a r socioeconomic backgrounds and s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s towards the school s t a f f . The r u r a l students i n the sample do not appear to be economically disadvantaged i n comparison to the urban students. According to the F i n a n c i a l Post Survey of Markets 1976/77» average male income i n 1971 f o r the urban area i n the study was $7,559 and the average income f o r the males i n the r u r a l area was #5,985. Since there i s no l a r g e discrepancy i n incomes, the r u r a l area i n question i s not considered by the researcher to be disadvantaged economically i n compari- son to the urban a r e a . T e s t i n g Instruments The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n deals w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of measuring devices used to determine two o f the dimensions o f career m a t u r i t y , (a) career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y , and (b) o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Both measures a r e part o f the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory (CMl) developed by J.O. C r i t e s i n I965 under the o r i g i n a l a p p e l l a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l Development Inventory (VDl). Career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y (considered synonymous w i t h career m a t u r i t y by C r i t e s ) i s measured by the CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e ; knowledge of occupational i n f o r m a t i o n i s measured by a subtest o f the CMI Competence T e s t , the 42 Occupational Information t e s t . In a d d i t i o n , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C p. 78) developed by the researcher to g a i n supplementary demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was administered to each s u b j e c t . Career Maturity Inventory A t t i t u d e Scale The CMI c o n s i s t s of (a) the A t t i t u d e S c a l e , and (b) the Competence Te s t , which comprises f i v e subscales. The A t t i t u d e Scale c o n s i s t s of 50, age and grade r e l a t e d , True/False items scored f o r a t o t a l Career M a t u r i t y score. The A t t i t u d e Scale of the CMI d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the responses o f f i f t h through t w e l f t h grades; a l l o f i t s items are r e l a t e d t o grade and age w i t h which the t o t a l Career M a t u r i t y score c o r r e l a t e s .46. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r one year i s .71. The m a t u r i t y of choice a t t i t u d e s i s r e l a t e d to both i n d e c i s i o n and unrealism i n career c h o i c e . I n t e r n a l c o nsistency of the A t t i t u d e Scale was estimated by KR20 and was found to be, on the average, .74* $b c o e f f i c i e n t s of equivalence have been determined because a l t e r n a t e forms of the Scale have not been con s t r u c t e d . Content v a l i d i t y was s t u d i e d by t e n expert judges and per- centage of agreement f o r items was found to be 74%» ^0 d e f i n i t i v e con- c l u s i o n s have been drawn re g a r d i n g c r i t e r i o n - b a s e d v a l i d i t y although f i n d i n g s ( C r i t e s , 1974) i n d i c a t e the A t t i t u d e Scale has demonstrated c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . Career M a t u r i t y Inventory Competence Test The Competence Test has not undergone as much research as the A t t i t u d e S c a l e . Westbrook (1976) conducted a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Career Choice A t t i t u d e s and Career Choice Competencies of grade ni n e students. He found t h a t the A t t i t u d e and Competence Test subscales and the t o t a l score were i n t e r r e l a t e d . However, the Competence T e s t , according t o one reviewer (Sorenson, 1974) i s based on a number of 43 untested assumptions, a basic assumption being that individuals who can accurately appraise the career relevant capabilities of others, are good self-appraisers. The Competence Test consists of five parts measuring the following Career Choice Competencies: Iho\v-ing Yourself (Self-Appraisal); Knowing About Jobs (Occupational Information); Choosing a Job (Goal Selection); Looking Ahead (Planning); What Should They Do? (Problem Solving). The items in a l l the tests are followed by multiple-choice answers, including "I don't know." Crites conducted an inspectional analysis of the open-ended responses. Results indicated a monotonic (decreasing) trend i n "don't know" from the lower to the upper grades. It also became apparent that the inclusion of a "don't know" alternative might tend to reduce whatever score variance might be attributable to response bias. Norms for grades nine to twelve have been collected for various parts of the U.S. Ko Norms exist for Canada. As mentioned previously, only the Occupational Information (Knowing About Jobs) subtest was used i n this study. Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that there is reason to hypothesize that occupational information i s a salient dimension of Career Choice Competencies (Crites, 1973)• r^ie items are based upon Roe's (1950) Field and Level c l a s s i f i c a - tion, with additions and revisions to make them as respresentative as possible of the world of work. It i s f e l t that the occupations l i s t e d are a representative and comprehensive sampling of frequently chosen occupations i n which employment opportunities are good and for which widely used interest inventories and informational materials are a v a i l - able (Crites, 1973)* It i s of particular interest to this study whether occupational knowledge (as acquired through access to information) has a 44 s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on career a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y . Student Questionnaire Due to the d e s c r i p t i v e nature of the study, a questionnaire (Appendix C, p. 78) was designed to o b t a i n supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t s . The o b j e c t i o n s o f some school a u t h o r i t i e s prevented the researcher from a s k i n g s p e c i f i c questions r e g a r d i n g socioeconomic s t a t u s , e t h n i c background and other personal d e t a i l s . I t was f e l t , however, that responses to some of the general items may i l l u m i n a t e the r e s u l t s of the study. T e s t i n g and Data C o l l e c t i o n The t e s t i n g instruments and the qu e s t i o n n a i r e were group-administered and hand-scored by the res e a r c h e r . Scoring was double-checked by another s c o r e r . The t e s t s were administered i n mid-June, 1977 and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was l i m i t e d to times and places s p e c i f i e d by school a u t h o r i t i e s . T o t a l time i n v o l v e d f o r each group was one hour. The CMI A t t i t u d e Scale took approximately JO minutes, and the CMI Occupational Information t e s t took approximately 20 minutes to a d m i n i s t e r . The qu e s t i o n n a i r e was completed by the end of the hour. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n the t e s t manual were s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d . The students a t the sm a l l e r r u r a l school were t e s t e d i n a classroom on a Monday morning. G i r l s and boys wrote the t e s t t o g e t h e r . The boys and g i r l s at the l a r g e r r u r a l school composed two separate guidance c l a s s e s and were t e s t e d the next day at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. r e s p e c t i v e l y . The urban students were t e s t e d one week l a t e r i n ready-formed classroom groups i n three morning s e s s i o n s . Data A n a l y s i s 45 Scores for both measures, the CMI Attitude Scale and the CMI Occupational Information t e s t , were tabulated. Means and standard deviations were calculated by gender for the r u r a l and urban groups. A two-way analysis of variance was computed to compare the difference of means i n the two dependent variables (career a t t i t u d e maturity and occupational information) according to geographical l o c a t i o n and sex at a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of 0( = .05. Assuming that career a t t i t u d e maturity and occupational informa- ti o n are continuous and symmetrical and possess a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n - ship, a Pearson product*-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was calculated and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e tested at theO(= .05 l e v e l . The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of0( = -05 was chosen to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of committing a Type I error and r e j e c t i n g a true hypothesis. An attempt was made to analyse the responses to p a r t i c u l a r items i n the CMI Occupational Information t e s t . It was f e l t that such an analysis would a s s i s t i n describing the s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences i n occupational knowledge of r u r a l , urban, male and female subjects. The responses to the student questionnaire, due to the nature of the questions, were general i n nature. Percentage figures are used i n comparison a n a l y s i s . CHAPTER IV R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s study were analysed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . R e s u l t s of the analyses are described and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter according to the hypotheses p r e v i o u s l y set out. Comparison of Urban and R u r a l Career M a t u r i t y The major focus of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n career m a t u r i t y of urban and r u r a l grade nine students. I t was hypothesized t h a t there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean scores on the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory (CMl) A t t i t u d e Scale between urban and r u r a l grade nine students (Hypothesis I ) . On the b a s i s of a two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table I , p. 47) the n u l l hypothesis was accepted. These r e s u l t s tend to support the f i n d i n g s o f C r i t e s (1971) who found no d i f f e r e n c e to e x i s t . They do not support other s t u d i e s t h a t found urban students to be more career mature than r u r a l students. Nor do these r e s u l t s support Super and Overstreet's (i960) conclusions t h a t r u r a l boys, due to work experiences open t o them, appear to be more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature than urban boys. Among p o s s i b l e explanations f o r t h i s l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n are the f o l l o w i n g : (a) This study compared a s o c i e t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of students from r u r a l and urban environments. A few s t u d i e s such as by Campbell and Parsons (1972) whose r e s u l t s favoured urban students were a c t u a l l y comparing disadvantaged r u r a l students w i t h middle c l a s s urban students* (b) I t should be noted t h a t although geo- g r a p h i c a l environments are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r urban and r u r a l s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t a l occupation types do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y . Appendix E, p. 81, shows t h a t o n l y 33% of r u r a l boys and 40% of r u r a l g i r l s gave t h e i r f a t h e r ' s 46 47 TABLE I MEANS , VARIANCES , STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE Group N Mean Variance Standard D e v i a t i o n Urban Students 64 33*88 20*98 4*58 Rural Students 88 34*19 24«21 4*92 T o t a l 152 34*06 22.66 4*76 Source Urban/Rural (L) Gender (G) L x G Wit h i n T o t a l A n a l y s i s of Variance df M3 1 3.33 1 3.37 1 77*34 148 22*57 151 P P •15 .70 .15 .70 3.43 .07 48 occupations as s t r i c t l y o f the r u r a l type (farm worker, l o g g e r ) . The f a c t t h a t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of f a t h e r ' s occupations are the types one would f i n d i n an urban s e t t i n g , i t appears to have e l i m i n a t e d some of the suspected e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l and urban students. Comparison of Urban and R u r a l Occupational Information The l e v e l o f occupational knowledge o f urban and r u r a l grade nine students was t e s t e d by the CMI Occupational Information t e s t . I t was hypothesized t h a t there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores on the CMI Occupational Information t e s t of urban and r u r a l students (Hypothesis I i ) . The n u l l hypothesis was supported by a two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table I I , p. 49). No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t i n favour of the urban students. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h i s study may be found i n Sewell and Orenstein's (19&5) i n v e s t i g a t i o n . They argue t h a t even though occupational and educational plans o f r u r a l youth are d i f f e r e n t due to l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , i t would be unreasonable to assume t h a t r u r a l youths are completely ignorant of the major p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial, and t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e r urban communities. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study tend to add support to t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n . F u r t h e r , i t seems on o b s e r v a t i o n , that c o n d i t i o n s f o r most r u r a l r e s i d e n t s have markedly improved over the l a s t few y e a r s . The improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and i n the communications f i e l d have g r e a t l y reduced the i s o l a t i o n f a c t o r f o r r u r a l students. These advances, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the mass media, have g i v e n the r u r a l student ( i n t h i s sample) a much b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to g a i n s i m i l a r v i c a r i o u s l e a r n i n g experiences t o those a v a i l a b l e to the urban student. 49 TABLE II MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST Group N Mean Variance Standard Deviation Urban Students 64 15 •51 9.12 3.02 Rural Students 88 15 .28 6.81 2.61 Total 152 15 .50 7.73 2.78 Source Urban/Rural ( l ) Gender (G) L x G Within Total Analysis of Variance df MS 1 .00 1 .18 1 1.36 148 9.84 151 F P .00 .99 .02 .74 .17 .68 50 Comparison o f Male and Female Career Maturity Of equal importance to t h i s study i s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of gender on career m a t u r i t y . As p r e v i o u s l y hypothesized (Hypothesis I I I ) , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appears i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y when based on the s u b j e c t s 1 sex. A two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table I , p. 47) was conducted and no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the mean scores of grade nine males and females on the CMI A t t i t u d e Scale. Of i n t e r e s t i s a breakdown of mean scores by gender and l o c a t i o n i n Table I I I , p. 51. The d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter I I leads t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t career m a t u r i t y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the l e v e l s o f other forms of m a t u r i t y . G i r l s , who mature more q u i c k l y than boys d u r i n g adolescence, should produce h i g h e r scores on the CIO A t t i t u d e S c a l e . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study do not support t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p nor the r e s u l t s of C r i t e s 1 (1976") study which i n d i c a t e d t h a t from grade seven to grade twelve, g i r l s score c o n s i s t e n t l y higher on t h i s s c a l e than boys. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h i s study may l i e i n the e f f e c t that women's l i b e r a t i o n movements had on g i r l ' s ' c areer choice p l a n n i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , most women have had very few c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In f a c t , career choice f o r most was l i m i t e d to e i t h e r n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , t y p i n g , o r homemaking. Choices among these few options may have been f a i r l y easy to make. The c u r r e n t emphasis on equal job o p p o r t u n i t i e s has g r e a t l y increased the choice options f o r females, per- haps making the s e l e c t i o n of careers as d i f f i c u l t ( i f not more d i f f i c u l t ) f o r g i r l s as f o r boys. The v a r i e t y and number of female r o l e models, although i n c r e a s i n g , i s s t i l l much s m a l l e r than male r o l e models. I t appears, then, t h a t the above f a c t o r may have reduced the expected d i f f e r - ences i n career m a t u r i t y between boys and g i r l s . This f a c t o r suggests an area f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 51 TABLE III MEANS, VARIANCES, AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION . POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE Group N Mean Variance Standard Deviation Rural Males 36 33.28 23.23 4.82 Rural Females 52 34.85 24.30 4.93 Urban Males 30 34.60 17.31 4.16 Urban Females 34 33.24 23.91 4.89 Total Males 66 33.88 20.70 4.55 Total Females 86 34.20 24.40 4.94 52 Comparison of Male and Female Occupational Information The n u l l hypothesis (Hypothesis IV) s t a t i n g t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s i n the mean scores on the CME Occupational Information t e s t between genders at the grade nine l e v e l has been sup- ported by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (Table I I , p. 49). Table IV, p. 53, f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the r e s u l t s o f the comparison. L i t t l e r e s e a r c h , to the author's knowledge, has been c a r r i e d out w i t h respect t o t h i s d i - mension. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that g i r l s and boys are e q u a l l y aware of the v a r i o u s occupations l i s t e d i n t h i s measure. The f i n d i n g s support the s t u d i e s o f C r i t e s (1973) and Gribbons and Iohnes (1968) which concluded t h a t l e a r n i n g experiences o f boys and g i r l s are r e l a t i v e l y the same. R e l a t i o n s h i p of Career M a t u r i t y and Occupational Information I t was hypothesized i n Chapter I I t h a t there would be no s t a t i s t i - c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (Pearson r ) between scores on the CMI A t t i t u d e Scale and the CMI Occupational Information t e s t (Hypothesis V ) . Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d (Table V, p. 54) and the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study support C r i t e s ' (1965) premise that the c o r r e l a t i o n s between career choice competency v a r i a b l e s and a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s should be i n the .30's and .40's» The c o r r e l a t i o n between the CMI A t t i t u d e Scale and the CMI Occupational Information t e s t i n t h i s study i s »40. This r e s u l t a l s o supports the f i n d i n g s of Westbrook (1976b) whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows a .43 c o r r e l a t i o n between the CMI A t t i t u d e Scale and the CME Occupational Information t e s t . I t appears t h a t the l e v e l of career m a t u r i t y (CMI A t t i t u d e Scale) i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge (CME Occupational Information t e s t ) i n the possession of a grade nine student. Of i n t e r e s t 53 TABLE IV MEANS, VARIANCES, Al© STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION POR THE CAREER MATURITY TJJVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST Group N Mean Variance Standard D e v i a t i o n R u r a l Males 36 15.25 5.71 2.39 R u r a l Females 52 15.35 7.62 2.76 Urban Males 30 15.47 10.96 3.31 Urban Females 34 15.18 7.73 2.78 T o t a l Males 66 15.32 8.01 2.83 T o t a l Females 86 15-28 7.56 2.75 54 TABLE V PESESON R CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDE SCALE AMD OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST OF THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY • Group N R Square Pearson r S i g n i f i c a n c e R u r a l Males Ru r a l Females Urban Males Urban Females T o t a l 36 52 30 34 152 .28 .23 .002 .22 .16 •53 .48 .05 .47 .40 .0005 .0001 .40 .0025 .00001 55 i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these two v a r i a b l e s i n the case of urban males* whereas the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r r u r a l males and females, and urban females are .53 > «48, and .47 r e s p e c t i v e l y , the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r urban males i s only .05, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . The t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s were the same f o r urban males and females. This f a c t appears to r u l e out many p o s s i b l e explanations f o r t h i s anomalous r e s u l t . The f a c t o r o f promised anonymity o f subjects r u l e s out the p o s s i b i l i t y of st u d y i n g the r e s u l t s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . A n a l y s i s o f Responses to Items i n the C M Occupation Information Test Of a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t to the study i s a summary of responses to s p e c i f i c items i n the CMI Occupational Information t e s t (Table V I , p. 56). This t a b l e presents a summary of responses judged to be c a r e e r mature. In g e n e r a l , there appear to be no notable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o v e r a l l knowledge l e v e l of subjects w i t h respect to sex or l o c a t i o n . Sexual b i a s appears n e g l i g i b l e when o n l y 48% of r u r a l g i r l s i d e n t i f i e d the occupation of ( c l o t h e s ) buyer; 61% of r u r a l boys and 67% of urban boys i d e n t i f i e d t h i s occupation c o r r e c t l y . The o v e r a l l knowledge of s p e c i f i c occupations warrants examination. Abstract occupations such as s o c i a l worker (item 3l) and lawyer (item 40) and s p e c i a l i s t s such as d i e t i c i a n ( i t e m 38) d i d not r e c e i v e a h i g h percentage o f c o r r e c t responses by any group. I t appears that these types of occupations are not yet w i t h i n the experience of the m a j o r i t y of n i n t h grade students. Comparisons w i t h Iforms C r i t e s (1973) has produced t a b l e s r e f l e c t i n g the norms of the Iowa s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample and the r e s u l t s of other s t u d i e s u s i n g h i s i n s t r u - ments Table V I I , p. 57, summarizes the mean scores and standard d e v i a t i o n s 56 TABLE V I COMPARISON CP CORRECT RESPONSES3, BY GENDER AND LOCATION POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST Item Number Ru r a l Urban Female Male Female Male % % % 21 67 64 65 70 22 95 94 97 80 23 56 89 59 77 24 67 58 56 63 25 98 92 85 100 26 98 94 97 83 27 98 97 91 90 28 90 78 76 87 29 63 72 68 77 30 63 72 59 84 31 60 53 59 57 32 48 61 71 67 33 83 72 91 97 34 92 94 97 87 35 69 72 59 63 36 96 86 100 90 37 92 94 97 99 38 52 42 38 53 39 92 89 85 77 40 58 42 68 57 Percentage f i g u r e s were used due to the unequal c e l l s * 57 TABLE V I I COMPARISON V/TTH GRADE NINE NORMS POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY ATTITUDE SCALE3, Group N Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n 3bwa 703 36.50 4.82 Texas 582 32.59 5.69 Pennsylvania 1273 34.69 4.93 Tennessee 484 32.97 5.13 B r i t i s h Columbia 152 34.06 4.76 ' A l l data w i t h exception o f B r i t i s h Columbia have been d e r i v e d from the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Use Manual o f the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory ( C r i t e s , 1973). 58 f o r the CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e . The mean score on the CMI A t t i t u d e Scale f o r the sample used i n t h i s study i s 34«06, approximately one-half standard d e v i a t i o n lower than the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n mean of 36.50* Mean scores f o r Tennessee and Texas are o n l y s l i g h t l y lower than the mean of the B.C. sample. Table V I I I , p. 59» provides a comparison of mean scores of va r i o u s grade l e v e l s of the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample w i t h the B.C. grade nine sample on the CMI Occupational Information t e s t . The comparison r e v e a l s some unexpected r e s u l t s . The mean score of the B.C. grade nine student ( l5»30) i s approximately one standard d e v i a t i o n higher than the mean score o f the Iowa students ( l l . 3 5 ) » In f a c t , B.C. n i n t h graders even scored higher than the t w e l f t h graders i n C r i t e s ' sample. A comparison of standard d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s that B.C. students' scores were more homogeneous than the norm group's scores. The r e s u l t s o f the comparisons i n d i c a t e that w h i l e the sample i n t h i s study had lower career m a t u r i t y s c o r e s , they possessed g r e a t e r knowledge of occupational i n f o r m a t i o n than the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. The r e s u l t s of t h i s com- p a r i s o n l e a d to two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s : (a) possession o f oc c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s not as conducive to career m a t u r i t y as h i t h e r t o assumed, and (b) possession of occ u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n without the concurrent help i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h i s knowledge i s of l i t t l e help i n making an appro- p r i a t e career c h o i c e . The r u r a l students had c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a v a i l - a ble to them, whereas these s e r v i c e s were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the urban students. In view o f the preceding statement, the researcher tends to support the l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n . 59 TABLE T i l l COMPARISON WITH OTHER GRADE NORMS POR. THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST3, Group N Mean Standard Deviation Iowa Grade 8 280 11.59 4.6O Grade 9 197 11.35 4.82 Grade 10 318 12.23 5.04 Grade 11 302 13.79 4.86 Grade 12 214 14.43 4.67 B.C. Grade 9 152 15.30 2.82 ^Figures (except B.C.) were obtained from the Administration and Use Manual of the Career Maturity Inventory (Crites, 1973). CHAPTER V Summary and Conclusions It is the purpose of this final chapter to present a brief overview of the study as well as to postulate implications of the results and to propose areas of future related research. Overview and Summary of Results The original focus of the study involved the following investiga- tions: (a) to compare the career maturity of urban and rural grade nine students, (b) to compare the occupational information of urban and rural grade nine students, (c) to compare the career maturity and occupational knowledge with the gender of the grade nine students, and (d) to investi- gate the relationship between occupational information and career maturity. To this end samples were taken from an urban school in the Greater Vancouver area and from two rural schools in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. The measures selected to investigate career maturity and occupational information were the Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and the Career Maturity Inventory Occupational Information test developed by J.O. Crites (1973)• In regard to the first investigation just cited, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between rural and urban career maturity. This result conflicts with some studies mentioned in Chapter II which primarily compared rural and urban career maturity based on socioeconomic status* Disadvantaged rural students were com- pared with non-disadvantaged urban students* This present study, however, supports the results of Crites' (1971) investigation, which concluded 60 61 that few, i f any, differences exist between rural and urban students on the career maturity attitude scale. Some of the reasons offered for this lack of differentiation, despite obvious urban advantages of more adequate school funds, better f a c i l i t i e s , are the following: (a) This study compared a societal cross-section of students from urban and rural areas rather than middle class urban with working class r u r a l . Presum- ably then, non-disadvantaged rural students are no less career mature than non-disadvantaged urban students, (b) There may be a greater aware- ness of the need to plan for the future by rural students (Gribbons and Iohnes, 1968). (c) There seems to be a greater and more amicable student- teacher relationship i n rural areas, leading to greater personal contact, (d) There appear to be more visible (although limited i n variety) role models for the rural children than for urban children. Comparison of occupational information based on geographical loca- tion likewise resulted i n no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference, contrary to most studies cited i n Chapter II. It appears that although there may be more and varied occupational role models available to urban students, i t may be that they do not take advantage of the opportunity to investigate on their own. Also the absence of professionally trained counsellors i n the urban school and resultant lack of readily available educational and occupational information may have contributed to the reduction of the apparent urban advantage. It has previously been sug- gested that the opportunities for greater student-teacher contact may be more available i n a rural school. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of counsellors (even though part-time) and the resultant readily available occupational and educational information may have contributed to the reduction of the expected rural-urban differences. Rural students are perhaps i n closer 62 contact with their role models and participate to a greater extent in the running of a family farm or business than the children of urban workers. A city parent who leaves for work every morning but does not discuss his work with his child, does not impart any occupational infor- mation to him. (The author had occasion to counsel with a grade 12 student who fantasized working as an accountant. Although his father was a chartered accountant, the student had no idea what his father's work entailed). In comparing the career maturity (CMC Attitude Scale) of girls and boys at the same grade level, i t was found that no statistically signifi- cant differences existed, contrary to the results of studies cited in Chapter II. It was expected that girls who, at that age level are physically, emotionally, and socially more mature than boys, would tend to score higher than boys on the career maturity dimension. It appears that the increasing demands for females in the labour force and social expectations resulting from the very recent emphasis on equality of oppor- tunity in occupations, have imposed complex problems at this stage of career choice development. Perhaps girls are even more apprehensive about the "world out there" than boys. Similarly, a comparison of levels of occupational knowledge (CMI Occupational Information test) based on gender revealed no statistically significant difference. Kb difference was expected as a result of the findings of Crites (1973) and Gribbons and Iohnes (1968). A study by Gold (1977) revealed that very l i t t l e information is available to girls in texts, which apparently tend to sex-stereotype occupations. Presumably i f biases did not exist in texts, girls would tend to score higher than boys on the occupational information dimension. But, texts are not the 63 only sources of information, and i t i s doubtful that many adolescents glean their occupational information from literature i n any case. Examination of the relationship (Pearson r) between scores on the CMI Occupational Information test and the Cid Attitude Scale revealed that a significant positive correlation (r~.40) exists between these two variables. This relationship holds true for the sample as a whole as well as for rural males and females and urban females. The exception was urban boys for whom the correlation between career maturity scores and occupational information scores (^.05) i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. This lack of consistency would require further individual examination, not only of score fluctuation, but of the personality variables of the urban boys themselves. "Unfortunately, the anonymity promised the subjects renders this examination impossible. In summary then, comparison of career maturity scores (CMI Attitude Scale) and occupational information scores (CMI Occupational Information test), based on gender and geographical location, revealed no s t a t i s t i - cally significant difference. A s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant positive correlation (r^.40) was found to exist between career maturity (CME Attitude Scale) scores and occupational information (CMI Occupational Information test) scores. Implications of the Study Theoretical studies cited i n Chapter II highlight the importance of career maturity as a predictor of future career adjustment. The junior high school years have been shown by investigators (Campbell and Parsons, 1972; Super and Overstreet, I960; Gribbons and Iohnes, 1968) to be clearly a time of significance and have major consequences for the students' future educational and career plans. To this end the whole 64 spectrum of v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y has been s t u d i e d . Un- f o r t u n a t e l y , perhaps due to sampling procedure o r because o n l y s p e c i f i c populations were s t u d i e d , the l i t e r a t u r e abounds w i t h mixed and i n c o n - c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . Perhaps the v a r i a b l e s which have not r e c e i v e d a great deal of a t t e n t i o n , are geographical l o c a t i o n and gender. Although most s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h geographical l o c a t i o n as a v a r i a b l e conclude t h a t r u r a l students possess lower c a r e e r m a t u r i t y than urban students, they have been s p e c i f i c t o socioeconomic s t a t u s comparisons* I t i s obvious t h a t c h i l d r e n from i s o l a t e d , impoverished communities i n the Ozarks or Appalachian would not be as w e l l developed career-\v rise as m i d d l e - c l a s s c i t y c h i l d r e n . I t i s obvious a l s o t h a t c h i l d r e n from the Ozarks are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r u r a l c h i l d r e n . Therefore, other v a r i a b l e s such as p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , media and communications and school c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s need to be looked at i n d e f i n i n g the term r u r a l p r i o r to making comparisons* The q u e s t i o n of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n career m a t u r i t y may have s u f f e r e d a s i m i l a r f a t e . Confounding extraneous v a r i a b l e s such as d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environments may have crept i n t o these s t u d i e s . l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s ( C r i t e s , 1976) have suggested t h a t females possess g r e a t e r career m a t u r i t y than males. However, no mention has been made o f the new s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s which may have a f f e c t e d the c a r e e r m a t u r i t y of a new group of grade nine students. In s p i t e o f the great i n t e r e s t shown i n the developmental aspect o f career c h o i c e , no s t u d i e s have been conducted i n the Canadian scene, to the best knowledge of the author. The r e s u l t s of the present study imply t h a t a great deal of r e s e a r c h s t i l l needs to be c a r r i e d out on t h i s s u b j e c t . This study has shorn t h a t 65 no differences exist i n the career maturity between rural and urban students nor between males and females at the grade nine l e v e l . Various reasons.for this lack of differentiation have been postulated: (a) Urban students are not given the required help and counselling i n order to take advantage of their presumably greater opportunities to gain knowledge and maturity, (b) L i t t l e or no attention has been given to the expan- sion or development of counselling services for g i r l s i n spite of recent social developments. Results of the student questionnaire (Appendix S, p. 81) indicate that 31% of the subjects i n this study nearing the completion of grade nine s t i l l had no idea of what they wished their future occupations to be. This is particularly evident i n the case of urban males (37%) and urban females (35%)» These figures imply that approximately one-third of the subjects i n the sample may have (a) chosen courses and/or curricula without a goal i n mind, or (b) preferred to defer their planning, or (c) received no counselling or help i n course or curriculum selection. No significant differences were found i n the level of occupational knowledge between sexes and geographical locations. Previous research led to the expectation that urban students would score higher on this variable than rural students. The results indicate that urban students may not have taken advantage of the vicarious information and the more varied role models available to them. They also reflect a lack of career exploration programs at the urban school. Although neither the rural students nor the urban students had the opportunity to participate i n a career exploration program i t appears that the existence of trained counsellors i n the rural schools (with the resultant a v a i l a b i l i t y of occupational information) may have eliminated the supposed urban advantage. It has 66 already been mentioned that g i r l s may have been d i s c r i m i n a t e d against i n t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h occupations (Gold, 1977)' ^he l a c k of d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l of occupational i n f o r m a t i o n between g i r l s and boys may be a t t r i b u - t a b l e to a l a c k of r e a l progress i n p o r t r a y i n g more females i n occupa- t i o n a l r o l e s i n new t e x t s * The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f occupational i n f o r m a t i o n to career m a t u r i t y has been shown to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the©(= .05 l e v e l . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the implementation of or improvement i n career e x p l o r a t i o n programs, f i e l d t r i p s to i n d u s t r y and higher s c h o o l s , a gre a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f occ u p a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , would l e a d to an improvement i n career m a t u r i t y . Hoppock (1967) has assembled an e x c e l l e n t resource book i n methods o f com p i l i n g and dissemina- t i n g o c c upational i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between these v a r i a b l e s f o r urban boys leads to the s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t career m a t u r i t y i s not dependent on the l e v e l o f occ u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Some boys w i t h low scores i n career m a t u r i t y have shown t h a t they have a very good grasp o f oc c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and v i c e - v e r s a . The i m p l i - c a t i o n s are th a t boys who are emotio n a l l y and developmentally ready t o make career p r e l i m i n a r y d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r choice cannot do so without s u f f i c i e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Conversely, those who have not reached an acceptable l e v e l of m a t u r i t y to make a choice should not "jump the gun" even though they possess a s u f f i c i e n t amount o f informa- t i o n . The comparison w i t h norms of career m a t u r i t y and oc c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r - mation may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r o l e o f guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g i n B.C. schools. The subjects i n t h i s study produced a mean score on career m a t u r i t y almost one standard d e v i a t i o n lower than the standardization 67 norm. However, t h e i r mean score on o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was higher than t h a t f o r t w e l f t h graders s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group. This i m p l i e s t h a t mere possession o f occupational i n f o r m a t i o n without the a d d i t i o n a l help of c o u n s e l l o r s i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n may be i n s u f f i c i e n t i n making r e a l i s t i c , a p propriate educational and career d e c i s i o n s . Serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to the expansion and improvement, or implementation o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n B.C. schools p a r t i c u l a r l y at the elementary and j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . The Career M a t u r i t y Inventory appears to be an acceptable measure to be used i n diagnosing students w i t h problem areas and a s s e s s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g needs. I t appears to be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n the e a r l y diagnosis o f those c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y d i s p a r a t e scores on t h i s measure. Assessment and diagnosis appears e s s e n t i a l p r i o r to entry i n t o h i g h s c h o o l , at which time students are f o r c e d t o make choices v i t a l to t h e i r f u t u r e development. Suggestions f o r Future Research This study was l i m i t e d to a d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d study o f a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n due to the c o n s t r a i n t s of time and f i n a n c e s . Since the l i t e r a t u r e a l l u d e d to the value of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the career m a t u r i t y dimension, a study i n v o l v i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of students i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a could be c a r r i e d out. Of i n t e r e s t to school a u t h o r i t i e s could a l s o be the c u r r i c u l a r comparisons o f career m a t u r i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study pointed to i n s u f f i c i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and career e x p l o r a t i o n programs a v a i l a b l e to students a t the e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y stage of career development. To t h i s end an experimental design c o u l d be implemented u s i n g p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s to 68 a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t o f these v a r i o u s programs on the career m a t u r i t y of students. This study i s envisaged u s i n g a c o n t r o l group and an e x p e r i - mental group of students. The subjects i n the experimental group would be e n r o l l e d i n a career development program. A p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t would be administered to both groups. R e s u l t s then, may be evaluated to see i f exposure to a career e x p l o r a t i o n program has any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y . Also i n an e f f o r t to determine the career adjustment of students, a follow-up program c o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d at v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l schools or d i s t r i c t s . The r o l e o f the community needs more c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s could be c a r r i e d out i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study tend to i n d i c a t e that the use of the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory may be h e l p f u l i n i n d i v i d u a l assessment of students' a b i l i t y and readiness to make educational and career c h o i c e s . I t may a l s o a s s i s t the school c o u n s e l l o r to take c o r r e c t i v e measures i n order t o help increase the students' a b i l i t y to cope s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h v o c a t i o n a l tasks i n the f u t u r e . The r e s u l t s a l s o tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t very s e r i o u s d e l i b e r a t i o n needs to be done by v a r i o u s school a u t h o r i t i e s about i n s t i t u t i n g s u f f i c i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . They a l s o i n d i c a t e a need to keep abreast o f s o c i a l developments and how they a f f e c t school p o p u l a t i o n s . 69 HEPEREHCES REFERENCES Anderson, D. G., & Heimann, R. A. Vocational Maturity of Junior High School Girls. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, March 1976, 191-195* Ansell, E. M., & Hansen, J. C. Patterns i n Vocational Development of Urban Youth. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1971, 18, 505-508. Arbuckle, D. S. Occupational Information i n the Elementary School. Vocational Guidance Quarterly. V/inter 1963-1964? Vol. 12. Asbury, P. A. Vocational Development of Rural Disadvantaged Eighth Grade Boys. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, December 1968, 109-113* Bartlett, W. E. Vocational Maturity and Personality Variables of Man- power Trainees* Vocational Guidance Quarterly, December 1968, 104-108. Bartlett, W. E. Vocational Maturity: Its Past, Present, and Future Development* Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1971» i» 217-229. B e i l i n , H. The Application of General Development Principles to the Vo- cational Area. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19551 2,, 53-57* Beuhler, C. Der menschliche Lebenslauf als psychologisch.es Problem • Leipzig: Hirzel, 1933* (Super, D. E. The Psychology of Careers. New York: Harper, 1957*) Bohn, M. J. Vocational Maturity and Personality. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, December, 1966, 123-126. Campbell, R. E., & Parsons, J. L. Readiness for Vocational Planning i n Junior High School: A Socio-Economic and Geographical Comparison. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1972, 2, 401-417. Crabtree, P. D., & Hales, L. W. Holland's Hexagonal Model Applied to Rural Youth. Vocational Guidance Quarterly. March 1974, 218-223. Crites, J* 0. Measurement of Vocational Maturity i n Adolescence: 1. Attitude test of the Vocational Development Inventory. Psychological 70 71 Monographs, 196"5, 2 2 (2 , Whole No. 595). C r i t e s . J . 0. V o c a t i o n a l Psychology. New York: MsGraw-Hill, I969. C r i t e s , J . 0. The M a t u r i t y o f V o c a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e s i n Adolescence. In q u i r y S e r i e s . Monograph No. 2, Washington, D. C,: American Personnel and Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971* C r i t e s , J . 0. Theory and Research Handbook f o r the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory. Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a : CTB/MbGraw-Hill, 1973. C r i t e s , J * 0. Problems i n the Measurement of V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y . Journal o f V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1974» 4_, 25-31* C r i t e s , J . 0. A Comprehensive Model of Career Development i n E a r l y Adulthood. Journal of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1976, 9_, 105-118. C r i t e s , J . 0 ., & Semler, I . J . Adjustment, Educational Achievement, and Voc a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y as Dimensions o f Development i n Adolescence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1967, l±t 6, 489-496. D i l l a r d , J . M. R e l a t i o n s h i p between Career M a t u r i t y and Self-Concept of Suburban and Urban Middle-and Urban Lower-Class Preadolescent Black Males. Journal of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1976, _9_, 311-320. E h r l e , R. A. Vo c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y , V o c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n , and Occupational Information. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , September 1970, 41-45* E r i k s o n , E. H. Childhood and S o c i e t y . New York: Norton, I963. G e s e l l , A., T i g , P. L., & Ames, L. B. Youth: The Years Prom 10 to 16. New York: Harper and Row, 1956. Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, S. W., A x e l r o d , S., & Herma, J . L. Occupational Choice. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951* Ginzberg, E. Career Guidance. New York: MoGraw-Hill, 1971. Ginzberg, E. Toward a Theory of Occupational Choice: A Restatement. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y . March 1972, 169^176. 72 Gold, S. Sex Stereotyping i n the Schools* Education Canada, Spring 1977, 23-27. Gribbons, W. D., & Iohnes, P. R. Emerging Careers* New York: Teachers College P r e s s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. Herr, E. L., & E n d e r l e i n , T. E. Vo c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y : The E f f e c t s o f School, Grade, Curriculum and Sex. Journal o f V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1976, 8, 227-238. Herr, E. L., & Cramer, S. H. Vo c a t i o n a l Guidance and Career Development i n Schools: Toward a Systems Approach. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1972. Hoppock, R. Occupational Information. New York: McGraw-Hill, I967. Jones, 0. M., Hansen, J . C , & Putnam, B. A. R e l a t i o n s h i p of S e l f - Concept and V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y to V o c a t i o n a l Preferences o f Adolescents. Journal o f Vo c a t i o n a l Behavior. 1976, 8, 31-40. Lawrence, V/., & Brown, D. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , Self-Concept, Socioeconomic S t a t u s , Race, and Sex as P r e d i c t o r s o f Career M a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 1976, 9_, 43-52. L i f t o n , W. M. Voc a t i o n a l Guidance i n the Elementary School. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , Winter 1959* l o C a s c i o , R., N e s s e l r o t h , J . , & Thomas, M. The Career Development Inventory: Use and Fi n d i n g s w i t h I n n e r - C i t y Dropouts. Journal o f Voca t i o n a l Behavior, 1976, 8, 285-292. Maslow, A. H. Toward a Psychology o f Being. New York: Harper, 1954* Maynard, P. E., & Hansen, J . C. V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y Among In n e r - C i t y Youth. J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 1970, 5_, 4OO-404. M i l l e r , M. F. R e l a t i o n s h i p of V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y to Work Values. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior. 1974, 5_, 367-371. Moracco, J . C. Vo c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y of Arab and American High School 73 Students* Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, 13, 367-373• Nelson, R. C. Knowledge and Interests Concerning Sixteen Occupations Among Elementary and Secondary School Students* Educational and Psychological Measurements, 1963, 4, 741-754* P i e t r o f e s a , J . J . , & Splete, H. Career Development: Theory and Research. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1975. Roe, A. The Psychology of Occupations* New York: Wiley, 1956. Samler, J . Toward a Theoretical Base f o r Vocational Counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1953, 1_» 34-45* Sewell, W. H., & Orenstein, A. M, Community of Residence and Occupational Choice. American Journal of Sociology, 1965, 70, 551-563. Smith, E. D., & Herr, E. L. Sex Differences i n the Maturation of Vocational Attitudes Among Adolescents. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, March 1972, 177-182. Sorenson, G. Review of Career Maturity Inventory. Measurement and Evaluation i n Guidance, 1974, 1» 54-57* S t e v i c , R., & Uh l i g , G. Occupational Aspirations of Selected Appalachian Youth. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1967, 45, 435-439* Super, D. E. A Theory of Vocational Development. American Psychologist, 1953, 8, 185-190. Super, D. E. The Psychology of Careers. New York: Harper & Row, 1957* Super, D. E., & Overstreet, P. L. The Vocational Maturity of Ninth- Grade Boys. New York: Bureau of Pub l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. Super, D. E., Starishevsky, R., Matlin, N., & Jordaan, J . P. Career Development: Self-Concept Theory. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1963* 74 Super, D. E. Vocational Development Theory: Persons, Positions, and Processes* Counseling Psychologist, 196"9» 1, 2-9* Tiedeman, D. V. Decision and Vocational Development: A Paradigm and Its Implications* Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1961, 40, 15-20. Tiedeman, D. V., & O'Hara, R. P. Career Development: Choice and Adjustment. New York: College Entrance Examination-Board, 1963* Tolbert, E. L. Counseling for Career Development. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1974* Warren, P. J. Trends i n Ifon-brban School Systems. Education Canada. Spring 1977, 4-11. Wehrly, B. L. Childrens' Occupational Knowledge. Vocational Guidance Journal, December 1973, 124-129. Westbrook, B. W. Interrelationship of Career Choice Competencies and Career Choice Attitudes of Ninth-Grade Pupils: Testing Hypotheses Derived from Crites' Model of Career Maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior-, 1976a, 8, 1-12. Westbrook, B. W. The Relationship between Career Choice Attitudes and Career Choice Competencies of Ninth-Grade Pupils. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976b, 9_, 377-383. 75 APPENDICES 76 APPENDIX A A MODEL OP CAREER MATURITY IN ADOLESCENCE Decree c f <f'a<"eer D e v e l o p m e n t Genera Factor Croup Factors Consistency o f 'Rea(K,n o f Cbree.r C'dreer Career Choices Career Choices, Cho i ce Competencies Choke A t t i t u d e s interests SccLaf Class field Time piftnnirtj/ C e/s ce p tic n Orientation p ^ ^ n c e Problem Soii/wj Ccc*/>flt.'e.ul Coa l 1. Adapted from C r i t e s , J . 0. Theory and Research" Handbook f o r the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory* Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a : C T B / M c Q t ^ - H i l l , 1973. 77 APPENDIX B. SCHOOL DISTRICTS WITH OYER If. ,% OP LABOUR FORCE INVOLVED IN PRIMARY INDUSTRY School D i s t r i c t No. Percentage Farming., F i s h i n g F o r e s t r y T o t a l Hunting Mining 01 F e r n i e 15.0 2.6 12.4 03 Kimberley 15.7 2.8 13.7 10 Arrow lakes 18 .5 3.8 14.7 13 K e t t l e . V a l l e y 24.0 13.4 10.6 14 Southern Okanagan 23.4 20 .9 2.5 16 Keremeos 33.1 28 .4 4.7 21 Armstrong-Spallumcheen 23.7 20.2 3.4 31 M e r r i t t 19.0 6.0 13.0 34 Abbotsford 17.3 16.5 0.8 48 Howe Sound 15.3 1.3 14.0 49 Ocean P a l l s 20.2 11.1 9.1 50 Queen C h a r l o t t e 19.4 5.5 13.9 55 Burns Lake 19.8 7.5 12.3 56 Nechako 16 .6 6.4 10.2 60 Peace R i v e r North 17.1 11.6 5.5 66 Lake Cowichan 16.4 0.5 15.9 72 Campbell R i v e r 16.0 3.0 13.0 75 M i s s i o n 16.2 9.4 6.8 76 Agas s i iz-Harri son 20 .0 11.9 8.1 85 Vancouver I s l a n d North 23.2 3.9 19.3 86 Creston-Kaslo 19.9 11.9 8.0 87 S t i k i n e 15.1 2.2 12.9 89 Shuswap 17.6 11.3 6.3 1. Fung, W. et a l . O rganization o f Secondary Schools and Elementary and Secondary Class Sizes 1975-1976 (75-5433) Vancouver: B. C. Research: Educational Data S e r v i c e s , D i v i s i o n o f Communications, B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Education, March 1976. 78 APPENDIX C STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE Thi s questionnaire w i l l a s s i s t me a great d e a l . Please answer each question to the best of your knowledge. I f you do not wish to answer a question f o r whatever reason, you may leave t h a t item out. When com- p l e t e d , your answers w i l l remain s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . 1. Age y e a r s . 2. Sex M or F . 3. Date o f b i r t h : day month ________________________ year 4. Place o f b i r t h : Town Province 5« What i s your Father's occupation?' ______________________^^ 6. What i s your Mother's occupation? _______________________̂ ^ 7. What i s the number of c h i l d r e n i n your f a m i l y ? ( i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f ) 8. How l o n g have you l i v e d i n t h i s area? _____^_^_mm_^^_m____ m^, yea r s . 9. What do you p l a n to do upon f i n i s h i n g school? ________________________^ 79 APPENDIX D SAMPLE OP LETTER CSP REQUEST TO SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPMINTENDENTS I am a Master of A r t s candidate i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology a t the u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. At present I am working on a t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f my degree requirements. My area o f i n t e r e s t i s i n the v o c a t i o n a l / c a r e e r development o f h i g h school students i n t h e i r e a r l y adolescent y e a r s . Career c o u n s e l l i n g has undergone a number of changes i n the past three decades, the emphasis having s h i f t e d from a focus on " t r a i t - a n d - f a c t o r " type of v o c a t i o n a l guidance to a focus on the process o f career development. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i s a l i f e - l o n g developmental process, p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l d u r i n g e a r l y adolescence, when students are asked to make c u r r i c u l a r and course choices which w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r f u t u r e . The q u a l i t y of the choices made by adolescents are p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and personal adjustment during l a t e r y e a r s . One of the c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i v e choice-making i s the l e v e l of the student's career m a t u r i t y . Career M a t u r i t y i s a developmental concept introduced by Donald E. Super i n 1953* T h i s concept has been d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g dimen- s i o n s : Consistency o f Career Choices, Realism of Career Choices, Career Choice Competencies, and Career Choice A t t i t u d e s . The l a t t e r two dimen- sions can be measured by the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory developed by John 0. C r i t e s o f Harvard u n i v e r s i t y . The purpose of my study i s to survey the Career M a t u r i t y and Occupational Information of grade nine students i n r u r a l and urban areas of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order t o assess the need f o r career education courses. My needs are to adm i n i s t e r the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory to about n i n e t y grade nine students i n your d i s t r i c t . Preferences would be an equal number of boys and g i r l s and that they be s e l e c t e d from academic courses. This i n v e n t o r y should not take more than one hour to a d m i n i s t e r , and anonymity of both students and schools w i l l be respected. I would be pleased to r e t u r n to the schools t o e x p l a i n to i n t e r e s t e d students and s t a f f the r e s u l t s o f the study when completed. 80 I would l i k e to telephone you on t h i s matter i n a few day's time. Your cooperation and a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s study w i l l he g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Yours very t r u l y , George J . T e s l a , B.A. Graduate Student Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia V/ i l l i a m A Borgen, Ph.D. A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r (Supervisor) Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 81 APPENDIX E RESPONSE HIGHLIGHTS OP STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE a b Comparison of Fathers' Occupation Types Group Rural Occupation Urban Occupation R u r a l Maies Ru r a l Females Urban Males Urban Females 33% 67% 40 60 7 93 12 88 Group Students Undecided About Future Occupations 0 Percent Undecided R u r a l Males 28% R u r a l Females 27% Urban Males 37% Urban Females 35% aTThe term "Father" i s intended to mean "head o f household". R u r a l occupation types i n c l u d e a l l occupations d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h primary i n d u s t r y such as farming, f i s h i n g , mining, and l o g g i n g . These i n c l u d e students who responded w i t h two o r more u n r e l a t e d occupa- t i o n s , such as s o c i a l worker and engineer. Note: Responses to other items i n the Student Questionnaire were deemed to be of l i m i t e d value to the study, o r were too general f o r a n a l y s i s .

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