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Career maturity of grade nine students in British Columbia : a rural/urban comparison Tesla, George John 1978

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CAREER- MATURITY OP GRADE NINE STUDENTS I N BRITISH COLUMBIA: A RUMl/URBAN COMPARISON  GEORGE JOHN TESLA B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FtTIPILLMENT CLF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE CLP MASTER CP ARTS  xn THE FACULTY CP GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y  We accept this thesis as conforBLing to the reqijiired standard  THE UiriYERSlTY CP BRITISH COLUMBIA  June, 1978 George  J o h n T e s l a , 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make it  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f the of B r i t i s h  available  for  requirements  Columbia, I agree  that  reference and study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  for  for  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or  by  his  representatives.  of  this  thesis for  It  financial  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  Counselling Psychology  The  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  University  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada  V6T  Date  1W5  /  March 1978  ABSTRACT The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t u d i e d the comparative  effects of geographical  l o c a t i o n and gender on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f grade n i n e s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Coltimbia.  In a d d i t i o n ,  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to career maturity. v a r y i n g socioeconomic  One hundred and f i f t y - t w o academic s t u d e n t s f r o m backgrounds were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y .  The  sub-  j e c t s , none o f whom had a c c e s s t o any f o r m o f c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n program, were draxm from e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s f r o m two r u r a l h i g h s c h o o l s and one junior high school.  The s c h o o l s i n q u e s t i o n were s e l e c t e d by  urban  district  s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , and t h e c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d by l o c a l s c h o o l authorities.  In a l l , e i g h t y - e i g h t r u r a l students  ( t h i r t y - s i x male and  f i f t y - t w o f e m a l e ) and s i x t y - f o u r u r b a n s t u d e n t s ( t h i r t y male and f o u r female) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  thirty-  study.  A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r m a t u r i t y r e v e a l e d mixed and i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t i n g t o the v a r i a b l e s of l o c a t i o n and s e x .  S t u d i e s have shown t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  e x i s t s between knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . I t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y between u r b a n and r u r a l s t u d e n t s  nor  between males and f e m a l e s , as measured by t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y , Attitude Scale.  I t was  a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be no  statis-  t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n between r u r a l and u r b a n s t u d e n t s nor between males and f e m a l e s , measured by t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y , O c c u p a t i o n a l  Information t e s t .  The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y s u p p o r t e d t h e s e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s . a d d i t i o n , i t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be no -i i  as  In  statistically  iii  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r maturity.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d a P e a r s o n r o f .40 between  t h e two v a r i a b l e s , and t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . Reasons p o s t u l a t e d f o r f a i l u r e t o r e j e c t t h e f i r s t f o u r hypotheses include the f o l l o w i n g :  ( a ) T r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r s were employed i n t h e  r u r a l s c h o o l s , whereas none e x i s t e d i n t h e u r b a n s c h o o l , sociological  ( b ) Recent  developments i n t h e sphere o f women's l i b e r a t i o n movements  have g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s  a v a i l a b l e t o women.  T h i s i n t u r n may have i n c r e a s e d t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f - f e m a l e s occupational choices,  t o make .  ( c ) V a s t improvements i n t h e communications media  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d t h e f a c t o r o f i s o l a t i o n f o r r u r a l s t u d e n t s , r e s u l t i n g i n r e d u c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l and u r b a n e x p e r i e n c e s and a c q u i s i t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A p o s t e r i o r i comparison o f t h e sample's mean s c o r e s w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n norms o n b o t h measures r e v e a l e d t h a t , w h i l e B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d e n t s s c o r e d l o w e r i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , t h e y s c o r e d c a n t l y h i g h e r i n knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  signifi-  This comparison  t e n d s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e s t u d e n t s may p o s s e s s adequate o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y may n o t p o s s e s s s u f f i c i e n t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y t o make appropriate career choices without concurrent help i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h a t information.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  jfeture of the Problem  4  Purpose of the Study  6  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  7  Vocation/Career  7  Career Maturity  7  Occupational Information  8  Urban  8  Rural  8  Implications of the Study  II.  ..  9  Limitations o f the Study  10  Overview of the Study  11  REVTEw~ OF L3TERATTJRE  12  Developmental Theories of Vocational Choice  12  History of Developmental Theories  12  Major Theorists  15  Ginzberg  13  Super  15  Tiedeman  18  Other Developmental Theorists  21  Career Maturity  22  Major Studies Related to Career Maturity  25  Career Pattern Study  25  Readiness f o r Vocational Planning  27  Vocational Development Project . . . . . . .  28  Variables Influencing Career Maturity  31  V  CHAPTER  PAGE 32  Personality Intelligence  32  •  32  Self-Concept Socioeconomic S t a t u s  . . . . . . . . . . .  Ethnicity  33  School C u r r i c u l u m  34  E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment  34  Counselling  35  Sex  35  Location  35  •  36  F o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e Study Hypotheses • • III.  •  3&  •  39  METHODOLOGY OF THE THESIS RESEARCH Overview  39  Research Design  39  Sample  39  Demographic Study o f S c h o o l s T e s t i n g Instruments  . . .  . . . . . . . .  . . . . .  40  . . . .  41 42  Career M a t u r i t y Inventory A t t i t u d e Scale C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y Competence T e s t Student  Data A n a l y s i s  •  42 44  Questionnaire  44  T e s t i n g and Data C o l l e c t i o n  IV.  33  •  44  RESULTS AM) DISCUSSION  46  Comparison o f Urban and R u r a l C a r e e r M a t u r i t y  46  Comparison o f Urban and R u r a l O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n . • 48  vi CHAPTER  PAGE 50  Comparison of Male and Female Career Maturity Comparison of Male and Female Occupational Information  •  52  •  52  Relationship of Career Maturity and Occupational Information Analysis of Responses to Items i n the CMI Occupation 55  Information Test Comparison with Norms . . . . . . . V.  .  55  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  60  Overview and Summary of Results  60  Implications of the Study  63  Suggestions f o r Future Research  67  REFERENCES  6$  APPENDIX A. A MODEL OF CAREER MATURITY IN ADOLESCENCE . .  76  APPENDIX B. SCHOOL DISTRICTS WITH OVER 15% OF LABOUR FORCE INVOLVED IN PRIMARY INDUSTRY  77  APPENDIX C. STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE  78  APPENDIX D. SAMPLE OF LETTER OF REQUEST TO SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS  79  APPENDIX E. RESPONSE HIGHLIGHTS OF STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE  81  vii LIST OP TABLES  Tables I  II  III  IV  V  VI  VII VIII  Description  Page  MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, Al© ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE.CAREER MATURITY HWENTORY,. . ATTITUDE SCALE  47  MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE CAREER MATURITY DIVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION' TEST  49  MEANS, VARIANCES, Al© STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER Al© LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE  51  MEANS, VARIANCES, AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  53  PEARSON R CORRELATIONS BET/WEEN THE ATTITUDE SCALE AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST OF THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY  54  COMPARISON OF CORRECT RESPONSES BY GENDER AND LOCATION FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  56  COMPARISON WITH GRADE NINE NORMS FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY ATTITUDE SCALE  57  COMPARISON WITH OTHER GRADE NORMS FOR THE CAREER MATURITY niVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORI'IATION TEST  59  viii  ACKNWLEDGEMEOTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my thanks t o t h o s e p e o p l e who h e l p e d make comp l e t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . My c h a i r m a n , D r . W i l l i a m Borgen, f o r h i s encouragement and assistance. The  t h e s i s committee, D r . C a r l C h i k o , and D r . H a r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r  their constructive  suggestions.  Dr. Todd Rogers and Mr. F r a n k Ho f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n computer work. Joan P e t e r s f o r t h e e x c e l l e n t j o b done i n t y p i n g t h e t h e s i s . Rose a n d C h r i s t o p h e r f o r t h e i r l o v e and encouragement.  1x  w i t h a n d  l o v e  t o  R o s e  C h r i s t o p h e r  CHAPTER I  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Study S i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e concept o f v o c a t i o n a l o r c a r e e r development has undergone a g r e a t d e a l o f change.  Theories of i n d i v i d u a l  d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y p r e s e n t e d b y s u c h w e l l known t h e o r i s t s a s Mkslow (1954) and E r i k s o n (1963) have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a r e e r development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a o f c a r e e r c h o i c e .  Former  s i m p l i s t i c v i e w s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e , a l t h o u g h perhaps adequate i n t h e p a s t , a r e no l o n g e r a c c e p t a b l e i n o u r h i g h l y complex, m o b i l e s o c i e t y .  Career  c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s who a t t e m p t e d t o match a p e r s o n ' s o v e r t a p t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a job' now v i e w t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a c a r e e r i n a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t way. e x i s t e n c e must be u n d e r s t o o d , a p e r s o n does, b u t h i s t o t a l  A l l f a c e t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  f o r a c a r e e r encompasses n o t o n l y t h e work lifestyle.  I n t h e p a s t , c a r e e r c h o i c e was deemed t o c o n s i s t o f a d e c i s i o n t a k e n at a p o i n t i n t i m e .  L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l  nature o f t h i s concept.  C u r r e n t t h e o r i s t s s u c h as G i n z b u r g ,  Super,  C r i t e s , and o t h e r s emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n w h i c h a p e r s o n i n t e g r a t e s t h e sum o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e s . C r i t e s (1969) c o n c e p t u a l i z e s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f an o c c u p a t i o n as b e i n g composed o f a s e r i e s o f events o r a c t s w h i c h o c c u r o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e period o f time.  The p r o c e s s u s u a l l y encompasses t h e t e n y e a r s f r o m t h e  end o f c h i l d h o o d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f y o u t h and l a r g e l y t e r m i n a t e s when a p e r s o n e n t e r s an o c c u p a t i o n .  Career c h o i c e development i s e s s e n t i a l l y  c o n t i n u o u s and l a r g e l y i r r e v e r s i b l e . The  i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o p e r l y sequenced a n d o r d e r l y c a r e e r c h o i c e  development, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , has been 1  2 emphasized by many r e s e a r c h e r s *  R e s u l t s o f poor career choice  develop-  ment a r e e v i d e n c e d b y t h e l a r g e number o f a d u l t s who a r e i n h e r e n t l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s .  Those p e r s o n s i n  many c a s e s must seek p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c a r e e r crises.  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y t h e c h o i c e p r o c e s s g e n e r a l l y encompasses  adolescence  and young a d u l t h o o d .  In order to underline the f a c t that  some p e o p l e make more r e a l i s t i c and s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e s t h a n o t h e r s , Super (1957) i n t r o d u c e d t h e concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y .  Crites  (196*5)  f u r t h e r expanded t h i s concept and i n t r o d u c e d s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t s t o q u a n t i f y c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and r a t e p e o p l e o n t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l continuum. Chapter I I w i l l d e a l f u r t h e r w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f t h i s c o n cept and r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . D e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o u r s e and c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e w h i c h a r e f o r c e d on c h i l d r e n a t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s (Super and O v e r s t r e e t , I960).  It i s  g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l aged s t u d e n t s have n o t been p r e p a r e d t o make such d e c i s i o n s ( B a r t l e t t , 1971)•  Even a t t h e s e n i o r  h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% o f s t u d e n t s a r e u n d e c i d e d about t h e i r f u t u r e occupations; a s i m i l a r percentage a r e u n r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r c h o i c e s ( C r i t e s , 1969)*  Westbrook (1976) r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y o f n i n t h  grade s t u d e n t s t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s making a p p r o p r i a t e ( d e f i n e d a s a h i g h degree o f agreement between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n e r a l a b i l i t y l e v e l , i n t e r e s t l e v e l i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f work, and t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e ) c a r e e r c h o i c e s were f o u n d t o be more c a r e e r mature t h a n t h o s e who d i d n o t . Campbell and Parsons (1972) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l y e a r s a r e c l e a r l y a time o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , and have major consequences f o r the students' future plans.  E r i k s o n (1963) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e  3  junior high school years are the beginning of development of a more s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t y which i n turn influences vocational i d e n t i t y and subsequent development.  The most c r i t i c a l vocational behavior at the junior  high school l e v e l , according to Super and Overstreet (i960-) and confirmed by Gribbons and Lohnes (1968), i s the readiness f o r vocational planning and looking ahead.  Those students who display mature vocational behavior  i n e v i t a b l y cope successfully with vocational tasks as young adults. That i s not to say that they have to implement career choices at that time, but they must possess appropriate a t t i t u d i n a l maturity f o r t h i s stage of development.  The student- must be aware that he w i l l eventually be  forced to make a decision concerning h i s future and should start exp l o r i n g occupations, asking questions, and planning ahead. Super and Overstreet (i960) state that grade nine students are at that stage of personal development when they are w i l l i n g to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making t h e i r own plans and choices.  However, studies  have shown that the t y p i c a l ninth-grader does not understand himself nor h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s as well as he should, and question h i s a b i l i t y to choose between l e v e l s and f i e l d s of endeavor as r e f l e c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s open to him.  Super and Overstreet add that at t h i s  stage of development when adolescents are beginning to be c a l l e d upon to make a series of prevocational and vocational choices, they need experiences which help them to develop better self-understanding and self-acceptance.  They also need a general framework of occupational  information as well as the knowledge of how to f i t into that framework. In spite of the overwhelming evidence that properly sequenced career development i s c r u c i a l i n the junior high school years, counselling has not been given the required emphasis*  It i s the opinion of the author  4  that school counselling that does occur, is that of a crisis nature. Career exploration programs and the dispensing of occupational information have not yet been developed to a sophisticated level; career counselling has the appearance of a reluctant band aid treatment.  Most  of the students that the researcher has been in contact with, had selected courses and curricula with l i t t l e or no prior discussion with either parents, teachers, or counsellors. Dissatisfaction with school, boredom, and future career floundering are largely the inevitable results. As Miller (1964) has pointed out, the junior high school years show early manifestations of potential dropout behaviors such as alienation toward school, poor academic performance, delinquency, and general behavior problems. Frequently those who are handicapped in their educationalvocational development represent future national problems. A large percentage of those unemployed are between the ages of 16 and 24« Those individuals, for the greater part, are not in possession of marketable skills, perhaps a result of lack of planning and counselling during their early high school years. Students at the exploration stage of development encompass the whole spectrum of career maturity.  Some are able to make meaningful preliminary  decisions, particularly those who were raised in culturally and educationally stimulating environments. Others, perhaps the majority, are not prepared to make such decisions. Nature of the Problem It appears then, that there is evidence to suggest that students at the junior high school level who are more career mature than their peers are better able to make realistic and thoughtful occupational decisions. The literature (reviewed in detail in Chapter Ii) reveals a plethora  5  of v a r i a b l e s that are p r e d i c t o r s o f career maturity.  Studies o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s i n t e l l i g e n c e , socioeconomic  status,  geographical l o c a t i o n , sex, p e r s o n a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , e t h n i c o r i g i n , and s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , have produced mixed and i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f u r b a n and r u r a l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e has  shown t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n has n o t been e x t e n s i v e l y studied.  Super and O v e r s t r e e t ' s (i960) i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d no s t a t i s -  t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y scores o f r u r a l and urban students.  However, t h e i r r u r a l sample i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s who were  d a i l y commuters t o a n u r b a n s c h o o l , arid t h e y d i d n o t a p p e a r t o have been subjected to the i s o l a t i o n , l a c k o f information, l a c k o f a v a r i e t y o f r o l e models g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r u r a l s t u d e n t s .  Other s t u d i e s  ( A s b u r y , 1968; Campbell and P a r s o n s , 1972) f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e socioeconimc  d i f f e r e n c e s . They compared r u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e d  urban non-disadvantaged students.  No c o m p a r a t i v e  v o l v i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f socioeconomic  students  with  urban/rural studies i n -  l e v e l s have been p e r f o r m e d , t o  t h e b e s t knowledge o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . S i m i l a r l y , the question o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n regard t o career m a t u r i t y has n o t been r e s o l v e d .  A l t h o u g h C r i t e s (1976), i n h i s r e c e n t  longitudinal  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between boys a n d g i r l s o n t h i s d i m e n s i o n , he does n o t appear t o have g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e v e r y r e c e n t s o c i a l changes w h i c h c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o women's arguments f o r equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e w o r k p l a c e .  The r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e i n o c c u p a t i o n s  open t o women may have a l t e r e d t h e s t a t u s quo. Of e q u a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e p a r t t h a t knowledge o f  6  occupations p l a y s i n the l e v e l o f career m a t u r i t y .  Crites  (1969)  states  t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s one o f t h e i n d i c e s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . JLh 1963, Nelson r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who  showed more knowledge about  o c c u p a t i o n s tended t o be from h i g h e r socioeconomic grade l e v e l s , and from u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t s .  l e v e l s , i n the higher  P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t as a method  o f l e a r n i n g seemed t o have produced t h e g r e a t e s t d e p t h o f about o c c u p a t i o n s .  understanding  Wehrly (1973) noted t h a t s i n c e l e a r n i n g about  o c c u p a t i o n s i s g a i n e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , u r b a n c h i l d r e n would have g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c q u i r e t h i s knowledge.  Vicarious learning  t h r o u g h books and t h e media i s a l s o a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  But  Wehrly (l973)> L i f t o n (1959) and A r b u c k l e (1963) p o i n t o u t , t h e s e  as sources  f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t , p r e s e n t an u n r e a l and d i s t o r t e d viev; o f o c c u p a t i o n s . In v i e w o f the tremendous p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n w h i c h  now  o f f e r s as g r e a t a v a r i e t y t o r u r a l coimnunities as t o u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s , i t i s not f u l l y known t o what e x t e n t t h i s phenomenon has a l t e r e d t h e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge i n d i v e r s e g e o g r a p h i c a l  areas.  Purpose o f t h e Study The l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s a u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r o f s u c c e s s i n making a r e a l i s t i c and a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t i n c o m p l e t e and i n c o n c l u s i v e d a t a  on  many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y geog r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and s e x . d u c t e d i n Canada.  Pew,  i f any i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been c o n -  To t h i s end, a s t u d y was f o r m u l a t e d t o compare t h e  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f u r b a n , r u r a l , m a l e , and f e m a l e grade n i n e s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  S p e c i f i c a l l y t h r e e major o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h  can be o u t l i n e d :  ( a ) t o compare t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f r u r a l  and u r b a n g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s , (b) t o compare t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r  7  m a t u r i t y o f f e m a l e and male s t u d e n t s w i t h i n and a c r o s s u r b a n and e n v i r o n m e n t s , and  rural  ( c ) to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o c c u p a t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and t h e e f f e c t o f  geographical  l o c a t i o n on o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , s e v e r a l terms have been mentioned whose d e f i n i t i o n should f a c i l i t a t e  understanding  of the nature of the  study.  These d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w . Yo c a t i o n / C a r e e r U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l terms " v o c a t i o n " and " v o c a t i o n a l " have been u s e d q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n l i t e r a t u r e .  However, t h e s p e c i a l i z e d  meanings commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e terms ( s u c h as jolt, p r o f e s s i o n ) had a tendency t o m i n i m i z e t h e p r o c e s s a s p e c t o f human development. t h e term " c a r e e r " has been g i v e n r e c e n t prominence. v i d e s an a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f b o t h t e r m s . succession of occupations  Thus  T o l b e r t (1974) p r o -  Career r e f e r s to the  i n w h i c h one engages i n a l i f e t i m e , whereas  v o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a s p e c i f i c work r o l e .  The  t e r m development i t s e l f  i n d i c a t e s evolvement and change due t o v a r i o u s changeable economic, s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  l h viev; o f t h e c u r r e n t u s a g e , t h e  study w i l l employ t h e term c a r e e r u n l e s s r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e term v o c a t i o n ( a l ) has been u s e d . Career M a t u r i t y T h i s c o n s t r u c t has been d e f i n e d by C r i t e s (1969) as r e f e r r i n g t o t h e m a t u r i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r as i n d i c a t e d by t h e  similarity  between h i s b e h a v i o r and t h a t o f t h e o l d e s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i s mental stage.  develop-  I n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f  (a) A t t i t u d e s and  (b) Competencies.  A t t i t u d i n a l measures i n c l u d e  8  s u c h c l u s t e r s as ( a ) Involvement i n t h e c h o i c e p r o c e s s , (h) O r i e n t a t i o n towards work, ( c ) Independence i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , c h o i c e f a c t o r s , and  (d) P r e f e r e n c e f o r  (e) Conceptions of choice process.  The  Competency  d i m e n s i o n i s made up o f t h o s e c o g n i t i v e o r ego f u n c t i o n s w h i c h i n v o l v e such processes  as p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  i n decision-making,  p l a n n i n g , knowledge  o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s e l f - a p p r a i s a l , and g o a l s e l e c t i o n . R e s e a r c h has  shown t h a t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h age and g r a d e .  Occupational  Information  Hoppock (1967) d e f i n e s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as meaning any a l l k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g any p o s i t i o n , j o b , o r  occupation,  p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o a p e r s o n who c h o o s i n g an  and  is  occupation.  i & p l o r a t i o n Stage The  E x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e o f development i s one o f f o u r l i f e  i d e n t i f i e d by Super (l957)»  stages  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , r o l e  t r y - o u t , o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n s c h o o l , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and p a r t t i m e work.  This stage begins approximately  approximately  a t age 24*  a t age 15 and  terminates  I t i s f o l l o w e d by t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t  stage.  Urban P o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , u r b a n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d , i n c o r p o r a t e d community o f more t h a n 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n and p o s s e s s i n g a d i v e r s e i n d u s t r i a l b a s e . f o r c e i s employed i n p r i m a r y  L e s s t h a n 15%  of the  labour  industries.  Rural There appear t o be no adequate d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e term " r u r a l " i n literature. fusing.  The d e f i n i t i o n o f r u r a l i n census l i t e r a t u r e i s e q u a l l y c o n -  R u r a l has d i f f e r e n t meanings when v i e w e d h i s t o r i c a l l y ,  9  s t a t i s t i c a l l y , o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y (Warren, 1977)'  F o r the purposes o f  t h i s s t u d y , a d e f i n i t i o n o f r u r a l has been f o r m u l a t e d criteria:  1.  based o n two  Percentage o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s  such as m i n i n g , l o g g i n g , f i s h i n g , and a g r i c u l t u r e . 2. b i l i t y t o a l a r g e urban centre.  Base o f a c c e s s i -  The p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n  t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n v o l v e d i n p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s r a n g e s f r o m a h i g h o f 33% t o a l o w o f 1.7%.  Prom a knowledge  o f B r i t i s h Columbia geography and f o r p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r chose a f i g u r e o f 15% ( l a b o u r f o r c e i n p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y ) t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e r u r a l from urban.  Appendix B, page 77 enumerates B.C.  S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s w i t h 15% o r more o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e engaged i n p r i m a r y industry. The c r i t e r i o n o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e has been decided  subjectively.  I t was assumed t h a t few p e o p l e would be w i l l i n g t o  commute t o work more t h a n 70 m i l e s .  Thus t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  w o u l d be employed i n a r u r a l environment. 15%  F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y t h e n , r u r a l i s d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g  o r more o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s and b e i n g more t h a n 70 m i l e s f r o m a l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e .  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Study I f t h e study i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f urban s t u d e n t s does n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t o f r u r a l s t u d e n t s , would i n d i c a t e t h a t f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n g e o g r a p h i c a l important  this  l o c a t i o n have a n  e f f e c t , s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s suggest t h a t t h e  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f u r b a n s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f r u r a l students. I f , c o n t r a r y t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s , t h e female grade nine  10  students are not more career mature than the males, i t may be assumed that recent social changes may have played a part. If the results show that a positive relationship exists between occupational information and career maturity, i t may be assumed that improved and expanded occupational literature i n elementary grades and in junior high school would significantly improve the students' a b i l i t y to choose appropriate and realistic courses and curricula. In conclusion, i f the measures used to quantify career maturity prove to be useful, these measures could be effectively used i n diagnosing and assessing counselling requirements of students at the early exploratory stage of career development. Limitations of the Study 1.  Only grade nine students were employed i n the study, which makes  generalization to other groups somewhat hazardous. 2.  Only students enrolled i n an academically as opposed to a  vocationally oriented curriculum were employed, consequently generalization to students enrolled i n other types of curricula would be hazardous. 3.  The students in the study were drawn from schools i n the Greater  Vancouver area and the Southern Interior of British Columbia, making the study specific to the areas involved.  Generalization to the whole pro-  vince should be possible but would require further investigation. 4.  The students i n this sample were not exposed to career explora-  tion programs. Consequently, generalizations from this study can only be extended to the grade nine school population which has not been exposed to such programs.  11  Overview o f t h e The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y j u s t o u t l i n e d p r o g r e s s e s as  Chapter I I c o n t a i n s  maturity.  follows*  a d e s c r i p t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l r e n d i t i o n o f  o f c a r e e r development and  theories  a revievr o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r  I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h hypotheses r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e r e v i e w o f  literature. follows.  Study  The  A d i s c u s s i o n o f the methodology employed i n t h e t h e s i s concludes w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n  study  o f the r e s u l t s o f  s t u d y w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s , and for further  research.  the  suggestions  CHAPTER I I Review o f l i t e r a t u r e R e l a t e d t o C a r e e r M a t u r i t y The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f d e v e l o p mental t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e .  I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary o f  l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and hypotheses  d e r i v e d from  this  literature. Developmental  Theories o f V o c a t i o n a l Choice  T h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e f o c u s o n a v a r i e t y o f a s p e c t s o f human development.  Herr and Cramer (1972) have c l a s s i f i e d them i n t o T r a i t - a n d -  P a c t o r o r A c t u a r i a l , D e c i s i o n T h e o r y , S o c i o l o g i c a l emphases, Psychol o g i c a l emphases, and Developmental  emphases.  c l a s s i f i e d t h e t h e o r i e s i n t o (a) Developmental,  T o l b e r t (1974) has ( b ) Needs, ( c ) Psycho-  a n a l y t i c a l , ( d ) S o c i o l o g i c a l , ( e ) D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g and E x i s t e n t i a l .  While  a l l t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , some f o s t e r p a r t i c u l a r emphases a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y .  Developmental  t h e o r i e s , f o r example, f o c u s o n developmental  s t a t e s , t a s k s o r phases,  t y p i c a l l y as aspects o f a l i f e - l o n g process.  An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s  t h e o r e t i c a l approach i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a human b e i n g i s c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g i n p s y c h o s o c i a l and c a r e e r a r e a s . p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l i f e must be c o n s i d e r e d .  A l l phases o f h i s p a s t , Of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e environment on h i s development. based on a s p e c t s o f developmental  Since t h i s study i s  t h e o r i e s , i t i s considered worthwhile  t o l o o k a t t h e h i s t o r y , m a j o r t h e o r i e s and t h e i r t h e o r i s t s , and v a r i o u s m a j o r and minor s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developmental  theories of  vocational choice. H i s t o r y o f Developmental  Theories  That v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s a developmental  12  process r a t h e r than a  13  c h o i c e made a t a p o i n t i n t i m e was f i r s t p o s t u l a t e d by B e u h l e r (1933)  w n  °  d e l i n e a t e d l i f e s t a g e s a c c o r d i n g t o b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t ages a t w h i c h t h e s e b e h a v i o r s were most p r o m i n e n t . stages i n t h e choice process.  She p o s t u l a t e d  several  B e u h l e r p l o t t e d l i f e s t a g e s a l o n g a n age  continuum f r o m dependence a t a n e a r l y age t o l a t e r s t a g e s marked b y independence w h i c h i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . G i n z b e r g and a s s o c i a t e s researchers  (l95l)  have been c r e d i t e d by many  f o r h a v i n g brought i n t o f o c u s t h e f a c t t h e v o c a t i o n a l  p s y c h o l o g i s t s had n o t d e v e l o p e d a sound t h e o r e t i c a l base i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e development.  Super  (1953)  agreed w i t h t h e b a s i s o f Ginzberg*s  c r i t i c i s m s o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y and v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . l i t t l e work had been done i n t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l  Very  counsellors  b e i n g "busy p r a c t i t i o n e r s a n x i o u s t o improve t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g  techniques,  t h e r e s e a r c h - m i n d e d among them d e v o t i n g what t i m e t h e y c a n t o d e v i s i n g better techniques"  (Ginzberg  et a l ,  195l)«  G i n z b e r g ' s c r i t i c i s m s gave a  much needed impetus f o r i n t e n s i f i e d r e s e a r c h i n t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l development. Major T h e o r i s t s The m a j o r t h e o r i s t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach a r e Super, G i n z b e r g , and Tiedeman.  L e s s e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e development o f t h i s  t h e o r e t i c a l approach a r e B e i l i n , F l a n a g a n , C r i t e s , and Gribbons and Lo l i n e s . Ginzberg.  G i n z b e r g i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h e development o f  v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , b a s e d o n ego f u n c t i o n s and emotions.  The f i r s t  termed " f a n t a s y " , o c c u r s a t about t h e age o f t h r e e o r f o u r .  stage,  At t h i s  stage occupations a r e s e l e c t e d by c h i l d r e n on t h e b a s i s o f " f u n c t i o n pleasure."  L i t t l e boys a r e i n t r i g u e d by b r i g h t f i r e engines o r by  14 t e l e v i s i o n p o r t r a y a l s o f cowboys o r p i r a t e s .  L i t t l e g i r l s may  be  i n t r i g u e d by t h e same " o c c u p a t i o n s " o r w i s h t o model t h e i r mothers o r female a d u l t  acquaintances.  These c h o i c e s a r e p r o d u c t s o f f a n t a s i e s , daydreams, and a d e s i r e t o grow up, r a t h e r t h a n e x p r e s s i o n s based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y .  By  t h e t e n t h o r e l e v e n t h y e a r more r e a l i s m i s brought t o b e a r , perhaps as a r e s u l t o f a b i l i t y t o cope w e l l i n s c h o o l o r i n v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r activities. choices.  At t h i s stage t h e c h i l d b e g i n s t o f o r m u l a t e t e n t a t i v e  T h i s s t a g e i s named t h e " t e n t a t i v e " s t a g e and l a s t s f r o m about  t e n y e a r s o f age t o g r a d u a t i o n f r o m h i g h s c h o o l a t 17  o r 18.  It is  marked by s h a r p e n i n g o f time p e r s p e c t i v e s , a g r e a t e r awareness o f s e l f and t h e r e a l i t y b a r r i e r s t o c h o i c e .  C h o i c e s a r e based on  self-image  w h i c h i s not y e t f i r m , and l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t r a i n i n g  and  work. F o l l o w i n g t h e t e n t a t i v e s t a g e i s t h e " r e a l i s t i c " s t a g e , where r e a l i t y p r e s s u r e s , s u c h as h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a d e c i s i o n must be made f o r t h e f u t u r e , a r e f o r c e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s t h e p e r i o d (age 17—young a d u l t h o o d ) i n w h i c h c h o i c e s a r e made. Compromises a r e n e g o t i a t e d between r e a l i t y f a c t o r s such as j o b r e q u i r e ments and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s . stage i s formed o f t h r e e sub-stagess  The  realistic  (a) E x p l o r a t i o n , i n which oppor-  t u n i t i e s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r v i r t u a l l y t h e l a s t time and o p t i o n s a r e checked o u t ; ( b ) C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t u a l l y makes a c h o i c e w h i l e compromising between r e a l i t y and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s ; and ( c ) S p e c i f i c a t i o n , where c h o i c e i s d e l i m i t e d and  the  i n d i v i d u a l becomes q u i t e s p e c i f i c w h i l e t a k i n g s t e p s t o implement h i s decision.  15  Although d u r i n g the f i r s t p o s t u l a t i o n of h i s theory  Ginzberg  s t r e s s e d t h e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e c h o i c e - p r o c e s s , he has s i n c e r e v i s e d h i s p o s i t i o n t o accommodate t h e ever q u i c k e n i n g changes i n economic and s o c i a l environments o f t h e s e v e n t i e s .  " I n s t e a d o f a more  o r l e s s f i n a l choice i n the e a r l y o r middle t w e n t i e s , the choice process i s c o e x i s t i v e w i t h a person's w o r k i n g l i f e ; he may any t i m e . " ( G i n z b e r g , 1972,.p. Super.  re-open t h e i s s u e a t  169)  D o n a l d E. Super i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e  t h e o r i s t s . o f v o c a t i o n a l development.  foremost  Drawing upon a wide r a n g e o f r e -  s e a r c h and t h e o r i e s o f development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a s o f measurement, and o c c u p a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , he p u b l i s h e d , a t h e o r y o f v o c a t i o n a l development i n  1953*  He f o c u s e d on f o u r major e l e m e n t s :  voca-  t i o n a l l i f e stages, v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , t r a n s l a t i n g the self-concept i n t o a v o c a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , and c a r e e r p a t t e r n s .  Underlying h i s  t h e o r y i s t h e concept t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r development i s one p a r t o f h i s t o t a l development.  H i s comprehensive t h e o r y i s summarized i n  a s e r i e s o f t e n p r o p o s i t i o n s (Super,  1953*  PP»  189-190)  :  1.  People d i f f e r i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t , and  2.  They a r e q u a l i f i e d , by v i r t u e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e a c h  personalities.  f o r a number o f o c c u p a t i o n s . 3»  Each o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n  o f a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , w i t h t o l e r a n c e s wide enough, however, t o a l l o v r b o t h some v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l and some v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n each o c c u p a t i o n . 4.  V o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and c o m p e t e n c i e s ,  the s i t u a t i o n s i n  w h i c h people l i v e and work, and hence t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s change w i t h  16  time and experience (although self-concepts are generally f a i r l y stable from l a t e adolescence u n t i l l a t e maturity), making choice and  adjustment  a continuous process* 5»  This process may be summed up i n a series of l i f e stages  characterized as those of growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline, and those stages may  i n turn be subdivided into (a) the  fantasy, tentative and r e a l i s t i c phases of the exploration stage, and (b) the t r i a l and stable phases of the establishment stage. 6.  The nature of the career pattern (that i s , the occupational  l e v e l and the sequence, frequency, and duration of t r i a l and stable jobs) i s determined by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s parental socioeconomic l e v e l , mental a b i l i t y , and personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and by the opportunities to which he i s exposed. 7.  Development through the l i f e stages can be guided, p a r t l y by  f a c i l i t a t i n g the process of maturation of a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , and p a r t l y by aiding i n r e a l i t y t e s t i n g and i n the development of the s e l f concept. 8.  The process of vocational development i s e s s e n t i a l l y that of  developing and implementing  a s e l f - c o n c e p t — i t i s a compromise process  i n which the self-concept i s a product of the i n t e r a c t i o n of inherited aptitudes, neural and endocrine make-up, opportunity to play various r o l e s , and evaluation of the extent to which the r e s u l t s of r o l e playing meet with the approval of superiors and fellows. 9.  The process of compromise between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s ,  between self-concept and r e a l i t y , i s one of role-playing, whether the r o l e i s played i n fantasy, i n the counselling interview, or i n real  life  a c t i v i t i e s such as school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry jobs.  17  10.  Work s a t i s f a c t i o n s and l i f e  s a t i s f a c t i o n s depend upon t h e  extent t o which the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s adequate o u t l e t s f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and v a l u e s ; t h e y depend upon h i s e s t a b l i s h ment i n a type o f work, a work s i t u a t i o n , and a way o f l i f e can p l a y the k i n d o f r o l e which h i s growth and have l e d him  t o c o n s i d e r c o n g e n i a l and  F o l l o w i n g the l e a d o f G i n z b e r g , i d e n t i f i e d four l i f e  stages:  exploratory  i n which he experiences  appropriate.  Super (1957) m o d i f i e d and f u r t h e r  ( l ) Growth, (2) E x p l o r a t i o n , (3) E s t a b l i s h -  ment, and (4) D e c l i n e . Growth ( c o n c e p t i o n — 1 4 o r 15) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the development o f the s e l f - c o n c e p t t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h key f i g u r e s a t home and s c h o o l , dominance o f needs and f a n t a s y , the i n c r e a s i n g importance o f i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and testing.  T h i s stage i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  (a) f a n t a s y (4-10),  (b) i n t e r e s t  reality  substages:  ( l l - 1 2 ) , and ( c ) c a p a c i t y (13-14) where  a b i l i t i e s a r e g i v e n more weight and j o b t r a i n i n g requirements are c o n sidered.  The i n d i v i d u a l i s now r e a d y f o r t h e n e x t  stage.  E x p l o r a t i o n (15-24) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , r o l e t r y out, occupational time work.  e x p l o r a t i o n i n s c h o o l , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and  T h i s stage a l s o c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s u b s t a g e s :  (15-17)» (b) t r a n s i t i o n  (18-21), and ( c ) t r i a l  (a) t e n t a t i v e  (22-24) where a seemingly  a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e i s made, a j o b i s o b t a i n e d and t r i e d o u t . completion  o f t h i s stage l e a d s t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t  Establishment t i o n and  s h i f t i n g u n t i l a s u i t a b l e niche i s found.  (45-64).  (a) t r i a l  Successful  Stage.  (24-64) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t r i a l , and some f l u c t u a -  d i r e c t e d at b u i l d i n g a career. stages:  part-  Energies  are  T h i s stage i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  sub-  (25-30), (b) s t a b i l i z a t i o n (31-44) and, ( c ) maintenance  18  Decline  (65-  ) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e c l i n e i n m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l  powers and work a c t i v i t y changes* Super (1963) m o d i f i e d and expanded t h e s e l i f e s t a g e s t o i n c l u d e developmental t a s k s a t each s t a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e E x p l o r a t o r y and Establishment  stages*  I n a d d i t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s , Super  d e s c r i b e d t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e v o c a t i o n a l developmental t a s k s *  He suggested t h a t t h e s e i d e n t i f i a b l e s t a g e s ,  and b e h a v i o r s c a n be u s e d i n a s s e s s i n g v o c a t i o n a l Super r e c o g n i z e d  tasks,  maturity.  t h a t v e r y l i t t l e work had been done i n t h e f i e l d  o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c r i t i c a l t i o n stage o f a person's l i f e .  Explora-  He p l a c e d more emphasis t h a n G i n z b e r g on  v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e development a s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s and c a s t i g a t e d v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s and s t u d e n t s o f human b e h a v i o r f o r s i n g u l a r l y n e g l e c t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s "as though l i f e were s t a t i c a f t e r t h e f i r s t t i m e j o b i s f o u n d " . ( S u p e r , 1957)* for  full  He a l s o c i t e d G i n z b e r g and a s s o c i a t e s  f a l l i n g i n t o t h e same t r a p o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y a s o t h e r s  i n not pro-  p e r l y e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s , n o t a moment. Super p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis t h a n G i n z b e r g o n t h e r o l e o f f a m i l y and s e l f - c o n c e p t i n v o c a t i o n a l development t h a n o n t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y t h e ego f u n c t i o n and emotions*  He c h a r a c t e r i z e d a d o l e s c e n c e as a p e r i o d o f  c u l t u r a l adaptation during which the adolescent s o c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y .  The a d o l e s c e n t  matures c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y ,  makes a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m c h i l d -  hood t o a d u l t h o o d and engages i n a p r o c e s s o f e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l f a n d t h e w o r l d o f work i n t h r e e p r i m a r y a r e a s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n :  home, s c h o o l ,  and work. Tiedeman.  D. Tiedeman i s a n o t h e r major c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e t h e o r y o f  c a r e e r c h o i c e development.  Tiedeman (Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963) r e f e r s  19  t o h i s work as t h e C a r e e r Development System, r a t h e r t h a n a  theory.  A l t h o u g h Tiedeman (l96l) c r e d i t s Super f o r h a v i n g p r o v i d e d a c l e a r o u t l i n e o f v o c a t i o n a l development and i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , he s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e r e remains an o m i s s i o n , t h a t i s , an e x p l i c i t statement o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n i n v o c a t i o n a l development and  "the s t r u c t u r e o f d e c i s i o n  ( w h i c h ) must be s p e c i f i e d b e f o r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f t h e t h e o r y o f v o c a t i o n a l development can e n t e r new  phases" ( p . 15 )•  He a n a l y s e s v o c a t i o n a l  de-  velopment by e a c h o f s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o s c h o o l , work, and l i f e w h i c h a p e r s o n makes as he m a t u r e s .  He d i v i d e s t h e p r o b l e m o f  d e c i d i n g i n t o two p e r i o d s , ( a ) a p e r i o d o f a n t i c i p a t i o n — a n d (b) a p e r i o d of implementation or adjustment. Tiedeman d i s c u s s e s t h e above two o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  integration.  p e r i o d s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n terms He c o n s i d e r s t h e l o c u s o f  development t o be i n a presumably c o n t i n u o u s l y i d e n t i t y as i t i s formed f r o m e x p e r i e n c e .  differentiating  career ego  F o r a d e c i s i o n t o be made, a  p e r s o n must f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e a problem t h a t makes h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n unsatisfactory.  V a r i o u s f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d  made i n o r d e r t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . tion.  his  This i s the process of d i f f e r e n t i a -  Once t h i s c h o i c e i s made, i n t e g r a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , t h a t i s , a n  adjustment o f t h e p e r s o n w i t h t h e new choice.  and a c h o i c e must be  s i t u a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d from t h a t  I f i n t e g r a t i o n i s not s u c c e s s f u l , t h e i n d i v i d u a l must r e t h i n k  c h o i c e and r e c o n s i d e r t h e f a c t o r s t h a t f i g u r e d i n h i s d e c i s i o n .  C l o s u r e r e s u l t s when d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t s a r e p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e d .  The  d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i s formed o f s e v e r a l s t e p s w h i c h may  be r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t one's  life-  time. The phase o f a n t i c i p a t i o n o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f f o u r  steps  20  (Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963): 1.  E x p l o r a t i o n . Various goals are considered, courses of a c t i o n  a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , p r a c t i c a l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f each i s c o n s i d e r e d . 2.  Crystallization.  T h i s s t e p i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r e p a r a t i o n t o  move i n a s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n , s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , and r e a d i n e s s t o invest along desirable l i n e s . 3.  Choice.  A choice of d e c i s i o n i s a r r i v e d a t .  I t i s dependent  on t h e adequacy o f t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t l e d t o t h e c h o i c e . 4«  Clarification.  T h i s i s t h e c o n c l u d i n g phase o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  I n v o l v e d i s a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h o i c e and a r e v i e w and o f doubts and u n c e r t a i n t i e s * i n t h e new  resolution  The i n d i v i d u a l completes h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t  situation.  Implementation o r adjustment i s t h e p r o c e s s o f I n t e g r a t i o n .  It i s  made up o f t h r e e phases s 1. tion.  Induction.  I n t h i s phase t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s t h e new  situa-  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o r new group i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l  supersedes some o f t h e a s p e c t s o f 2.  Reformation.  t h e group.  and  self.  Here t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s t o r e a s s e r t h i m s e l f on  He i s not s i m p l y a r e c i p i e n t o f t h e group's demands.  He i s  accepted. 3.  I n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s o c c u r s when a b a l a n c e i s r e a c h e d between t h e  i n d i v i d u a l ' s need and t h e group's demands. w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e new  A new  self-concept i s attained  group.  A l t h o u g h Tiedeman does not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e l i n e a t e l i f e s t a g e s i n h i s p r o b l e m s o l v i n g schema, he r e l i e s h e a v i l y on E r i k s o n ' s (1959) s t a g e s o f ego i d e n t i t y .  These ego development s t a g e s seem t o p a r a l l e l t h e c a r e e r  s t a g e s as f o r m u l a t e d by Super.  Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963) l i s t  the  21  d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s at which point decision-making becomes necessary: 1.  Selection o f part-time  employment while i n school and a f t e r -  wards , 2.  Selection of school subjects to be taken i n junior high school,  3»  Selection of subjects to be taken i n high school,  4»  Selection of college,  5.  Selection of program of study at c o l l e g e ,  6.  Selection o f a graduate school,  7»  Selection of f i r s t f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n ,  8.  Selection of another p o s i t i o n when d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r i s e s over  a former p o s i t i o n , and 9»  Retirement.  Tiedeman has, however, omitted several very relevant choice points since he has obviously dealt with middle or upper c l a s s college-bound population.  The omissions that e f f e c t a large segment of population  (the  lower middle and lower c l a s s ) would include such d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s as (a) whether to drop out or continue to adopt a trade, (b) whether to get married or continue i n school.  These d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are obviously only  a very few of many, but surely must confront a large number of i n d i v i d u a l s Other Developmental Theorists Beilen (1955) and Samler (1953) are considered by Tolbert (1974) to be two other major contributors to the theory of vocational development. Beilen c l a r i f i e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between vocational choice and vocational development and suggested that both concepts are needed i n the study of vocational behavior.  According to B e i l i n (1955) the d i s t i n c t i o n between  vocational choice and vocational development i s temporal i n nature; the former r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c action taken at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n time,  22  whereas t h e l a t t e r r e f e r s t o a n o n g o i n g p r o c e s s *  He, l i k e Super and  G i n z b e r g , r e l a t e d g e n e r a l development c o n c e p t s , such a s c o n t i n u i t y , i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y , and i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y t o v o c a t i o n a l development theory. Joseph S a m l e r , a v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i s t , a l s o emphasized t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r and s e l f - c o n c e p t practical  interview setting.  He s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r  i n the  occupational  i n f o r m a t i o n t o promote v o c a t i o n a l development and c h o i c e , a s w e l l a s t h e occupational  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t conveys t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l  c l i m a t e and p r e s s u r e s  o f work and t h e n a t u r e o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g  i n the future. Career Maturity 3h c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f development o f v o c a t i o n a l  choice  ( w h i c h Super d e s c r i b e d a s a s e r i e s o f c h o i c e s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s n a r r o w i n g down t o a n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ) Super brought i n t h e concept o f v o c a t i o n a l  maturity.  One o f t h e n e c e s s a r y and l o g i c a l outcomes, b o t h e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , o f t h e developmental t h e o r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s the concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y .  As a p e r s o n grows p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and  p s y c h o s o c i a l l y , he a l s o matures i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l s e n s e , i . e . i n t h e a b i l i t y t o make independent d e c i s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f and p l a n ahead.  Super  (l957) s t a t e s t h a t one o f t h e f a i l u r e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y had been t h e f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f other types o f maturity, emotional, He was i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n developing  i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l . .  t h e concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y when  he f o u n d t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n o f i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r a m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d y , t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study (Super and O v e r s t r e e t , i960).  He needed  23  a b a s i s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a y a r d s t i c k a g a i n s t w h i c h t o measure v o c a t i o n a l development, and as a g u i d e f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f d a t a w h i c h can be s c a l e d f o r i t s measurement.  Super d e f i n e d v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n terms o f  t y p e s o f b e h a v i o r and u s e d t h e term t o "denote t h e degree o f development, t h e p l a c e r e a c h e d on t h e continuum o f v o c a t i o n a l development f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n t o d e c l i n e " . ( S u p e r , 1957,  p.  186).  He d e s c r i b e d v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y as " v o c a t i o n a l age", s i m i l a r t o mental age  i n e a r l y adolescence  conceptually  ( a s i n t h e measurement o f  i n t e l l i g e n c e ) but p r a c t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e  and e a r l y  a d u l t h o o d because more d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made i n t h e development c u r v e at l a t e r s t a g e s o f development.  He s t a t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y can  a l s o be d e s c r i b e d b o t h i n terms o f t h e g r o s s u n i t s o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the l i f e  s t a g e s , and i n terms o f s m a l l e r and more r e f i n e d  u n i t s o f behavior manifested i n coping w i t h the developmental tasks o f a given l i f e  stage.  Super (l957) suggested  f i v e b a s i c dimensions o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y .  These d i m e n s i o n s p r i m a r i l y r e f e r r e d t o b e h a v i o r o f a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e E x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e o f development.  However, as Super p o i n t e d o u t , t h e s e  dimensions c a n be u s e d i n v a r y i n g degrees f o r p e o p l e i n t h e  establishment,  and d e c l i n e s t a g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when we c o n s i d e r t h e c r i s i s p o i n t s i n c a r e e r s t h r o u g h o u t a l i f e t i m e , such as j o b c h a n g e s , d i s a p p e a r a n c e t r a d e s , and p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t d e c i s i o n s .  of  These dimensions a r e as f o l l o w s !  1.  O r i e n t a t i o n to v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e ,  2.  I n f o r m a t i o n and  3.  Consistency of v o c a t i o n a l preferences,  4.  C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of t r a i t s ,  5«  Wisdom o f v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s .  Planning,  and  24 As a r e s u l t o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y were m o d i f i e d , r e f i n e d , and p a r c e l l e d i n t o i n d i c e s .  Super a n d  O v e r s t r e e t ( i 9 6 0 ) have o u t l i n e d t h e s e as l i s t e d below: Dimension I  Orientation to Vocational  IA  Concern w i t h C h o i c e .  IB  Use o f R e s o u r c e s .  Dimension I I  Choice.  I n f o r m a t i o n and P l a n n i n g .  IIA  S p e c i f i c i t y o f Information.  IIB  S p e c i f i c i t y of Planning.  IJJC  Extent of Planning A c t i v i t y .  Dimension I I I  Consistency o f Vocational Preferences*  IIIA  C o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n F i e l d s * (Roe, 1956)  IIIB  Consistency w i t h i n Levels*  IIIC  Consistency w i t h i n F a m i l i e s .  Dimension I V  Crystallization of Traits.  IVA  Patterning of Interests.  IVJ3  Interest Maturity.  IVC  L i k i n g f o r Work.  IVD  P a t t e r n i n g o f Work V a l u e s .  PTE  D i s c u s s i o n o f Rewards o f Work.  IVF  Acceptance o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Dimension V VA Dimension V I  Vocational  Independence.  Independence o f Work E x p e r i e n c e . Wisdom o f V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e s .  VIA  Agreement:  A b i l i t y and P r e f e r e n c e .  VTB  Agreement:  I n t e r e s t s and P r e f e r e n c e .  VIC  Agreement:  I n t e r e s t and F a n t a s y P r e f e r e n c e .  25  VXD  Agreement:  L e v e l o f I n t e r e s t s and  VIE  Socioeconomic A c c e s s i b i l i t y .  Preference.  Major S t u d i e s B e l a t e d t o C a r e e r M a t u r i t y The  concept o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y has undergone a g r e a t d e a l o f  r e s e a r c h s i n c e i t s f i r s t f o r m u l a t i o n by Super. m o d i f i c a t i o n has come about as a consequence.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f Major r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s by  John C r i t e s ( V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t ) , Gribbons and  Iohnes  (Readiness f o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) , and Super ( C a r e e r P a t t e r n S t u d y ) have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h i s phenomenon.  t h r e e major s t u d i e s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  These  of  the  concept o f C a r e e r M a t u r i t y a r e r e v i e w e d below. C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study Most o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n v o c a t i o n a l development p r i o r t o t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study ( e . g . G i n z b e r g ) had been c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n n a t u r e .  Super  saw t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n such s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d o f  career  development, and i n i t i a t e d a 20 y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y i n 1950-51 o n 142 boys who  were i n t h e i r n i n t h g r a d e w i t h a v i e w t o s t u d y i n g  development i n t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t  their  s t a g e a t around age 35•  Super s e l e c t e d h i s sample f r o m M i d d l e t o w n , New because he f e l t t h e community and s c h o o l systems had  Y o r k , presumably characteristics  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l a r g e segment o f A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e and t h u s would a l l o w c o n s i d e r a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be made f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s (Osipow,  1973). Super and O v e r s t r e e t e n t i t l e d "The  (i960) produced t h e f i r s t m a j o r monograph  V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y o f N i n t h Grade Boys" as p a r t o f  C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study.  As a r e s u l t o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , t h e  the  construct  o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y underwent some m o d i f i c a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t  26  refers to early adolescence.  Several indices were found to be inadequate  f o r that stage of development.  These were consistency of Vocational  Preferences, C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of T r a i t s (such as vocational i n t e r e s t s and attitudes toward work), Vocational Independence, and Wisdom o f Vocational Preferences  (as judged by a b i l i t i e s , measured i n t e r e s t s , and socio-  economic a c c e s s i b i l i t y ) .  Although these indices may be important i n  other respects, such as p r e d i c t i o n of success, or may become s i g n i f i c a n t at l a t e r stages of development, Super sees them as unrelated to vocational maturity i n grade nine. Tolbert (1974) summarized the findings of the Career Pattern Study by the following observations: A.  The vocational maturity of ninth-grade boys i s characterized by;  1.  An awareness of the need to make vocational and educational  choices• 2.  An acceptance of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making plans and  decisions• 3.  Some planning and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n information-getting a c t i v i -  4»  A lack of readiness to decide upon s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n or  ties.  occupation. 5.  lack of knowledge about work and t r a i n i n g opportunities, f a i l u r e  to u t i l i z e resources to obtain information, and l i t t l e B.  self-understanding.  Phenomena that tend to predict l a t e r occupational success ( i n  terms of e f f e c t i v e coping behaviors such as " t r i a l " ,  "instrumental", and  "establishing" are: 1.  Occupational  information i n the ninth and twelfth grades.  2.  Planning i n the ninth and twelfth grades.  27  3«  I n t e r e s t m a t u r i t y ( a s measured b y t h e S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t  B l a n k ) i n t h e n i n t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e s . 4«  C o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p u p i l ' s a b i l i t i e s and t h o s e r e q u i r e d b y  t h e o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g r a d e t w e l v e . 5.  I n f o r m a t i o n about t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p r e f e r r e d  o c c u p a t i o n i n grade t w e l v e . 6.  S e v e r a l " c o n v e n t i o n a l " s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s such a s p a r e n t a l s o c i o -  economic l e v e l , s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , g r a d e s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l and community s e r v i c e s . 7»  Awareness o f c h o i c e s t o be made, i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d , and t h e  p l a n n i n g t o be done, i n b o t h n i n t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e s . R e a d i n e s s f o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g (RVP) G r i b b o n s and I o h n e s , s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study r e s e a r c h on v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , i n i t i a t e d a s i m i l a r s t u d y i n 1958, s h o r t e r a n d more r e s t r i c t e d i n scope. vocational planning.  T h e i r p r i m a r y f o c u s was on r e a d i n e s s f o r  This t e n year study f o l l o w e d t h e progress o f a  s o c i e t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f 110 boys and g i r l s f r o m g r a d e n i n e .  Since a  measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y was needed, Gribbons and Iohnes (1968) developed a semi-structured i n t e r v i e w schedule which c o n s i s t e d o f t h e following scales* 1.  The f a c t o r s i n c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e , i n c l u d i n g knowledge o f  a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and v a l u e s i n r e l a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m ; c o u r s e s i n various c u r r i c u l a ; r e l a t i o n of curriculum choice to occupational choice. 2.  The f a c t o r s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a b i l i t i e s and  i n f o r m a t i o n about 3.  occupations.  A b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, and t o r e l a t e  them t o e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s .  28  4»  A c c u r a c y i n e s t i m a t i n g a b i l i t i e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  on academic a b i l i t y t e s t  scores.  5.  Adequacy o f t h e e v i d e n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l u s e s i n s e l f - r a t i n g s .  6.  Awareness o f i n t e r e s t s , and how t h e y r e l a t e t o o c c u p a t i o n a l  choice. 7.  Awareness o f v a l u e s , and how t h e y r e l a t e t o v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e .  The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t i e s o f t h e EVP v a r i a b l e s a g a i n s t c r i t e r i a o f c a r e e r a d j u s t m e n t .  The i n v e s t i -  g a t o r s f o u n d t h a t EVP s c o r e s c o l l e c t e d i n g r a d e 8 appear t o have a s much p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e a s do s c o r e s o n t h e same v a r i a b l e s one and o n e - h a l f y e a r s l a t e r , when s t u d e n t s a r e t h a t much more mature and have a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . EVP  They a l s o f o u n d t h a t  s c o r e s were n o t a p p r e c i a b l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f f a m i l y ,  b u t were r e l a t e d t o t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . i n summary, e i g h t h g r a d e s c o r e s were b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s t h a n t e n t h grade s c o r e s ( a n u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t ) o f t h e e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , and post h i g h school adjustment.  career  Lack o f i n c r e a s e o f EVP s c o r e s w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  r a i s e d doubts about t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e s , c o n c e p t s , and methodology, (Super,  1969),  and C r i t e s  (19&9)  r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about t h e "low-order  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r and grade l e v e l " . V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t (VDP) A n o t h e r major l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y was t h e V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d b y John C r i t e s w h i l e he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Super's C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study.  The p r i m a r y purpose o f t h e  s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p a s t a n d a r d i z e d , e a s y - t o - u s e measure o f v o c a t i o n a l maturity.  The VDP i s r e l a t e d t o and i s b a s e d on Super's t h e o r y o f  29  c a r e e r development.  The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample u s e d f o r t h e f i r s t  round  o f t e s t i n g t h i s measure ( t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e ) c o n s i s t e d o f 2,822 s u b j e c t s who were about e q u a l l y d i v i d e d by sex and i n g r a d e s 5 t h r o u g h 12 o f t h e Cedar R a p i d s , Iowa s c h o o l system.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s c i t y a t t h e  t i m e o f i n i t i a l t e s t i n g was 92,000.  I t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i r l y  d i v e r s i f i e d economy, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( C r i t e s , 1 9 7 l ) « C r i t e s (1965) r e v i s e d Super's d e f i n i t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y by combining t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , O r i e n t a t i o n t o V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e , I n f o r m a t i o n and P l a n n i n g , and C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f T r a i t s i n t o two dimens i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e domains: V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e A t t i t u d e s and V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e Competencies.  lie d e l e t e d t h e  V o c a t i o n a l Independence d i m e n s i o n , but k e p t C o n s i s t e n c y o f V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e s and Wisdom o f V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a model o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n a d o l e s c e n c e . C r i t e s ' model o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y (1965) i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l model organized according to f o u r dimensions:  Consistency o f Career Choices,  R e a l i s m o f C a r e e r C h o i c e s , C a r e e r C h o i c e Competencies,  and C a r e e r C h o i c e  Attitudes.  Consistency of  Each d i m e n s i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i a b l e s .  C a r e e r C h o i c e s i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o Time, F i e l d , and L e v e l .  Realism of  C a r e e r C h o i c e s i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o A b i l i t i e s , I n t e r e s t s , P e r s o n a l i t y , and S o c i a l C l a s s , w h i l e C a r e e r C h o i c e Competencies  a r e grouped by  Problem-  S o l v i n g , P l a n n i n g , O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n , S e l f - A p p r a i s a l , and Goal Selection.  Career Choice A t t i t u d e s i n c l u d e Involvement,  Independence, P r e f e r e n c e , and C o n c e p t i o n .  Orientation,  Appendix A, p. 76 , shows a  g r a p h i c p o r t r a y a l o f t h e model o f C a r e e r M a t u r i t y . To d a t e C r i t e s has d e v e l o p e d s c a l e s t o measure two  dimensions,  V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e A t t i t u d e s and V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e Competencies.  These  30  s c a l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  at greater length i n the section e n t i t l e d  Measurement. One o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t was t h e development o f an e a s y - t o - u s e i n v e n t o r y f o r t h e measure o f a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s i n v o c a t i o n a l development s u i t a b l e f o r g r a d e 5 t o 12, and a l s o u s a b l e w i t h c o l l e g e s e n i o r s . ( T o l b e r t , 1974)*  R e s e a r c h w i t h t h e Voca-  t i o n a l Development I n v e n t o r y (VDl) A t t i t u d e S c a l e r e s u l t e d i n some interesting findings.  C u r r i c u l a r groups a t t h e same e d u c a t i o n a l  level  d i f f e r e d i n the maturity o f t h e i r vocational choice a t t i t u d e s , with the s t u d e n t s i n t h e more v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a b e i n g l e s s mature than others.  Adolescents from l e s s favoured socioeconomic circumstances  and m i n o r i t y e t h n i c and r a c i a l groups were l e s s v o c a t i o n a l l y mature. V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y was r e l a t e d t o v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and r e a d i n e s s  f o r vocational planning.  Vocational maturity  was  not r e l a t e d t o s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l , number o f s i b l i n g s , o r p r e v i o u s work e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l .  Low t o moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a -  t i o n s were r e v e a l e d on i n t e l l e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as I.Q» a n d Scholastic Aptitude t e s t s .  The more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature were more t a s k -  o r i e n t e d and b e t t e r a d j u s t e d .  Mixed c o n c l u s i o n s  were drawn  t h e e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g on v o c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y ,  regarding although  C r i t e s s t a t e s t h a t some r e l i a b l e e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o s u p p o r t t h e assumpt i o n t h a t b o t h group and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p i n c r e a s e of vocational a t t i t u d e s .  maturity  A c o l l e g e o r i e n t a t i o n program r e s u l t e d i n  marked g a i n s , whereas an o c c u p a t i o n s c o u r s e and l i f e c a r e e r game d i d n o t ( C r i t e s , 1971). A major c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s t u d i e s j u s t d i s c u s s e d of sampling.  appears t o be t h a t  A l t h o u g h a l l t h e major s t u d i e s c l a i m e d t o u s e a c r o s s -  31  s e c t i o n o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (s.e.s«)» t h e samples were s e l e c t e d f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e , and not on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s * s e c t i o n a l sample f r o m Cedar R a p i d s ,  Iowa i n C r i t e s  same as a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample f r o m New  C e r t a i n l y , the c r o s s 1  York C i t y .  s t u d y i s not  the  In order to  counter  t h i s c r i t i c i s m C r i t e s (1973) cautions the researcher u s i n g h i s t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t t h e norms a r e not n a t i o n a l , and t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s a d v i s e d t o d e v e l o p norms f o r h i s own  area.  Super's sample (Super and  O v e r s t r e e t , i960) i n v o l v e d o n l y boys s e l e c t e d a t the g r a d e n i n e l e v e l i n t h e mid s i z e d community (40,000) o f M i d d l e t o w n , New easy d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s .  York, which i s w i t h i n  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from these  samples appear t o be l i m i t e d by v i r t u e o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s .  V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g Career  Maturity  A review of l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that a great deal of research been u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e f i e l d o f c a r e e r development o f a d o l e s c e n t s young a d u l t s .  has  and  In t h e m a i n , t h i s r e s e a r c h has y i e l d e d c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t i n g \weaknesses i n e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o r measures, o r both.  The r e s u l t s a l s o p o r t r a y t h e r e l a t i v e y o u t h o f t h e concept o f  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s and i n d i c a t e t h a t more e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s need t o be u n d e r t a k e n . nal  The  f i n a l results of longitudi-  s t u d i e s , l i k e t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study and t h e V o c a t i o n a l Development  P r o j e c t , have not been p u b l i s h e d t o d a t e . some o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s .  Presumably t h e s e w i l l r e s o l v e  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l attempt t o summarize  the r e s u l t s o f v a r i o u s s t u d i e s d e s c r i b i n g the e f f e c t s of v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s e l f - c o n c e p t , s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , e t h n i c i t y , school c u r r i c u l u m , c o u n s e l l i n g , educational attainment, and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  sex,  32  Personality M a r t i n Bohn (1966) i n v e s t i g a t e d Super's c l a i m t h a t v o c a t i o n a l maturity i s related to other personality a t t r i b u t e s *  He f o u n d t h a t t h e  p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h m a t u r i t y scores (as measured by t h e I n t e r e s t M a t u r i t y S c a l e o f t h e S t r o n g "Vocational I n t e r e s t B l a n k ) were r e l a t e d t o more mature p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s measured b y t h e A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t .  The h i g h s c o r e s were f o u n d t o b e ,  on t h e a v e r a g e , more achievement o r i e n t e d , more i n d e p e n d e n t , more s o c i a b l e , more s e n s i t i v e , more p e r s u a s i v e , and l e s s prone t o be s e l f c r i t i c a l o r t o admit p e r s o n a l i t y s h o r t c o m i n g s . c o r r o b o r a t e d Bonn's f i n d i n g s and suggested  W i l l i s B a r t l e t t (1968)  that the results indicated  t h a t t h e development o f v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s analogous t o t h e d e v e l o p ment o f mature p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Intelligence S t u d i e s by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ( C r i t e s , 19^9» Lawrence and Brown, 1976} Maynard and Hansen, 1970; Super and Bohn, 1970) a l l t e n d t o a g r e e t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . Of n o t e i s Maynard and Hansen's s t u d y on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f b l a c k and w h i t e i n n e r - c i t y y o u t h and w h i t e suburban b o y s .  Although career maturity  scores d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s a l l but disappeared i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s were t a k e n i n t o  when  account.  Self-Concept Lawrence and Brown (197&) f o u n d t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t appeared t o have a d i f f e r e n t impact on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y f o r t w e l f t h g r a d e r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e r a c e and s e x o f t h e s u b j e c t .  S e l f - c o n c e p t was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r  f o r o n l y c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  suggested  t h a t i t has more v a l i d i t y f o r w h i t e males t h a n f o r f e m a l e s o r b l a c k s .  33  Jones e t a l . (1975) f o u n d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x i s t between s o c i a l c l a s s and s e l f - c o n c e p t , and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f female a d o l e s c e n t s . D i l l a r d ' s (1976) s t u d y d i d n o t support Super's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . Socioeconomic S t a t u s T h i s v a r i a b l e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y .  A l t h o u g h some r e -  s e a r c h e r s ( A n s e l l and Hansen, 1971; C r i t e s , 1965; Jones e t a l . , 1975; Super and O v e r s t r e e t , I 9 6 0 ; D i l l a r d , 1976) f o u n d t h a t  socioeconomic  s t a t u s p r e d i c t s t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , o t h e r s (Lawrence and Brown, 1976;  Campbell and P a r s o n s , 1972) do n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e s e f i n d i n g s .  Campbell a n d Parsons d i f f e r e n t i a t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e d  from non-disadvantaged  s u b j e c t s b y r e f e r r i n g t o census s t a t i s t i c s f o r p e r c a p i t a income, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f p a r e n t s , and h o u s i n g .  They r e p o r t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h  c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between d i s a d v a n t a g e d  and n o n - d i s a d v a n t a g e d  s t u d e n t s were o b s e r v e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s d i d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r one group.  D i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s gave more thought t o s c h o o l p l a n s and  f u t u r e j o b s , whereas t h e n o n - d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s e x h i b i t e d h i g h e r c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s .  The i n v e s t i -  g a t o r s suggest t h a t t h e community v a r i a b l e confounded some o f t h e r e s u l t s i . e . a p e r s o n sees h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d o f h i s l o c a l community and t h e i d e a o f b e i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d  o r non-disadvantaged i s r e l e v a n t o n l y  within the individual's social milieu. Ethnicity S t u d i e s r e s e a r c h i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e t h n i c group and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y b y Lawrence and Brown (l976), Moracco (1976), and Lo C a s c i o et a l . (1976) c o n t e n d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c o r i g i n and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  These s t u d i e s do n o t agree  54  w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by A n s e l l and Hansen (l97l) and >fe,ynard and Hansen (l970). socioeconomic  A n s e l l and Hansen i n d i c a t e d t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s such as s t a t u s and not e t h n i c i t y were p r e d i c t i v e o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  I t appears t h a t b e l o n g i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group o r r a c e i s not p r e d i c t i v e of career maturity.  Other v a r i a b l e s , such as  socioeconomic  l e v e l and i n t e l l i g e n c e need t o be examined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e t h n i c i t y . School  Curriculum  There appears t o be l i t t l e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , t y p e s o f s c h o o l s , and t h e i r e f f e c t on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . One  such s t u d y was  done by H e r r and E n d e r l e i n (1976) who i n v e s t i g a t e d  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y s c o r e s and s c h o o l system and f o u r d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a .  School d i f f e r e n c e s accounted f o r d i f f e r -  ences i n t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e n i n t h grade and i n t h e amount o f m a t u r i t y w h i c h o c c u r r e d f r o m g r a d e n i n e t o grade t w e l v e . I n terms o f c u r r i c u l a , t h e s t u d y demonstrated t h a t s t u d e n t s i n academic  and  business c u r r i c u l a , scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than students i n general and v o c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a .  Background d i f f e r e n c e s appeared t o account  f o r c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e and t h e s e i n t u r n a f f e c t e d c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s . Rate and l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y was  i n f l u e n c e d by s c h o o l and c u r r i c u l u m  effects. Educational  Attainment  W i l l i s B a r t l e t t (1968) i n h i s s t u d y o f manpower t r a i n e e s , c o r r o b o r a t e d C r i t e s ' statement t h a t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h g r a d e and educational l e v e l attained.  He f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s based on t h e s u b j e c t ' s age, but he f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s and level.  educational  35 Counselling Anderson and Hermann (1957) t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g on t h e c a r e e r development and m a t u r a t i o n o f j u n i o r h i g h school g i r l s . suggested  They f o u n d t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t  and  t h a t g i r l s a t t h e e i g h t h grade l e v e l a r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y  for preliminary career planning  ready  activities.  Sex A l t h o u g h Anderson and Heimann d i d not compare c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f hoys and g i r l s , o t h e r s t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t t h i s v a r i a b l e .  C r i t e s (l97l)  d i d not f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t o e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n t o sex career maturity.  and  The r e s u l t s o f a s i x y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l study has l e d  Crites to a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n ,  w h i l e a t t h e grade seven l e v e l he f o u n d  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s o f boys and g i r l s , t h e r e a f t e r g i r l s vrere f o u n d t o be r e l i a b l y more mature i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s  ( C r i t e s , 1976).  s t u d i e s by Lawrence and Brown (1976), S m i t h and Herr (1972) and H e r r  Also, and  E n d e r l e i n (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t g i r l s s c o r e h i g h e r i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y measures t h a n boys i n t h e same g r a d e l e v e l .  These f i n d i n g s t e n d t o agree  w i t h r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d on o t h e r m a t u r i t y measures i . e . t h a t g i r l s mature s e x u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y  a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n boys  during the adolescent p e r i o d . Location G e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y has not been extensively studied.  Super and O v e r s t r e e t (i960) suggested  that r u r a l  boys appeared t o be more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature t h a n u r b a n boys due t o work e x p e r i e n c e s on f a r m s , e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t h e l p them see i n a more c l e a r - c u t y e t i s o l a t e d manner c e r t a i n v o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s b e i n g f o l l o w e d .  Asbury  36  (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d A p p a l a c h i a n grade e i g h t p u p i l s *  He compared t h e i r mean c a r e e r m a t u r i t y  s c o r e s w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample f o r t h e 'Vocational Development I n v e n t o r y ( C r i t e s , 1971) Iowa s t u d e n t s *  w h i c h was made up o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y  middle c l a s s  The r e s u l t s o f Asbury's s t u d y i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  l o w e r mean s c o r e s f o r t h e A p p a l a c h i a n d i s a d v a n t a g e d and Parsons (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e d  students*  Campbell  and n o n - d i s a d v a n t a g e d  s t u d e n t s from f o u r unnamed d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s i n t h e U.S. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e i r r e s u l t s were i n c o n c l u s i v e . F o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e Study On t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d b y r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e o r i s t s o n t h i s concept as i t c o n c e r n s r e a l i s t i c and a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r c h o i c e s , a s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w h i c h compared t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f g e o g r a p h i c  location, sex,  and l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f g r a d e nine students.  T h i s age group was s e l e c t e d s i n c e i t i s a t t h i s age a n d  grade l e v e l t h a t t h e s c h o o l system f o r c e s t h e sometimes i r r e v e r s i b l e c o u r s e and c u r r i c u l a r c h o i c e s on s t u d e n t s .  I t i s important f o r both t h e  s t u d e n t s and s o c i e t y t h a t t h e s e c h o i c e s a r e n o t made i n a haphazard manner.  A review o f t e s t i n g instruments  ( S o r e n s o n , 1974) r e v e a l e d , t h e  Career M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y (CMl) developed by J.O. C r i t e s (1973) was t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  Hypotheses F i v e major n u l l h y p o t h e s e s r e s u l t e d from t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e . Hypothesis I There  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean •  37  s c o r e s on t h e CUE A t t i t u d e S c a l e between u r b a n and r u r a l g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s (<*=  .05) •  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d , i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t u r b a n s t u d e n t s would s c o r e h i g h e r on t h i s measure t h a n r u r a l s t u d e n t s .  Asbury  (1968) and C r a b t r e e and Hales (1974) f o u n d r u r a l c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y l e s s c a r e e r mature t h a n u r b a n c h i l d r e n .  Various reasons are o f f e r e d .  Rural  c h i l d r e n have fewer r o l e models t h a n u r b a n c h i l d r e n and l e s s f r e q u e n t s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h people f r o m d i v e r s e o c c u p a t i o n s . ing  f o r s c h o o l programs may  Less adequate f u n d -  be a v a i l a b l e and g e n e r a l l y t h e r e i s l e s s  v a r i e t y i n p a r t - t i m e j o b s . ( P i e t r o f e s a , 1974)*  Asbury (1968)  suggested  t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e d r u r a l s t u d e n t s i n h i s s t u d y were l e s s v o c a t i o n a l l y mature s i n c e t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l development was realism of t h e i r aspirations.  not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e  On t h e o t h e r hand, Super f o u n d no  cant d i f f e r e n c e s between u r b a n and r u r a l s t u d e n t s .  signifi-  Given t h e s p a r c i t y o f  l i t e r a t u r e dealing w i t h t h i s l o c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to pred i c t t h e outcome o f t h i s Hypothesis  comparison.  II  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y on t h e CMI  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean s c o r e s  O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t between u r b a n and r u r a l grade  nine students  .05).  Some p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown a l a c k o f s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t ' s o c c u p a t i o n s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge. 1973).  Perhaps t h i s same c o n c l u s i o n a p p l i e s t o c h i l d r e n f r o m r u r a l  urban s i t u a t i o n s .  (Wehrly, and  However, N e l s o n (1963) r e p o r t e d t h a t u r b a n c h i l d r e n  p o s s e s s more knowledge about o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n r u r a l c h i l d r e n .  In view of  t h e mixed r e s u l t s f r o m v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t a d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e second h y p o t h e s i s .  38  Hypothesis I I I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e COT A t t i t u d e S c a l e between boys and g i r l s a t t h e g r a d e n i n e l e v e l (CX= .05) On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l . Hypothesis I V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e COT O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t : between boys and g i r l s a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l (0(= .05). Hypothesis V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( P e a r s o n r ) between s c o r e s o n t h e COT O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t and t h e s c o r e s o n t h e COT A t t i t u d e S c a l e (<X= .05). On t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d , i t appears p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge and career attitude maturity.  C r a b t r e e a n d Hales (1974) f o u n d  students  l a c k i n g i n o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o be l e s s c a r e e r mature t h a n  those  w i t h r e a d y a c c e s s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n tact.  E h r l e (1970) i m p l i e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n l a c k t h e means w i t h w h i c h t o t h i n k about t h e f u t u r e r e a l i s t i cally.  Westbrook (1976b) f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .43 t o e x i s t between  o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a s measured by t h e COT.  CHAPTER I I I  Methodology o f t h e T h e s i s  Research  Overview The purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o compare t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and gender o f grade n i n e s t u d e n t s o n t h e f o l l o w i n g variables: tion.  ( a ) C a r e e r A t t i t u d e M a t u r i t y and ( b ) O c c u p a t i o n a l  Informa-  From a t h e o r e t i c a l a s w e l l a s a p r a c t i c a l v i e w p o i n t i t was a l s o  d e s i r a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y . Research  Design  A d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d s u r v e y was employed i n t h i s s t u d y .  This tech-  n i q u e was s e l e c t e d because n e i t h e r t r e a t m e n t s n o r c o n t r o l groups were necessary f o r t h i s research.  What was r e q u i r e d was t o measure e x i s t i n g  a t t i t u d e s and l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e . Sample S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were 152 g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s i n academic programs from t h r e e h i g h s c h o o l s .  One s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r  Vancouver a r e a and t h e o t h e r two a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e Southern I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The i n t e n d e d sample ( s e l e c t e d by s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s )  was t o c o n s i s t o f 90 u r b a n and 90 r u r a l s t u d e n t s * d i v i d e d e q u a l l y by s e x . Absenteeism and s p o i l e d measures reduced t h e sample t o 88 r u r a l (36 males and 52 f e m a l e s ) and 64 u r b a n s t u d e n t s (30 N e i t h e r I.Q. s c o r e s n o r socioeconomic  students  males and 34 f e m a l e s ) .  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b j e c t s were  available to the researcher. A maximum p o l a r i t y o f u r b a n and r u r a l s c h o o l s was d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e examination o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s .  T h i s p o l a r i t y was attempted b y a  s e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s from a n a n a l y s i s o f census s t a t i s t i c s  39  40  (Appendix B, p. 77)•  L e t t e r s r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s s t u d y were  sent to D i s t r i c t Superintendents  of Schools  (Appendix D, p.  79)  i n the  s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t s and c o n s e n t i n g r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d by m a i l telephone.  The D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s  and  s e l e c t e d the schools which they  f e l t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Demographic Study o f  Schools  I t was f e l t t h a t a demographic d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y would be d e s i r a b l e i n o r d e r t o h e l p i l l u m i n a t e results of this  the  study.  The u r b a n s c h o o l i s a modern, w e l l - e q u i p p e d o p e n - c l a s s r o o m j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l o c a t e d i n a h e a v i l y - p o p u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l suburb o f Vancouver.  The  900.  school's population i s approximately  No c o u n s e l l o r s a r e on s t a f f and no c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n programs a r e i n effect.  I n s t e a d , each t e a c h e r s e r v e s as a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r whenever a  student r e q u i r e s h e l p . The l a r g e r o f t h e two r u r a l s c h o o l s i s l o c a t e d i n a s m a l l town ( p o p u l a t i o n 2,000) whose main f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l community. f r o m g r a d e 9 t o 12,  s c h o o l , c o m p r i s i n g 850  students  i s a s t a n d a r d t w o - s t o r y s t r u c t u r e and c o n t a i n s a  l a r g e l i b r a r y and a u d i t o r i u m . courteous.  The  The  s t u d e n t s appeared w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d  and  A c o n g e n i a l r a p p o r t was o b s e r v e d between them and t h e t e a c h i n g  s t a f f , t h r e e o f whom s e r v e as p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r s .  A career  education  program i s i n e f f e c t b u t i s not a v a i l a b l e t o g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s .  The  community's source o f revenue i s a g r i c u l t u r e ( f r u i t f a r m i n g ) w h i c h  accounts  f o r the c h r o n i c s e a s o n a l unemployment t y p i c a l o f a r u r a l community. The  s m a l l e r o f t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s i s l o c a t e d i n a s m a l l community  ( p o p u l a t i o n 800) w h i c h s e r v e s as a c e n t r e f o r a r a n c h i n g and f r u i t g r o w i n g  41 region.  Seasonal unemployment i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s a r e a .  s c h o o l ' s 280 s t u d e n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n grades 9 t o 12.  The  V i r t u a l l y no p u b l i c  r e c r e a t i o n a l o r c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n t h e v i l l a g e , the o n l y l i b r a r y being the school l i b r a r y . time c o u n s e l l o r s . able.  Two o f t h e s c h o o l ' s t e a c h e r s s e r v e a s p a r t -  No c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e programs a r e a v a i l -  Most o f t h e t e a c h e r s o n s t a f f commute d a i l y from a l a r g e r community  45 m i l e s d i s t a n t .  A l t h o u g h t h e two r u r a l s c h o o l s have p h y s i c a l d i f f e r -  ences , t h e s t u d e n t s appear t o have s i m i l a r socioeconomic s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e s c h o o l s t a f f .  backgrounds a n d  The r u r a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e  sample do n o t appear t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d  i n comparison t o  the urban students. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e F i n a n c i a l Post Survey o f Markets 1976/77» average male income i n 1971 f o r t h e u r b a n a r e a i n t h e s t u d y was $7,559 and t h e average income f o r t h e males i n t h e r u r a l a r e a was #5,985.  Since there  i s no l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y i n incomes, t h e r u r a l a r e a i n q u e s t i o n i s n o t considered by the researcher t o be disadvantaged  economically i n compari-  son to the urban a r e a .  Testing  Instruments  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s used t o determine two o f t h e dimensions o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , ( a ) c a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y , and (b) o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  B o t h measures a r e  p a r t o f t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y (CMl) d e v e l o p e d b y J.O. C r i t e s i n I965 under t h e o r i g i n a l a p p e l l a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l Development I n v e n t o r y ( V D l ) . C a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y ( c o n s i d e r e d synonymous w i t h c a r e e r m a t u r i t y b y C r i t e s ) i s measured b y t h e CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e ;  knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n i s measured b y a s u b t e s t o f t h e CMI Competence T e s t , t h e  42  Occupational Information t e s t . p. 78)  I n a d d i t i o n , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix  C  d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o g a i n supplementary demographic  i n f o r m a t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each s u b j e c t . Career Maturity Inventory A t t i t u d e Scale The CMI c o n s i s t s o f ( a ) t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e , and (b) t h e Competence T e s t , w h i c h comprises  f i v e subscales.  The A t t i t u d e S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f  50,  age and g r a d e r e l a t e d , T r u e / F a l s e i t e m s s c o r e d f o r a t o t a l C a r e e r M a t u r i t y score.  The A t t i t u d e S c a l e o f t h e CMI d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e responses  of  f i f t h t h r o u g h t w e l f t h g r a d e s ; a l l o f i t s i t e m s a r e r e l a t e d t o grade and age w i t h w h i c h t h e t o t a l C a r e e r M a t u r i t y s c o r e c o r r e l a t e s .46. r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r one y e a r i s .71.  The  test-  The m a t u r i t y o f c h o i c e a t t i t u d e s  i s r e l a t e d t o b o t h i n d e c i s i o n and u n r e a l i s m i n c a r e e r c h o i c e . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e was was  f o u n d t o b e , on t h e a v e r a g e ,  have been determined constructed.  .74*  e s t i m a t e d by KR20 and  $b c o e f f i c i e n t s o f e q u i v a l e n c e  because a l t e r n a t e forms o f t h e S c a l e have not been  Content v a l i d i t y was  s t u d i e d by t e n e x p e r t judges and  c e n t a g e o f agreement f o r i t e m s was f o u n d t o be 74%»  ^0 d e f i n i t i v e  c l u s i o n s have been drawn r e g a r d i n g c r i t e r i o n - b a s e d v a l i d i t y f i n d i n g s ( C r i t e s , 1974)  percon-  although  i n d i c a t e t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e has demonstrated  criterion-related validity. C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y Competence T e s t The Competence T e s t has not undergone as much r e s e a r c h as t h e Attitude Scale.  Westbrook (1976) conducted  a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between C a r e e r C h o i c e A t t i t u d e s and C a r e e r C h o i c e Competencies o f g r a d e nine students.  He f o u n d t h a t t h e A t t i t u d e and Competence T e s t  and t h e t o t a l s c o r e were i n t e r r e l a t e d . a c c o r d i n g t o one r e v i e w e r (Sorenson, 1974)  subscales  However, t h e Competence T e s t , i s b a s e d on a number o f  43  untested assumptions, a basic assumption being that i n d i v i d u a l s who  can  accurately appraise the career relevant c a p a b i l i t i e s of others, are good self-appraisers. The Competence Test consists of f i v e parts measuring the following Career Choice Competencies:  Iho\v-ing Yourself (Self-Appraisal); Knowing  About Jobs (Occupational Information); Choosing a Job (Goal Selection); Looking Ahead (Planning); What Should They Do?  (Problem Solving).  The items i n a l l the tests are followed by multiple-choice answers, including " I don't know."  C r i t e s conducted an inspectional analysis of  the open-ended responses.  Results indicated a monotonic  trend i n "don't know" from the lower to the upper grades.  (decreasing) It also became  apparent that the i n c l u s i o n of a "don't know" a l t e r n a t i v e might tend to reduce whatever score variance might be a t t r i b u t a b l e to response b i a s . Norms f o r grades nine to twelve have been c o l l e c t e d f o r various parts of the U.S.  Ko Norms exist f o r Canada.  As mentioned previously, only the Occupational About Jobs) subtest was used i n t h i s study.  Information (Knowing  Theoretical and empirical  studies have shown that there i s reason to hypothesize that occupational information i s a salient dimension of Career Choice Competencies ( C r i t e s , 1973)•  r  ^  ie  items are based upon Roe's (1950) F i e l d and Level c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n , with additions and revisions to make them as respresentative as possible of the world of work.  It i s f e l t that the occupations  listed  are a representative and comprehensive sampling of frequently chosen occupations  i n which employment opportunities are good and f o r which  widely used interest inventories and informational materials are a v a i l able ( C r i t e s , 1973)*  It i s of p a r t i c u l a r interest to t h i s study whether  occupational knowledge (as acquired through access to information) has a  44  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on c a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y . Student  Questionnaire  Due t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C, p. 78) was d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n o n the subjects.  The o b j e c t i o n s o f some s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s p r e v e n t e d t h e  r e s e a r c h e r from a s k i n g s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g socioeconomic e t h n i c background and o t h e r p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s .  status,  I t was f e l t , however, t h a t  r e s p o n s e s t o some o f t h e g e n e r a l items may i l l u m i n a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e study.  T e s t i n g and Data C o l l e c t i o n The t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were and hand-scored by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . scorer.  group-administered  S c o r i n g was d o u b l e - c h e c k e d by a n o t h e r  The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n mid-June, 1977  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  was l i m i t e d t o times and p l a c e s s p e c i f i e d b y s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . time i n v o l v e d f o r each group was one h o u r .  The CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e  approximately  JO m i n u t e s , and t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l  approximately  20 minutes t o a d m i n i s t e r .  by t h e end o f t h e h o u r .  Total  Information t e s t  took took  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was completed  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n  t h e t e s t manual were s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d . The s t u d e n t s a t t h e s m a l l e r r u r a l s c h o o l were t e s t e d i n a c l a s s r o o m on a Monday m o r n i n g .  G i r l s and boys w r o t e t h e t e s t t o g e t h e r .  The boys  and g i r l s a t t h e l a r g e r r u r a l s c h o o l composed two s e p a r a t e g u i d a n c e c l a s s e s and were t e s t e d t h e n e x t day a t 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. r e s p e c t i v e l y . The u r b a n s t u d e n t s were t e s t e d one week l a t e r i n ready-formed groups i n t h r e e morning s e s s i o n s .  Data A n a l y s i s  classroom  45  Scores  f o r both measures, the CMI  Occupational  Information  t e s t , were t a b u l a t e d .  d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d by  d i f f e r e n c e of means i n the two  Means and  standard  computed to compare the  a c c o r d i n g to  sex at a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of 0(  =  Assuming that c a r e e r a t t i t u d e m a t u r i t y and and  symmetrical  and possess  geographical  .05. occupational a linear  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t e d at theO(= .05  l e v e l of0(  =  -05 was  a Type I e r r o r and An attempt was i n the CMI  level.  The  calculated  significance  chosen to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of committing r e j e c t i n g a true hypothesis. made to a n a l y s e  Occupational  a n a l y s i s would a s s i s t  Information  the responses to p a r t i c u l a r test.  I t was  felt  items  that such an  i n d e s c r i b i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s or d i f f e r e n c e s  i n o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge of r u r a l , urban, male and The  informa-  relation-  s h i p , a Pearson product*-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was and  CMI  dependent v a r i a b l e s ( c a r e e r a t t i t u d e  m a t u r i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n )  t i o n are continuous  the  gender f o r the r u r a l and urban groups.  A two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was  l o c a t i o n and  A t t i t u d e S c a l e and  responses to the student  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , due  of the q u e s t i o n s , were g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e . i n comparison a n a l y s i s .  female s u b j e c t s . to the  nature  Percentage f i g u r e s are used  CHAPTER IV  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y were a n a l y s e d  statistically.  R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e hypotheses  chapter  p r e v i o u s l y set out.  Comparison o f Urban and R u r a l C a r e e r M a t u r i t y The major f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f u r b a n and r u r a l grade n i n e s t u d e n t s .  I t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  i n t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y (CMl) A t t i t u d e S c a l e between u r b a n and r u r a l g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s ( H y p o t h e s i s I ) . On t h e b a s i s o f a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e I , p. 47) t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . who  These r e s u l t s t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s o f C r i t e s (1971)  f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e t o e x i s t .  They do not s u p p o r t o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t  f o u n d u r b a n s t u d e n t s t o be more c a r e e r mature t h a n r u r a l s t u d e n t s . Nor do t h e s e r e s u l t s support Super and O v e r s t r e e t ' s (i960) c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t r u r a l b o y s , due t o work e x p e r i e n c e s open t o them, appear t o be more v o c a t i o n a l l y mature t h a n u r b a n boys.  Among p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s  l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n are the f o l l o w i n g :  ( a ) T h i s s t u d y compared a  s o c i e t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f r o m r u r a l and u r b a n environments. few s t u d i e s such as by Campbell and Parsons  A  (1972) whose r e s u l t s f a v o u r e d  u r b a n s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l l y comparing d i s a d v a n t a g e d r u r a l s t u d e n t s w i t h middle c l a s s urban students* g r a p h i c a l environments  (b) I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h geo-  a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r urban and r u r a l s t u d e n t s ,  p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n t y p e s do n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y . t h a t o n l y 33% o f r u r a l boys and 40%  Appendix E, p.  81, shows  o f r u r a l g i r l s gave t h e i r f a t h e r ' s  46  47  TABLE I MEANS , VARIANCES , STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE  Group  N  Mean  Urban S t u d e n t s  64  33*88  20*98  4*58  Rural Students  88  34*19  24«21  4*92  152  34*06  22.66  4*76  Total  Variance  Standard  Deviation  Analysis of Variance Source  df  M3  P  P  Urban/Rural ( L )  1  3.33  •15  .70  Gender  1  3.37  .15  .70  L xG  1  77*34  3.43  .07  Within  148  22*57  Total  (G)  151  48  occupations as s t r i c t l y o f t h e r u r a l type (farm worker, l o g g e r ) .  The  f a c t t h a t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n s a r e t h e t y p e s one would f i n d i n a n u r b a n s e t t i n g , i t appears t o have e l i m i n a t e d some o f t h e s u s p e c t e d e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l and u r b a n s t u d e n t s .  Comparison o f Urban and R u r a l O c c u p a t i o n a l  Information  The l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge o f u r b a n a n d r u r a l g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s was t e s t e d by t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t .  I t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s o n t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t o f u r b a n and r u r a l s t u d e n t s ( H y p o t h e s i s I i ) . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d b y a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e I I , p . 49). s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d .  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t  a d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t i n f a v o u r o f t h e u r b a n s t u d e n t s .  A possible  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y may be f o u n d i n S e w e l l and O r e n s t e i n ' s (19&5) i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  They argue t h a t even though  o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s o f r u r a l y o u t h a r e d i f f e r e n t locational  f a c t o r s , i t would be u n r e a s o n a b l e  due t o  t o assume t h a t r u r a l  youths  a r e c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l , and t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e r u r b a n communities. o f t h i s s t u d y t e n d t o add s u p p o r t t o t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n .  The f i n d i n g s  F u r t h e r , i t seems  on o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t c o n d i t i o n s f o r most r u r a l r e s i d e n t s have m a r k e d l y improved over t h e l a s t few y e a r s .  The improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  systems and i n t h e communications f i e l d have g r e a t l y r e d u c e d t h e i s o l a t i o n f a c t o r f o r r u r a l students.  These a d v a n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e mass m e d i a ,  have g i v e n t h e r u r a l s t u d e n t ( i n t h i s sample) a much b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n s i m i l a r v i c a r i o u s l e a r n i n g experiences t o those a v a i l a b l e t o t h e urban student.  49  TABLE I I MEANS, VARIANCES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  Group  N  Mean  Variance  Standard Deviation  Urban Students  64  15 •51  9.12  3.02  Rural Students  88  15 .28  6.81  2.61  15 .50  7.73  2.78  152  Total  Analysis of Variance Source  df  Urban/Rural ( l )  1  Gender L x G Within Total  (G)  MS  F  P  .00  .00  .99  1  .18  .02  .74  1  1.36  .17  .68  148  9.84  151  50  Comparison o f Male and Female C a r e e r  Maturity  Of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e o f gender on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  As p r e v i o u s l y h y p o t h e s i z e d  effects  (Hypothesis I I I ) ,  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appears i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y when based on the s u b j e c t s p. 47)  was  1  sex.  A two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e I ,  conducted and no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  f o u n d between t h e mean s c o r e s o f grade n i n e males and f e m a l e s on t h e Attitude Scale.  CMI  Of i n t e r e s t i s a breakdown o f mean s c o r e s by gender and  l o c a t i o n i n T a b l e I I I , p.  51.  The d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r I I l e a d s t o t h e  conclusion that career maturity i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the l e v e l s of other forms o f m a t u r i t y . adolescence,  G i r l s , who  mature more q u i c k l y t h a n boys d u r i n g  s h o u l d produce h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e CIO A t t i t u d e S c a l e .  The  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y do not support t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p n o r t h e r e s u l t s of C r i t e s  1  (1976") s t u d y w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t f r o m grade seven t o grade  t w e l v e , g i r l s s c o r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r on t h i s s c a l e t h a n b o y s . A p o s s i b l e explanation f o r the l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h i s may  l i e i n t h e e f f e c t t h a t women's l i b e r a t i o n movements had on g i r l ' s '  career choice planning. opportunities.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , most women have had v e r y few  career  I n f a c t , c a r e e r c h o i c e f o r most was l i m i t e d t o e i t h e r  n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , t y p i n g , o r homemaking. may  study  have been f a i r l y easy t o make.  C h o i c e s among t h e s e few  The c u r r e n t emphasis on e q u a l  options job  o p p o r t u n i t i e s has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e c h o i c e o p t i o n s f o r f e m a l e s ,  per-  haps making t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c a r e e r s as d i f f i c u l t ( i f not more d i f f i c u l t ) f o r g i r l s as f o r b o y s .  The v a r i e t y and number o f f e m a l e r o l e m o d e l s ,  a l t h o u g h i n c r e a s i n g , i s s t i l l much s m a l l e r t h a n male r o l e models.  It  a p p e a r s , t h e n , t h a t t h e above f a c t o r may  differ-  have reduced t h e expected  ences i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y between boys and g i r l s . area f o r f u r t h e r research.  This f a c t o r suggests  an  51  TABLE I I I MEANS, VARIANCES, AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION . POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, ATTITUDE SCALE  Group  N  Mean  Rural Males  36  33.28  23.23  4.82  Rural Females  52  34.85  24.30  4.93  Urban Males  30  34.60  17.31  4.16  Urban Females  34  33.24  23.91  4.89  Total Males  66  33.88  20.70  4.55  Total Females  86  34.20  24.40  4.94  Variance  Standard Deviation  52  Comparison o f Male and Female O c c u p a t i o n a l  Information  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( H y p o t h e s i s IV) s t a t i n g t h a t no significant difference  statistically  e x i s t s i n t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e CME  Occupational  I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t between genders a t t h e grade n i n e l e v e l has been s u p p o r t e d by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e I I , p. p.  49).  53, f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e comparison.  T a b l e IV, L i t t l e research,  t o t h e a u t h o r ' s knowledge, has been c a r r i e d out w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s d i mension.  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t g i r l s and boys a r e e q u a l l y aware o f  t h e v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h i s measure.  The f i n d i n g s support  the  s t u d i e s o f C r i t e s (1973) and Gribbons and Iohnes (1968) w h i c h c o n c l u d e d t h a t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f boys and g i r l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h e same.  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C a r e e r M a t u r i t y and O c c u p a t i o n a l  Information  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d i n Chapter I I t h a t t h e r e would be no  statisti-  c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( P e a r s o n r ) between s c o r e s on t h e  CMI  A t t i t u d e S c a l e and t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t ( H y p o t h e s i s V ) . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d .  ( T a b l e V, p. 54) and  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y support  the  Crites'  (1965) premise t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between c a r e e r c h o i c e competency v a r i a b l e s and a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s  s h o u l d be i n t h e .30's  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e and t h e CMI  and .40's» The Occupational  I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t i n t h i s s t u d y i s »40. T h i s r e s u l t a l s o s u p p o r t s  the  f i n d i n g s o f Westbrook (1976b) whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows a .43 c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e and t h e CME  Occupational Information t e s t .  I t appears t h a t t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y (CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e ) i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge (CME I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t ) i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a grade n i n e s t u d e n t .  Occupational Of i n t e r e s t  53  TABLE I V MEANS, VARIANCES, Al© STANDARD DEVIATIONS BY GENDER AND LOCATION POR THE CAREER MATURITY TJJVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  Group  N  Mean  Variance  Standard D e v i a t i o n  R u r a l Males  36  15.25  5.71  2.39  R u r a l Females  52  15.35  7.62  2.76  Urban Males  30  15.47  10.96  3.31  Urban Females  34  15.18  7.73  2.78  T o t a l Males  66  15.32  8.01  2.83  T o t a l Females  86  15-28  7.56  2.75  54  TABLE V PESESON R CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDE SCALE AMD OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST OF THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY •  Group  N  R u r a l Males  36  R u r a l Females  Pearson r  Significance  .28  •53  .0005  52  .23  .48  .0001  Urban Males  30  .002  .05  .40  Urban Females  34  .22  .47  .0025  152  .16  .40  .00001  Total  R Square  55  i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i n t h e c a s e o f urban  males*  whereas t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r r u r a l males and f e m a l e s , and u r b a n  females  a r e .53 > «48, o n l y .05,  and .47  r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r urban males i s  a s t a t i s t i c a l l y non-significant correlation.  c o n d i t i o n s were t h e same f o r urban males and f e m a l e s .  The  testing  This f a c t  appears  to r u l e out many p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s anomalous r e s u l t . f a c t o r o f promised anonymity  The  o f s u b j e c t s r u l e s out t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  s t u d y i n g t h e r e s u l t s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  A n a l y s i s o f Responses t o Items i n t h e C M  Occupation Information Test  Of a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e s t u d y i s a summary o f r e s p o n s e s t o 56).  s p e c i f i c i t e m s i n t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t ( T a b l e V I , p. T h i s t a b l e p r e s e n t s a summary o f r e s p o n s e s judged t o be c a r e e r mature. In g e n e r a l , t h e r e appear t o be no n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o v e r a l l knowledge l e v e l o f s u b j e c t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o sex o r l o c a t i o n . appears n e g l i g i b l e when o n l y 48% of  ( c l o t h e s ) b u y e r ; 61%  warrants examination. 3l)  and l a w y e r ( i t e m 40)  of r u r a l g i r l s i d e n t i f i e d the occupation  o f r u r a l boys and 67%  t h i s occupation c o r r e c t l y .  Sexual b i a s  o f u r b a n boys i d e n t i f i e d  The o v e r a l l knowledge o f s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s  A b s t r a c t o c c u p a t i o n s such as s o c i a l worker ( i t e m and s p e c i a l i s t s such as d i e t i c i a n ( i t e m 38)  not r e c e i v e a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s by any g r o u p .  did  It  appears t h a t t h e s e t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s a r e n o t y e t w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e m a j o r i t y o f n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s .  Comparisons w i t h Iforms C r i t e s (1973) has produced t a b l e s r e f l e c t i n g t h e norms o f t h e Iowa s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample and t h e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g h i s i n s t r u ments T a b l e V I I , p. 57,  summarizes t h e mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  56  TABLE V I COMPARISON CP CORRECT RESPONSES  3,  BY GENDER AND LOCATION  POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY, OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  Item Number  Rural Female  %  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28  29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  67 95 56 67 98 98 98 90 63 63 60 48 83 92 69 96 92 52 92 58  Male  %  64 94 89 58 92 94 97 78 72 72 53 61 72 94 72 86 94 42 89 42  Percentage f i g u r e s were u s e d due t o t h e u n e q u a l c e l l s *  Urban Female  65 97 59 56 85 97 91 76 68 59 59 71 91 97 59 100 97 38 85 68  Male  %  70 80  77 63 100 83 90 87 77 84 57 67 97 87 63 90 99 53 77 57  57  TABLE V I I COMPARISON V/TTH GRADE NINE NORMS POR THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY ATTITUDE SCALE  3,  N  Mean  Standard D e v i a t i o n  3bwa  703  36.50  4.82  Texas  582  32.59  5.69  1273  34.69  4.93  Tennessee  484  32.97  5.13  B r i t i s h Columbia  152  34.06  4.76  Group  Pennsylvania  ' A l l d a t a w i t h e x c e p t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia have been d e r i v e d f r o m t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Use Manual o f t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y ( C r i t e s ,  1973).  58  f o r t h e CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e .  The mean s c o r e on t h e CMI A t t i t u d e S c a l e  f o r t h e sample u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s 34«06, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  one-half  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n mean o f 36.50*  Mean  s c o r e s f o r Tennessee and Texas a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e mean o f t h e B.C. sample.  T a b l e V I I I , p. 59» p r o v i d e s a comparison o f mean  s c o r e s o f v a r i o u s g r a d e l e v e l s o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample w i t h t h e B.C. grade n i n e sample on t h e CMI O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n t e s t . comparison r e v e a l s some unexpected r e s u l t s .  The  The mean s c o r e o f t h e B.C.  grade n i n e s t u d e n t ( l 5 » 3 0 ) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e Iowa s t u d e n t s ( l l . 3 5 ) »  I n f a c t , B.C. n i n t h  g r a d e r s even s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n t h e t w e l f t h g r a d e r s i n C r i t e s ' sample. A comparison o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t B.C. s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s were more homogeneous t h a n t h e norm group's s c o r e s .  The r e s u l t s o f t h e  comparisons i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e t h e sample i n t h i s s t u d y had l o w e r c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s , t h e y p o s s e s s e d g r e a t e r knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. p a r i s o n l e a d t o two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s :  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s com(a) possession o f occupational  i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a s c o n d u c i v e t o c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a s h i t h e r t o assumed, and (b) p o s s e s s i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n t h e l p i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h i s knowledge i s o f l i t t l e h e l p i n making a n a p p r o priate career choice.  The r u r a l s t u d e n t s h a d c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a v a i l -  a b l e t o them, whereas t h e s e s e r v i c e s were n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e urban students.  I n view o f t h e preceding statement, the researcher  t o support t h e l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n .  tends  59  TABLE T i l l COMPARISON WITH OTHER GRADE NORMS POR. THE CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION TEST  N  Group  Mean  3,  Standard Deviation  Iowa Grade  8  280  11.59  4.6O  Grade  9  197  11.35  4.82  Grade 10  318  12.23  5.04  Grade 11  302  13.79  4.86  Grade 12  214  14.43  4.67  9  152  15.30  2.82  B.C. Grade  ^Figures (except B.C.) were obtained from the Administration and Use Manual of the Career Maturity Inventory ( C r i t e s , 1973).  CHAPTER V Summary and Conclusions It is the purpose of this final chapter to present a brief overview of the study as well as to postulate implications of the results and to propose areas of future related research. Overview and Summary of Results The original focus of the study involved the following investigations:  (a) to compare the career maturity of urban and rural grade nine  students, (b) to compare the occupational information of urban and rural grade nine students, (c) to compare the career maturity and occupational knowledge with the gender of the grade nine students, and (d) to investigate the relationship between occupational information and career maturity. To this end samples were taken from an urban school in the Greater Vancouver area and from two rural schools in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. The measures selected to investigate career maturity and occupational information were the Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and the Career Maturity Inventory Occupational Information test developed by J.O. Crites ( 1 9 7 3 ) • In regard to the first investigation just cited, i t was found that there was no statistically significant difference between rural and urban career maturity. This result conflicts with some studies mentioned in Chapter II which primarily compared rural and urban career maturity based on socioeconomic status* Disadvantaged rural students were compared with non-disadvantaged urban students* This present study, however, supports the results of Crites' (1971) investigation, which concluded 60  61  that few, i f any, differences exist between r u r a l and urban students on the career maturity a t t i t u d e scale.  Some of the reasons o f f e r e d f o r t h i s  lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , despite obvious urban advantages of more adequate school funds, better f a c i l i t i e s , are the following:  (a) This  study compared a s o c i e t a l cross-section of students from urban and r u r a l areas rather than middle class urban with working class r u r a l .  Presum-  ably then, non-disadvantaged r u r a l students are no less career mature than non-disadvantaged urban students,  (b) There may be a greater aware-  ness of the need to plan f o r the future by r u r a l students (Gribbons and Iohnes, 1968).  (c) There seems to be a greater and more amicable student-  teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i n r u r a l areas, leading to greater personal contact, (d) There appear to be more v i s i b l e (although l i m i t e d i n v a r i e t y ) r o l e models f o r the r u r a l c h i l d r e n than f o r urban c h i l d r e n . Comparison of occupational information based on geographical l o c a t i o n likewise resulted i n no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , contrary to most studies c i t e d i n Chapter I I .  It appears that although  there may be more and varied occupational r o l e models a v a i l a b l e to urban students, i t may be that they do not take advantage of the opportunity to investigate on t h e i r own.  Also the absence of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained  counsellors i n the urban school and resultant lack of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e educational and occupational information may have contributed to the reduction of the apparent urban advantage.  It has previously been sug-  gested that the opportunities f o r greater student-teacher more a v a i l a b l e i n a r u r a l school.  contact may be  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of counsellors (even  though part-time) and the resultant r e a d i l y available occupational and educational information may have contributed to the reduction of the expected rural-urban d i f f e r e n c e s . Rural students are perhaps i n c l o s e r  62 contact with their role models and participate to a greater extent i n the running of a family farm or business than the children of urban workers.  A city parent who leaves for work every morning but does not  discuss his work with his child, does not impart any occupational information to him.  (The author had occasion to counsel with a grade 12  student who fantasized working as an accountant.  Although his father  was a chartered accountant, the student had no idea what his father's work entailed). In comparing the career maturity (CMC Attitude Scale) of g i r l s and boys at the same grade level, i t was found that no statistically s i g n i f i cant differences existed, contrary to the results of studies cited i n Chapter II. It was expected that g i r l s who, at that age level are physically, emotionally, and socially more mature than boys, would tend to score higher than boys on the career maturity dimension.  It appears  that the increasing demands for females i n the labour force and social expectations resulting from the very recent emphasis on equality of opportunity i n occupations, have imposed complex problems at this stage of career choice development.  Perhaps g i r l s are even more apprehensive about  the "world out there" than boys. Similarly, a comparison of levels of occupational knowledge (CMI Occupational Information test) based on gender revealed no statistically significant difference.  Kb difference was expected as a result of the  findings of Crites (1973) and Gribbons and Iohnes (1968).  A study by  Gold (1977) revealed that very l i t t l e information i s available to girls i n texts, which apparently tend to sex-stereotype occupations.  Presumably  i f biases did not exist i n texts, girls would tend to score higher than boys on the occupational information dimension.  But, texts are not the  63  only sources of information, and i t i s doubtful that many adolescents glean t h e i r occupational information from l i t e r a t u r e i n any case. Examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p (Pearson r ) between scores on the CMI Occupational Information test and the C i d Attitude Scale revealed that a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r~.40) exists between these two variables.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p holds true f o r the sample as a whole as  w e l l as f o r r u r a l males and females and urban females.  The exception was  urban boys f o r whom the c o r r e l a t i o n between career maturity scores and occupational information scores (^.05) i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This lack of consistency would require further individual  examination,  not only of score f l u c t u a t i o n , but of the personality variables of the urban boys themselves.  "Unfortunately, the anonymity promised the subjects  renders t h i s examination  impossible.  In summary then, comparison of career maturity scores (CMI Attitude Scale) and occupational information scores (CMI Occupational  Information  t e s t ) , based on gender and geographical l o c a t i o n , revealed no s t a t i s t i cally significant difference. A s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant positive c o r r e l a t i o n (r^.40) was found to exist between career maturity (CME Attitude Scale) scores and occupational information (CMI Occupational Information t e s t ) scores.  Implications o f the Study Theoretical studies c i t e d i n Chapter I I highlight the importance of career maturity as a predictor o f future career adjustment.  The j u n i o r  high school years have been shown by investigators (Campbell and Parsons, 1972;  Super and Overstreet, I960; Gribbons and Iohnes, 1968) to be  c l e a r l y a time of significance and have major consequences f o r the students' future educational and career plans.  To t h i s end the whole  64  spectrum o f v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g c a r e e r m a t u r i t y has been s t u d i e d .  Un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , perhaps due t o s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e o r because o n l y s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s were s t u d i e d , the l i t e r a t u r e abounds w i t h mixed and  incon-  clusive results. Perhaps t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have n o t r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n , a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and g e n d e r .  A l t h o u g h most s t u d i e s  d e a l i n g w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n as a v a r i a b l e c o n c l u d e t h a t r u r a l s t u d e n t s p o s s e s s l o w e r c a r e e r m a t u r i t y t h a n u r b a n s t u d e n t s , t h e y have been s p e c i f i c t o socioeconomic  s t a t u s comparisons*  c h i l d r e n from i s o l a t e d , i m p o v e r i s h e d  that  communities i n t h e Ozarks o r  A p p a l a c h i a n w o u l d not be as w e l l developed city children.  I t i s obvious  career-\v ise as m i d d l e - c l a s s r  I t i s o b v i o u s a l s o t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e Ozarks a r e  not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r u r a l c h i l d r e n .  Therefore, other v a r i a b l e s such  as p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , media and communications and s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s need t o be l o o k e d a t i n d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m r u r a l p r i o r t o making comparisons* may  The q u e s t i o n o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y  have s u f f e r e d a s i m i l a r f a t e .  Confounding extraneous  as d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environments may studies.  l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s ( C r i t e s , 1976)  possess g r e a t e r career m a t u r i t y than males. been made o f t h e new  have c r e p t i n t o  have suggested  these  t h a t females  However, no m e n t i o n has  s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h may  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f a new  v a r i a b l e s such  have a f f e c t e d t h e  group o f grade n i n e s t u d e n t s .  In s p i t e o f t h e  g r e a t i n t e r e s t shown i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t o f c a r e e r c h o i c e , no s t u d i e s have been conducted i n t h e Canadian s c e n e , t o t h e b e s t knowledge of the  author.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i m p l y t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h s t i l l needs t o be c a r r i e d out on t h i s s u b j e c t .  T h i s study has s h o r n t h a t  65  no differences exist i n the career maturity between r u r a l and urban students nor between males and females at the grade nine l e v e l .  Various  reasons.for t h i s lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n have been postulated:  (a) Urban  students are not given the required help and counselling i n order to take advantage of t h e i r presumably greater opportunities to gain knowledge and maturity,  (b) L i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n has been given to the expan-  sion or development of counselling services f o r g i r l s i n spite of recent s o c i a l developments. Results of the student questionnaire (Appendix S, p. 81) indicate that 31% of the subjects i n t h i s study nearing the completion of grade nine s t i l l had no idea of what they wished t h e i r future occupations to be.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the case of urban males (37%) and  urban females (35%)»  These figures imply that approximately one-third  of the subjects i n the sample may have (a) chosen courses and/or c u r r i c u l a without a goal i n mind, or (b) preferred to defer t h e i r planning, or (c) received no counselling or help i n course or curriculum s e l e c t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found i n the l e v e l of occupational knowledge between sexes and geographical l o c a t i o n s . Previous research l e d to the expectation that urban students would score higher on t h i s v a r i a b l e than r u r a l students.  The r e s u l t s indicate that urban students may  not  have taken advantage of the vicarious information and the more v a r i e d r o l e models a v a i l a b l e to them.  They also r e f l e c t a lack of career exploration  programs at the urban school.  Although neither the r u r a l students nor  the urban students had the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a career exploration program i t appears that the existence of trained counsellors i n the r u r a l schools (with the resultant a v a i l a b i l i t y of occupational information) may have eliminated the supposed urban advantage.  It has  66  a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t g i r l s may have been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h occupations  ( G o l d , 1977)'  ^he l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e i n  l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n between g i r l s and boys may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a l a c k o f r e a l progress  i n p o r t r a y i n g more f e m a l e s i n o c c u p a -  t i o n a l r o l e s i n new t e x t s * The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o c a r e e r m a t u r i t y has been shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e © ( = .05 l e v e l . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e implementation  o f o r improvement i n c a r e e r  e x p l o r a t i o n programs, f i e l d t r i p s t o i n d u s t r y and h i g h e r s c h o o l s , a g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , would l e a d t o a n improvement i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  Hoppock (1967) has  assembled a n e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e book i n methods o f c o m p i l i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g occupational information.  The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t  correlation  between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s f o r u r b a n boys l e a d s t o t h e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i s n o t dependent o n t h e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Some boys w i t h l o w s c o r e s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y have shown t h a t t h e y have a v e r y good g r a s p o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and v i c e - v e r s a .  The i m p l i -  c a t i o n s a r e t h a t boys who a r e e m o t i o n a l l y and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y  ready t o  make c a r e e r p r e l i m i n a r y d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e cannot do so without  s u f f i c i e n t occupational information.  C o n v e r s e l y , t h o s e who have  n o t r e a c h e d a n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y t o make a c h o i c e s h o u l d n o t "jump t h e gun" even t h o u g h t h e y p o s s e s s a s u f f i c i e n t amount o f i n f o r m a tion. The c o m p a r i s o n w i t h norms o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l  infor-  m a t i o n may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r o l e o f g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g i n B.C. s c h o o l s .  The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y produced a mean s c o r e o n  c a r e e r m a t u r i t y a l m o s t one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  67  norm.  However, t h e i r mean s c o r e o n o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was h i g h e r  than t h a t f o r t w e l f t h graders s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group.  This implies that  mere p o s s e s s i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e a d d i t i o n a l h e l p o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n may be i n s u f f i c i e n t i n making r e a l i s t i c , a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s .  Serious  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e e x p a n s i o n and improvement, o r implementation  o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n B.C. s c h o o l s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t  t h e e l e m e n t a r y and j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . The  C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y appears t o be a n a c c e p t a b l e measure t o  be u s e d i n d i a g n o s i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h problem a r e a s and a s s e s s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g needs.  I t appears t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n t h e e a r l y  d i a g n o s i s o f those c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y d i s p a r a t e s c o r e s o n t h i s measure. Assessment and d i a g n o s i s appears e s s e n t i a l p r i o r t o e n t r y i n t o h i g h s c h o o l , a t w h i c h t i m e s t u d e n t s a r e f o r c e d t o make c h o i c e s v i t a l t o t h e i r f u t u r e development.  Suggestions  f o r Future  Research  T h i s study was l i m i t e d t o a d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d s t u d y o f a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n due t o t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e and f i n a n c e s .  Since the  l i t e r a t u r e a l l u d e d t o t h e value o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the career m a t u r i t y dimension, a study i n v o l v i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t .  Of i n t e r e s t t o  s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d a l s o be t h e c u r r i c u l a r comparisons o f c a r e e r maturity.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y p o i n t e d t o i n s u f f i c i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g  s e r v i c e s and c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n programs a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s a t t h e e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y stage o f c a r e e r development. experimental  To t h i s end a n  d e s i g n c o u l d be implemented u s i n g p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s t o  68  a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e v a r i o u s programs on t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f students.  T h i s s t u d y i s e n v i s a g e d u s i n g a c o n t r o l group and an e x p e r i -  mental group o f s t u d e n t s .  The  s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group would  be e n r o l l e d i n a c a r e e r development program. w o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o b o t h g r o u p s .  A p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t  R e s u l t s t h e n , may  be e v a l u a t e d t o  see i f exposure t o a c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n program has any s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  effect  A l s o i n an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  c a r e e r adjustment o f s t u d e n t s , a f o l l o w - u p program c o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d a t various i n d i v i d u a l schools or d i s t r i c t s .  The r o l e o f t h e community needs  more c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s c o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n this direction. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e use o f t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y may  be h e l p f u l i n i n d i v i d u a l assessment o f  s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y and r e a d i n e s s t o make e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r c h o i c e s . I t may  a l s o a s s i s t t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r t o t a k e c o r r e c t i v e measures i n  o r d e r t o h e l p i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o cope s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h v o c a t i o n a l tasks i n the f u t u r e .  The r e s u l t s a l s o t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  v e r y s e r i o u s d e l i b e r a t i o n needs t o be done by v a r i o u s s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s about i n s t i t u t i n g s u f f i c i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . 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V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i n t h e Elementary S c h o o l .  Vocational  Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1959* l o C a s c i o , R., N e s s e l r o t h , J . , & Thomas, M. The C a r e e r Development Inventory:  Use and F i n d i n g s w i t h I n n e r - C i t y Dropouts.  Journal o f  V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1976, 8, 285-292. Maslow, A. H. Toward a P s y c h o l o g y o f B e i n g .  New Y o r k :  H a r p e r , 1954*  Maynard, P. E., & Hansen, J . C. V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y Among I n n e r - C i t y Youth.  Journal of Counseling  M i l l e r , M. F.  P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 5_, 4OO-404.  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y t o Work V a l u e s .  J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r . 1974, 5_, 367-371. Moracco, J . C. V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y o f Arab and American H i g h S c h o o l  73  Students*  Journal o f V o c a t i o n a l Behavior,  N e l s o n , R. C.  1976, 13, 367-373•  Knowledge and I n t e r e s t s C o n c e r n i n g S i x t e e n Occupations  Among Elementary and Secondary School  Students*  E d u c a t i o n a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurements, 1963, 4, 741-754* P i e t r o f e s a , J . J . , & S p l e t e , H.  A. The Psychology o f Occupations*  New Y o r k :  Wiley,  Samler, J . Toward a T h e o r e t i c a l Base f o r V o c a t i o n a l  1956.  Counseling.  and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1953, 1_» 34-45*  Personnel  S e w e l l , W. H., & O r e n s t e i n , A. M, Choice.  Theory and R e s e a r c h .  Grune & S t r a t t o n , 1975.  New York: Roe,  C a r e e r Development:  Community o f Residence and O c c u p a t i o n a l  American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 1965, 70, 551-563.  Smith, E . D., & H e r r , E . L. Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e M a t u r a t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e s Among A d o l e s c e n t s .  V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  Quarterly,  March 1972, 177-182. Sorenson, G.  Review o f Career M a t u r i t y  Inventory.  Measurement and  E v a l u a t i o n i n Guidance, 1974, 1» 54-57* S t e v i c , R., & U h l i g , G. Youth.  Personnel  Occupational  Aspirations o f Selected  Appalachian  and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1967, 45, 435-439*  Super, D. E . A Theory o f V o c a t i o n a l Development.  American P s y c h o l o g i s t ,  1953, 8 , 185-190. Super, D. E . The Psychology o f C a r e e r s .  New York:  Harper & Row, 1957*  Super, D. E . , & O v e r s t r e e t , P. L. The V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y o f N i n t h Grade Boys.  New York:  Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e ,  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. Super, D. E., S t a r i s h e v s k y , R., M a t l i n , N., & Jordaan, J . P. Development:  Self-Concept  Examination Board, 1963*  Theory.  New Y o r k :  College  Career  Entrance  74  Super, D. E.  Vocational Development Theory:  Persons, Positions, and  Counseling Psychologist, 196"9» 1, 2-9*  Processes* Tiedeman, D. V.  Decision and Vocational Development:  Its Implications*  Tolbert, E. L.  and  Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1961, 40, 15-20.  Tiedeman, D. V., & O'Hara, R. P. Career Development: Adjustment.  A Paradigm  New York:  Choice and  College Entrance Examination-Board, 1963*  Counseling f o r Career Development.  Boston:  Houghton  M i f f l i n , 1974* Warren, P. J .  Trends i n Ifon-brban School Systems.  Education Canada.  Spring 1977, 4-11. Wehrly, B. L.  Childrens' Occupational Knowledge.  Vocational Guidance  Journal, December 1973, 124-129. Westbrook, B. W.  Interrelationship of Career Choice Competencies and  Career Choice Attitudes of Ninth-Grade Pupils:  Testing Hypotheses  Derived from C r i t e s ' Model of Career Maturity.  Journal of Vocational  Behavior-, 1976a, 8, 1-12. Westbrook, B. W. The Relationship between Career Choice Attitudes and Career Choice Competencies of Ninth-Grade Pupils. Vocational Behavior, 1976b, 9_, 377-383.  Journal of  75  APPENDICES  76 APPENDIX A A MODEL OP CAREER MATURITY I N ADOLESCENCE  Decree  c f <f'a<"eer  Genera Croup  Consistency o f  Career Choices  Factor  Factors  'Rea(K,n o f  C'dreer  Cbree.r  C h o i c e Competencies C h o k e A t t i t u d e s  Career Choices,  interests  Development  SccLaf Class  C e/s ce p tic n Orientation  field  Time  piftnnirtj/  Problem Soii/wj Ccc*/>flt.'e.ul C o a l  1. the  p^^nce  Adapted f r o m C r i t e s , J . 0.  Career Maturity Inventory*  1973.  Theory and Research" Handbook f o r  Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a :  CTB/McQt^-Hill,  77 APPENDIX B. SCHOOL DISTRICTS WITH OYER If.,% OP LABOUR FORCE INVOLVED I N PRIMARY INDUSTRY S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No.  01 03 10 13 14 16 21 31 34 48 49 50 55 56 60 66 72 75 76 85 86 87 89  Fernie Kimberley Arrow l a k e s Kettle. Valley Southern Okanagan Keremeos Armstrong-Spallumcheen Merritt Abbotsford Howe Sound Ocean P a l l s Queen C h a r l o t t e Burns Lake Nechako Peace R i v e r N o r t h Lake Cowichan Campbell R i v e r Mission Agas s i i z - H a r r i son Vancouver I s l a n d N o r t h Creston-Kaslo Stikine Shuswap  1.  Fung, W. e t a l .  and Secondary C l a s s S i z e s  Percentage Total  Farming., F i s h i n g Hunting  Forestry Mining  15.0 15.7  2.6 2.8 3.8 13.4  12.4 13.7 14.7 10.6 2.5 4.7 3.4 13.0 0.8 14.0 9.1 13.9 12.3 10.2 5.5 15.9 13.0 6.8  18.5  24.0 23.4 33.1 23.7 19.0 17.3 15.3 20.2 19.4 19.8 16.6  17.1 16.4  16.0 16.2 20.0  23.2 19.9 15.1 17.6  20.9 28.4  20.2 6.0 16.5 1.3 11.1 5.5 7.5 6.4 11.6 0.5 3.0 9.4 11.9 3.9 11.9 2.2 11.3  8.1  19.3  8.0  12.9 6.3  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Secondary S c h o o l s and E l e m e n t a r y  1975-1976 (75-5433) Vancouver:  B. C. R e s e a r c h :  E d u c a t i o n a l Data S e r v i c e s , D i v i s i o n o f Communications, B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n , March  1976.  78  APPENDIX C STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l a s s i s t me a g r e a t d e a l . q u e s t i o n t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r knowledge.  P l e a s e answer each  I f y o u do n o t w i s h t o answer a  q u e s t i o n f o r whatever r e a s o n , y o u may l e a v e t h a t i t e m o u t . p l e t e d , y o u r answers w i l l r e m a i n s t r i c t l y  When com-  confidential.  1.  Age  years.  2.  Sex M o r F  3.  Date o f b i r t h :  4.  Place o f b i r t h :  5«  What i s y o u r F a t h e r ' s occupation?' ______________________^^  6.  What i s y o u r Mother's o c c u p a t i o n ? _______________________^^  7.  What i s t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n y o u r f a m i l y ? ( i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f )  8.  How l o n g have y o u l i v e d i n t h i s a r e a ? _____^_^_ _^^_ ____ ^, y e a r s .  9.  What do y o u p l a n t o do upon f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l ? ________________________^  . day Town  month ________________________ y e a r Province  mm  m  m  79  APPENDIX D SAMPLE OP LETTER CSP REQUEST TO SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPMINTENDENTS  I am a Master o f A r t s c a n d i d a t e i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. At p r e s e n t I am w o r k i n g on a t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f my degree r e q u i r e m e n t s . My a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i s i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l / c a r e e r development o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r e a r l y adolescent years. C a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g has undergone a number o f changes i n t h e p a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s , t h e emphasis h a v i n g s h i f t e d f r o m a f o c u s on " t r a i t - a n d f a c t o r " t y p e o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e t o a f o c u s on t h e p r o c e s s o f c a r e e r development. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s a l i f e - l o n g developmental p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l d u r i n g e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e , when s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o make c u r r i c u l a r and c o u r s e c h o i c e s w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r f u t u r e . The q u a l i t y o f t h e c h o i c e s made b y a d o l e s c e n t s a r e p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and p e r s o n a l adjustment d u r i n g l a t e r y e a r s . One o f t h e c r i t e r i a o f e f f e c t i v e c h o i c e - m a k i n g i s t h e l e v e l o f the student's career m a t u r i t y . C a r e e r M a t u r i t y i s a developmental concept i n t r o d u c e d by Donald E. Super i n 1953* T h i s concept has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s : C o n s i s t e n c y o f C a r e e r C h o i c e s , R e a l i s m o f Career C h o i c e s , C a r e e r C h o i c e Competencies, a n d C a r e e r C h o i c e A t t i t u d e s . The l a t t e r two dimens i o n s c a n be measured by t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y developed by John 0. C r i t e s o f Harvard u n i v e r s i t y . The purpose o f my s t u d y i s t o s u r v e y t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y and O c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n o f grade n i n e s t u d e n t s i n r u r a l and u r b a n a r e a s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e need f o r c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n courses. My needs a r e t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y t o about n i n e t y grade n i n e s t u d e n t s i n y o u r d i s t r i c t . P r e f e r e n c e s would be a n e q u a l number o f boys and g i r l s and t h a t t h e y be s e l e c t e d from academic courses. T h i s i n v e n t o r y s h o u l d n o t t a k e more t h a n one hour t o a d m i n i s t e r , and anonymity o f b o t h s t u d e n t s and s c h o o l s w i l l be r e s p e c t e d . I w o u l d be pleased t o r e t u r n t o the schools t o e x p l a i n t o i n t e r e s t e d students and s t a f f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y when completed.  80  I would l i k e t o t e l e p h o n e you on t h i s m a t t e r i n a few day's t i m e . Your c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l he g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Yours v e r y  truly,  George J . T e s l a , B.A. Graduate Student Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  V / i l l i a m A Borgen, Ph.D. Assistant Professor (Supervisor) Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology u n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  81  APPENDIX E RESPONSE HIGHLIGHTS OP STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE  Comparison o f F a t h e r s ' Group Rural Rural Urban Urban  Maies Females Males Females  a  O c c u p a t i o n Types  Rural Occupation  b Urban O c c u p a t i o n  33% 40 7 12  S t u d e n t s Undecided About F u t u r e O c c u p a t i o n s Group Rural Rural Urban Urban  Males Females Males Females  67% 60 93 88  0  P e r c e n t Undecided 28%  27% 37% 35%  TThe term " F a t h e r " i s i n t e n d e d t o mean "head o f h o u s e h o l d " .  a  R u r a l occupation types i n c l u d e a l l occupations d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y s u c h as f a r m i n g , f i s h i n g , m i n i n g , and l o g g i n g . These i n c l u d e s t u d e n t s who responded w i t h two o r more u n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , such as s o c i a l w o r k e r and e n g i n e e r .  Note:  Responses t o o t h e r i t e m s i n t h e Student Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were deemed t o be o f l i m i t e d v a l u e t o t h e s t u d y , o r were t o o g e n e r a l f o r analysis.  

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