UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of a group program for separated or divorced parents Hyde, Heather Rae 1979

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THE  DEVELOPMENT SEPARATED  OF  OR  A  GROUP  DIVORCED  PROGRAM  FOR  PARENTS  by  HEATHER B.A.,  A  U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS  of  SUBMITTED  THE  RAE  HYDE  B r i t i s h  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  Columbia,  1976  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  OF  THE  OF  ARTS  i n THE  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  Department C o u n s e l l i n g  We  a c c e p t t o  THE  t h i s t h e  t h e s i s  OF  March, (£)  H e a t h e r  of  P s y c h o l o g y  r e q u i r e d  UNIVERSITY  STUDIES  as  c o n f o r m i n g  s t a n d a r d  BRITISH 1979 Rae  Hyde  COLUMBIA  OF  In  p r e s e n t i n g  ments  f o r  an I  a v a i l a b l e  f o r  purposes h i s  agree  f o r  t h e s i s  advanced  Columbia,  m i s s i o n  t h i s  may  a l l o w e d  of  w i t h o u t  Department The  t h i s  of  by  I t  t h e s i s my  and  i s f o r  w r i t t e n  C o u n s e l l i n g  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada  2075  V6T  1W5  a t  the  L i b r a r y  f u l f i l m e n t U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l  study.  copying  granted  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  l i c a t i o n  the  r e f e r e n c e  be  p a r t i a l  degree  t h a t  e x t e n s i v e  i n  the  of  I  t h i s  Head  of  understood f i n a n c i a l p e r m i s s i o n .  Psychology Columbia  make  f u r t h e r t h e s i s my  the  of i t  f r e e l y  agree f o r  t h a t  p e r -  s c h o l a r l y  copying s h a l l  r e q u i r e -  B r i t i s h  Department  t h a t g a i n  of  not  or or be  by pub-  ABSTRACT  The  focus  POSI-COPE and  an A  of  group  t h i s  study  program  was  s e p a r a t e d  i t s  e f f i c i e n c y  of  survey  l i t e r a t u r e  there  was  a  group  programs  the  p a u c i t y f o r  of  the  f o r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  on  i n  s y s t e m a t i c  s e p a r a t e d  development  or  d i v o r c e d  and  t h i s  t h e  parents  e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  area  r e s e a r c h  parents  of  i n d i c a t e d  i n  coping  the  w i t h  t h a t  f i e l d  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p  d i s s o l u t i o n . U t i l i z i n g man  and  f o r  p l a n n i n g  a  Markman, and  Program  Development f o r m a t i v e  1978),  d e v e l o p i n g  the  Model  and  of  r e s e a r c h  summative  POSI-COPE  ( G o t t -  s t r a t e g i e s  program  were  implemented. Through t u r e ,  the  program 1.  a  d i s t i l l a t i o n  g o a l s  chosen  To  the  p r o v i d e f o r  a  the  themes  development  To and  i n t e n s i t y  share to  help  s o l v i n g ,  To  i n of  the the  of  a n x i e t y  f e e l i n g s  f a m i l y  encourage  a  l i t e r a POSI-COPE  a  group  e n v i r o n -  r e d u c t i o n d u r i n g  i n  the  p r o c e s s . r e l a t i o n s h i p  meet and  t h e i r  w h i c h  d i s s o l u t i o n  needs  e f f e c t i v e  r e d u c t i o n  i n  the  i n h i b i t  the  through  p r o b l e m a c c u m u l a t i o n process  change.  p a r t i c i p a n t s  and  to  e x p e r i e n c e d  about  f e e l i n g s to  r e a s s u r i n g  l e a d i n g  d i s s o l u t i o n  l e a d i n g  themselves  and  p a r t i c i p a n t s  n e g a t i v e  p o s i t i v e  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  v e n t i l a t i o n  of  s u p p o r t i v e  p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  3.  major  were:  ment  2.  f o r  of  t h e i r  to  be  b e h a v i o u r  r e s p o n s i b l e and  to  focus  f o r on  of  t h e i r of  s t r e n g t h s  t h e i r  COPE  m e n t a t i o n l a t t e r  of  t h i s  the  group  had  an  and  had  g a i n e d as  These  t h e  t o  v a l u e  extend  t h e of  i t s  t h e  s e l f  r e p o r t  feedback t h e  s u p p o r t i v e and about  the  t h e i r  t h a t  o f  the  minor  s t r a t e g y of  f o r  t h r o u g h  T r a i t  A n x i e t y  segment  o f  the  t h e  w a i t to  post  e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t  t h e i r  they  concerns  d i s s o l u t i o n  as  concerned  group  l e a d e r s ,  were They to  Tennessee l i s t  t e s t  t h e  components a l s o  t h e  i n d i -  program  study.  The  Concept  group.  hypotheses r e s u l t s  of  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Inventory,  S e l f  c o n t r o l  the  development i t s  S t a t e  used  The  these  had  p r o v i d e d  a s s e s s i n g  t h e  was  by  of  program.  the  measures,  ance  i m p l e -  l e n g t h .  s p e c i f i e d  t r e a t m e n t  some  t h e  POSI-  and  r e a s s u r i n g ,  m o d i f i c a t i o n s  goals  no  of  the  s e s s i o n  i d e n t i t i e s  t h r e e  a  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n f o r m a t i o n  success  c o n s i s t e d  and  sense  o f  generated  and  suggested  the  p o s t  r e s o l v e  t h e  S c a l e  custody  e f f i c i e n c y .  p a r t i c i p a n t s  a c h i e v i n g  Change  development  m o n i t o r i n g  t h a t  making  summative  program  g r e a t e r  i t s  a f f i r m i n g  and  a  and  share  f i n d i n g s  f a c i l i t a t e d  The COPE  as  t o  w i t h o u t  d e s c r i b i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  w e l l  f o r  The  as  t o  l e a d i n g  o r  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  o f  c o n f i r m e d  d i s c u s s i o n s  cated  use  environment  p a r e n t s .  and  program  o p p o r t u n i t y  process  t h a t  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  group  s t r a t e g y  t h e  ( w i t h  s e l f - e s t e e m .  c o n s i s t e d  i n v o l v e d  program  and  f o r m a t i v e  program  p a r e n t s  c h i l d r e n ) ,  autonomy The  as  t h e  use  i n  of  t h r e e  the  Adjustment  S c a l e  r e l a t i v e  A n a l y s i s  g e n e r a t e d  i n d i c a t e d  POSI-  of  w i t h i n  t h a t :  t o t o  c o v a r i t h i s  i v  1.  The  POSI-COPE  f o r  the  program  r e d u c t i o n  e x p e r i e n c e d  of  d u r i n g  d i d the  the  not  meet  t h e  i n t e n s i t y  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c r i t e r i a a n x i e t y  d i s s o l u t i o n  p r o c e s s . 2.  The  POSI-COPE  f o r  the  r e d u c t i o n  f e e l i n g s f a m i l y 3.  program  which  f o r  the  and  s e l f - e s t e e m  program  achievement  and  S e l f .  c r i t e r i a  of  s e l f  cussed  and  r e s e a r c h  I t  r a t i n g s  and  s u g g e s t i o n s  were  the  of  a  through  t h i s  M o r a l - E t h i c a l f o r ,  meet  the  a c c u m u l a t i o n  met  i n c r e a s i n g  P e r s o n a l  Reasons  not  process  c r i t e r i a of  of  n e g a t i v e  p o s i t i v e  change.  POSI-COPE  t i v e  the  i n h i b i t  The  Scores  of  d i d  on  S e l f ,  d e s c r i b e d .  the  g r e a t e r  not w h i c h  T o t a l F a m i l y  program  of  S e l f  the  were  to  Score, S e l f ,  autonomy  C r i t i c i s m of  r e m a i n i n g i n c r e a s e  P h y s i c a l and  these  c r i t e r i a  of  r a t i n g s  meet  change  seven  sense  r e d u c i n g  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  of  p o s i t i v e  d i d  g o a l  two  and  f o r  p o s i S e l f ,  S o c i a l  r e s u l t s  f i v e  S e l f .  were f u r t h e r  d i s -  V  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Chapter I  Page THE  SCOPE  OF  THE  I n t r o d u c t i o n The  Scope  STUDY and  and  Statement  of  1  Background  Purposes the  of  of  t h i s  t h i s  Study  . . . .  Study  4- '  Problem  6  P r o p o s i t i o n s  II  THE  7  O p e r a t i o n a l  D e f i n i t i o n  D e s c r i p t i o n  of  REVIEW  OF  the  SELECTED  NATURE  OF  of  Terms  F o l l o w i n g  8  Chapters  AND  STATEMENT  9  OF  STUDY  and  the  of  LITERATURE  THIS  Demographic Models  11  D e s c r i p t i v e  Research  R e l a t i o n s h i p  11  D i s s o l u t i o n  Process  15  P e r s p e c t i v e s Group  on  Programs  D i v o r c e f o r  C o u n s e l l i n g  Separated  or  32  D i v o r c e d  I n d i v i d u a l s Summary The  of  Nature  37 L i t e r a t u r e of  Statement  t h i s of  Review  ^9  Study  Program  ^9 Goals  and  S t r a t e g i e s F o r m a t i v e  ^9 (Process)  Development Summative  of  the  Approach POSI-COPE  (Outcome)  Development  III  1  of  the  Approach POSI-COPE  t o  the  Program to  50  the  Program  51  METHODOLOGY Sample,  53 R e f e r r a l  S u b j e c t s  to  D e s c r i p t i o n  Process  and  Assignment'  of  Groups  53  of  55  Instruments  Post  M e e t i n g  Response  Sheet  56  Post  Program  Response  Sheet  56  P o s i t i v e Program The  Coping  w i t h  F a m i l y  Change  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  S t a t e  Tennessee  T r a i t S e l f  A n x i e t y Concept  57 I n v e n t o r y S c a l e  57 58  v i  Chapter  Page D e s i g n  of  the  Study  60  Data  C o l l e c t i o n Procedures  6l  Data  Analyses  62  Summary  IV  63  DESCRIPTION ON  ITS  OF  THE  EFFICIENCY  Pre-Program  POSI-COPE AND  w i t h the  Sample  L o c a t i o n ,  D u r a t i o n  and  Cost  POSI-COPE  Program  The  64 65  of  the 69  Leaders  Goals  of  D e s c r i p t i o n S e s s i o n  the of,  POSI-COPE and  Program  E f f i c i e n c y  POSI-COPE  S e s s i o n  I  I n t r o d u c t i o n  S e s s i o n  II  P e s nd e s a r  of  70  the  a S a S P  64-  V o l u n t e e r s  of  Group  FINDINGS  DISCUSSION  C o n t a c t  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  PROGRAM,  -  of  70 Each  Program  72 72  R e l a t i o n s h i p  D i s s o l u t i o n  as  rocess s i o n III - C h i l d r e n , F a m i l y Change Communication s i o n IV - Communication S k i l l s and e n t i n g  S e s s i o n F a m i l y  V  S e s s i o n  VI  Questions S e s s i o n and  -  C h i l d r e n s '  Change: -  F a m i l y  and  VII"  Community  R e a c t i o n s  S t r a t e g i e s  f o r  C o u r t  77 79 81  to  P a r e n t s  83  C o u n s e l l o r s :  Answers —  85  C h i l d r e n ,  P e r s o n a l  Coping  Resources  S e s s i o n V I I I - Support Resources and Wrapup P o s t  Program  Feedback  Post  Program  C o n t a c t  87 Systems,  Community 89 •  w i t h  P a r t i c i p a n t s  91 96  D i s c u s s i o n of the F i n d i n g s on the E f f i c i e n c y of the I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the POSI-COPE Program  V  FINDINGS PROGRAM  ON AND  96  THE  EFFECTIVENESS  OF  THE  DISCUSSION  Tests  of  E q u i v a l e n c y  Tests  of  Hypotheses  POSI-COPE 101  Between  Groups  101 103  v i i  Chapter  Page D i s c u s s i o n of E f f e c t i v e n e s s  VI  SUMMARY, CHANGE  the F i n d i n g s on the of the POSI-COPE Program  CONCLUSIONS,  AND  FOR  SUGGESTIONS  FURTHER  FOR:  . . . . . . .  I l l  PROGRAM  RESEARCH  115  Summary  115  C o n c l u s i o n s  116  Suggestions  f o r  Program  Change  117  Suggestions  f o r  F u r t h e r  Research  117  B i b l i o g r a p h y  . . . .  Appendices  118  128  A  Memorandum  to  F a m i l y  B  Post  M e e t i n g  Response  Sheet  132  C  Post  Program  Response  Sheet  13^  D  P o s i t i v e  Coping  C o u r t  w i t h  C o u n s e l l o r s  F a m i l y  Change  129  Program  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e E  F  136  S e l f R a t i n g s of Adjustment (Pre-Treatment) the Treatment and the C o n t r o l Groups (Home and H e a l t h )  f o r  S e l f R a t i n g s of Adjustment (Pre-Treatment) the Treatment and the C o n t r o l Groups  f o r  140  ( R e l a t i o n s h i p s ) G  H  Ratings of D u r i n g the Treatment H e l p f u l Change  1M  the Two  Sources of Support and Help Months P r i o r t o the S t a r t of 1^2  Books  -  P o s i t i v e  Coping  w i t h  F a m i l y  Program  I  Post  J  D i v o r c e s  K  M a r i t a l  L<  Post  M e e t i n g  Response  Sheet  Comments-Session  M  Post  M e e t i n g  Response  Sheet  Comments  N  M e e t i n g  1^3  Response  W i t h i n  a  Sheet  D i v o r c e  III  E x c e r p t  from  of  Loss  1^5 14-6  Handout  1^7 II  .  1^8  -  Prophet  by  K a h i l  G i b r a n 150  0  Communication  P  To  W i t h  ..  1^9 The  Handout  Do  I  Handout  D i s s o l u t i o n / P h a s e s  S e s s i o n  Comments-Session  Roadblocks  F e e l i n g s  Handout  E x e r c i s e  151 156  v i i i  Appendix Q  R  Page  Post M e e t i n g S e s s i o n IV  Response  Post  Response  M e e t i n g  S e s s i o n S  Sheet  Comments  159  Response  R i g h t s  U  P a r e n t s  V  Community  Resource  W  Community  Resources  X  Post  Are  M e e t i n g  Sheet  Comments  160  B i l l  Z  158  T  Y  Comments  V  Post M e e t i n g S e s s i o n VI of  Sheet  f o r  F o r e v e r  C h i l d r e n  Handout  l6l  Pamphlet Pamphlets  162 D i s p l a y e d  166  Handout  Response  Sheet  168 Comments  -  S e s s i o n  VII  170  Network  E x e r c i s e  171  Post  M e e t i n g  S e s s i o n  Response  Sheet  Comments  -  V I I I  Program  172  AA  Post  BB  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Pre Test and P o s t Test V a r i a b l e s : P r e - T r a i t A n x i e t y (TrAnx), P r e Adjustment t o Change (PreACh), P o s t - S t a t e A n x i e t y (StAnx), P o s t - A d j u s t m e n t to Change (PosACh), S e l f C r i t i c i s m ( S e l f C r i t ) , T o t a l Score ( T o t S c ) , P h y s i c a l S e l f (PhyS), M o r a l E t h i c a l S e l f (Mor-EthS), P e r s o n a l S e l f (PerS), F a m i l y S e l f (FamS), and S o c i a l S e l f (SocS)  Response  Sheet  Comments  173  175  i x  LIST  OF  TABLES  Table 1  Page Demographic Treatment  2  3  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  C o n t r o l  of  the  Groups  67  H e l p f u l n e s s of the POSI-COPE Program S e s s i o n s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean Ratings o n a 5P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the Method of P r e s e n t a t i o n of the POSI-COPE Program S e s s i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean Ratings o n a 5P o i n t L i k e r t .. S c a l e  4-  5  6 7  P o s t Four Mean  76 Program Aspects Ratings  Ratings of S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h of the POSI-COPE Program: o n a 5P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e  9^  P o s t  95  Program  Tests  of  Responses  E q u i v a l e n c y  Between  Groups  on  V a r i a b l e s  Means  and  A d j u s t e d  102 Means  f o r  the  Dependent  V a r i a b l e s 9  92  P o s t Program Ratings of H e l p f u l n e s s of F i v e Components of the POSI-COPE Program: Mean R a t i n g s o n a 5P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e  S i x 8  76  E f f e c t s of the POSI-COPE Treatment Nine Outcome Measures: A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e  104 on 106  X  LIST  gure  OF  FIGURES  Pag D e s i g n  of  the  study  6 l  x i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My  work  e f f o r t s I  of  J .  and  Dr.  N.  I  have  the of  my  t h i s  s e v e r a l  would  Dr.  of  on  l i k e  F r i e s e n ,  s t a n d i n g  .  been  g r e a t l y  a s s i s t e d  by  t h e  to  my  f o r  the  my  g r a t i t u d e  committee t h e i r  South  p r o v i d e d  by  Vancouver  my  members,  guidance  a p p r e c i a t e d  to  the  and  R.  from  Conry  feedback.  c o o p e r a t i o n  F a m i l y  i n d i v i d u a l s  Dr.  chairman,  Court  and  support  o f f i c e  F a m i l y  and  S e r v i c e s  Vancouver.  F i n a l l y , f o r  express  e s p e c i a l l y  a s s i s t a n c e  f r i e n d s  to  and  at  has  p e o p l e .  Amundson,  f r i e n d s  G r e a t e r  t h e s i s  I  would  t h e i r  l i k e  ongoing  to  s i n c e r e l y  encouragement,  thank  my  p a t i e n c e  f a m i l y and  and under-  D e d i c a t e d  my K a t i e  Mary  to  the  memory  of  grandmother, Matthews  (1891-1978)  1  CHAPTER  THE  I n t r o d u c t i o n  The  and  s o c i a l  emergence  of  of  the  e s p e c i a l l y  m a t i o n  of  t i o n  Courts  t h i s  f i e l d  a p p l i e d  courts c o u r t of  1939  In  S i n c e  system  i n  Edmonton.  t r e n d  i n  B r i t i s h  conference In System  of i n  1980, w h i c h  Supreme  Court  the  i n  1973).  the and  and  n o t a b l y  a d d i t i o n , the  C o n c i l i a t i o n i n  Vancouver  w i l l  s e r v i c e s  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  f o r -  C o n c i l i a i n  as  sponsored  by  Toronto  the  i n  c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h i n and  as  the an  f a m i l y i n d i c a t i o n  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Courts  h e l d  t h e i r  annual  1978.  the  under of  the  s e r v i c e s  i n  most  s i n c e  has  development  was  h e l d  Angeles  t r e n d  F a m i l y  s o c i a l  s e v e r a l  Columbia,  combine  of  the  Los  This  f i r s t  which  by  i n  America  i n t e r -  p e r v a s i v e  marked  time,  In  the  concept  North  law  Vancouver  w i l l  of  A s s o c i a t i o n  developed,  F a m i l y  s o c i o - l e g a l  was  c o u r t  F a m i l y  t h a t  a  treatment  p r o c e e d i n g s , the  Study  toward  ( E l k i n ,  on  been  A s s o c i a t i o n  t h i s  Canada,  seminar  of  STUDY  breakdown  prominent  d i v o r c e  1973•  of  the  have  the  posed  a  I n s t i t u t e  January,  i n  I963.  was  to  to  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  i n  THE  t r e n d  f a m i l y  C a l i f o r n i a  the  a  OF  c o n c i l i a t i o n  become  V a n i e r  of  approach  problem  County,  Background  b e g i n n i n g  d i s c i p l i n a r y  SCOPE  I  have  a  new  present one  more  r o o f .  U n i f i e d  F a m i l y Vinge  e x t e n s i v e  F a m i l y  Court  C o u r t  and  (1978)  p r o -  c o n c i l i a t i o n  2  c o u r t  s e r v i c e s  velopment. and  i n  The  p r e s e r v i n g  Vancouver  f o c u s  of  f a m i l y  to  c o i n c i d e  w i t h  these  s e r v i c e s  i s  l i f e  c h i l d r e n  through  the  s e r v i c e s  and  p r o m o t i o n  This who  s h o u l d have  the  m e d i a t i o n  of  an  c o n t r o v e r s i e s F o r  the  c e s s i b i l i t y  to  p r o c e d u r e s ,  a  the  the  i n  l e s s  r e s o l u t i o n  c o n f l i c t s ,  of  p e r s o n a l  or  (Savage,  s e p a r a t i o n The  p i l o t  focus  c o n c i l i a t i o n  chosen support  to  w h i l e  Coping  w i t h  (197^-)  s t a t e d  growing  This  need  p a s s i n g need  i s  from  a d j u s t i n g This  t h a t  through  domestic  and  an  l e g a l  i n  s i t u a t i o n s .  i n c r e a s e d  and  a c -  b u r e a u c r a t i c  dependence  a d v e r s a r i a l  the  f a m i l y  on  s o c i a l  system  the  power  through  an  emphasis  the  e m o t i o n a l  i s  t h e i r to  i s  on  spouse  f o r  r e t e n t i o n  process  on  of  d i v o r c e  f o r  who  p a r e n t s  h e l p  e m o t i o n a l  r e a l i t y  of  r e f e r r e d  trends  l i f e many  of  r e q u e s t  designed  i n  development  and  Program  s i m i l a r  the  s e r v i c e  the  p r e s e n t  r e i t e r a t e d  h e l p - a n d  i n  study  Change  groups  f o r  spouses  1977)•  s e r v i c e  F a m i l y  f o r  an  c o u n s e l l i n g  s e p a r a t e  s e p a r a t i o n .  are  t h i s  of  an  c o o p e r a t i o n .  some  system  means  of  c o u n s e l l i n g  i n c r e a s e  r e s o l v i n g  of  t h i s  on  and  r i g h t s  u n r e c o n c i l e d  decrease  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and  i n  workings  r e l i a n c e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  c o u r t  de-  s t r e n g t h e n i n g  the  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of  c r i s i s ,  i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  new  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  spouses  i n n e r  on  s h o r t - t e r m  s e t t l e m e n t • o f  c o n c o m i t a n t  of  of  f a m i l y  other  f a m i l y  of  the  amicable  f o r  p r o t e c t i n g  p r o v i s i o n  f a c i l i t a t e  approached  and  t h i s  to  as  the  a  P o s i t i v e Morgan  i n  suggest  to  work  accommodate  stages  or  s t u d i e s  on  and  t h e i r  (POSI-COPE). group  have  people  t r a n s i t i o n s . the  l i f e  a who  3 s i t u a t i o n  Sussman,  1976;  c o u r t  w o r k i n g  the to  t i t l e  b o t h  s t r o n g  f o r  i n s i d e  (Guyatt, K i t s o n  1971;  Ladbrook,  197^;  or  may  both  be  program of  and  l e g a l l y  are  the  and  because  was  developed  1977  l a y  dormant  c o n -  the  concern  f o r W h i l e  summer  c o n s i d e r  of  p a r t i c -  c u s t o d y /  c o u r t .  The or  t h i s  p o s t -  form  of  r e a l  problem,  v e r y  much  c o n -  have  each  between  a  the  o t h e r  t e r m i n a t e d .  t h a t  to  the  t h a t  are  d e s t r u c t i v e l y  attachment  to  h i d i n g  anger  program  and  l o n g - t e r m  s t a t e s  from  r e c o g n i z e d  p o s t s e p a r a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e  d u r i n g  i n t o  i s  a  need  c o n t r o v e r s i e s .  o u t s i d e  (1977)  as  program  l o c k e d  was  r e t u r n i n g  w e l l  C o u r t  group  t h i s  C o u n s e l l o r s  l o n g - t e r m  d i v o r c e  POSI-COPE c h i l d r e n  as  smokescreen  emotions  h o s t i l e  summer  the  system,  f a m i l i e s  c o n f l i c t s  E l k i n  e m o t i o n a l  the  t h a t  c o n t i n u i n g The  these  these  one  m a r r i a g e  case  of  d i s p u t e s ,  p a r e n t s  o f t e n  t h a t  t h e i r  the  of  f o r  i s  s o l v e d  i n  i n  l i t i g a t i o n .  by  the  f r e q u e n c y  r e s o l v e  needs  nected  Fox,  p a r e n t s  Court  a  f o r m a l  chosen  F a m i l y  developed  d i s p u t e s  i s  and  C o u r t  s e p a r a t e d  w r i t e r  access  t h e i r  f o r  F a m i l y  the  w h i c h  Development,  F a m i l y  Vancouver  l i t i g a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s  Brown  the  u l a r l y  d i v o r c e  S o c i a l  among  e m b r o i l e d  the  1977  of  f o r  on  Vancouver  s e r v i c e s  system  c h i l d r e n  d i v o r c e d  Brandwein,  d i s c u s s i o n  s i d e r a t i o n  or  197*0. the  support  through  C o u n c i l  1977;  S e l i g , W i t h i n  f o r  s e p a r a t e d  Canadian  1971; and  of  not  y e t  even  Parents i t  i s  though were  f r e q u e n t l y  i m p l i c a t e d  spouses  f o r  these  u n t i l  e a r l y  r e -  i n  ( E l k i n ,  t h i s  1977)•  i n d i v i d u a l s i n  1978  when  4 the  South  and  the  Team  Group  L o c a l  Programs  G r e a t e r  Vancouver  i n  May,  1978.  a l  of  the  Group a  Programs  s i v e l y  The  Scope  and  This program  program format  study  f i r s t and  and  the  of  two  use  used  The  gram  implemented,  e f f i c i e n t .  was  on  the  and  i s  o f t e n  p l a n n i n g The ness  l a t t e r  of  the  the  use  t h i s  the  C o u r t  S e r v i c e s the  r e c e i v e d  and  of  program the  approv-  D i r e c t o r  of  program  as  program  was  e x t e n -  The of  Chapter  IV)  s t r a t e g y  POSI-COPE  Program  the  by  of  needs  i n  a  the  t h i s  d e s c r i b e  of  about and  s e c t i o n  the  the  and  to  c l i e n t s  how  the  p r o -  s p e c i f i c were, of  the  d e v e l o p i n g  f o r m a t i v e  o f  program  program  the  the  m o n i t o r i n g  the  s e s s i o n ,  implementing as  POSI-COPE  d e s c r i p t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  elements  to  a  d e s c r i b e  meeting  emphasis  the  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  program.  s e s s i o n  of  s t r a t e g i e s .  i n c l u d e d  p r o v i d e d  r e f e r r e d  second  r u n  development  f u r t h e r  i n  what  process  (See  the to  s e r v e d .  about  and  F a m i l y  Study  to  This  of  e f f i c i e n c y  not,  was  g o a l s .  assess  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h i s  the  were  was  of  on  techniques i t s  to  time,  F a m i l y  and  s t a f f  S e r v i c e s  focused  c o n t e n t  from  requested  t h a t  s t r a t e g y  i t s  Vancouver  m o d i f i e d .  Purposes  through  The  At  and  the  cosponsor  support  F a m i l y  p r o j e c t .  expanded  to  w r i t e r  Court  a t  from  C o o r d i n a t o r  agreed  The  F a m i l y  r e s e a r c h  Manager  approach  or  were  study  program to  program  . was  program  to  a s s e s s  and  i t s  the goals  o v e r a l l through  e f f e c t i v e the  use  5 of  s e v e r a l  t r e a t m e n t v i d e d  a  s e l f - r e p o r t group  f u r t h e r  c l a r i f y i n g the  and  study  i t s was  on  i s  program  p l a n n i n g  Program  a d a p t a t i o n  r e s e a r c h .  C a r t e r  a  of  p l e m e n t i n g  Model  and  and  the  cess  implementing  was  to  a t o m i s t i c  w h i c h and  moving  a n a l y s i s  o p t i m i z e s  the  improvement  mented  and  Bolman,  f o r  of  Edwards  1977;  emphasized  a c t i o n  r e s e a r c h  of  d a t a the  s t a t e d  about  focus t h a t  the  t h a t  model  (1973)  t h i s  and  an  and  f o r  use  of  d e v e l o p i n g approach  to  the  of  q u a l i t y  f o r  Y a r v i s ,  i t  of  or  s p e c i f i c  or  method  of  the  t h i s  form  u s i n g of  the  and  and  or  approach  m o d i f i c a t i o n  b e i n g  i m p l e and  t h i s  and  two-stage  r e l e v a n t ,  i n  use-  the  change  O e t t i n g  (1977)  p l a n n i n g  p r o i t  events  B l a c k w e l l  needs  program.  program  was  •  g e n e r a t i o n  success  i m -  ( B l a c k w e l l  1977)  b e n e f i t  on  impact,  of  format  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s  was  c o n t r o l  immediate  w h i l e  study  b o t h  f i n a l  c h r o n i c l i n g a  of  program.  f o r  to  type  emphasis  d e v e l o p i n g  outcome  (1978)  psychotherapy  t h i s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a  framework  i n  system  the  p r o -  of  Markmans'  i t s  the  the  s e c t i o n  r e s e a r c h  c a l l e d  because  program  of  t h i s  and  and  and  summative  Gottman  beyond  i s  i n  of  This  program  program a  of  a  group.  of  a c t i o n  o p p o r t u n i t y  f u t u r e  Bolman  f u l  the  as  members  V). an  new of  p r o v i d e  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ; an  a  development  p o s s i b l e  to  of  Wharf  shaping  outcome  advocated  e x p l o r a t i o n '  Through of  w i t h i n  t h e  emphasis  or  Chapter  f a l l s  an  The  "by  c o n t r o l  d e s c r i b i n g  r e f e r r e d  (See  Development  ' p r o j e c t  of  impact  o f t e n  study  u t i l i z e s  the  completed  w a i t - l i s t  o b j e c t i v e s .  and  and  the  means  program  This  measures  f a c i l i t a t e s  6 s y s t e m a t i c proaches  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  to  e s p e c i a l l y p l o r a t o r y  s y s t e m a t i c  a p p r o p r i a t e (Edwards  This  the  o r i e n t a t i o n  to  F r a n k l i n  e x t e r n a l l y  elements  of  designed  f o r  of  the  i n i t i a l  new  i n t e r n a l  are  and  ex-  of  p e r s p e c t i v e  an  e x t e r n a l  i n t e r n a l  r e s e a r c h  f r e q u e n t l y  u s u a l l y  of  l i k e l y  T h e r e f o r e ,  t h i s  study  and  p o t e n t i a l  product i n  p r o -  ' u t i l i t y '  more  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  as  c o n s u l t a n t .  i s  process  i n v o l v e d  the  s e p a r a t e d e x i s t i n g  s p e c i f i c  of  goals  p o p u l a t i o n . and  I t  but  to  have  was  not  emphasized  i n f o r m a t i o n  terms  program  development  p a r e n t s .  programs a  content  and a l s o  meet  of  program  p l a n n i n g  and  of  the  i n  format needs an the  use  s t r a t e g i e s .  a  group  i n c l u d e d  r e p o r t e d  i n v o l v e d  through  of  This  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  summative  i s  program  Problem  development  e f f i c i e n c y  group  r e s e a r c h  and  t h i s  a p -  change.  study  of  t a r g e t  both  the  v e s t i g a t i o n  achieve  of  an  most  conducted  and  f o r  the  i s  p r e d i c t i o n  (POSI-COPE)  and  which  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  development  This  (1976)  ' c r e d i b i l i t y ' .  g e n e r a t i o n  Statement  from  of  These  1975)•  G u t t e n t a g ,  w i t h  w h i l e  had  t h i s  done  i n f o r m a t i o n  which  "because  and  change.  e v a l u a t i o n  was  v i d e s  the  program  study  c o n t r a s t e d A c c o r d i n g  the  and  of  the  an  i n -  l i t e r a t u r e  geared a  program  to  s p e c i f i c  i n v e s t i g a t i o n program of  of  d u r i n g  f o r m a t i v e  and  i t s  7 P r o p o s i t i o n s  The  f o l l o w i n g  development  1.  of  The  were  the  POSI-COPE  t e r m i n a t i o n  o r g a n i z i n g f a m i l y  2.  the  ment the  t h e i r  There  i s  A  an  the  of  a  b e i n g w e l l  and  i n  of  d i s a  1977)  need  t h e i r  have  not  y e t  i n  a  group  and  r e l a t i o n -  program  i n d i v i d u a l  l e g a l  and  w i t h change  c h i l d r e n  f o r  Vancouver.  r e s o l u t i o n  and  r e s o l v e d  l e g a l  t i m e - l i m i t e d group  the  a t t a c h -  •  f o r  p a r e n t s  argue  c o n t i n u i n g  t h e i r  the  the  i m p l i c a t e  of  growth  1977) •  t h e i r  spouse,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  as  access  d e s t r u c t i v e l y  s e p a r a t e d  of  a i n  c o n t i n u a l l y  t e r m i n a t i o n  e f f e c t i v e  trauma  who  the  a  i n  i s  process  of  s u p p o r t i v e  f o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  trauma  ( E l k i n ,  s e p a r a t e d  4.  and  e m o t i o n a l  s h i p  used  c h i l d r e n .  custody  p h y s i c a l  a  r e o r g a n i z i n g  c h i l d r e n to  p r o p o s i t i o n s program:  of  p a r e n t s  c h i l d r e n , t h e i r  and  w i t h  Separated over  3.  b a s i c  of  program  may  the  f a c i l i t a t e  e m o t i o n a l  p h y s i c a l the f o r  t e r m i n a t i o n  p o t e n t i a l the  p a r e n t  ( W a l l e r s t e i n  and  b e n e f i t s as K e l l y ,  8  5.  An  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  of  change  week  The  6.  can  g o a l s  program  of  and  c o p i n g  An  s e s s i o n  meetings  P a r t i c i p a n t . a s s o c i a t e d s e p a r a t e d of  the  w e e k l y  Program  f o r  and  tempo  an  eight  i n  are  format  of  the  f a m i l y  group  of  the  and  POSI-COPE  study.  change  program  Chapter  who  conducted  c o p i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p  d i v o r c e d  w i t h  ( w i t h  v o l u n t a r i l y at  (POSI-COPE).  i n  weekly  the  d i s s o l u t i o n ,  parents  f o r  program  two  IV).  i n d i v i d u a l  program  a c c o m p l i s h a b l e  Terms  w i t h  c h i l d r e n )  POSI-COPE  of  (See  w i t h  the  d e s i g n  An  or  group  w i t h i n  P o s i t i v e  hour  change  accommodated  the  D e f i n i t i o n  e i g h t  he  f o r  program.  measurable  O p e r a t i o n a l  c a p a c i t y  l e a s t  or  changes i n c l u d i n g  w i t h o u t  p a r t i c i p a t e d  f i v e  of  s t r a t e g y .  A  the  custody i n  the  e i g h t  s e s s i o n s .  development  s t r a t e g i e s ;  F o r m a t i v e / m o n i t o r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n assessment i . e .  the  and/or  of  the the  program  f a c t o r s  through  and  e f f i c i e n c y  s u i t a b i l i t y  the  outcomes  of  of  t h a t  the  use  the  of  g o a l s  i t s  design  p r e v e n t of  i t s  s y s t e m a t i c  or  and  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , of  the  program  f a c i l i t a t e  s e l f - r e p o r t e d  r a t i n g s .  9 Summative/impact o v e r a l l  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  through  the  i a b l e s  D e s c r i p t i o n  T h i s ography  of  the  an  i n t r o d u c t i o n  w i l l  the  o v e r v i e w  of  the  an  o v e r v i e w  of  s e l e c t e d  of  m a r i t a l  c o u n s e l l i n g d i v i d u a l s , p r o c e s s , s e l l i n g  developed leads gram  summarizes  and  segment  a  a  d e s c r i p t i o n  or  t e c h n i q u e s development  Hypotheses  f o r  the  g e n e r a t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n  about  c r i p t i o n  the  and  of  d i s c u s s i o n .  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  i n  impact a t  t h i s  of  Chapter the  II.  of  the  POSI-COPE  Chapter  program  the and  This p r o -  f o r m a t i v e  of  t h i s  on  s t u d y  c o n t a i n s  p r o v i d e s  f i n d i n g s  summarizes  POSI-COPE  programs  program.  III  IV  c o u n -  s p e c i f i c  the  component  C h a p t e r  i n -  d i v o r c e  i n d i v i d u a l s .  c o n s t i t u t e  p o i n t .  f o r  d i s s o l u t i o n  group  and  and  p e r v a -  d i v o r c i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p  outcome  an  p r o v i d e s  need  on  b i b l i -  program  the  g o a l s  a  p r o v i d e s  r e p o r t s  r e p o r t i n g  the  p l u s  II  and/or  the  program, V  g o a l s  v a r -  Chapter  documents  w h i c h  methodology.  POSI-COPE  the  i t s  C h a p t e r  POSI-COPE  w h i c h  program  or  and  chapters  s t u d y .  d i v o r c e d  of  the  a l s o  the  l i t e r a t u r e  s e p a r a t e d  of  dependent  c h a p t e r  s e p a r a t i n g  of  are  the  t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  summarizes  m o n i t o r i n g  t h i s  models  f o r  i n t o  of  l i t e r a t u r e  f o r  program  s i x  f i r s t  d i s s o l u t i o n ,  s e r v i c e s  p r o v i d e s  of  of  i n t o  The  scope  the  assessment  Chapters  background  an  An  s p e c i f i e d  o r g a n i z e d  appendix.  to  be  F o l l o w i n g  i s  of  measurement  w h i c h  t h e s i s  and  s i v e n e s s  s t r a t e g y .  i t s  f i n d i n g s  a  d e s -  e f f i c i e n c y on  d i s c u s s i o n .  the The  s i x t h and  and  f i n a l  c h a p t e r  s u g g e s t i o n s ' f o r  used  i n  t h i s  t h e s i s  n a i r e s  the  and  f u r t h e r  development appear  p r o v i d e s  i n  e x e r c i s e s  of  the  the  summary,  r e s e a r c h . t h i s  program  B i b l i o g r a p h y .  appear  i n  the  Books and  c o n c l u s i o n s , and  the  Forms,  a p p e n d i x .  a r t i c l e s w r i t i n g  of  q u e s t i o n -  11  CHAPTER  REVIEW  OF  SELECTED  OF  A  "brief  r e v i e w  r e s e a r c h  w h i c h  s o l u t i o n  and  or  THE  the  documents  the  LITERATURE  NATURE  of  need  OF  the  f o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  d i s s o l u t i o n  process  programs been  f o r  r e p o r t e d  c h a p t e r  i n  the  c l i m a x e s  or  are  are  a  d e s c r i p t i v e of  d i v o r c e d  m a r i t a l  s e r v i c e s Models  d e s c r i b e d  d i s c u s s e d .  l i t e r a t u r e ,  w i t h  and  p r e s e n t e d .  c o u n s e l l i n g  s e p a r a t e d  STUDY  c o u n s e l l i n g i s  d i v o r c e  THIS  STATEMENT  p e r v a s i v e n e s s  i n d i v i d u a l s  on  AND  demographic  d i v o r c i n g  t i v e s  II  f o r  d e s c r i p t i o n  s e p a r a t i n g  of  the  and  p e r s p e c -  F i n a l l y ,  i n d i v i d u a l s ,  are  the  group  w h i c h  summarized. of  d i s -  have  This  nature  of  t h i s  study.  Demographic  The the  Canada  100,000 t i o n s  197^»  cent  i n  used  1973  S t a t i s t i c s  Sun, i n  p e o p l e  t h a t  crease.  D e s c r i p t i v e  l a t e s t  Vancouver  leads  and  and  the  the i n  Canada  B r i t i s h  (1976) has  d i v o r c e  S t a t i s t i c s  Canada  f i g u r e s  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  number  d i v o r c e  P e t e r s  the  1978)  Research  of  d i v o r c e s  C o l u m b i a ) .  r a t e  i s  averaged r a t e . Canada  B r i t i s h g r a n t e d  There  c o n t i n u i n g  r e p o r t e d a  t h a t  A c c o r d i n g f i g u r e s ,  to  between  y e a r l y  r e p o r t e d  (1976  to the  h i s  Columbia d i v o r c e s /  (333  are  a l s o  i n d i c a -  r a p i d l y the  i n c r e a s e  years of  study,  average  i n  7«7  i n -  1969 p e r  which marriage  12  which  t e r m i n a t e d  y e a r s .  Many  years o r  of  s e p a r a t i o n ,  (1976)  i n  Canada  d i s s o l u t i o n  couples  t h a t w i t h  i n d i c a t e s  the  l a r g e  number  i n d i v i d u a l s  In  a  (1971), cussed and  needs a  f o r  and  made  The  C o u n c i l  study  the  c o u n c i l  sary  concept  s e p a r a t e d ment l e g a l  of  on  l e s s  t h a t  C o u n c i l  community  a p p r o p r i a t e  to  the t h a t  S o c i a l  w i t h  of  the  i n  Canada  i n  d i s -  p a r e n t i n g  (1971) f a m i l y to  the  community of  r e s o u r c e s .  the  d i v o r c e d  worked  c o n -  to  a d v e r and  the  d e t r i -  suggested  t h a t  ithe  i n d i v i d u a l s  from  o t h e r  and  s o c i a l  r e s o l v i n g  Development  r e s o u r c e s  be  m o b i l i z e d  the  of  newly  needs  r e l a t i n g  o f t e n  i n f o r m -  Guyatt  parent  the  i n  p a r e n t s .  u s e f u l n e s s  They  c o u n s e l l i n g  mechanisms on  i t  d i v o r c e .  f a m i l y  s i n g l e  of  breakdown  breakdown.  Development  i s s u e s  t h r e e  among  m a r i t a l  of  or  This  s e r v i c e s  one  12  d i v o r c e s  a s s i s t a n c e  the  the  of  surveyed.  o t h e r  of  l e g a l  p a r e n t  were  S o c i a l  c h i l d r e n .  as  one  two  m a r i t a l  the  by  development  c o l l a b o r a t e  such  d e s t r u c t i v e  Canadian  the  grounds  p r o f e s s i o n  on  q u e s t i o n e d  and  f o r  c o u n s e l l i n g , w i t h  "by  c h i l d r e n .  a f f e c t e d the  of  cent  recommendations  s e t t l i n g  p a r e n t s  d i s c i p l i n e s ,  and  members  the  per  problems  p o l i c y  i n  56.7  parents  Canadian  concept  b e f o r e  on  e x p e r i e n c e s  s o c i a l  adversary  Guyatt  f a m i l y  on  evidence  need  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  preceded  l o n g  p o t e n t i a l  s i n g l e  f o r  group  a  by  of  need  The ducted  study  are  f o r  dependent  a t i o n  of  l a s t e d  p r o v i d i n g  r e p o r t e d  i n v o l v e d  1973  d i v o r c e  d i v o r c e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  P e t e r s  w i t h  i s s u e s .  a l s o to  work,  develop  The  recommended  p r o v i d e  s e p a r a t e d  t o  s e r v i c e s  i n d i v i d u a l s .  13 In  a d d i t i o n ,  continuous  the  c o u n c i l  e v a l u a t i o n  of  a r t i c l e  on  the  Sussman  (1977)  s t r e s s e d  the  p r o j e c t s  to  importance  of  c o n s i s t e n t l y  the improve  s e r v i c e s . In K i t s o n  an and  c r e a s i n g m a r i t a l  w i t h  groups  s i t u a t i o n to  a d d i t i o n a l  s o c i a l  i n d i v i d u a l s  and  a  cope  and  w i t h and  s h o r t - t e r m and  to  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n ment.  He  This p a r e n t  need  (197^-) s o c i a l  f a m i l i e s .  was who  form  of  i n -  long  i s  through  a  a  need  t h e i r  l i f e t h a t  developed by  the  p o t e n t i a l  suggested  f o r  s i m i l a r  recommended be  b e f o r e  a d u l t  p r e d i c t e d  generated  they  i s  t h a t  the  p r o v i d e  to  h e l p  d i s s o l u t i o n for-  growth  programs  be  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  support. conducted q u a l i t y  ideas  f o r  r e s e a r c h  f o r  be  t h e r e  programs  t h a t  a d u l t s ,  not  a l s o  (1977)  i n c r e a s e  on  d i v o r c e  may  p a s s i n g  and  c o u n s e l l i n g  f u r t h e r  f a m i l i e s  Fox the  and  i t  t h a t  c r i s e s  and  t h a t  (197^)  They  the  p r e s e n t e d  e d u c a t i o n a l suggested  of  d i v o r c e  expected  Sussman  the  s o c i a l  (1973)  B a r r i n g e r  on  people  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  c o u n s e l l i n g  an  emphasized  supports  r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e l a t i v e l y  and  and  K i t s o n  t h a t  Morgan  accommodate  t r a n s i t i o n s .  ©f  becomes  c r i s i s .  of  concluded  f r e q u e n c y  d i s s o l u t i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t a l s i m i l a r  such  impact  on  emphasized d i d  s i t u a t i o n  an of  study  of  of  t h e i r  p o s t d i v o r c e  improving  s e r v i c e s i n  r e s e a r c h  a  t h i s the a l s o  e x t e n s i v e d i v o r c e d  s i n g l e  and  f o r  p a r e n t s ' a d j u s t -  expanding  s i n g l e  p a r e n t s  and  a r e a . t r e a t m e n t by  of  s i n g l e  Brandwein,  s u r v e y mothers  of  Brown,  the  and  l i t e r a t u r e  t h e i r  (1976),  Ladbrook i n g  to  t h r e e  the  s t r a t e g i e s  d i v o r c e  f a c i l i t i e s ;  t h a t  d e f i n i t e be  takes  d e c i s i o n  need  to  p o r t  f a c i l i t i e s , group  met  to  and  proceedings  the  adverse  vorce  at  and  educate so  e f f e c t s  of the  c o u n s e l l i n g .  He  e m o t i o n a l ,  a  By  p o i n t e d  s i n g l e the  t h a t  d i s c u s s e d  areas;  stage.  Ladbrook  p u b l i c  need  f o r  of  system  i s  p u n c t u a t e d  enhanced  i m p o r t a n t  t h a t sup-  need as  w e l l  d i v o r c e  laws  d e s t i g m a t i z e d be  a  c h a l l e n g e s  change  be  can  a  a s s o c i a t i o n s  and  can  s e p a r a t i o n  stages  the  coun-  c o n t e m p l a t i n g  s u g g e s t i n g out  as  d i s s o l u t i o n  s e r i e s  parents  d i v o r c e  l e s s e n e d .  and F i n a l l y ,  e x t e n s i v e  t r a i n i n g  i n  d i -  s p e c i f i c  t r a i n i n g  i n  f i v e  suggested  s o c i a l ,  or  p r e d i c t a b l e and  d i v o r c e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h  of  i n  undergoing  p o i n t s ,  each  programs  programs  Ladbrook  t i m e ,  management  t r a i n i n g  who  t h a t  and  suggested  and  p e o p l e ,  understand  d i v o r c e d ,  r e l a t -  s o c i a l i z a t i o n ;  e d u c a t i n g  are  l i t e r a t u r e  a n t i c i p a t o r y  a n t i c i p a t o r y  process  as  were:  the  the  p r e v e n t i o n  d e f i n e d  to  f o r  the  of  He  d i v o r c e  by  s u r v e y i n g  s u r v i v a l  These  support  s e l l i n g .  and f o r  s t r e s s .  enhanced  of  h e a l t h  a f t e r  p a r e n t a l ,  l e g a l  and  f i n a n c i a l -  domains. A  f i n a l  development S e l i g ' s  i n d i v i d u a l s  range  of  (197*0  p r e v e n t i v e  programs  study  w h i c h  r e c o g n i z e d  programs  f o r  proposed  m u l t i s y s t e m  i n t e r v e n t i o n . are  designed  o b j e c t i v e s  a  h i g h to  r i s k  serve  w h i c h  He  and  d i v o r c i n g  them.  i n c l u d e :  out  and He  i n d i v i d u a l s  program  p o i n t e d group  recommended  of  t h a t  t h a t  p r e v e n t i n g  was  p s y c h o s o c i a l d i v o r c i n g  there  recommended  the  are f o u r  few long  p s y c h o s o c i a l  breakdown  and  i n d i v i d u a l s  promoting  i n  the  process  c r e a s i n g  i n t e r a g e n c y  s e r v i c e s  f o r  c o o p e r a t i o n s o c i a l l e g a l  t h i s  of  f o r  a v a i l a b l e would  the  be  c o u r t  d i v o r c e ; s e r v i c e  to  system  and  of  the  to  a  f o r  d i v o r c e ;  i n -  on  more  major  the  psycho-  s t r a t e g i e s was  i n  d i v o r c e  he  d e v e l o p -  would  of  the  t h a t  the  which  range  i n  e f f e c t i v e l y  groups  wide  p r e v e n t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s  work  the  of  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  focus  o b j e c t i v e s  e a r l y  through  to  b e h a v i o r  d e l i v e r y  t r a i n i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l  a c c e s s i b l e  and  or  encouraging  these  i n d i v i d u a l s  growth  s e p a r a t i o n  f i e l d s  One  a c h i e v i n g  eight-week  and  c o o r d i n a t i o n  p o p u l a t i o n .  suggested ment  of  s o c i a l  of  p o p u l a t i o n ;  w i t h i n  aspects and  w i t h  t h i s  a d a p t i v e  be  made  process  and  community  s e r v -  i c e s . I t  has  l i t e r a t u r e f o r  s e l l i n g the  process the  t h a t  i n  b e f o r e and  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e  i n d i v i d u a l s  However,  of  been  i s  the  a  models  of  process  t h a t  have  i t  m a r i t a l  been  of  the  programs, the  documented  r e c o g n i z e d  c o n s i d e r i n g  group  and  r e c e n t l y  v a l u a b l e  s e r v i c e s  or  d i v o r c e .  on  d i v o r c e  to  r e v i e w  r e l a t i o n s h i p d e s c r i b e d  c u r r e n t  f o r  s e p a r a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e i s  or  need  by  counsome  d i s s o l u t i o n  and  developed  l i t e r a t u r e .  Models  of  the  Models r e l a t i v e l y Markowitz  of  R e l a t i o n s h i p  D i s s o l u t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s i m p l i s t i c  (197*0,  Loge  models  Process  d i s s o l u t i o n proposed  (1976)  and  Ross  range  by  from  the  G e t t l e m a n  and  (1975)  to  W e i s s '  i n  (1976),  (1976),  Ladbrook's  (1975)  models  c r i s i s  or  proposed  which  s t r e s s f u l by  Gettleman  and  n e u t r a l  d i v o r c e  a  as  the  the  d i s s o l u t i o n  more  (1970),  M a r r i s ' as  a  comprehensive  (1975)*  K e s s l e r  K r e s s e l  Hennepin  s i n g l e i s  a  p a r e n t  s i t u a t i o n  p e r s o n  as  s e e k i n g assess  the  and  an  r o l e  the  as  a  t h e i r  s i t u a t i o n  models and  (1977)  County  and  acceptance  l o g i c a l  (1975)  or  p e r s o n a l i t y  t e s t s  process:  h a p p i l y  d i v o r c e ;  and  of  the an  enabled  t h a t  o f t e n to  were  phases and  through to  the  groups  m a r r i e d ;  of  e m o t i o n a l  process  the  p r o l o n g e d  s t r e s s  The  t r a u m a t i c  phase  of  a t  f o u r  He  p'hase;  and  i n c l u d e s  a  the r i s e  a  and  s i m i l a r  t h i s  and  d i s t i n c t  the  s i n g l  process phases  p'hase.  process  problems;  a  compare  e x p l o r a t o r y  suggested  d i v o r c e :  as  of  i n v o l v e d  i n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  m a r i t a l  p o s t d i v o r c e .  the  d i v o r c e  a d j u s t -  r e d e f i n i t i o n  them  who  the  d i v o r c e  a c c e p t a n c e / i n n o v a t i v e the  an  i n d i v i d u a l s  i d e n t i t y  This  others  103  of  t h a t  b o t h  retrenchment  s t u d i e d  adjustment  concluded  w i t h  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  adjustment  which  d i v o r c e  c o n c e p t u a l i z e  p a r e n t .  suggested  bewilderment,  view  f a m i l y  i n v o l v e s  s i n g l e  experiences  Ross  the  and  a c q u i s i t i o n  out  Loge  of  and  w h i c h  and  w e l l  s i t u a t i o n . are  i n s t i t u t i o n  s t u d i e d  process  (197**-)  Markowitz  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  (1976)  Loge  ment  to  Bohannan  i n h e r e n t l y  a  event  and  (1977)•  Brown  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p  (197*0*  R i c c i  (1977),  Deutsch  view  (1975)  Wiseman's  of  psychot h r e e  p o i n t s f i l e d  t h r e e  i n f o r  phases  t r a u m a t i c  t h i s  of  phase;  r e a d j u s t m e n t  phase.  i n  d i s t u r b a n c  e m o t i o n a l  and  f e e l i n g s  prolonged and  Ross*  a  drop  of  u s u a l l y  Rahe  l i f e  events  m a r i t a l  change  i n  p e r s o n a l and  d i s r u p t i o n number  these  of  change  as  a to  s e r i e s  of  c o u l d  (1976)  separate  the  r e s u l t  i n  (Holmes  Weiss  (1976)  d e s c r i b e d  of  s e p a r a t i o n  by  Parkes  i n  the 1972  and  and  events  r e l a t e d  l o s s  d i s t r e s s to  the  s t a t u s ,  are  the  the  process  c u l m i n a t i n g  i n  l o n g -  A c c o r d i n g adjustment on  Ladbrook,  syndrome of  to to  p h y s i c a l  1976).  r e l a t i o n s h i p  concept  of  r e c r e a t i o n a l  r e q u i r i n g  a  s c a l e  a s s o c i a t e d  h a b i t s  e f f e c t s  of  t h a t  r e v i s i o n  i n  w o r l d .  i n  a  f i n a n c i a l  i n e f f e c t i v e  Rahe,  phase  out  events  spouse,  and  a  p s y c h o s o c i a l  p o i n t e d  s l e e p i n g  adverse  the  a  change  assumptive  r e s e a r c h ,  t h i r d  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  s t r e s s f u l  h e a l t h  element  i n  from  developed  i n  to  d i v o r c e .  t h a t  w i t h  d i v o r c e  w h i c h  l a s t  the  He  change  change  m e n t a l  an  as  and  the  phase  b o t h  have  1976)  r e s i d e n c e ,  or  and  the  as  f i r s t  A c c o r d i n g  and  event.  arguments  of  d i v o r c e  p s y c h o m e d i c a l  changes  d i v o r c e  such  and  phase  the  u s u a l l y  a f t e r  s t r e s s f u l  i n  of  stage  years  l i f e  Ladbrook  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e l a t e d  are  phases  months  Ladbrook,  a c t i v i t i e s  d e c i s i o n  term  and  t h a t  u n s e t t l i n g .  d i v o r c e  the  ( i n  The  readjustment  many  viewed  d e p r e s s i o n .  d i s t u r b a n c e .  two  s t r e s s f u l  h a b i t s ,  s o c i a l  most of  the  e x t e n s i o n  the  to  7-13  (1976)  Holmes  and  f i r s t  and  c o u n s e l l i n g  i s  months  a  an  e m o t i o n a l  completed  and  w i t h  i n the  t r a n s i t i o n  i s  phase  e i g h t  Ladbrook  h o s t i l i t y  marriage  f i n a l  r e s e a r c h ,  minimum  of  phase  the  The  i n c l u d e s  a n x i e t y ,  s t r e s s  i n c l u d e s  s t a g e .  i s  of  as  d e s c r i b e d attachment  18  proposed  1976). i n  by  Bowlby  Weiss  e m o t i o n a l or  the  t h a t  c u l t  w h i c h  i s  w h i c h  must  i s  to  be  g r e a t of  i n  an  an  a  of of  a  unhappy  a d u l t  mourning  the  He  m a r r i a g e ,  Weiss  process  W e i s s , r e s u l t s  q u a l i t y  development  r e s o l v e d  i n  marriage  d i s s o l u t i o n .  c a r e g i v e r s .  e f f e c t i v e l y  d e f i n e d c o p i n g  mourning d e t a i l  H e a l t h as  a  and  of  the  added or  a  of  t h a t d i f f i -  c h i l d h o o d  d e s c r i b e d  a  process  (Kubler-Ross,  when  to  i n d i v i d u a l s anxious,  o f t e n  the  1969)  r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  f e e l  c r i s i s  and  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Wiseman as  a  i s  (1975) process  by  the  t h a t  i t  not  At  of  c r i s i s the  time,  t h i s  i s  h a b i t u a l to  r e t u r n  t i m e ,  i m m o b i l i z e d , depressed.  r e s e a r c h e r s i s s u e s i n  p r o -  The  d e s c r i b e d of  terms  the  i d e n t i t y of  i n  r o l e s  q u e s t i o n .  e l a b o r a t e d and  the  enough  A t  and  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n , i n  t h i s  adequate  around  to  overwhelms  p a r t i a l l y  W e l f a r e  e l a b o r a t e d  Department  s e p a r a t i o n  i n t r o v e r t e d  f o c u s i n g  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  done  l e a s t  upset,  H e a l t h  r e l a t e s  e q u i l i b r i u m .  a t  been  i t  i n d i v i d u a l . are  has  as  (197*0  d r a s t i c  p r e v i o u s  confused,  s e p a r a t i o n  d i v o r c e  so  of  i t s  of  an  p r o j e c t  mechanisms  Department  w h i c h  a  process  t h e o r y  W e l f a r e  change  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  g r i e v i n g  c r i s i s In  mechanism  system  or  i n  d i v o r c e .  N a t i o n a l  and  i t s  Bowlby  t e r m i n a t i n g .  cess  the  to  d i s r u p t i o n  f o r  l i k e l y  p r i m a r y  and  i r r e s p e c t i v e  d e s i r e  s i m i l a r  This i n  t h a t  p e r s i s t s  d i v o r c e ,  attachment  i s  s t a t e d  the  (Parkes  1969  d i s t r e s s ,  marriage bond  i n  a  on  p e r i o d  t h i s of  model  both  by  g r i e f  d e s c r i b i n g and  growth,  w i t h be  s p e c i f i c  d e a l t  f o r . has  w i t h ,  She been  tasks  has  and  d e r i v e d  of  death  stages  of  the  and  anger  and  e l a b o r a t e d be  d e a l t  i n and  and  p a r t  model from  of  f i v e  b e f o r e  an  goals  the  to  K u b l e r - R o s s '  and  d e n i a l ;  have  new  a l s o  stages  process of  can  w h i c h  the  i d e n t i f i e d l o s s of  l e v e l  they  and  f i v e  d e p r e s -  l i f e s t y l e of  f u n c t i o n i n g . and  suggest,  b e g i n  t o  sought  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  w h i c h ,  i n d i v i d u a l  be  model  Wiseman  a  s t r e s s e s  d i v o r c e  r e o r i e n t a t i o n  acceptance  these  of  d i v o r c e :  (1977)  r e c o g n i z e d  and  (1969).  dying  Hozman  w i t h  a  ambivalence;  and  on  mastered,  s a t i s f a c t i o n s  process  i d e n t i t y ;  F r o i l a n d  be  developed  s t a g e s  s i o n ;  to  to  must  grow  and  change. The s t a s i s The  d e n i a l  which  can  i n d i v i d u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p or  she  If  an  may  of  cope  w i t h  denies  t h a t  there  order  f e e l  the  c o n s i s t s  only  i n  i n t e r n a l  imbalance  stage  to  bored, or  keep  the  a  minimum i s  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t r e s s and  a  of  a n y t h i n g  of  or  wrong  w i t h  major  the  i n t a c t . at  i t  homeos t r e s s e s .  anxious  occurs,  a  l i f e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  unmotivated  e x t e r n a l  presence  t h i s  can  m a r i t a l  He t i m e . .  e a s i l y  c r i s i s  i s  p r e c i p i t a t e d . The  second  person  becomes  due  the  to  tremendous of  l i f e .  the At  l o s s  and  d e p r e s s i o n ,  i s  of  the  problems  the  conscious  p r e c i p i t a t i n g g r i e f  s e l f - w o r t h  f e a r  stage,  l o s s t h i s  and  at  t h i s  of  the  p o i n t ,  event.  i s o l a t i o n time  and  spouse, t h e r e  The  i n d i v i d u a l  and  a  decrease  may  b e g i n  m a r r i a g e i s  of  when  u s u a l l y  and  to  marriage may  i n  form  f e e l  f e e l i n g s  r e c o g n i z e  p r e s e n t  some  the  way of  and of  20 s e p a r a t i o n .  ings  The  t h i r d  are  e x t r e m e l y  ending a  of  stage  the  of  and  i s  m a r r i a g e  The  through  t h e i r f e e l  very  may  f u r t h e r  f u e l l i n g  the  f o u r t h  stage  a t t e m p t  of  suggests  and  work  through  a as  sense a  stage  the  a c c e p t e d  f u t u r e  p l a n n i n g h i s  i d e n t i t i e s and  i n  become  d i v o r c e i n  process t h e i r  more  emerging  1977). r e -  p o i n t ,  the  time  c o n -  f u n c t i o n i n g .  e s t a b l i s h  s t a t u s . o t h e r  the  c h i l d r e n ,  p e r s o n a l ,  to  i m p o r t a n t  b o t h  the  more  her  w i t h  w i t h  i s  and  o r d e r  s o c i a l  an  i n d i v i d u a l  or  or  t h e i r  t h i s  and  emotions  Hozman,  process  p a s t  each  Wiseman f o r m e r l y  source  of  sup-  encouragement  q u i c k l y  f e e l -  and  to  to  d e v e l o p  i d e n t i t y  •  p e r s o n .  f i n a l  acceptance  the  r e d e f i n e s  can  an  on  companionship  s t a b i l i t y  s i n g l e The  the  and  purpose  t h a t  p r o v i d e  of  and  and  i n d i v i d u a l s  p o r t  ( F r o i l a n d  At  to  one  c o n f l i c t s  o f t e n  c o n f l i c t i n g  i n t e n s e  O f t e n ,  f e e l the  i s  t i e d  w i t h  p r e s e n t  s e x u a l  s t i l l  a l l i a n c e s  time  as  these  develop  l e s s  s e l f - w o r t h ,  m a r r i e d  t h r e a t e n e d .  This  by  these  i d e n t i t y .  reworks  (1975)  to  of  and  The  of  u s u a l l y  l i f e s t y l e  on  and  are  f u e l l e d  d i v o r c e  c e n t r a t i n g  v o c a t i o n a l  i s  These  a l t e r n a t e  r e a l i t y .  the  spends  p e r s o n  a  to  of  i n d i v i d u a l  ings  becomes w h i c h  a m b i v a l e n c e .  tend  e x p r e s s i o n  parents  o r i e n t a t i o n  and  and  i n d i v i d u a l s  f r e q u e n t l y  The  anger  i n t e n s e  n e g o t i a t i o n  emotions. o t h e r  stage  and  stage  t h a t  a  l e v e l  new  d i v o r c e d w i t h i n  new  or  Wiseman of  (1975)  suggested  f u n c t i o n i n g .  s e p a r a t e d  p e r s o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and,  D u r i n g  begins as  i s  a  to  t h i s f e e l  r e s u l t ,  begins  21  to  f e e l  the to  more  former a c c e p t  they new  s e l f - a c c e p t i n g .  spouse the  r e a l l y s o c i a l  and  d i s r u p t s  t h a t  g r i e f  meaning  when  stages the  and  meaning  from  g r i e f  a  and  be  and  r e s o l v e d .  and  energy,  R i c c i  or  are  and  toward  i n d i v i d u a l  begins  marriage  s a t i s f a c t i o n  to  as of  a  t h a t  (1975)  meaning t h a t  a  hopes  T h e r e f o r e ,  the  i n v o l v e s  f u t i l e l o v e .  to  and  the  l o s s  t h a t the  d i v o r c e the  i n i t i a l  out  i s  not  of  l o s t  l o s t  not  on t h i s  r e l a t i o n but i t  of  r e e s t a b l i s h i n g  process  a  w i t h i n  purposes  one  of  i t .  r e c o v e r y  r e t r i e v e d  and  sense  the  p r e s e n t ,  w o r k i n g  t h a t  This  be  and  v i o l a t e d  i n  t h a t  o n l y  t h a t  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  s t a t e d  to  not  needs the  a  d i s c u s s e d  i s  t h i s  or  a n x i e t y  sense  meaning  i t  r e t r i e v e  as  i s  a  e x p e r i e n c e  i r r e d e e m a b l e  e x p e r i e n c e d  from  theme  i n  confused  profound  M a r r i s  process  c e n t r a l  meaning  and  r e s t o r i n g  d i v o r c e not  of  give  r e c e i v i n g  Another by  noted  i m p o r t a n t ,  hopes  g i v i n g  on  His  have  M a r r i s  s t i l l  whose  s e p a r a t i o n  such  l i f e .  can  i t s e l f more  must  of  be  s u b s t i t u t e .  framework ship  l a t e r  anger  d i v o r c e  s t r u g g l e  purpose  source  depends  attachment f i n d i n g  a  the  the  f i n d  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i s  may  f e e l s  t o  the  of  the  of  t e r m i n a t e d  change.  a b i l i t y  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n  and  and  viewed  and  r e p r e s e n t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  a  our  f e e l i n g s  i d e n t i t y .  also  l o s s  abate  person  p e r s o n a l  of  l o s s  t o  p a r t n e r  The  (1975)  p e r s p e c t i v e  The  f o r m e r  a r e .  M a r r i s  of  b e g i n  The  a l s o , b e t r a y e d  g r i e f f a i t h  a f t e r t h a t  i n c a p a b l e  r e q u i r e s  of  t i m e ,  support. model  (1974).  of L i k e  the  d i s s o l u t i o n  G e t t l e m a n  and  process Markowitz  was  developed  (197^),  she  22  views  d i v o r c e  f a m i l y are  as  two  wanted  oped  a  s e p a r a t i o n  i n t a c t  and  seven  The  or  f e e l  stage  f i r s t  a  stage  t h a t  and  r e s p e c t  something  emerges  to  stage  when  when are  the i n  when two  stages  a  the  and  c o n f u s i o n  of  process  g r i e v i n g  have  and  of  anger,  time  of  m u l t i p l e  r o l e  and  i n t o  an  i d e n t i t y  as  s i n g l e  when  the  i n d i v i d u a l  s u r v i v a l a  and  which  i s  u s u a l  d i s c o r d  of  the  h u r t  adjustment.  w i t h  d i v o r c e  on  the  The  has  p l a c e  proposed  p r o c e s s .  a  r e a l i z a t i o n and  a  the  and  the  of  broken  f i v e  i s  process  and  c o n f l i c t i n g  emotions I t  and  an  f e e l s  more  suggests  i n a  occurs assured  stage  e x p e r i e n c i n g  optimism  a  e v o l u t i o n  and i s  i s  a l s o  s i x  stage  another  i s  Stage  p r e s e n t  home  i n d i v i d u a l s  This  changes  home  a m b i v a l e n t l y  i s  sadness.  need t h a t  t h r e a t  e s t a b l i s h e d .  and  She  the  Stage  f a m i l y  and  b r e a k i n g  d i v o r c e  f i n a l  t r u s t  a  v a s c i l l a t e  i n d i v i d u a l .  u n t r o u b l e d  r e s p e c t ,  (1975)  and  i d e n t i t y  focuses  r e l a t i v e l y  K e s s l e r model  a  been  d i s c o r d  i s  the  f o u r  norm,  p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t  c r i s i s .  s t r o n g ,  c l u d i n g  of  h o s t i l i t y ,  may  becomes  Homes.  normal  i s  •'  d e v e l -  c u l t u r a l  the  t h r e e  Stage  and  Two  b e l o n g ,  has  r e l a t i o n s h i p  f a c e  takes  She  stage  i n t e n s e  t h r e e .  households  the  or  to  w i t h  the  f e e l t t h e y  the  second  Couples  s t a t e  s e p a r a t i o n  r o o f  so  s e p a r a t i o n  of  i s  w i t h  p h y s i c a l  separate  p e r i o d  two  model  Stage  becomes  r e d e f i n i n g  c h i l d r e n  Home  t h i s  deepen.  of  c o n t i n u i t y .  The  r i g h t  imminent.  way  One  one  r e s o l v e  w i l l  i s  under  not  d i s c o r d  s e p a r a t i o n between  i s  of  t h i s  i n t a c t .  e i t h e r  d i f f i c u l t i e s  sense  of  a  where  model-from  m o t h e r - f a t h e r - c h i l d t r u s t  homes  as  seven the  i n t a c t . e l a b o r a t e  t h a t  there  stage are  23 seven  stages:  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ;  s e p a r a t i o n ;  mourning;  e x p l o r a t i o n  and  The  hard  and  If  openly  i s  d w e l l s  m a r r i a g e  c o n t r a c t  p o s s i b l e  w h i l e  e r o s i o n  stage  on  i t  i s  to  as  many  meet  a c c e p t i n g i n v o l v e s  those  a  more  r a t h e r  and  the  b e h a v i o r s  The by  t h i r d  expressions be  lence  o f t e n The  l i k e  p h y s i c a l of  new  be  shock  they  p h y s i c a l  l i f e ;  and  and  i n d i v i d u a l  i s  This  may  a l s o  c o n f u s i o n ,  change.  as  The  emphasis  on  t a k i n g  r a t h e r  t h a n  l o v i n g  stage. i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d There  f a n t a s i e s of  are  about  anger  few  what  and  i t  ambiva-  a n o t h e r .  the  aspect  stage  r e s u l t  i n c l u d e s  and  needs  m a r i t a l  t h i s  t r a u m a t i c  p r o c e s s ,  the  of  d i s r e s p e c t . !  one  rework  spouse.  awareness  an  F e e l i n g s  t h e i r  o t h e r ' s  w h i c h  f r e q u e n t  most  and  the  cannot  conscious  detachment  w i t h  s e p a r a t i o n . or  new  to  each  f i g h t i n g ,  s i n g l e .  and  of  b e i n g . l o v e d  and  a l t e r n a t e  a n x i e t y ,  the  of  t h a t  i n  the begins  i n i t i a l  f e e l i n g s  i n i t i a l  whole w i t h  f e e l i n g s  of  l o n e l i -  f o r m a t i o n  of  a  i d e n t i t y . The  from  to  d i v o r c e  r e l i e f  ness,  c a r i n g  f o u r t h ,  e m o t i o n a l  i s  when  p o s s i b l e  c h a r a c t e r i z e  a n i m o s i t y  of  would  on  t h a t  stage  ' s p e e c h l e s s  begins  shared,  g i v i n g  or  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s w i t h  Frequent  are  adolescence  stage  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . than  detachment;  work.  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  r e c o g n i z e s t h i s  second  e r o s i o n ;  mourning  f a c i n g  p r o c e s s . g u i l t ,  and  the  This  stage  p a s t  and  i n c l u d e s  r e l i e f .  The  begins  when  proceeds f e e l i n g s anger  the  i n d i v i d u a l  through of  anger,  substage  the  t u r n s  l e t t i n g - g o  d e p r e s s i o n ,  serves  to  f i l l  a  24  vacuum  c r e a t e d  by  i n v o l v e s  b l a m i n g  as  a  way  of  t h a t  the  o t h e r  t h e i r and  source  i n d i v i d u a l the  a n x i e t y when  d e s p a i r The the  a  l o t  not  sorrow  and  the  and  i s  t h i s  The  takes  e n s u r i n g  o f t e n a  f i n a l  by  when  o f t e n  f u e l l e d  can  i s be  of r e l i e f ,  done  f r a n t i c  (1975)  K e s s l e r  i s  new  l i f e .  The  d i v o r c e  has  and  the  p e r s o n  has  time  f o c u s  i n c r e a s e d  sense  s e l f - c h o s e n of  to  g o a l s .  s e l f - e s t e e m  The  and  and  g r i e f .  or  p u r s u i n g  The  an  f e e l i n g s  substage  of  stage  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  p e r i o d  n o t h i n g  p l a c e  of  o n e s e l f .  the  i s  out  anger  w i t h ,  i n c l u d e s  t h a t  the  through  the  This  w h i c h  i n t e r p r e t e d  i n d i v i d u a l  i s  support.  f r e q u e n t l y  be  f o l l o w s  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  f i n a l i z e d  may  f e e l i n g , angry  r e c o g n i z e s  adolescence  an  cut  o f t e n  g u i l t ,  stage  growth  f e e l s  of  I t  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n .  e m o t i o n a l l y  u a l  the  and  d e s t r u c t i v e ,  substage,  s i x t h  p e r s o n a l  and  s e l f - e s t e e m  deep  second  spouse  does  however  i n d i v i d u a l or  to  detachment.  D e p r e s s i o n  needs  and  the  on  blaming,  of  next  o t h e r  spouse  thoughts.  r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  by  the  h o l d i n g  i n v o l v e s  only  e m o t i o n a l  been on i n d i v i d -  l e s s  a n x i e t y . The i n v o l v e s  f i n a l  stage  i s  e s t a b l i s h i n g  f r e q u e n t l y  w i t h  o t h e r  e x p l o r a t i o n  and  and  work  w h i c h  p l a n  of  a c t i o n ,  i n d i v i d u a l s  i n  the  implementing  s i g n i f i c a n t  hard a  pic^~  t u r e . K r e s s l e r d-i.vorcerw.hich w i t h  21  h i g h l y  f o u r  stages  of  and they  Deutsch  (1977)  f o r m u l a t e d  e x p e r i e n c e d p s y c h i c  a f t e r  f a m i l y  d i v o r c e  d i s c u s s e d a  stages  s e r i e s  of  t h e r a p i s t s .  w h i c h  may  or  may  of  p s y c h i c  i n t e r v i e w s They not  d e f i n e d be  25 completed  by  the  time  stages  are  the  p e r i o d ;  the  p e r i o d  These s i o n  the  l e g a l  d i v o r c e  p r e d i v o r c e of  i s  d e c i s i o n  mourning;  f i n a l i z e d .  p e r i o d ;  and  the  the  d e c i -  p e r i o d  of  r e e q u i l i b r a t i o n . The  f i r s t  stage  The  s e r i e s  of  t a l  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  i s  the  substages  of  p r e d i v o r c e t h i s  attempts  m a r i t a l  i n t i m a c y ,  break  and  p h y s i c a l  s e p a r a t i o n .  the The  the  second  f o l l o w i n g  l e a s t  one  a  the  of  i n e v i t a b i l i t y t h i r d  f e e l i n g s l i n e s s  of  and  of  marriage The  and  f i n a l  r e e q u i l i b r a t i o n and  d i m i n i s h e d  Deutsch as  not  ment  (1977) only  t h a t  and  the  the  w i l l  of  which  the i s  a  which  of  p e r i o d  d e f i n e  the  i s  i n v o l v e s  made  by  p r o s p e c t  f o l l o w e d  a t  of  i n t i m a c y  an  i n  s o l i d a r i t y ,  which  m a r i t a l  f i n a l l y ,  a  w e l l  due  by  r e -  acceptance  honoured  mourning.  as  the  of  the  of but  a  of  l o n e -  f i n a l l y ,  the  s i d e  p e r i o d  heightened  of  a  t h a t  and  c o n s t r u c t i v e agreeable each  of  s e l f - g r o w t h  K r e s s e l  m u t u a l l y  a l s o  and,  negative  i s  m a r r i a g e .  c r i t e r i a  i n v o l v e s  sadness.  d i v o r c e of  This  s e l f - w o r t h ,  spouse  r e a l i s t i c  p e r i o d  on  the  of  the  p s y c h i c  n e g o t i a t i o n be  at  d i m i n i s h e d  a t  as  of  i s  d w e l l i n g  p e r i o d  m a r i -  d e c l i n e  m a r i t a l  f r e q u e n t l y  and,  anger  sense  stage  of  d i v o r c e  renewed i s  i n c r e a s i n g  d i v o r c e .  p o s i t i v e a  to  p a n i c  f a i l u r e ,  d e p r e s s i o n ,  acceptance the  stage  g u i l t  d e c i s i o n  f i g h t i n g , of  facade  and  are  p e r i o d .  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,  d e c i s i o n  a n x i e t y  a n x i e t y  outbreaks  The  the  p e r i o d  a t  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  s e p a r a t i o n  newed  i s  substages:  p a r t n e r ,  s e p a r a t i o n , to  stage  i n  d e c i s i o n  person  d i v o r c e s e t t l e has  26 a  "balanced,  view  of  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  c l o s u r e .  evidence  good  of  a  m a n i p u l a t i o n i n d i v i d u a l of  who  f e e l i n g s  creased  of  If  i n d i v i d u a l  c h i l d r e n  c o p a r e n t a l  c h i l d r e n has  of  other  as  and  are  weapons  i n  a  sense  i n v o l v e d ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o n s t r u c t i v e l y  f a i l u r e  and  and  the  and  d i v o r c e d  heightened  t h e r e  a  l a c k  shows  sense  The  an  and  i s of  f i g h t i n g .  s e l f - d i s p a r a g e m e n t  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  absence  an  of  i n p e r s o n a l  competence. K r e s s e l  and  c o n s t r u c t i v e d i v o r c e , of  one  an  f i g h t i n g weapon one  d i v o r c e unequal  spouse, from  to  cludes  w h i c h  g u i l t  the  on  t h i r d  c o p a r e n t a l ,  d i s c u s s e s  these  add  to  d i v o r c e a r e a .  s i x  and These  l o s s e s  e x p e c t a t i o n s , s h i p s ,  and  l o s s  of  l o s s form  s e r i e s  i n c l u d e of  p l a c e ,  and  an  to  The  p a t h o l o g i c a l as  a  toward  l a t t e r  i n -  l a w y e r s . e m o t i o n a l ,  l e g a l ,  process.  w h i c h  Domestic  p h y s i c a l  m a r k e t a b i l i t y  c h i l d r e n  p s y c h i c  r e g a i n  a  p s y c h i c  b i t t e r n e s s  and  d i v o r c e  (1977)  d i v o r c e a  the  and  as  and  of  the  d i s c u s s  low  to  of  spouse,  u s i n g  d i v o r c e  s t a t i o n s  f a m i l i a l  one  f r i e n d s  order  County  of  anger  community  i n  t u r m o i l  involvement.  s t a t i o n s  mastered  these  d i v o r c e ,  s i x  Hennepin  p a r t y  views  economic,  The  of  the  o b s t a c l e s  d i v o r c e ,  r o l e s  p a r e n t s ,  (1970)  Bohannan  to  p a r t  f e e l i n g s  c o u p l e s '  s u c c e s s f u l l y  the  predetermined  and  d i s c u s s e d  i n c l u d e d  m o t i v a t i o n  e m b e l l i s h  another,  (1977)  Deutsch  must  He be  i n d i v i d u a l R e l a t i o n s  d i v o r c e ,  autonomy. s t a f f  s e x u a l  f r i e n d s h i p / c o m p a n i o n s h i p of  l o s s e s  l o s s  of  ' l o s s  s t r u c t u r e ,  t h a t  r o u t i n e ,  of  r o l e s ,  l o s s  of  accompany l o s s l o s s  of of  each hope/ r e l a t i o n -  s i g n i f i c a n t  27  person,  and  phases  of  l o s s ,  p r e v i o u s l y g a i n i n g  l o s s  and  and  and  model  most  from  are  l o s s  i s  K u h l e r - R o s s '  mourned model  d e n i a l ,  d e p r e s s i o n ,  p o i n t e d  t h a t by  out  the  of  the  d i v o r c e  process  comprehensive  d e s c r i b e d  phases:  drawn  Each  and  the  (1969)  and  anger,  b a r -  a c c e p t a n c e .  acknowledged were  as  i d e n t i t y .  d i s c u s s e d ,  Brown's f i n a l  of  there  are  model s e v e r a l  Bohannan'(1970)  t h a t  the  d i v o r c e  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  to  phase  (1977)  be  of  Hennepin  process and  the  c o n s i d e r e d .  s t a t i o n s  and  i s  has  the  She  d i v o r c e  (1977)  County  two  as  major  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  phase. The  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  s i d e r a t i o n n a t i v e s . and  the  d i v o r c e  a  p l a n  e m o t i o n a l can  take  f i v e  the  The  next  to  make  pared  to  a c c e p t  ready  to  the do  two  and  years  A c c o r d i n g  to  and  o f t e n  a  to  d e c i s i o n  change the of  t h i s the  i n  t h i s  d i v o r c e  spouse.  f o r  absence  I n d i c a t i o n s  i n c l u d e s  the  person  the  d e c i s i o n  of This  m a r r i e d  or  the  t h a n  o f t e n  she  i s  p r e -  and  i t s  a f f e c t i o n  person  p l a c i n g  phase  more  i s  d e c i s i o n or  or  development  terms  he  values  d i v o r c e  person  anger  t h a t  and  m a t t e r s .  when  of  a l t e r -  the  to  i n  a  the  o t h e r  m a r r i a g e .  of  i s  i n d i v i d u a l s model,  c o n -  of  the  d e c i s i o n phase  i n i t i a l  needs  impact  p r a c t i c a l  f o r  to  i n  d e c i s i o n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  demonstrate  t h i s  of  of  the  r e a s s e s s e s  p o i n t  implementing  ready  towards  step  p r e p a r a t i o n one  a  w i t h  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  e v a l u a t e s  reaches  f o r  begins  the  l i k e l i h o o d  and  y e a r s .  outcomes  and  i n d i v i d u a l  i n d i v i d u a l  s e p a r a t e . of  d i v o r c e  The  assesses  Next, to  of  phase  i s  blame  not on  the  28  spouse w i t h  f o r  the  the  spouse.  s u f f i c i e n t any  m a r i t a l  r e a l  This  e m o t i o n a l  steps  problems u s u a l l y  phase  w i t h  d i v o r c e .  i s  the  c o n t i n u i n g  i n d i c a t e s  involvement  towards  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  and  The  p h y s i c a l  to  t h a t  be  angry  there  i s  the  spouse  to  p r e v e n t  f i n a l  step  of  the  s e p a r a t i o n  of  the  spouses. The of  next  r a p i d  are  change  f i v e  of  economic  l e g a l  p e r s o n a l the  consent  w i t h  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  component  p r o p e r the  h e l p  of  the  cases  d i v o r c e  1977).  Brown  these  spouse m a r i t a l  of  the  a  phase  new  t h i s  and  and  i s  a  time  l i f e s t y l e .  phase:  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  There l e g a l  o l d  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  to  a  accept  of  the  and aspects  S t a t e s ,  This or  f i v e  f u l l - f l e d g e d  t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l s  i t  to  be  e a s i e r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  law  to  f o r m a l i z e  e l i g i b i l i t y  m a t t e r s .  c o u n s e l l o r  become  f i n d  use  e s t a b l i s h i n g  U n i t e d  suggests  c o n t e s t s  than  the  p r o c e d u r a l  In  f o r  and  going  may  be  done  lawyer,  or  i t  to  t e n  per  c o n t e s t s  by  may cent  (Brown,  who  become  i n v o l v e d  to  a t t a c k  t h e i r  o n e ' s  p a r t  i n  the  breakdown.  The economic  cover  of of  s o c i a l  i s  through  c o n t e s t e d .  an  components  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  be  i n g  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  a s p e c t s ;  change  through  w i t h  the  d i v o r c e .  The a  and  p a r e n t - c h i l d  the  i s  simultaneous  a s p e c t s ; new;  phase  second  component  income the  The  component  p r e v i o u s l y  expenses t h i r d  w h i c h  of  two  component  of  the  i n v o l v e s used  to  r e s t r u c t u r i n g the  phase  l o g i s t i c s  support  one  of  i s  the  s t r e t c h -  household  to  households. concerns  the  d r a s t i c  changes  i n  the  29 i n d i v i d u a l ' s f r i e n d s  d o n ' t  d i v o r c e . s o c i a l  network know  T h i s  or  f e e l  f r e q u e n t l y  leads  to  w i t h i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h  The  i m p o r t a n t  (1977)  and  the i n  p a r e n t a l  c h i l d r e n  the  l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h  each  w h i c h  dependent  See  (1975),  K e l l y  and  Brown  (1974),  (1977)  s u p p o r t i v e treatment The  a l s o  new  the  s u b c u l t u r e  s o c i a l  to  of  the  a c t i v i t y  i s  o f t e n  model  adjustment  w h i l e  Brown  to  to  a  f u n c t i o n s , c h i l d ' s  the  the  s t a t e s  c h i l d  (1977) of  age  a l s o and  a  p o s i to  t h e i r  r e a c t i o n s  stage  of  d e v e l o p -  (1975),  G r o l l m a n Abt  (1972),  W a l l e r s t e i n  and  K e l l y  W a l l e r s t e i n the  and  K e l l y  p r i o r i t y  b e f o r e  r e -  of  and  S t u a r t  an  and  t h a t  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n but  t h a t  d i v o r c e  m a i n t a i n i n g  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  and  parents  s t r e s s e s  of  (1976),  (1977). p r o v i d i n g  p r o v i d i n g  d i r e c t  c h i l d r e n .  f i n a l  component aspects  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  and  of  s e p a r a t i o n  (1976),  and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  marriage  T h i s  f a m i l y  emphasizes  s e r v i c e s to  development  p a r e n t - c h i l d  (1976),  Richards  W a l l e r s t e i n  W a l l e r s t e i n  the  (1970, 1971, 1977),  Gardner  Ramos  the  the  the  the  by  r e s o l v i n g  parent  on  t h r e a t e n e d  d i v o r c e .  no.tyonly  and  o l d  the  c h i l d ' s  of  means  a c t i v i t i e s  ment.  i s  Many  t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  household are  adjustment  of  concept  d i v o r c e  t h a t  d i v o r c e .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the  s t a t e s  component  f a c t o r  r e d e f i n i n g t i v e  o f t e n  p o s i t i v e  f o u r t h  r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  r e a c t  Brown  the  how  s o c i a l to  d i v o r c e d .  i s  of  to  of  of  d i v o r c e  a c c e p t i n g  the  Brown's  d i v o r c e ,  model  w h i c h  o n e s e l f  i n  (1977)  she  d e s c r i b e s  r e l a t i o n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i s  of  to o n e ' s  the as the needs  30 and  goals  g o a l s . has  and  of  spouse  who  usually"  worked  through  the the  time i n  can  produce  w i t h  and  the  stages  d a y - t o - d a y  w i t h  r e f e r e n c e  of  and  m a r r i a g e  long l e v e l  as  such  This  and  of  autonomy  (1977)  of  most  to  d i v o r c e  of  the  occurs  p a i n f u l  s e p a r a t i o n .  and  i s  p a r t This  o f t e n  a  f a c t o r  and the no  and, and  of  the  of  l o n g e r i s  of  c y c l i c a l  and  s e p a r a t i o n  change, on  values  and the  e m o t i o n a l her  f o u r  ongoing  of  s m a l l  t i m e .  new  d i v o r c e , why  s o c i a l a c c e p t the  c o n t r i b u t i o n  needs,  d e c i s -  c o n -  takes  to  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  development  of  of  some  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . d i s c u s s i o n  of  recommendations.  need  f a c t  p r i m a r y  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n e ' s  the  management  develop and  i n -  process  t h e  to  and  s e p a r a t i o n ,  f a i l u r e ,  b e i n g  e f f o r t s  i d e a l l y ,  w i t h  and  f a c t  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  as  concluded  an  of  a c t u a l  process  p o i n t  acknowledgement  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  phase  of  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  r e f e r e n c e  g u i l t  acceptance  process i s  or  subphases  management  t h e r e  of  acceptance  g o a l s ,  d i v o r c e  p r i m a r y  d e n i a l ,  m a r r i a g e  assessment  Brown  a  f e e l i n g s  term  t h a t  as  phase  the  ended  breakdown,  of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  problems  p o i n t .  i n c l u d e s  time  p a r t s  s e p a r a t i o n  the  c o n f l i c t s  a c t i v i t i e s ,  next  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  i s  i n  blame,  t i n u e s  the  many  m a r r i a g e  such  a t  and  d i v o r c e s .  steps  The  the  process  needs  d e c i s i o n  p a i n f u l  begins  insurmountable  ance  most  spouse  i o n s .  I t  the  these  the  n o n i n i t i a t i n g  c o n t e s t e d  anger  i n i t i a t e d  p h y s i c a l  d i v o r c e  cludes  meet  a c t u a l  l a g  b e g i n  of  b e f o r e  has  to  the  The  of  plans  The  s e p a r a t i o n and  d e v e l o p i n g  f o r  s e r v i c e s  her  model  The and  of  f i r s t r e s o u r c e s  31  designed i n g  to  meet  d i v o r c e ,  or  i n  a  i s  t h a t  one  i n  the  i s  a t t i t u d e s  Brown's  t h i r d  the  to  as  l e a r n  new  on  and  There the  i s  u s e f u l  i n  of  the  are  the  i n  an  to  overcome  which  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n  Brown's  and  served  as  the  d i s s o l u t i o n  t h i s  of  study.  c l o s e s t  i s  l e v e l ,  i s  change  c h o i c e s  s u g g e s t i o n r e -  a d u l t  a  need  and  and  d i v o r c e d ,  to  to  l i f e s t y l e s . f o r  i n -  r e c o g n i z e  c o n t i n u i n g  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Her  f i n a l  and  r e -  a  need  f o r  to  h e l p  p r o f e s s i o n a l s  or  r e v i e w  the of the  of  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  l i f e to  model  the  w i t h  across  to  develop  a  (1977)  a  models  broad  i s  b a s i s  of  a  range  by  of f a r  p r e s e n t e d  of  changes hurdles  most  and e x t e n s i v e  f o r  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h a t  was  used  program  t h a t  i s  i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t a b i l i t y the  t o  p r o c e s s .  developmental  sense  r e l a t i o n s h i p  POSI-COPE  the  s e v e r a l  r e l a t e d  d i s s o l u t i o n  d i s s o l u t i o n  r e g a i n  c o n c e p t u a l a  l i t e r a t u r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n c o r p o r a t e s  o r d e r  autonomy.  development  i n  s i m i l a r i t i e s  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n process  and  o r d e r  m a r i t a l  many  a  manage  second  o t h e r  t h e r e  c o n s i d e r -  programs.  concludes  as  of  t h e r e  t h a t  and  are  a l r e a d y  Her  s o c i e t a l  marriage  to  and  the  i s  who  d i v o r c i n g ,  s i t u a t i o n .  options  t h a t  d i v o r c e  This models  of  how  i n d i v i d u a l s of  at  toward  i n d i v i d u a l s  s u g g e s t i o n s e a r c h  need,  s u g g e s t i o n  importance  grow  f a m i l y  a  examine  d i v i d u a l s  of  the. process  parent  t h e r e  needs  the  i n  the s u b j e c t  of  32  P e r s p e c t i v e s  Brown "began  i n  on  D i v o r c e  i n  (1976  Olson)  c o u r t - a t t a c h e d  c o n c i l i a t i o n  c o u r t s .  i n  t h i s  and  of  the  a r e a  the  l i s h e d  s h o r t - t e r m  of  marriage the  a  t h e a r e a d e r  i s  r e f e r r e d  w i t h  and  p r e s e n t  I n s t i t u t e  f o r  time,  the  the  l i f e  v a l u e  (1973)  The  time  the  f i r s t  e x p l o r e  and  of  and  come  c o u r t s ,  of  l i t e r a t u r e  p u b l i c a t i o n  was  f i r s t  of  d i v o r c e  pub-  serves  i n  t h i s  to  be  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  i s  p r e d i v o r c e  d i v o r c e as  g r i p s  phases  a  i s  t h e i r  an  of  the  h e l p  approach  d u r i n g She  and em-  c o u n s e l l i n g .  c o u n s e l l i n g  to  N a t i o n a l  one  d i v o r c e  s e r i o u s l y  c a t a l y s t  w i t h  d i v o r c e of  i n  f i e l d .  m a r i t a l  three  f o r  K e s s l e r ' s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n  1976).  l i m i t e d  c o u n s e l l i n g  methods  w i t h i n  programs  v e r y  appears  of  r e c e n t  (Brown,  and  group  to  f i e l d  are  the  s p e c i a l t y  1977).  t r a i n i n g  a  a  p r o v i s i o n  was  t r a i n i n g  T r a i n i n g  p a t t e r n s  phase  to  as  Deutsch,  d e f i n e d  o p t i o n  c o u n s e l l o r  the  c o u n s e l l i n g  d e f i n e d  d i s s o l u t i o n  s e l l i n g .  to  the  w e l l - d e f i n e d  sources  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  the  toward  c o u n s e l l i n g  d i v o r c e  (I976)  F i s h e r  and  or  C o n c i l i a t i o n  t r e n d  P r o f e s s i o n a l  e x i s t i n g Brown  which  F a m i l y  of  the  w h i c h  c o u n s e l l i n g  f a m i l y  ( K r e s s e l  p h a s i z e d  to  c o u n s e l l i n g  f a m i l y  body  Review  w i t h i n  d i v o r c e  a v a i l a b i l i t y  a f t e r  of  of  Courts  t h i s  i n  to  growing  A s s o c i a t i o n  s p e c i a l i z i n g  major  u n i t s  i s  c o n s e l l i n g  development  At  d i v o r c e  1963.  Concurrent  the  t h a t  c o u n s e l l i n g  C o n c i l i a t i o n  i n  s t a t e d  There  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  C o u r t s ,  C o u n s e l l i n g  cound u r i n g  c o n s i d e r e d the  problems.  couple Toomim  33 '('1972) l i n g  has  which  s p e c i f i c  and  and The  gested  the  and  v i a b l e  and  Tubbs  v e n t i o n s  u s e f u l  The F i s h e r  f i n a l  (1973)  h e l p i n g  the  w i t h o u t  r e f e r e n c e t h i s  of  b u t i o n  the  d i v o r c e  c o u n s e l l i n g  of and  t h a t  l e g a l  steps  of  the  c o u n s e l l i n g  i n  some  and  1975  of  vent  of  on  phase  Some  h o s t i l i t y ;  breakdown  and of  f o r  more  to to  a  and  the s e t  c o u n s e l l i n g  as  up  a  (1977).  i n t e r -  c o u n s e l l i n g . suggested  w h i c h a  t h a t  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  a  i n d i v i d -  p r i m a r y  F i s h e r of and  o n e ' s a  by  i n v o l v e s  s i n g l e  r e d u c t i o n  and  of c h i l -  Hozman  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  ex-spouse  form  reasonable  p r o v i d i n g  g o a l s  t h i s  t h i s  a  c o u n s e l l i n g  were:  the  of  and  d i v o r c e  t e n t a t i v e  of  i n j u r y  g r i e f  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o u n s e l l i n g  c h i l d r e n  g o a l s  h i m s e l f  S h o r t -  phase  c o u n s e l l i n g  p e r c e i v e  o u t s e t  p r o c e s s .  form  s p e c i f i c  d i v o r c e  the  a  F r o i l a n d  of  at  u n i t s  f o u n d a t i o n  p o s t d i v o r c e to  b e g i n  s u g -  c o u r t - a t t a c h e d  e m o t i o n a l  to  t h i s  (1973)  F i s h e r  d i v o r c e  i s  the  agreement.  t h i s  may  1977)  d e f i n e d  coun-  c o u n s e l l i n g .  w h i c h  former  p o i n t .  s e l f , to  was  the  b i t t e r n e s s  of  c o u n s e l l i n g  phase  person  phase  f o r  e l a b o r a t e d  a t  about  a p p r o p r i a t e  c o o p e r a t i v e  (1973)  i n f o r m a t i o n  s t r a t e g i e s  of  s e t t l e m e n t  and  dyadic  i n d i v i d u a l s  and  K r e s s e l  s u b s t a n t i v e  p r e v e n t i o n  a l l o w i n g  e x t e n s i v e  and  c o u n s e l -  and  phase  F i s h e r  s e p a r a t i o n  category,  c o n t e x t u a l  1973,  as  s t r u c t u r e d  p r o v i d e d  phase  the  1970,  c o n s t r u c t i v e  ance  t h i s  c o n c i l i a t i o n  dren,  of  i n t o  d i v o r c e  c o u n s e l l i n g  f o r  f i t  next  c o u n s e l l i n g .  u a l  of  a l s o  second  i s  ( E l k i n , of  form  n e g o t i a t i o n  i n i t i a t i n g  term  a  r e f l e x i v e ,  s e l l i n g phase  would  (1977)  Deutsch  of  d e v i s e d  suggested f e e l i n g s a c c e p t c o n t r i -  r e t u r n  to  work  and  s o c i a l  a c t i v i t y ;  a f f a i r s ;  a b i l i t y  d i r e c t e d  change  s t a t e d o f t e n to  t h a t  t o  from  u l t i m a t e l y  complete  developed  E l k i n  by  s e l l i n g the  the  t h e  and w o r k i n g  one  a t  l i f e s t y l e .  custody  of  p e r s o n a l  o r  and  F i s h e r  access  both  g o a l -  areas  i n d i v i d u a l s  s e p a r a t i o n .  r e v i e w  d e s c r i p t i o n  (1977)  s e r v i c e  newly  ates  (1977)  o f  o f  t h e  l i t e r a t u r e  d i v o r c e  on  d i v o r c e  c o u n s e l l i n g  and W a l l e r s t e i n  w i t h  p a r e n t s  f a m i l y . parents best  t h a t  The  g o a l s  r e a c h  and  major  c o n f l i c t f l i c t  of  and  programs,  (1977)  K e l l y  o r  t h a t  C o n c i l i a t i o n  t h e  d i v o r c e i s  a  q u e s t i o n s  t h a t there  w i l l  a r e  agreement  o f  have  a t They  of  ends  t h i s  been  i n o p e r -  t h e h e l p i n g  t h e i r  c h i l d r e n  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  p r i m a r i l y which  t h i s of  Court  t h a t  h e l p  coun-  s e r v i c e  t o  serves  p a r t i c u l a r l y  psychodynamics  r e s e a r c h  r o l e ;  means  s e r v i c e  T h i s  d i v o r c e  parent  concerned,  spouses.  i n d i c a t e  t h e  development  t h e  o f  t h i s  p o s t d i v o r c e  D i v o r c e .  t h a t  amicable  t h e  c l i n i c a l  n o t  t h e i r  a l l  on  between  abandoned,  of  d i v o r c e  an  w i t h  areas  may  a  o f  c o l l e c t e d  b u t  p i o n e e r  Angeles  J o u r n a l  w i t h  and  t o  Los  the  assumptions:  cope  Concomitant  s e a r c h  the  r o l e s  i n t e r e s t s  been  o f  t h r e e  t o  cope;  d e s c r i b e d  developed  husband/wife  the  i n  o f  p r e s e n t e d . E l k i n  to  s a t i s f y i n g  i n a b i l i t y  t h i s  a  a  b a t t l e s  a c c e p t  management  new problems;  develop  t h e  c o u n s e l l i n g ,  i s  handle  ongoing  r e s u l t  To  t o  e f f e c t i v e  t h e  program, d i v o r c e  p o s t u l a t e  one  i n d i v i d u a l  may  i s  d i f f i c u l t y  i n  f e e l  t h e  data  and  concerns  t h a t  h e l p  c h i l d r e n .  g e n e r a t e d .  s e r v i c e  a  r e One  a c c e p t i n g  o f  ongoing  ongoing l o s t  has  c o n -  and t h a t  35 the  m a r r i a g e  t h a t  i t  h u r t  or,  and  a  may  "be  over,  of  f o r  o n e ' s  r e s e a r c h  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p  on  a  p r e v e n t i v e of  t h e i r  d i v o r c e  a  c a p a c i t y  time  f o r  and  and  and  f o l l o w i n g  the  i n t e r v e n t i o n and  change  i t y  the  t h o u g h t f u l  i m p l i c a t i o n s they found  r e l a t e t h a t  v e n t i o n s t h e i r  of to  the  p a r e n t s  r e g a r d i n g  g u i l t .  and  development  both  t h i s  and  process  of  t h i s  genuine  and  of  as  the  most  i s  a  the  a d u l t s  the  may  t h e i r  f e e l i n g s . i m -  e f f e c t i v e  of  p r o v i d e  were  c o p i n g  p e r i o d  time  c o n s i d e r a b l e an  o p p o r t u n -  l o n g - t e r m e s p e c i a l l y  a c c e s s i b l e i m m e d i a t e l y and  Some  c h i l d r e n  the  c o n c e r n  have  s e r v i c e  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  c h i l d r e n  and  f a m i l i e s .  a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  r e l a t i v e l y  l o n g i -  development  d e f i n e  of  i n  e x t e n s i v e  c l a r i f y  can  growing  parents  d i m i n i s h e s  to  and  e a r l i e r .  upsets  a d u l t s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  t h e i r to  and  (1977)  p a r e n t - c h i l d  due  w h i c h  c o u n s e l l i n g  were  done  the  f e a r  found  s i n g l e  d i v o r c i n g  s e p a r a t i o n  d e c i s i o n s  s e p a r a t i o n  g e r a t e d  f o r  because  a n x i e t y f o r  f o r  c o u n s e l l i n g  K e l l y  were  r e p o r t e d  have  c h i l d r e n  t h a t  s h o r t - t e r m  W a l l e r s t e i n ^ m e d i a t e l y  the  of  or  s e l f - r e s p o n s e  adjustment  framework  i n  a d u l t s  p a r e n t  from  d i v o r c e  t i m e - l i m i t e d c r i s i s  of  to  (1977)  h e l p ,  a g a i n s t  and  problems  f o r  a n x i e t y ,  themes  models  s e r v i c e s  assumptions i s  and  c r y  defense  S i m i l a r  K e l l y  c o n c e p t u a l  a  a of  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s  the  c l i n i c a l  mechanisms  b e n e f i t  on  he  be  may  d i s s o l u t i o n  r e s e a r c h  may  i t  needs  and  i t  f e e l i n g s  a c t i o n s .  the  W a l l e r s t e i n  developed  t h a t  t h a t  s t r o n g  a v o i d i n g  the  t u d i n a l  or  masking  f i n a l l y ,  means  i b i l i t y  i s  They to  as  a l s o  i n t e r -  f o l l o w i n g  r e a l  or  exag-  36 W a l l e r s t e i n v i d e d to  "by  an  serve  f a m i l i e s  s t r e s s e s  not  i n  the  an  of  s p e c i a l  used  t h e i r  d e c i s i o n  p o r t ,  encouraging on  to  the  a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e some  of  the  This  f a i l u r e  a b l e  or  most  gered  f u r t h e r  f o r c e  summary  r e f i n e s  study  agency the  to  t h i s  h e l p e d  and  c h i l d r e n ,  to  r a i s e  e x p l a i n  a s s u r i n g  p a r e n t ,  i n  t h e i r  own  or  cases.  to  were as  come  to  have  or  T r e a t -  needs  c o n s o l i d a t e  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  the  e x p l a i n i n g  parents  c h i l d r e n s '  w i t h  e t c . .  most  when  sup-  c l a r i f y i n g  d i v o r c e ,  t h e i r  to  s t a t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  were  s e l f - e s t e e m .  b e h a v i o r s ,  o c c u r r e d  designed  and  d i r e c t l y  t h e i r  and  but  emphasizing  time  to  t a s k s  c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  and  parents  e f f e c t i v e  from  a  enhancing  c h i l d r e n  i n t e n d e d  an  u n -  a d v e r -  p r o t e c t  endan-  i n t e r e s t s . T h i s  This  of  p e r c e i v e  agendas  unusual  n o n c u s t o d i a l  very  separate  w i t h  p o s i t i o n ,  to  w i t h  a t  was  p r o -  f o r m i d a b l e  h e l p i n g  concerns  was  the  was  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o n t i n u i n g  f r e q u e n t l y  u n w i l l i n g  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  s a r y  the  responses  treatment  c o u n s e l l i n g  of  and  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  w i t h  r e g u l a r  c h i l d r e n s '  ment  of  s e r v i c e  s i x  the  a b i l i t y  i n c l u d e d  p a r t  of  f u n c t i o n  d i v o r c e a  of  d e a l i n g  p a r e n t i n g of  of  e x p e r i e n c i n g  or  f e e l i n g s  they  team  importance  enhancement  S t r a t e g i e s  c o u n s e l l i n g  d i s s o l u t i o n  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  c h i l d r e n  were  d i s t r e s s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s t h i s  who  the  emphasized  t h a t  K e l l y ' s  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  and  They  and  the  f o c u s e d  sponsored  d i v o r c e  of  and  p e r s p e c t i v e s f i e l d  on  the  of  on  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  development  c o u n s e l l i n g p o s t d i v o r c e  d i v o r c e  s e r v i c e  of  a  which  c o u n s e l l i n g  c o u n s e l l i n g  i n  t h i s  study.  court/community o v e r l a p s  phases  w i t h  proposed  by  37 (1973)•  F i s h e r of  a  Furthermore,  much-needed  w i t h  t h e  a n t i c i p a t e d  c h i l d r e n  Group  The  f o r  Separated  l i t e r a t u r e  f o r  s e p a r a t i n g  been  c o n s i d e r e d ,  l i n g  have  been  more  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  r e c o r d e d  and  t h e  t h e  p r o v i s i o n  p a r e n t s  i n d i r e c t  group  n o t  been  have  i n e d  ( K r a n t z l e r ,  1977;  F i s h e r ,  Welch  and  been  1977  and  197*+;  i n  c o n f l i c t ,  h e l p  t o  t h e  I t  i s  now  on  i n d i v i d u a l s  on  programs  programs  I n i t i a l l y ,  been  process c o u n s e l -  t o  c o n s i d e r ,  t h a t  1976;  have  been  1977)*  Then,  t h e  be  County,  programs  w i l l  be  1975;  and  exam-  Edwards,  1975;  P r e s c o t t ,  f e w programs  c o n s i d e r e d  1977;  s e p a r a t e d  those  Weiss,  M o r r i s  w i l l  f o r  r e s e a r c h e d  1977;  e v a l u a t e d  has  d i v o r c e  a p p r o p r i a t e  s e r -  l i t e r a t u r e .  group  Lyman,  c o u n s e l l i n g  d i s s o l u t i o n  c o u n s e l l i n g t h e  I n d i v i d u a l s  f o r  C a r t e r ,  Hennepin  1978;  need  d i v o r c i n g  m i n i m a l .  197*+;  and  a  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  G r a n v o l d ,  s t u d i e d  D i v o r c e d  p e r s p e c t i v e s  i n  r e s e a r c h  t h a t  been  and  r e s e a r c h e d  has  o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e p o r t e d .  S y s t e m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l s  o f  and/or  have  G i l l e n ,  t h a t  have  ( K e s s l e r , 1976;  1976,  and  1976).  F i s h e r ,  K r a n t z l e r  (197*0  developed  t o  h e l p  d i v o r c e .  He  p r o v i d e d  e x p e r i e n c e s d i d  b e i n g  documenting  models  He  i n d i v i d u a l  "benefits  surveyed,  the  t o  emphasized  i n v o l v e d .  Programs  v i c e s  s e r v i c e  i t  n o t  of  b r i e f l y  i n d i v i d u a l s a  s e r i e s  members  e l a b o r a t e  on  t h e  of  d e s c r i b e d t o of h i s  g o a l s  cope  seminars  w i t h  t h e  a n e c d o t a l d i v o r c e o f  these  he  has  trauma  of  d e s c r i p t i o n s  adjustment seminars  of  seminars. n o r  ~  38  p r o v i d e  any  s y s t e m a t i c  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  these  (1976)  Lyman widowed  of  or  d i v o r c e d  changes  program.  The  format  a  u n t e e r e d t a k e n and  he  b e t a to a  course  syndrome'  cement  not  of  and  c o n s i s t e d  were  e s p e c i a l l y  l i z e d .  He  w i t h  case He  and  f o r  make  a  a  d a t a  r e s u l t  break  t h a t  examples suggested t h a t  and  and  women i n  to  of  the f o l -  a  v o l -  who  have  ' a l p h a  and  time  helps  t h a t  the  sub-  s e l f - i m a g e  and  i n d i v i d u a l s  f r i e n d s ,  f o r  p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  changes  and  course  l i t t l e  as  a  p e r i o d ,  changes  women the  d e s c r i b e d  e i g h t  h e l p f u l  and  suggested and  l e a d e r  p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  t h i s  which  c h o i c e s  a  i n c l u d e s  c o n s i d e r a b l e  atmosphere  of  b i n d i n g  t i o n ,  occur  s p e c u l a t e d  nonsystematic  s e p a r a t i o n  of  used  these  (1975)  nars  task  e f f i c i e n c y  c l a s s to  p r o v i d e s  express  d i s c o v e r  t h e i r  t h a t  they  a l o n e .  s i m i l a r  h a l f  s u p p l i e s  suggests  He  f e e l i n g s ,  in..a  and  the  e x p e r i e n t i a l  but  d e s c r i p t i o n s .  some  Weiss  of  he  show  n o n t h r e a t e n i n g  are  an  q u e s t i o n / d i s c u s s i o n  i l l u s t r a t e d  thoughts  he  p r e s e n t a t i o n .  the  support  groups.  students  the  by  to  d e s c r i b e d  s t a n t i a t e  lowed  d a t a  sense  He of  p a r t i c i p a n t s  his and  two to  Seminars a n e c d o t a l  and  o n e - h a l f  those  i n  t h a t  t h e i r  new  i d e n t i t y  t h a t  the  groups  b e i n g s t a t e d  to  moving.  He  hour  not  has  are  d i d  not  His  and  made  not  w i t h  document  phase  c r y s t a l -  h a l f the  men major  among  p r o v i d e d i n  w h i c h  r e l a t i v e l y  y e t  i d e a l l y  h e l p  s e m i -  meetings  i n t e r c h a n g e  groups  support,  Separated  manner.  u n s t r u c t u r e d  the  the  t r a n s i t i o n a l  have  f a c i l i t a t e  t h a t  community,  they  the  means  r e l a t i v e l y  f o r  i n f o r m a g e t t i n g  these  c-o  39 c o n c l u s i o n s  w i t h  (1977)  Edwards R e c o u p l i n g were  h e l d  s i s t e d out to  the  vs. i n  of  the  the  s i x  to  development  and  to  h e l p  autonomy.  of  they  have  of  a  d i d  Groups  f o r  the  a b i l i t y  d i v o r c e d  two  of hour  d i v i d u a l group a  had  d e s i r e  to  do  s i t u a t i o n . generated  such  behaviours  and  problem r e g a r d i n g ,  sex  d u c t i o n  of  a  l o t  a  and  w i t h  to  t e n  t h r e e  the  b e t t e r  The a  seminar  h e l d  who  and  f o r  from  l i f e  a  l i s t  i n c l u d e d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  of  broad new  d a y - t o - d a y  s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e l o n e l i n e s s ,  c o n s i s t e d  combined  each  expressed  t h e i r  They  12i n -  a t t e n d  had  and  a l o n e ,  f o r m a t  of  c o n c u r r e n t  people  and  l i v i n g  g o a l s  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  were  s i x  h a n d l i n g  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s d i v o r c e ,  the  group.  e v a l -  C o u n s e l l i n g / E d u -  s e l e c t e d  and  own  workshops.  p r i m a r y  years  were  persons  t h e i r  her  of  themselves  l i f e - c o n c e p t s  w i t h i n  i n  groups of  s i n g l e s  encourage  s i n g l e  of  p o i n t  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  the  minimum  from  r e m a r r i a g e .  t o p i c s  she  program  covered  i n s i g h t s ,  sense  i n c r e a s i n g  about  as  a  c o n -  to  a l l  to  of  and  were  h e l p  common,  g o a l s  Her  a  to  community  these  e i g h t  l e a d e r  i n  t h a t  D i v o r c e d  t o p i c s  s i n g l e ,  and  groups  workshops  o b j e c t i v e s  develop  of  w i t h  weekend  Her  something  m a r r i a g e , and  Her  r e p o r t  The  s i t u a t i o n s , to  S i n g l e .  f o r  the  c a t e g o r i e s  Being  s e p a r a t e d  The by  of  persons.  s e s s i o n s  been  C o u p l i n g  b e i n g  to  c o n f u s i o n  s e s s i o n s .  e n t i t l e d  day  developed  the  group  s u p p o r t i v e  not  (197*0  a  members.  values  d e c r e a s i n g  15  two  accomplishment  F i s h e r c a t i o n  of  i n d i v i d u a l s She  the  C h a l l e n g e  t e n  t h a t  the  developed  form  p o s i t i v e  r e c o g n i z e  u a t e d  d a t a .  of  w i t h  the  w i t h d a t i n t r o -  c o u n s e l l i n g ,  support of  and  these  l e s s e r  groups  cost  d i v o r c e d on  a  to  o t h e r s ;  and  i n d i c a t e  or  r a n  s e l l i n g  person  each  group  of  year  o l d  s i x  to  the  worked s e s s i o n .  move  seven  t o  The  p a s t  groups  to  i n  i n d i v i d u a l l y of  second  and  on  f o r  i n f o r -  d i d  not  impact  f o r  the  of  and  at of  of  were  a  t h i s  p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  and  seek-  s i x of  i n  w h i c h  l a t e r  counp a r two  had  been  c r i s i s .  c o u n s e l l o r  which  Her C a r t e r  group  u s u a l l y  group  nine  i n d e p e n d -  women.  to  a  respons-  through  s e s s i o n s  t h i s group,  and  u n i v e r s i t y  f i v e  the  the  of  independence.  w i t h  i n t o  d i v o r c e d  c o n t e x t  d i v o r c e d  e i g h t  members  y e a r  Members  program  e m o t i o n a l  f o r  w i t h i n  the  l o n e l i n e s s  operated  Each  ed  than  s e l f  She  f i n a n c i a l  c o n s i s t e d  s e p a r a t e d  of  i n d i -  c a t a l y s t  promoting  one  each.  a  autonomy  Group  hours  as  c o n c l u s i o n s  are  c e n t e r . and  a c t  h e l p of  encouraging  c o u n t e r  25-45  was  group  w h i c h  were:  can  p e r f o r m e d .  ongoing  o n e - h a l f  c h o i c e  was  goals,  r a t h e r  to  more  i n d i v i d u a l s  acceptance  e v a l u a t i o n  b e h a v i o u r ;  support  and  i n t e r c o n n e c t e d  t i c i p a n t s and  m a l a d j u s t e d ;  be  a  of  b e n e f i t s  were:  serve  range  s u b j e c t i v e .  developed  to  can  to  e f f i c i e n c y  women  wide  f i v e  (1974)  F i s h e r  her  s y s t e m a t i c  p o p u l a t i o n  two  to  The  based  assumed  any  h e l p i n g  m u t u a l  c l i e n t  be  o n e ' s  a  tended  F i s h e r  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  and  serve  group  t r e a t m e n t  f o r  by  c o u n s e l l i n g ;  a d j u s t e d  the  i t s  can  i n f o r m a t i o n .  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (1977)  Her  f e m i n i s t  i n  can  C a r t e r  i n g  were  i n d i v i d u a l  change.  t h a t  group  ence;  l i s t e d  t h a t  t h a t  i b i l i t y  t h a t  from  g a i n  i n d i v i d u a l  women.  of  t h a n  continuum  m a t i o n  p r o v i s i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s ;  v i d u a l s  the  the  had  u s u a l l y operated  d u r i n g the c o n s i s t -  41  r e g u l a r l y second  f o r  group  the  group  and  h e l p i n g  unique  i n  one may  or  l e a d e r .  o n e - h a l f  may The  not  sense  such  c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  as  hours.  choose  treatment  i n d i v i d u a l s  t h e i r  techniques  c o g n i t i v e  and  to  of  c r e a t i v e  C a r t e r  and  g o a l s  she  d i d  whether  she  had  e f f i c i e n t l y  M o r r i s  and  P r e s c o t t  and  t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l l y  they  used  were  w i t h  s h a r i n g not  c o u n s e l l i n g  approaches,  values  b e h a v i o u r a l  c o n t r a c t i n g  e l a b o r a t e l y  d e f i n e d  not  and  of  emphasized  t h a t  g e s t a l t  f a n t a s y ,  methods  work  approach  i s o l a t i o n ,  r e s t r u c t u r i n g . but  to  r e c o g n i z e  r o l e p l a y i n g ,  Members  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  e f f e c t i v e l y  and  her  e v a l u a t e  a c h i e v e d  her  g o a l s .  c o l l e g e The  students  groups  were  weekly  two-hour  used  process  a  v e r s a t i o n  and  i n t e r v e n e d  ;stage  a  mourning, M o r r i s  the  began  noted  P r e s c o t t and  tone  i n  t h i s  the  stage,  to  and  h e l p e d  male  the  of  the  stages  a  group  of  and  p o i n t the  f o r  support.  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  At  and The  view  themselves  r a t h e r  than  as  helped  w i t h  The a  an  c o n -  l e a d e r s  d e a l  t o  l e a d e r s  the  of  t h i s  the  a  e a r l y  time  understand  marriage  e i g h t  c o - l e a d e r s  group.  need  to  f o r  the  and  f o r  ' p a r t n e r s h i p . '  met  or  past,  i n d i v i d u a l s  groups  f o l l o w e d  the  s t a r t e d  and  which  a  a  female  on  t h e i r  p r e s e n t  and  of and  group,  c l a r i f y  support  l o s s  i n t e r v i e w  disappointments  i n d i v i d u a l s  i n d i v i d u a l s  of  f o c u s i n g  d e t e r i o r a t i o n when  an  the  approach  t h r e e  f o r  developed  from  The  c o u n s e l l i n g  v e n t i l a t i o n  and  by  meetings.  time  e x p e c t a t i o n s of  preceded  o c c a s i o n a l l y They  was  r e c o v e r i n g  f e e l i n g  problem.  (1975)  p o i n t , t h e i r causes  mid-stage as  s i n g l e  ex-spouse.  i n d i v i d u a l s  to  At  c l a r i f y The  the  f i n a l  v a l u e s  stages  and  of  goals  the  group  f u t u r e .  I n d i v i d u a l s  "based  acceptance  i n  change.  M o r r i s  P r e s c o t t  r e s e a r c h  on  on  t i o n s need  they f o r  groups, vs.  t h e i r r a i s e d  f u r t h e r a  the  They  Based  a  of  number  study  •:. s u c h  edcthe f o r  hope  the  t h a t  t h e i r  s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d  v a l u e .  T h e i r  groups  groups  seven  weeks.  Two  male  e x e r c i s e s and  a  w i t h  l a r g e  i n c l u d e d the  w i t h  o n e ' s  volved)  of  w i t h  and  r a n  f o r  a  summary  on and  the  weeks f r i e n d s  d u r i n g  seminars  h e u r i s t i c aged p e r  from week  group,  minute  e x p r e s s -  19 f o r  u s i n g  l e c t u r e ,  a s m a l l  c o n t e n t ,  f o l l o w e d  l e a r n i n g  s p e c i f i c  s k i l l s ,  Topics  s e p a r a t i o n  i d e n t i t y of  ( e s p e c i a l l y and  and  the  of  r e a l i t i e s  two  hours  d e b r i e f i n g .  impact  monadic  of  groups.  c o n c l u s i o n s .  s t u d i e s  the  15-30 of  weekend  members  t h r e e  these  member-centred  vs.  be  the  of  e d u c a t i o n a l  may  l e d  o b s e r v a -  suggested  s i m i l a r  of  30  c o - l e a d e r s  emphasis  a  of  d i s c u s s i o n  ex-spouse  d u r i n g  f a m i l y  and  to  to  s y s t e m a t i c  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  c o n t r o l l e d  combined  e m o t i o n a l  acceptance c o p i n g  an  group  the  two,  on  w h i c h  p r o c e s s i n g  f o r  any  c l i n i c a l  w h i c h  weekly  the  encouraged  t h e i r  came  c o n s i s t e d  The  group  and  i n d i v i d u a l s  y e a r s .  format  conduct  d e s c r i p t i o n s  57  seminar  not  the  f o r  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  n o n d i r e c t i v e  (1977)  need  of  f e l t  i s s u e s  l i f e s t y l e s .  p l a n n i n g  and  on  as  between  e v o l v i n g  sense  d i d  groups.  Granvold  emphasized  a  group  l e a d e r - i n i t i a t e d groups, and  t h e i r  emphasized  developed  comparison  Welch  to  and  of  a  d u r i n g  weeks  c h i l d r e n  t h e t h r e e  impact and  covered  d i v o r c e  weeks  c o n t i n u i n g  where  t h r e e ,  and  by  one  and and  r e l a t i o n s h i p are of  f o u r ,  i n s e p a r a t i o n the  impact  of  s e p a r a t i o n  f o u r  and  f i v e ,  and  s e x u a l  and  seven.  c o g n i t i v e and  on  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  work  and  adjustment  as  The  p o w e r f u l  C o g n i t i v e  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  i r r a t i o n a l  M o d e l i n g h e l p f u l  and i n  encouraging  problem  r e s o l u t i o n .  g i v e n  a f t e r  h a v i o u r  from  Granvold  i n c l u d e d f o r  s t r o n g  a  of  group  v i a b l e  These  t h o u g h t f u l  the  S p e c i f i c  to  a  the  to  b r i d g e  n a t u r a l  t h e s e  of  adjustment.  s k i l l s  assignments changes  p r o v i d i n g  These  and  support,  t r e a t m e n t  a l s o  and  were b e and group  e n a b l i n g  the  f o r  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s . of  s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d  i n d i v i d u a l s ,  though  d i d  some  The  development  d e s c r i p t i o n s  o b s e r v a t i o n ,  l e a d i n g  l e a r n i n g  e x t e n s i v e  c l i n c i a l  were  p r o d u c t i v e l y .  f a c i l i t a t e d network  w i t h  advantages  encouragement  and  i n  Welch  v i c a r i o u s  q u i c k l y  i d e n t -  r e i n f o r c e m e n t  f o r  more  to  r o l e p l a y i n g  c o n t e x t .  advantages  r a t i o n a l  problems  as  l e a r n  the  problems.  members  through  was  e x p e r i e n c e s ,  c r e a t i n g  homework  process  E l l i s '  group  t o  r e h e a r s a l ,  group  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  s o c i a l / i n t e r p e r s o n a l  f o r  process  o p p o r t u n i t y  change  c o n c l u s i o n s  seminars on  to  peer  group  used  were  r e h e a r s a l  p o s t d i v o r c e an  t e a c h i n g w h i c h  e x e r c i s e s  p r o v i d i n g  i n c l u d e d  s o l v i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s  group  s i x  approach  a c t i v e  d i s c u s s e d  f o r  i n d i v i d u a l s use  the  a l s o  treatment  and  these  weeks  shared  by  b e h a v i o u r a l  d u r i n g  of  to  weeks s i x  i n d i v i d u a l s  assumptions to  e f f e c t  f i v e  b e h a v i o u r a l  i n t e r v e n t i & n s  approach  approaches  and  d u r i n g and  a d u l t  m o d e l i n g  c r e a t i v e  therapy  R o o s a ' s  to  a  weeks  i n t e r v e n t i o n s  as  and  c h i l d r e n  d u r i n g  s i n g l e  c a t a l y t i c  problems,  i f y  a  r e s t r u c t u r i n g ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y  emotive  d a t i n g  T h e r a p e u t i c  homework.  w i t h  not  e d u c a t i o n a l  p r o v i d e  based  44  s y s t e m a t i c ness  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  these  There w h i c h  about  the  e f f i c i e n c y  and  e f f e c t i v e -  groups.  a r e  a  p r o v i d e d  few  programs  i n d i c a t i o n s  d i s c u s s e d  t h a t  they  i n  had  the  l i t e r a t u r e  been  s t u d i e d  and  e v a l u a t e d . K e s s l e r her  D i v o r c e  to  up  to  spouse r a n  hours  b e g i n n i n g  of  e v a l u a t e  the  impact  these  a  a  of  p r o a c h  and  to  c e d u r a l  t h a t  a  d i v o r c e  i n c l u d e d  a  t r a n s a c t i o n a l  thoughts  to  on  i n d i v i d u a l s  d i v o r c e .  Some  i n  s k i l l s of  K e s s l e r ' s  a s s e r t i v e n e s s  support  the  imminent.  The  of  a t  sense  of  s i t u a t i o n  i n  d e a l i n g  w i t h  i n c l u d e d  some  s k i l l s  to  how  of  and  and  to  ap-  and  o n e ' s  the  p r o A d j u s t -  e m o t i o n a l  b e l o n g i n g  to  a  t e a c h  surrounding  i n t e r v e n t i o n  communication  common  D i v o r c e  i s s u e s  c o g n i t i v e  two  therapy  the  s i m i l a r  t h e r a p e u t i c  t r a i n i n g ,  a  groups  the  o n e s e l f  a  groups  of  t h e i r  process  approach  and of  l e a s t  group  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n  and  c o n s i s t e d from  about  g o a l s  at-o  s e p a r a t e d  emotive  r e f o r m ,  The  s t r e n g t h e n  p r o v i d e  c o p i n g  d i v o r c e  d i v o r c e .  to  (1976)  a n a l y s i s  n e g a t i v e  D i v o r c e  (1978)•  d e s c r i p t i o n  r a t i o n a l  about  r e p o r t e d  groups  s e s s i o n s  changing  were  b r i e f l y  was  a  of  Beyond  Groups  d i v o r c e ,  aspects  and  p h y s i c a l l y  weekly  i n f o r m a t i o n  l e c t u r e t t e / u n s t r u c t u r e d  covered a  a  to  s p e c i f i c  i n  were  f i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n  autonomy,  used  of  d i v o r c e ,  Groups  of  who  used  r e a c t s  d i v o r c e ,  group  minimum  of  Adjustment  d e c i d e d  Topics  person  ment  had  each  stages  D i v o r c e  members  15  f o r m a t .  (1976)  Groups  the  and  f o r  c l i n i c a l  and  K e s s l e r ' s of  e x t e n s i v e  Adjustment  (1977)  Groups tempt  p r o v i d e d  s t r a t e g i e s  r e s t r u c t u r i n g , t r a i n i n g ,  45 e m o t i o n a l  r e l e a s e  K e s s l e r ' s l a r  to  her  groups  began t h e n and  e i g h t  t o p i c s  each made  p a n t ' s  of  K e s s l e r s t r u c t u r e d  i n d i v i d u a l  a  groups,  l e a d e r  The  t h i r d  group  were  to  were  The  Beyond  s i m i l a r  d i f f e r e n t of  f i l m e d  the  v e r y  g o a l s ,  and  groups  i s s u e s  v i g n e t t e s ,  c o n t a i n e d  covered  The  i n d i v i d u a l  s i m i -  D i v o r c e  f o r m a t .  v i g n e t t e s ,  readings  another  the  and  d i s c u s s i o n s  and  s t r u c t u r e d  w i t h i n  was  t e n the  a  D i v o r c e  as  they  some  a  p a r t i c i -  r e p o r t e d  nor  time  on  In the  w a i t  l i s t  c o n t r o l  S e l f  were  a r o s e .  the  Tennessee and  responded  used  The  a  Concept  a v a i l a b l e  to  groups. the  the  In of  and  o f - i n d i v i d r o l e p l a y i n g .  group.  Each  used  compare  S c a l e ,  the  s t r u c t u r e d  to  the  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . on  un-  needs  concerns  v i g n e t t e s  c r i t e r i a  S e l f - R e p o r t  made  comparing  Adjustment  a l s o  members.  I n v e n t o r y  (1978)  study  l e a d e r  spent and  c r i p t i o n  c o n c l u s i o n s  of  s t r u c t u r e d  members  not  and  conducted  group  of  had  s h a r i n g  s e r i e s  r e l a t e d  u a l  c o n s i s t e d  a  (1977)  groups.  s l i g h t l y  p a r t i c i p a n t s  the  Groups  long,  w i t h  s h a r i n g .  (1977).  and  u n s t r u c t u r e d  groups  a  e x e r c i s e s  guide  groups,  weeks  s e s s i o n use  D i v o r c e  Adjustment  w i t h  r o l e p l a y i n g  homework  i n f o r m a t i o n  Beyond  D i v o r c e  were  s i m i l a r  and  r e q u e s t .  group  S e l f - D e s Data K e s s l e r ' s  were:  "The c l i e n t ' was s i g n i f i c f o r the u n s t t h a t persons ended up w i t was s i g n i f i c p e r i e n c e and ed group r e v  s l e v e l of s a t i s f a n t l y higher f o r r u c t u r e d group. having the s t r u c h an o v e r a l l l e v e a n t l y h i g h e r than the c o n t r o l grou e a l e d a more p o s i  the  a c t i o n w i t h the group the s t r u c t u r e d than The d a t a a l s o suggest t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e l of s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t the u n s t r u c t u r e d exps...and the s t r u c t u r t i v e s e l f i d e n t i t y and  g r e a t e r or  s e l f  c o n t r o l  acceptance  than  d i d  the  u n s t r u c t u r e d  g r o u p s . "  (1978, p . l ) This  study  by  K e s s l e r  e f f e c t i v e n e s s However, r e s u l t s  any  be  on  s e s s i o n  uate  i t s  served and  of  l e g a l  the  b e t t e r  to  and  problems.  p r o v i d e  i n c l u d e d  h e l p  an  o p p o r t u n i t y  Data  c o l l e c t e d  demographic of  program  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  the  reduce to f o r  the  the  end  a  to use  of  stages the  out  and  e v a l of  a  and  of  l o s s  c h i l d ' s  ex-  were  p r o -  to  p r i o r i t i e s c o n f l i c t , f e e l i n g ;  County  p r o - •  i n f o r m a t i o n d a t a  an  each  e x p e r i e n c e s , Hennepin  a  t h r e e  approach  program  The  and i n  and  not  p r o v i d e d  i t s  s o r t  share  s e s s i o n s .  program  was  u n p r o d u c t i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n  development the  the  i n d i v i d u a l s to  the  t o p i c s :  of  d i d  a t t e m p t e d  i n  d i v o r c e ;  g o a l s  d e c i s i o n s ,  b e n e f i t s  f a c i l i t a t e  The  of  major  these  p r e p a r e d  through a t  the  program.  w h i c h  and  out  her  They  of  p a r e n t s .  d a t a ,  s t a f f  p a r e n t s .  e d u c a t i o n a l  t h r e e  issue  K e s s l e r  (1977),  program  of  of  R e l a t i o n s  f i l l e d  aspects  to  e f f i c i e n c y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  was  on  d i v o r c e .  and  the  and  groups  make  to  of  the  s e p a r a t e d  a d d i t i o n ,  E x p e r i e n c e  program  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  p e r c e i v e d  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  l a r g e  In  s e p a r a t e d  e f f i c i e n c y  and  gram  f o r  "for  p r e s e n t a t i o n  Domestic  d e s c r i p t i o n  d i v o r c e ;  v i d e  of  D i v o r c e  The  p e r i e n c e  adequate  County  The  s e l f - r e p o r t s e s s i o n .  an  addressed  program  q u e s t i o n e d .  program  e l a b o r a t e  group  m o n i t o r i n g  Hennepin r e p o r t  a  w i t h o u t may  r e p o r t  of  d e f i n i t e l y  was  change  nor  r e a c h i n g  i t s  not to  on used  a s s e s s  g o a l s .  (1976)  G i l l e n conducted  group  s e p a r a t e d  persons  S c a l e .  The  o n e - h a l f  hour  a  a  upon  Concept  enough  to  have  i m p a c t .  on  program  the  an  long  enough  of  a  the and  t e n  meeting group  the  s e s s i o n s  was  the  d i v o r c e  f o l l o w e d  by  r e s u l t  i n  of  t h a t  and  by h i s  enough G i l l e n the  any  the  G i l l e n  of  group.  had  no  Tennessee  groups  were  t r a i n e d d i d  not  program  S e l f not  i n d i v i d u a l s c o l l e c t  may  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  c o n c l u d e d  group  the  a  members  c o n t r o l  therapy  measured  F i n a l l y ,  Concept and  found  a d d i t i o n ,  S e l f  or  two  of  f o u r  e i g h t ' v o l u n t e e r  w e l l  d i v o r c e d  not  d a t a  have  changes  i n  members.  F i s h e r  s o c i a l  to  of  Tennessee  members  by  p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  weekly  conducted  r u n  In  to  were  as  of  r e c e i v e d  p o s s i b l e  nor  the  f o r m a t  e i g h t  e f f i c i e n c y .  group  through  i s  by  were  s e l f - c o n c e p t  s t r u c t u r e d  been  and  I t  s e l f - c o n c e p t  r e l a t e d  d i f f e r e n c e s  S c a l e .  the  The  p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  e f f e c t  e f f e c t s  group  There  group  the  measured  t o p i c  d i s c u s s i o n .  s i g n i f i c a n t  t h a t  as  on  s e s s i o n s . of  e x p e r i m e n t a l No  t h e r a p y  e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n t r o d u c t i o n group  s t u d i e d  (1976)  conducted  d i v o r c e  p r o c e s s .  e m o t i o n a l  week these  and  Measuring  a  t h r e e  needs hours  needs.  c o n t r o l  Adjustment  S c a l e ,  the  O r i e n t a t i o n  was  to  the  were  group  i d e n t i f y  the  groups,  c o n s i s t i n g p i l o t  S e l f  Inventory. mean  to  w o r k i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l  two  the  Tennessee  people  determine  week  each  of  attempted  to  i n c l u d e d  P e r s o n a l i t y a p p l i e d  He  per  group,  study  and  There  i n s t r u m e n t s  a  scores  Concept  of  seminar  the  members. D i v o r c e  S c a l e , of  i n  e x p e r i m e n t a l  30  F i s h e r  A n a l y s i s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  an of  t h e i r  and  the  c o v a r i a n c e  F i s h e r  D i v o r c e  48 Adjustment struments  S c a l e , u s i n g  s i g n i f i c a n c e the  of  to  d i v o r c e  tanglement s h i p s ,  t o t a l  concluded t i v e the  of  and  group i n  (.10)  n e g l e c t e d  method  r e p o r t e d  t h a n  t h a t  of  i n  used  r e p o r t  r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  a  t h i s  the  of  s o c i a l  seminar people  study  d i s e n r e l a t i o n -  u t i l i z e d  to  of  the  an  work the  i t  e f f e c ;through  most  i s  l e v e l i n  F i s h e r  was  was  s t r i n g e n t  e f f i c i e n c y  a d j u s t -  s e l f - c o n c e p t .  l i t e r a t u r e ,  l e s s  t h e i r  d i v o r c e ,  r e b u i l d i n g  h e l p i n g  n o r m a l l y  the  the  adjustment  Although  i t  determine  improved  and  i n -  to  s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e  d i v o r c e  S c a l e  r i g -  necessary  of  s i g n i f i -  r e s e a r c h  and  i t  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of  seminar. I t  search  i s i n  c l e a r the  t h a t  f i e l d  t h e r e  of  i n d i v i d u a l s  coping  t h a t  r e p o r t e d  the  are  f r e q u e n t l y  change  through  l a c k  a s s e s s i n g  ing  g o a l s .  o l o g i c a l  f l a w s  In i n  ducted  i n  of  l i t e r a t u r e .  the  t h i s  a  the  f i e l d .  p a u c i t y  c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h  f o r  the  f a m i l y  of  the  These  of  s y s t e m a t i c  f o r  are  m a i n l y  e f f i c i e n c y  there  of are  s t u d i e s were  the  the  d e s c r i p t i v e  program  noted  have  w i t h  the  program  program,  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t  or  Programs  planned  of  r e -  separated  change.  i n t r o d u c i n g  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  a d d i t i o n , most  a  l i t e r a t u r e  means  m o n i t o r i n g  through i t s  i n  i s  group  d i v o r c e d  and  The  adjustment,  t h a t  to  c o n f i d e n c e  r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  the  Concept  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t h e i r  d i v o r c e  those'  of  S e l f  hypotheses.  p r o c e s s .  i n d i c a t e  the  l e v e l  p r a c t i c a l  of  cance  .10  l o v e  t h a t  d i v o r c e  orous  Tennessee  the  e x p e r i m e n t a l  ment  to  a  the  i n  and  meet-  method-  been  c o n -  summaries  49 Summary  ness  of  was  of  d i s s o l u t i o n  r e t i c a l  ing  m a r i t a l f o r  the  reviewed  s e p a r a t i n g  p e r s p e c t i v e s  surveyed  a l l y ,  Review  L i t e r a t u r e  s e r v i c e s  were  L i t e r a t u r e  and  newly  group  c r i t i q u e d .  The  Nature  of  of  r e f i n e major  p r o v i d e d  of  the and  a  c l a r i f y i n  g o a l s  i t s  the  appeared  to  t h r e e  be  i n t e n s e  a n x i e t y  r e l a t e d  to  the  ated at the  t h i s  t h a t  of  the  Theo-  d i s s o l u t i o n  f o r  e x p l o r i n g  process  and  c o u n s e l l i n g . were  of  major i s  development  of  POSI-COPE  through  the  a  (Carr, and  d e f i n F i n -  r e v i e w e d  f e e l i n g s of  changes the  i n  POSI-COPE  1972).  w i t h  were:  the  to of and  There the  changes  the s e l f  and  f a m i l y  i d e n t i t y g o a l s  program  others  change;  s e l f - e s t e e m  three  was  E p s t e i n  1977;  about  and  f i r s t  d i s t i l l a t i o n  These  p o s i t i v e  The  program  Weiss,  themes.  autonomy  Therefore of  the  d i s s o l u t i o n ;  process  d r a s t i c  t i m e .  s t r a t e g i e s .  a s s o c i a t e d  n e g a t i v e  the  and  1977;  r e l a t i o n s h i p  l e s s e n i n g  w i t h  c o u n s e l l i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s  l i t e r a t u r e  O e t t i n g ,  and  p e r v a s i v e -  i n d i v i d u a l s .  d i v o r c e  goals  1977;  i n h i b i t s  f o r  d i v o r c i n g  of  the  Study  T r i p o d i ,  t h a t  need  c o n t e x t  development  a c c u m u l a t i o n  the  separated  program  themes  documents  r e l a t i o n s h i p  f i e l d  f o r  t h i s  Statement step  the  developed  and  and  and/or  on  programs  which  a s s o c i -  t h a t  occur  chosen  f o r  were:  50 1.  To  p r o v i d e  group to  a  a  environment r e d u c t i o n  e x p e r i e n c e d s o l u t i o n  2.  To  i n  p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  the  i n t e n s i t y  d u r i n g  the  i n f o r m a t i o n and  t h e i r  through  needs  e f f e c t i v e  r e d u c t i o n f e e l i n g s  To  which  f o r  focus  or  w i t h o u t  of  a n x i e t y d i s -  r e l a t i o n s h i p  p a r t i c i p a n t s  v e n t i l a t i o n  the  f e e l i n g s  l e a d i n g  a c c u m u l a t i o n  i n h i b i t  of  meet  of  to  a  n e g a t i v e  process  of  p o s i -  change.  on  a  about  h e l p  p a r t i c i p a n t s  themselves  to  to  to  the  encourage  i n g  l e a d i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  i n  f a m i l y  i b l e  r e a s s u r i n g  f o r  d i s s o l u t i o n  t i v e  and  p r o c e s s .  share  and  3.  s u p p o r t i v e  t h e i r  t h e i r  s t r e n g t h s  custody  g r e a t e r  and  to  of  of  respons-  b e h a v i o u r  and  p a r e n t s  ( w i t h  c h i l d r e n ) ,  l e a d -  as  t h e i r  sense  be  autonomy  and  s e l f -  esteem .  The of  these  two  s t r a t e g i e s  g o a l s  w i t h  f a m i l y  were  a  of  a s s e s s i n g  l e s s e n i n g  change  f o r m a t i v e  f o r  and  g r e a t e r  (process) to  a n x i e t y ,  approach  program  Formative  (process)  approach  POSI-COPE  grogram.  This  achievement  p o s i t i v e  autonomy  approach  (outcome)  the  and  and a  coping s e l f - e s t e e m  summative  development.  to  the  approach  development  c o n s i s t e d  of  of  the  51  d e s c r i b i n g and  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  m o n i t o r i n g  c r i b i n g  each  s e l f - r e p o r t  l a s t  s e s s i o n . III  and  a  d e s c r i p t i o n  on  i t s  e f f i c i e n c y  (outcome)  POSI-COPE  program  i n  a c h i e v i n g  of  t h r e e  by  the  of the  a  the  goals  t h r e e  S t a t e  Gorsuch  f a m i l y  Adjustment  g r e a t e r  sense  through  the  ( F i t t s ,  1964).  to of  T r a i t  and  Change autonomy  S c a l e . and  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  f o r  t h i s  v e s t i g a t e d  the  POSI-COPE  f o l l o w i n g  a t  S e l f  second  i n  hypotheses,  program IV.  of  the  The  the  POSI-  through was  the  use  measured  I n v e n t o r y P o s i t i v e  through of  t h i s  f i n a l  the  was  Concept  t h i s s t a t e d  of measured Scale  f o r  the  study i n  use  study,  g o a l  s t r a t e g y  program,  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  s e l f - e s t e e m  Tennessee  the  of  1970).  The  of  Chapter  a n x i e t y  course  the  of  i t s  a s s e s s e d  the  end  hypotheses.  Lushene,  d u r i n g  a  POSI-COPE  impact  of  of  u t i l i z e d  i n  A n x i e t y  was  the  des-  d e s c r i b e d  s p e c i f i e d  of  development  use  at  of  development  a s s e s s i n g  change  developed  of  program  r e s u l t s  the  the  the  Reductions  the  are  appear  to  a s s e s s i n g of  of  w i t h  t o o l  form:  f o r  the  of  statement  c o n s i s t e d  ( S p i e l b e r g e r , coping  approach  and  measures.  use  c o n s i s t e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  the  program  This  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  Summative  COPE  POSI-COPE  a d m i n i s t e r e d  and  s t r a t e g y  the  r e p o r t i n g  f i n a l  The  f i n d i n g s  second  and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  s e s s i o n  and  e f f i c i e n c y .  s e s s i o n  each  Chapter  i t s  of  i n -  the  n u l l  52  - HI  There  w i l l  he  ( oc-  .05)  i n  A n x i e t y  the  H2  i n  (oC= to  and  the  There  no  ( ©<?  .05)  i n  the  S c a l e  w i l l  between the  i n  The ment  the  r e s u l t s  appear  i n  of  not  Lushene,  p a r t i c i p a t e d  F a m i l y  Change  p a r t i c i p a t -  S e l f  and  the  Coping those  of  Coping  have w i t h  who  have  d i f f e r e n c e s the  S e l f  w i t h  S e l f ,  S e l f , of  Scale  have  who  who  P h y s i c a l  scores  who  Adjustment  those  P e r s o n a l  Concept  the  program.  S c o r e ,  s u b j e c t s  and  P o s i t i v e  S e l f  d i f f e r e n c e  s u b j e c t s  r a t i n g s  S e l f ,  S o c i a l  of  s i g n i f i c a n t  T o t a l  P o s i t i v e  Program  i n  the  M o r a l - E t h i c a l  Tennessee  r a t i n g s  the  no  i n  .05)  and  have  Program  be  C r i t i c i s m ,  S e l f  and  have  w i t h  between  i n  Change  =  S t a t e A n x i e t y  Gorsuch  s i g n i f i c a n t  p a r t i c i p a t e d  There  who  the  T r a i t  who  Coping  be  p a r t i c i p a t e d  H3-H9  S t a t e  s u b j e c t s  those  of  d i f f e r e n c e  program.  Change  not  the  w i l l  F a m i l y  r a t i n g s  ( S p i e l b e r g e r ,  P o s i t i v e  Program ed  of  between  1970)  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  S c a l e  Inventory  i n  no  F a m i l y  the  ( F i t t s ,  p a r t i c i p a t e d F a m i l y  have  not  1964) i n  Change p a r t i c i p a t e d  program.  t h i s  Chapter  s t r a t e g y V.  f o r  program  d e v e l o p -  53  CHAPTER  III  METHODOLOGY  The  sample  c r i p t i o n  of  procedures  Sample,  and  or  c h i l d r e n )  who  s e l l o r s . m e e t i n g i n c l u d e d  had been and t h a t  w h i c h  the  of  was  Vancouver  f o l l o w e d  by  a  p e r s o n n e l .  p r o c e s s ,  on  o b t a i n i n g  r e f e r r a l s  F a m i l y  of  involvement  w i t h  who  C o u n s e l l o r s the  the  In  custody  of  were  the  w i l l -  i n f o r m a t i o n  Court  Coun-  the  monthly  a t  i n f o r m a t i o n and  were  the  over;  p r o v i d e d  t e n t a t i v e  A ) .  Emphasis  p a r e n t s who who  around  the  i t  who  may  and  a d d i t i o n ,  program  Groups  l e g a l l y  through  c o u r t ,  r e f e r  to  c h a p t e r .  program.  Appendix  c o n f l i c t s  c h i l d r e n .  a t t e n d i n g  (see  t h i s  of  F a m i l y  goals  i r r e v o c a b l y  u n r e s o l v e d  t h e i r  Court i n  was  The  the  i n  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n  program  access  group  to  marriage  a r e a  desB  c o l l e c t i o n  S u b j e c t s  w i t h o u t  sent  Court  d a t a  c o n s i s t e d  p u b l i c i z e d  POSI-COPE  e x p e r i e n c i n g  of  or  week  groups,  study,  Vancouver  e i g h t  to  p r e s e n t e d  study  the  a l l e n g t h y  are  ( w i t h  the  program  the  Assignment  p a r e n t s  were  of  p r e s e n t  an  s u b j e c t s  used  and  w i t h i n  r e f e r r a l  t h e i r  i n t e r e s t e d  the  i n  was  F a m i l y  p l a c e d  d e c i d e d  l i v e d  This of  analyses  d i v o r c e d  POSI-COPE  memorandums  was  f o r  of  d e s i g n  Process  p a r t i c i p a t e  The  format  d a t a  sample  s e p a r a t e d  to  assignment  i n s t r u m e n t s ,  R e f e r r a l  The  i n g  and  had have  may  was  custody r e q u e s t e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  who  r a t h e r  persons  t h a n  have  were they  54 f e l t  should The  the  a t t e n d .  l i s t  F a m i l y  of  r e f e r r a l s  Court  s t a f f .  i n v e s t i g a t o r ,  the  two  programs  POSI-COPE  be  c o n t a c t e d  i n  v o l u n t e e r i n g  t h i s  t i m e .  i n d i c a t e d When t o l d  the  or  t o l d  to  get  i n t o  a s s i g n l i s t  of  the  abrupt  of  p o s s i b l e  to  t h a t  Consequently,  a  i t  of  f i v e  of  and  l i s t  of  t r e a t m e n t  a t  r e f e r r e d  e i t h e r to  a t t e n d  be  not of  p o s s i b l e  such  of  s e p a r a t e d  i n v e s t i g a t o r the  Chapters  i n d i v i d u a l s POSI-COPE weekly  be  sample  IV  and  on  and  or  a b l e  as  the  the  wait-  g r a d u a l  i n d i v i d u a l s , I t  appeared e q u i v a l e n t .  e x t e n s i v e  demo-  conducted  demographic  t  -  and  t e s t s p r e -  V ) .  a s s i g n e d  to  the  program  by  a t t e n d i n g  s e s s i o n s .  to  c o n s i s t e n t l y  randomly  c o l l e c t e d  groups  to  f a c t o r s  the  groups  numbers  group  not  e i g h t  were  would  random  may  the  would  confirmed  were  and  two  (See  t h a t  i n t e r e s t  i n v i t e d  the  t e n  the  they  i l l n e s s e s .  v a r i a b l e s  the  p a r t i c i p a t e .  and  between  completed  who  of  they  T h e i r  addresses,  e q u i v a l e n c y  nine  the  r e u n i o n  f o r  the  t a b l e  because  about  Of  program  was  i n f o r m a t i o n  t e s t  to  to  t h a t  also  persons  w a i t i n g  a  graphic the  was  r e c o n t a c t e d ,  used  but  r e f e r r a l s , of  on  and  d e t a i l s .  w i l l i n g n e s s  members  and-informed  conducted  27  two  submitted  c a l l e d  program  the  e i t h e r  procedure  changes  of  by  program.  i n v e s t i g a t o r  t h i s  be  upcoming  were  group  were  the  were  next  v o l u n t e e r s  t r i c k l e  a t t e n d  the  were  a d d i t i o n a l  i n i t i a l  they  c o n t r o l  apply  to  i n d i v i d u a l s  t h a t  The  w i t h  m a i n t a i n e d  names  would  T w e n t y - f i v e  date  As  i n d i v i d u a l s  soon  t h e i r  was  The  treatment  p e r s o n  a  group, minimum  t h a t  was  55 e l i m i n a t e d s e s s i o n s  due  a d d i t i o n , the  from to  she  program,  the  treatment  the  i l l n e s s  of  a  d i s t a n c e  l i v e d which  may  a t t e n d a n c e .  Of  l i s t  group,  c o n t r o l  person  t h a t  was  t a c t e d  s e v e r a l  her  home  out  the  i o d  f o l l o w i n g  Thus,  the  t e n nine  times  the  p r e s e n t and  A f t e r  f i n a l  the  and  w a i t  d a t a  was  l i s t  c o n t r o l  group  nate  sources  of  next  program  o f f e r e d .  The POSI-COPE  a l s o  from  were  h e l p  and  demographic treatment  data  was l i s t  were  on  are  l o c a t i o n  of  i n  was  u s a b l e .  and  was  v i s i t to  f i l l p e r -  program.  sample  of  nine  i n d i v i d u a l s . of  the  sample  d i s c u s s e d  w a i t  about  p a r t i c i p a t e  the  c o n -  to  group  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  The  two-week  members  to  poor  w a i t  u n w i l l i n g  f i n a l  the  her  the  group  the  group  i n v i t e d  d e s c r i b e d  was  a  w i t h  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  In  to  t r e a t m e n t  c o n t r o l  p r o v i d e d  c h i l d .  i n v e s t i g a t o r  w i t h i n  c o l l e c t e d ,  the  f a c t o r  t h a t  she  the  based  the  c o n t r o l  the  However,  of  a  of  her  a s s i g n e d  the  i n v i t e d  s e v e r a l  and  from  been  provided,  c o m p l e t i o n  nine  h e r s e l f  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  study  missed  i n d i v i d u a l s  t i m e s .  postprogram  treatment  have  e l i m i n a t e d  numerous  the  g r e a t  group  i n  and  i n  a l t e r the  the  Chapter  IV.  D e s c r i p t i o n  were  of  Instruments  The  measuring  the  Post  sponse  Sheet,  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  instruments  M e e t i n g the the  Response  P o s i t i v e S t a t e  which  used  i n  the  Post  Program  Sheet,  Coping  T r a i t  were  w i t h  A n x i e t y  F a m i l y  t h i s  Change  Inventory  study ReProgram  ( S p i e l b e r g e r ,  56 Gorsuch, S c a l e used t e r  and  1964).  ( F i t t s , f o r  t h r e e  1.  the  Post  and  M e e t i n g  used the  r a t i n g  to  m o n i t o r  program.  Appendix  B).  Post  Program  q u e s t i o n s  Appendix  and  were the  summative  developed  of  l a t -  component.  hy  of  the  each  t h r e e  w r i t e r s e s s i o n  L i k e r t - t y p e q u e s t i o n s -  Sheet was  developed  about  c l i e n t  I t  an  "by  s c a l e s ,  open-ended  the  w r i t e r  s a t i s f a c t i o n  c o n s i s t e d  L i k e r t - t y p e  and  study  open-ended  h e l p f u l n e s s . u s i n g  Concept  l i s t e d  e f f i c i e n c y  s e v e r a l  Response  q u e s t i o n s  form  was  c o n s i s t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n  program  the  S e l f  Sheet  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  e l i c i t  t h i s  f o r  the  I t  Tennessee measures  of  Response  (see  of  two  employed  and  and  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  This  3.  f i r s t  s c a l e s  to  and  component  were  This  2.  The  f o r m a t i v e  measures  of  1970),  Lushene,  of  a  s e r i e s  two  q u e s t i o n  c l o s e d (see  C ) .  P o s i t i v e  Coping  w i t h  F a m i l y  Change  Program  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e This er  and  s e c t i o n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  c o n s i s t e d was  his  or  her  t h r e e  designed  i n f o r m a t i o n . i n f o r m a t i o n  of  The  to  to  developed  s e c t i o n s .  o b t a i n  second  r e l a t e d p r e s e n t  was  the  i n  the  w r i t -  f i r s t  demographic  c o l l e c t e d  c l i e n t ' s  adjustment  The  b a s i c  s e c t i o n  by  r a t i n g s  such  areas  b a s i c of as  57 home, used  h e a l t h s e v e r a l  s e c t i o n Change  of  s c a l e  new  t h i s  (Snider,  W e l f a r e  t e s t ,  R e l i a b i l i t y  e v a l u a t i n g  s e r v i c e s  was t h i s was  g o a l  of  Appendix  S t a t e  s t a t e  and  of  d e s c r i b e  how  r a t i n g from  The  This  of  the  used  i n  t o r y  a n x i e t y .  i s  the  a  r e l i -  E s t i m a t e  was  used  of  to  program  w i t h  sep-  a s s e s s  i n  f a m i l y  meetchange  Inventory  A n x i e t y and  a n x i e t y .  they  a l l '  Lushene,  p r o v i d e d  1970)  measure  of  both  STAI  S t a t e  statements  t h a t  ask  people  to  p a r t i c u l a r  moment  by  at  on  a  f o u r  to  ' v e r y  c o u n s e l l i n g  (STAI)  The  f e e l  t h a t  The  Inventory  s e l f - r e p o r t  twenty  s t a t e d  s c a l e  c o p i n g  A n x i e t y  b r i e f  at  Hbyt  H e a l t h  f o r  s c a l e  compute  POSI-COPE  p o s i t i v e  themselves  ' n o t  (1976)  measure.  T r a i t  t r a i t  c o n s i s t s  to  .93•  N a t i o n a l  l a t t e r  necessary  Gorsuch,  r e l a t i v e l y  the  a  D).  T r a i t  ( S p i e l b e r g e r , a  from  f o r  the  The  adapted  (197*0  Because  to  d i f f e r e n t i a l  of  i n g  S t a t e  semantic  was  f i n a l  Adjustment  Department  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  The  an  The  the  the  (see  and  s c a l e s . -  was  a  s e c t i o n  by  i t  f o r  u t i l i z e d 1969)  p a r e n t s .  a b i l i t y  k.  which  This  r a t i n g  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  developed  a r a t i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  L i k e r t - l i k e  Scale  approach  and  and  the  a  STAI  p o i n t much  to  measure  STAI  T r a i t  s c a l e  so.'  S t a t e  Scale  S p i e l b e r g e r  S c a l e  changes Scale  ranging  can i n  be  t r a n s i -  c o n s i s t s  of  58 twenty they  statements  g e n e r a l l y  p o i n t  s c a l e  a l w a y s . ' T r a i t and  i s  h i g h  f o r  t h e i r  b o t h  found  s c a l e  (1976)  high t o  (.73  a b i l i t y  s t a t e  f o r  S p i e l b e r g e r  r e t e s t  s t a t e  a l s o  r e l i a b i l i t y  the  was  STAI  s u b j e c t s  a  s c a l e .  under  s t r e s s .  to  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  gram  i n  m e e t i n g  Tennessee The 1964) I t  S e l f  t h e  p r o v i d e s  a  o f  100  t h e  mensions  c o n s i d e r e d Score,  a n x i e t y f o r  s c a l e s . t r a i t  and h i g h e r  (.89 - «9*0  c o n d i t i o n s was  when  o f used  POSI-COPE  l e s s e n i n g  Concept  p r o -  a n x i e t y .  Scale  t h i s ?  ( F i t t s , s t a t e m e n t s .  m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  T o t a l  (1976)  r e l i -  found  s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e  i n  a i n  t h e  r e t e s t  they  t h e  i s  S c a l e  s t a n d a r d i z e d  o f  o f  i t  c o e f f i c i e n t s  i n v e n t o r y  o f  S e l f  c r i p t i o n  C r i t i c i s m  g o a l  Concept  Tennessee  c o n s i s t  This  s t r e s s  S p i e l b e r g e r  .3  c o e f f i c i e n t s  STAI  d i f f e r  Zuckerman  t h a t  a d m i n i s t e r e d  t h e  who  f o u r  ' a l m o s t  t h e  t h a t  STAI  median  p s y c h o l o g i c a l assess  and  t r a i t  r e p o r t e d  i n t e r n a l  and  r e l i a b i l i t i e s  and  .86)  t h e  time  how  a  t o  t h a t  c o n s i s t e n c y  and  on  s i t u a t i o n a l  Zuckerman  i n t e r n a l  d e s c r i b e  n e v e r '  s t a t e d  t o  over  t o  themselves  ' a l m o s t  s e l e c t i n g  proneness.  r e p o r t e d  They  from  s t a b l e  f o r  people  r a t i n g  impervious  r e l a t i v e l y t o o l  ask  by  S p i e l b e r g e r  a n x i e t y  5•  f e e l  r a n g i n g  S c a l e  u s e f u l  t h a t  s e l f - c o n c e p t . study  Score,  were:  P h y s i c a l  d e s Di=  S e l f S e l f ,  r  59 M o r a l - E t h i c a l and  S o c i a l  t h a t  S e l f ,  The  S e l f  are  m i l d l y  C r i t i c i s m  would  scores  i n d i c a t e  scores  g e n e r a l l y  c a p a c i t y  apply  the  s c o r e s  low  The  P h y s i c a l  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s h e a l t h ,  m o r a l ing  a  'good'  S e l f  score v i e w  of  'bad*  r e l i g i o n  or  S e l f  score  r e f l e c t s  the  and  w o r t h , h i s  F a m i l y  S e l f  i n g  adequacy,  of  b e r .  The  sense  of  a c t i o n  score  S o c i a l adequacy  w i t h  l a c k  o t h e r  of of  w o r t h  and  the  score  of  and  s e x u -  i n d i c a t e s of  b e -  s a t i s f a c t i o n The  P e r s o n a l  sense as  of  an  i n d i v i d -  p e r s o n a l i t y .  The  i n d i v i d u a l ' s as  a  score  r e f l e c t s  and  w o r t h  i n  i n  s e l f -  s t a t e  f e e l i n g s  i t .  value  of  s e l f - w o r t h .  s k i l l s  S e l f  people  l e v e l  body,  adequacy  r e f l e c t s  openness  i n d i c a t i o n  her  and  h i s  h i g h  p o s i t i v e  an  God,  of  low  T o t a l  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  f e e l i n g  e v a l u a t i o n  t o  person,  o n e ' s  u a l  S e l f  most  h e a l t h y  n e g a t i v e  or  items  e x t r e m e l y  o v e r a l l  appearance,  w i t h  p e r s o n a l  h i s  t h a t  The  p r o v i d e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p or  and  i n d i c a t e  of  E x t r e m e l y  i n d i c a t e  M o r a l - E t h i c a l  w o r t h ,  them.  normal,  scores  p h y s i c a l  The  to  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  worth  a l i t y .  S e l f ,  composed  s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .  High  of  F a m i l y  statements  i n d i c a t e  s e l f - e s t e e m . and  i s  defensiveness  f o r  r e f l e c t s  Score  derogatory  agree  Score  S e l f ,  S e l f .  people  and  P e r s o n a l  h i s  g e n e r a l  f e e l -  f a m i l y the  mem-  p e r s o n ' s  s o c i a l ( F i t t s ,  i n t e r .  60 R e l i a b i l i t y S e l f  Concept  v a l i d a t i o n  S c a l e  were  l a r  range  between  measures,  c o n d i t i o n s .  two  content  u l a r  c o n d i t i o n s .  The  ment  of  judges  r e c t l y . w h i c h  team The  assess  l a t t e r  of  the  the  D e s i g n  of  the  component the  the  study  (p.47).  of  1  of  2  This  a  of  the  o t h e r p a r t i c u -  t h i s  study  under  p a r t i c -  the  unanimous  was  c a t e g o r i z e d  c a t a l o g u e of  to  of  v a l i d i t y ,  under  changes  item  of  This  s c a l e  POSI-COPE  can was  and  study  diagrammed  c o r s t u d i e s  be used  program  autonomy  a g r e e -  s e v e r a l  s e l f - c o n c e p t  change.  were  study  a  d e s i g n  t e s t i n g ,  i s  used  and  (outcome)  S t a n l e y  u t i l i z e d  m a t u r a t i o n ,  t h i s  and  t h i s  and  r e l e v a n c e  an  types  w i t h  changes  i n v o l v e d  Tennessee  c o n t e n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s  p e r s o n a l i t y  measure  the Four  .91.  manual:  most  t h a t  on  i n  u s e f u l to meet-  s e l f - e s t e e m .  Study  summative  Campbell  a  g r e a t e r  d e s i g n  Measures  of  former  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  the  p r o v i d e d  t h a t  to  p e r s o n a l i t y  and  p e r s o n a l i t y  g o a l  The  f o r  of  i n d i c a t e  c r i t e r i o n  i n g  v a l i d i t y  scores  .60  groups,  were  a  i n  and  The  f o r  from  mentioned  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p e r s o n a l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s  f o r  measures  3»  component.  (1963)»  the  c o n t r o l s  f o r  4  and  5  main  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n .  e f f e c t s  used  to  component Group  1.  (process)  were  A c c o r d i n g  C o n t r o l the  F i g u r e  f o r m a t i v e  summative  Nonequivalent  and  the  i n  of  D e s i g n of  h i s t o r y ,  Wait L i s t C o n t r o l Group  3,4  Pre S e s s i o n  Treatment •Group  Measure  Time  I  1  II  VII  1 1 1 1 1 1  V I I I  1,2  P o s t  3,4,5  III IV V VI  Key: 12345-  P P P S T  ost ost o s i t t a t e enne  M e e t i n g Response Sheet Program Response Sheet i v e Coping w i t h F a m i l y Change T r a i t A n x i e t y Inventory ssee S e l f Concept S c a l e F i g u r e  Data  C o l l e c t i o n  The the  the  homes  d u r i n g group  S t a t e of  t h e  Coping  T r a i t the  week  of  the  study  Procedures  P o s i t i v e  and  D e s i g n  1.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  w i t h  A n x i e t y  members b e f o r e  Change  Inventory  of  the  F a m i l y  the  were  t r e a t m e n t  commencement  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d  and  of  c o n t r o l  the  a t  groups  treatment  program. The  Post  the  t r e a t m e n t  the  P o s t  the  eighth  M e e t i n g group  Program and  Response  a f t e r  Response  f i n a l  each Sheet  s e s s i o n .  Sheet  was  s e s s i o n was  of  a d m i n i s t e r e d the  u t i l i z e d  program a t  the  to and  end  of  62 The  P o s i t i v e  and  the  S t a t e  and  the  Tennessee  the  homes  weeks  of  a f t e r  Coping  T r a i t  the  A n x i e t y  S e l f  the  t r e a t m e n t  through  the  assignment  t e s t s .  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r  pre  post" t e s t  Program  r e s u l t s  of  of  S c a l e  was  c o n t r o l the  r e a d m i n i s t e r e d  a d m i n i s t e r e d  groups  t r e a t m e n t  group  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y  matched a l s o  numbers  p r o v i d e d  and  on  an  w i t h i n  at two  program. anonymity  a l l  sets  of  o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r  f e e d b a c k " o n - a n " i n d i v i d u a l V b a s i s .-  The  of  are  the  eses.  and  S t a t i s t i c a l B i o m e d i c a l The t r e a t m e n t f e r e n c e s  Computer  and due  the  of  the  Chapter the  were  C o v a r i a t e s  were were  Chapter  and  w i t h  e q u i v a l e n c y the  t e s t s  u s i n g  the  of  s e c t i o n  of  of  between h y p o t h -  s t a n d a r d  (1975)  and  the  (1977)• to  i n s u r e  e q u i v a l e n t  so  t h a t  t h e  hypotheses  i d e n t i f i e d were  the  IV.  conducted  by  P o s t  component  f i r s t  S c i e n c e s  P-Series  measured of  of  S o c i a l  r e p o r t e d  The  conducted  the  Sheet  (outcome)  c o n t a i n e d  groups  t e s t s  i n  V.  t e s t s  e q u i v a l e n c y  f a c t o r s  and  Program  Programs  c o n t r o l to  t a b u l a t e d  p a r t  f o r  Response  summative  i n  second  Package  i n f l u e n c e  d i t i o n .  f o r  analyses  t e s t s  Meeting  POSI-COPE  comprised  the  These  Post are  r e p o r t e d  f i n d i n g s  groups,  the  sheet  f i n d i n g s  study  these  of  Response  d e s c r i p t i o n  not  of  were  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Analyses  The  the  assured  Change  Inventory  and  c o m p l e t i o n  were  Data  F a m i l y  Concept  I n d i v i d u a l s  and  w i t h  a t  pre  c o v a r i a t e s the T r a i t  p o s t  t h a t d i f -  would t e s t  A n x i e t y  c o n scores  and  p r e  Adjustment  In were  the  t e s t e d  t e s t s  i n  t e s t s "by  t h i s  to of  Change  hypotheses,  a n a l y s i s s t u d y  S c a l e  of  were  s c o r e s .  the  hypotheses  c o v a r i a n c e .  performed  a t  A l l  proposed  s i g n i f i c a n c e  oC~=  .05.  Summary  T h i s of a  the  study  POSI-COPE  f o r m a t i v e  of  the  program  and  (outcome)  goals  f a m i l y  of  change,  The c r i p t i o n  of  and and  the  procedures  i n  c h a p t e r .  development s t r a t e g i e s :  e m p h a s i z i n g  the  d e s c r i p t i o n  i t s  use  e f f i c i e n c y ;  e m p h a s i z i n g  of of  the  program p o s i t i v e  autonomy  d e s i g n  the  two  a n x i e t y ,  d a t a  on  of  of  assignment  and  the  POSI-COPE  g r e a t e r  i n s t r u m e n t s ,  l e c t i o n t h i s  assessment  of  f o c u s  component  l e s s e n i n g  sample  to  through  component  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  three  designed  (process)  program  mative the  was  and  analyses  a  sum-  assessment  of  i n  i t s  m e e t i n g  c o p i n g  w i t h  s e l f - e s t e e m .  s u b j e c t s the  and  t o  study,  used  were  groups, d a t a  d e s -  c o l -  p r e s e n t e d  64 CHAPTER  DESCRIPTION THE  EFFICIENCY  T h i s t i o n  of. t h e  i n c l u d e : i s t i c s  program;  and  group  of  the of  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  Pre-Program  to  the  cussed  i n  When  of  the  the  Chapter  program  i n g  l i s t  the  the  next  c o u l d  G r e a t e r  on  cost  of  program;  and  the  the  des-  format  feedback;  w i t h  the  c h a r a c t e r -  p o s t -  p a r t i c i p a n t s ;  e f f i c i e n c y  of  the  program.  V o l u n t e e r s  and  w a i t  v o l u n t e e r s  upcoming  at  c o n t a c t  and  covered  the  l i s t  assignment  c o n t r o l  of  s u b j e c t s  groups- ' were  d i s -  III.  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r  f o r m a t i v e  the  the  p o s t - s e s s i o n  POSI-COPE  process and  of  implementa-  Topics  d u r a t i o n  r e s o u r c e s ,  f i n d i n g s  w i t h  the  v o l u n t e e r s ;  g o a l s  post-program  r e f e r r a l  f o r  and  s e s s i o n ;  C o n t a c t  the  the  the  e f f i c i e n c y .  w i t h  ON  DISCUSSION  of  r e p o r t s  l o c a t i o n ,  m a t e r i a l s  of  t r e a t m e n t  the  l e a d e r s ;  each  d i s c u s s i o n  i t s  c o n t a c t  sample;  and  FINDINGS  AND  d e s c r i p t i o n  about  feedback;  The  a  i n f o r m a t i o n  content  a  p r o v i d e s  program  the  PROGRAM,  IMPLEMENTATION  POSI-COPE  the  c r i p t i o n s  POSI-COPE  ITS  pre-program  of  program  THE OF  chapter  m o n i t o r i n g  and  OF  IV  or  were  informed  program  come  Vancouver  n o t i f i e d  to  t h a t  they  t h e i r  F a m i l y  about they  were  home,  were  a l s o or  S e r v i c e s  the  date on  the  asked  meet  i f  w i t h  o f f i c e s ,  to  of w a i t the  them answer  65 any  q u e s t i o n s  c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t i o n  they  p r o v i n g  the  D u r i n g  t h a t  p r o v i d e d program the  memorandum  any  q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d  about  the  u a l ' s  d e c i s i o n  F a m i l y a s s u r e d  of  v i d e d  and  l a t e r  date  they an  minimum  c o n t r o l and  and  group  to  come  the  out  t h e y  were  of  the  of of  the  the  were  Court  and  group.  the  i n f o r -  and  were  i m -  were any  m i s c o n c e p t i o n s the  t h i s  Appendix  of  the  o p p o r t u n i t y  i n d i v i d -  time  D).  the  w i t h They  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  and  answered.  support At  shown  C o u n s e l l o r s  P o s i t i v e . C o p i n g  (see  "brief,  were  they  feedback  p r o -  a t  a  i n t e r e s t e d .  Sample  began  the  c l i e n t s  c l a r i f y  the  t h a t  a  t a i l o r i n g  program  encourage  to  f i l l e d  to  out  needs.  F a m i l y the  f i l l  t o l d i n  meetings,  the  to  were  t h e i r  about  o f f e r e d  f i v e Nine  and  e i g h t  nine  completed  s e s s i o n s  o r i g i n a l  t e n  of  the  members  the  r e q u i r e d  POSI-COPE  of  the  a v a i l a b l e  f o r  post-program  d e s c r i b i n g  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  w a i t  l i s t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  feedback. The  d a t a  sample  was  r a t i n g  of  w i t h  had  i n d i v i d u a l s  program.  to  and  h e l p f u l  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y  were  of  meet  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Ten  be  o p p o r t u n i t y  to  the  i f  to  w r i t t e n  a l s o  Change  would  have They  pre-program  program  i n d i v i d u a l s  might  q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  the  This  they  f o r  o b t a i n e d p r e s e n t  F a m i l y  Change  through  the  adjustment Program  demographic  s e c t i o n s  of  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  the  of  the  i n f o r m a t i o n P o s i t i v e  w h i c h  was  and  Coping  completed  66 by  members  f o r e  of  the  commencing  treatment  the  and  POSI-COPE  D e m o g r a p h i c ' i n f o r m a t i o n e d u c a t i o n ,  employment  s e p a r a t i o n , were had  number  l i v i n g ,  and  e x p e r i e n c e d  p r e v i o u s  two  an  c o l l e c t e d  ages  m a r i t a l of  major  months.  or  T h i s  c o n t r o l  i n c l u d e d s t a t u s ,  c h i l d r e n ,  i n d i c a t i o n  any  l i s t  group  b e -  program.  s t a t u s ,  and  w a i t  of  c r i t i c a l  the  the  i s  t h i s  was  of c h i l d r e n  i n d i v i d u a l  changes  i n f o r m a t i o n  age,  l e n g t h  where  whether  sex,  w i t h i n  t a b u l a t e d  the i n  Table  1. The years  t y p i c a l  of  age,  separated  person  w i t h  f o r  a  c h i l d r e n  l i v e d  the  c h i l d r e n  was  ber  of  t h a t the no  c h i l d r e n  major  or  previous major  t h e i r  per  f a m i l y  c r i t i c a l  changes  months  and  of  p r e s e n t  areas  d l i n g  money,  h i s  or  l a t i o n s h i p s of  t h i s In  as  care  housekeeping p h y s i c a l  her  and  c h i l d r e n ,  w i t h  s o c i a l  i s  a d d i t i o n  the  to  I.67.  i n  and  the  persons  i n d i v i d u a l s  events  had  adjustment  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  r o u t i n e s ,  budgeting  h e a l t h  of  w i t h  the  support  demographic  E,  t h a t  and  F,  c h i l -  and  h a n -  i n d i v i d u a l  h e l p ,  The  and  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n -  of  r e l a t i v e s ,  a c t i v i t i e s .  Appendices  w i t h i n  o c c u r r e d .  d i s c i p l i n e  of  num-  r e p o r t e d  c h i l d r e n ,  sources  of  r e p o r t e d  them  of  e m o t i o n a l  age  average  f o r  and  s i t u a t i o n s ,  average  Seven  t i m e ,  of  The  o c c u r r e d  e l e v e n  r e c r e a t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n  years  had  f u l l  m a j o r i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  f r i e n d s , and  the  25-35  female,  employed  mother.  was  S e l f - r a t i n g such  In  e i g h t  c r i t i c a l  d a i l y  of  w i t h  or  dren,  l e v e l  more.  t h a n  sample  s c h o o l ,  or  l e s s  two  h i g h  changes  c l u d e d  and  some  year  the  i n  r e and  t a b u l a t i o n  G. c o l l e c t e d  67  Table Demographic  1  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  C o n t r o l  of  the  Treatment  Groups  Group V a r i a b l e  Treatment  C o n t r o l  (N=9)  (N=9)  T o t a l  Sex Male  4  2  6  Female  5  7  12  Age  1  18-22  1  23-29  3  30-39  2  40-49  2  2  50+  1  1  5 4  8  6  E d u c a t i o n Some  high  High  s c h o o l  Some  c o l l e g e  B a c h e l o r ' s Employment  s c h o o l diploma or  v o c a t i o n a l  degree  5  4  9  1  1  2  2  3 1  5  1  1  1  2  Status  P a r t - t i m e F u l l - t i m e  6  4  10  Not  3  4  7  Yes  3  4  7  No  6  5  Employed  Major or C r i t i c a l Changes or Events W i t h i n P r e v i o u s Two Months  P r e s e n t  M a r i t a l  Status  11  2  D i v o r c e d  2  Separated  5  M a r r i e d  2  2 14  2  68 Table Demographic  1  (continued)  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  C o n t r o l  of  the  Treatment  Groups  Group V a r i a b l e  of  Length  Treatment  C o n t r o l  (N=9)  (N=9)  T o t a l  S e p a r a t i o n  0-1  months  1  1  2  2-3 4-6  months  -  -  -  months  -  4  4  7-12  months  1  1  2  13-24  months  3  2  25+  months  4  1  Average  •Number  1.67  1.67  Ages  of  of  C h i l d r e n  .  5 5  C h i l d r e n  0-5  y e a r s  10  6-8  years  9-12  8  18  4  6  10  years  1  -  1  13-18  y e a r s  -  1  1  19+  y e a r s  -  -  -  Where  C h i l d r e n  W i t h  Mother*-;  W i t h  F a t h e r  are  L i v i n g  15 _  11  4  26  4  69 about  the  sample,  p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n  p a r t i c i p a n t s  were  w h i c h the  c r e a t e d  program.  coping  w i t h  v i o u s l y of  and  of  process  Two  as  p a r t i c i p a n t s own as  i n  to  o t h e r s  POSI-COPE and  by  group  gained  the  were the  new  of  of  sense  a b l e  a  to  This  custody to  of  male  a  wide  of  d i v e r s i t y many  compare  p e r s p e c t i v e s  s t i l l  d i s s o l u t i o n  t h a t  e x p e r i e n c e s  of  p r e -  had  b a l a n c e  the  a  access  i n d i v i d u a l s  (1976).  i n  w i t h  had  and  from  have  change  d u r a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s  stages  Brown  change  even  group  d i f f e r e n t  were  A l l  f a m i l y  m a r r i e d  c o n s i s t e d  b e n e f i c i a l the  d i d  w i t h  group f a m i l y  the  noteworthy.  the  not  a t  r e s u l t ,  the  about  throughout  and  e x p e r i e n c e s  a  of  are  c o p i n g  Some  d e s c r i b e d was  k i n s h i p  r e l a t i n g  The  and  were  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  members,  ages  of  o b s e r v a t i o n s  program  who  members  concerns  backgrounds  t h e i r  parents  c h i l d r e n  female  g e n e r a l  POSI-COPE  sense  c h i l d r e n .  range  and,  the  d i s s o l v e d  t h e i r  t h e i r  a  s e v e r a l  of on  of  and t h e  of the  c o n t r a s t others  t h e i r  own  s i t u a t i o n .  L o c a t i o n ,  The F a m i l y  D u r a t i o n  POSI-COPE  S e r v i c e s  c o m f o r t a b l y The Each  of  and  m e e t i n g  was  POSI-COPE  program.  POSI-COPE  G r e a t e r  Vancouver.  two  the  the  was  and  were  completed  of  program  f u r n i s h e d  s e s s i o n s  Cost  i n  the  group  The  room  room was  a t  s m a l l ,  q u i e t .  conducted  hours  r e q u i r e d  h e l d  Program  i n  minimum  I n d i v i d u a l s  w e e k l y  d u r a t i o n . of  f i v e  who  f o r  e i g h t  Nine  i n d i v i d u a l s  s e s s i o n s  missed  a  weeks.  of  s e s s i o n  the were  70  c o n t a c t e d at  the  s i x  fees  f o r and  Group  f o r  the  S o c i a l  by  them  to  not  a f f o r d  happened  next  were  to  e q u a l l y  G r e a t e r  had  the  and  $20  borne  of  what  a t t e n d  were  c o u l d were  Worker  has a t  were  has  developed,  The  Goals  The  i n  s e r v i c e  student  and  i n  waived  pay.  by  m e e t i n g . f o r  The  ex-  Vancouver  F a m i l y  Vancouver.  of  the  f o r  and w i t h  d i s t i l l a t i o n  of  major  statement  of  g o a l s the  a c c o m p l i s h e d .  F a m i l y  the  S c h o o l  i n v e s t i g a t o r  i n  has  f o r  an  Court  Worker The  degree,  Columbia,  had  S e r v i c e s , of  S o c i a l  e d u c a t i o n a l a  i s  p a r e n t a l a  C o u n s e l l i n g  C o u n s e l l o r  t r a i n -  c o n f l i c t .  by of  program i n  s t a t e d  goals  S o c i a l  Program  themes  process The  w i t h  F a m i l y  POSI-COPE  were  a  e x p e r i e n c i n g  f a m i l i e s  POSI-COPE  the  The had  Work  groups  c h i l d r e n  by  i n v e s t i g a t o r .  S o c i a l  B r i t i s h  has  of  The  the  l e a d i n g  of  goals  II).  and of  d i v o r c e .  e x p e r i e n c e  conducted  c o n j u n c t i o n  U n i v e r s i t y  Psychology i n g  Master  e x p e r i e n c e  the  j o i n t l y  S e r v i c e s a  and/or  be  who  S e r v i c e s  s e p a r a t i o n  t e r  d e s c r i b e d  program  program  F a m i l y  c o u n s e l l i n g  a  i n v i t e d the  s e s s i o n s  e x t e n s i v e  a  who  Leaders  employed  Work  and  F a m i l y  A l l  and  l e a d e r s ,  i n d i v i d u a l s  penses Court  the  s e s s i o n  The the  by  the  i n  which the  were  l i t e r a t u r e  outcome i t  chosen  was  terms  (see and  planned  POSI-COPE  through Chapi n c l u d e d  t h a t  program  t h e y  were:  71  1.  To  p r o v i d e  vironment i n  the  the  2.  To  a f o r  i n t e n s i t y  share to  s o l v i n g , t i o n  of  of  The goals  are  p a r e n t s  p r o v i d e s i t a t e  the  s o l u t i o n c u r r e n t l y  the  support,  p r o c e s s . aimed  to  i n  p r o b l e m -  the  accumula-  w h i c h  i n h i b i t  to  r e s p o n s i b l e  be  b e h a v i o u r  treatment The  and  a  to  or  the  process  f o r  focus  on  w i t h o u t  g r e a t e r  and  of  r e o r g a n i z i n g  e m o t i o n a l  b e n e f i t s  r e s o l u t i o n summary,  p r o v i d e  p h i l o s o p h y  t e r m i n a t i o n  c h i l d r e n .  In  through  custody  sense  of  s e l f - e s t e e m .  i n f o r m a t i o n  e f f e c t i v e  r e d u c t i o n  d i s s o l u t i o n  needs  e f f e c t i v e  t o  p o t e n t i a l  d u r i n g  change.  t h e i r  E f f e c t i v e  and  and  t h e i r  l e a d i n g  d i s o r g a n i z i n g  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p  meet  f e e l i n g s  r e d u c t i o n  p r o c e s s .  c h i l d r e n )  t h r e e f o l d .  has  a  to  e n -  e x p e r i e n c e d  (with  and  cess  a  parents  r a t i o n a l e  c h i l d r e n .  l e a d i n g  as  and  w i t h  the  a  and  autonomy  i s  about  p a r t i c i p a n t s  s t r e n g t h s  t h e i r  ship  to  f a m i l y  encourage  group  a n x i e t y  f e e l i n g s  negative  themselves  of  of  r e a s s u r i n g  d i s s o l u t i o n  l e a d i n g  p o s i t i v e  t h e i r  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s  v e n t i l a t i o n  To  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  h e l p  and  p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  3.  s u p p o r t i v e  of A  a  u n d e r l y i n g m a r r i a g e  process  r e s o l u t i o n growth  and of the  of  and  t i m e - l i m i t e d  group  r e m e d i a l ,  may  r e l a t i o n s h i p  POSI-COPE  program  d e v e l o p m e n t a l  r e l a t i o n a  f a m i l y  t h i s  change  encouragement the  i n  these  p r o f o r  which f a c i l d i s c o n and  72 p r e v e n t i v e The  c o u n s e l l i n g  e f f i c i e n c y  program  i s  s e s s i o n  and  and of  at  examined  the  the  the  i n  t h i s  c o m p l e t i o n  D e s c r i p t i o n COPE  of  r e p o r t i n g  outcome  goals  of,  and  s e r v i c e s  of  program.  The  i s  the  d i s c u s s e d  E f f i c i e n c y  development  of  the  each  s e s s i o n  and  l a t t e r  was  post-program v i d e d  each  each  s e s s i o n  accomplishment  Chapter  Each  POSI-COPE  d e s c r i b i n g  V.  S e s s i o n  of  f a c t o r s  the  and  format  of  of  two  approaches  of  a s s e s s i n g  the  e f f i c i e n c y  of  a s s e s s e d  i n f o r m a t i o n  content  the  through  p a r t i c i p a n t about  change  i n  c o l l e c t i n g  feedback. how  c o n t r i b u t e d  p a r t i c i p a n t  the  POSI-  the  These  group  t o ,  or  t h e  d i r e c t i o n  the  d e s c r i b i n g the  s e s s i o n s .  p o s t - s e s s i o n approaches  was  i n h i b i t e d ,  the the  and  p r o -  implemented  of  POSI-  and  achievement goals  chosen  program.  I n f o r m a t i o n i a l s  i n  of,  the  through a f t e r  i n c o r p o r a t e d  f o r  c h a p t e r  p a r e n t s .  of  feedback  program  of  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  c l i e n t  COPE  what  s e p a r a t e d  Program  The  The  t o  and  p r e s e n t e d  r e s o u r c e s  p o s t - s e s s i o n  used,  feedback,  M a t e r i a l s  and  -  name  -  book  number  and  SESSION  f o r  I  each  s e s s i o n  p r e s e n t ,  post-program  -  f o r m a t  INTRODUCTION  tags and  l e n d i n g  signup  and  feedback.  Resources  d i s p l a y  i n c l u d e s  sheet  m a t e r c o n t e n t ,  73 -  H e l p f u l  -  P o s t  Books  M e e t i n g  Number  P r e s e n t  Format  and  -  the  Appendix  Sheet  (see  H)  Appendix  B)  Content  b r i e f l y group  Response  (see  seven  I n t r o d u c t i o n s were  handout  were  examined.  and  answering  made  and  purposes  This  i n c l u d e d  of  the  l i s t i n g  program  the  q u e s t i o n s  g e n e r a t e d  by  d i s c u s s e d ,  i n c l u d i n g  f e e s ,  goals  t h i s  f o r  i n f o r m a -  t i o n . Ground attendance i n g  what  t i a l i t y y  r u l e s  were  and  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  he  or  she  wanted  of  the  group  of  each  from  the  group.  s e s s i o n s  was  s t r e s s e d  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  c h o i c e ,  t h e i r  Court  may  F a m i l y  a d d i t i o n , a  the  p o s i t i v e  c l i m a t e  atmosphere each  C o u n s e l l o r  l e a d e r s  was  emphasized  i n  member  the  enhanced  group  by  The  have t h e i r  o b t a i n -  w e l l  t h a n  "as  the  because  suggested  i t .  d e s i r e  m a i n t a i n  s e s s i o n s .  s e r v i n g  f o r  c o n f i d e n t  as  r a t h e r  r e g u l a r  l i g h t  to  An  In  i n f o r m a l  refreshments  a t  s e s s i o n . The  POSI-COPE  s e l f - h e l p  group  and  from  the  common  who  were  w e l f a r e . resource  w i t h  v i s i t i n g bond  a l l I t to  program  p a r e n t s was the  o c c a s i o n a l  r e s o u r c e  t h a t  who  o t h e r s f o r  the  b r i e f  shared  the group  a  as  t a l k s  a  t h a t  each  t h e  was  members  c o n c e r n  d i s c u s s i o n  by  Emphasis  between  s t r e s s e d i n  d e s c r i b e d  p e o p l e .  e x i s t e d  a l s o  E x p e c t a t i o n s  was  of  f o r  l e a d e r s  p l a c e d the  t h e i r  i n d i v i d u a l  and  on  group c h i l d r e n s ' was  a  group. were  shared  and  d i s c u s s e d  to  7  g a i n  commitment  Some  of  the  1.  and  t o p i c s  consensus of  about  i n t e r e s t  Communication  w i t h  the  focus  of  the  program.  were:  the  c h i l d r e n ,  d i s c i p l i n e s p l i t how  2.  l o y a l t i e s  to  l e s s e n  Communication  w i t h  concerns how  3.  to  the  trauma  the  Communication  w i t h  s e p a r a t i o n .  ex-spouse,  r e g a r d i n g  promote  of  custody  more  the  and  p o s i t i v e  system  access r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  and.  how  the  system  o p e r a t e s , F a m i l y  The  system  s o c i a l  s e r v i c e s  t e n t a t i v e  o u t l i n e  s i o n s  (see  these  e x p e c t a t i o n s .  was  to A  l i s t  d i s c u s s e d . p l a y  Appendix  p l a c e  of  through  was  The  major  H e l p f u l  Books  and  to  evening use  on  was  were  borrow  meeting  any  times  of  c l o s e d  w i t h  a  next  to  meet  t h i s  t i m e  a  they  c o n f i r m e d  s k i l l s .  and  v i e w  b r i e f l y t a b l e  f o r  and  t r a n s p o r t s e s s i o n s .  c l i e n t  Response  d i s -  w i s h e d .  subsequent  r e q u e s t  s e s -  to  communication  the  P o s t - M e e t i n g  the  at  d i s t r i b u t e d  were f o r  r e s o u r c e s .  m o d i f i e d  m a t e r i a l s  made  the  and  i n v i t e d  were  of  sequence  m o d i f i c a t i o n  of  books  community  reviewed  emphasis  P a r t i c i p a n t s  the  the  g r e a t e r  arrangements The  A)  of  and  a  Convenient a t i o n  Court  l e g a l  Sheet  4  feedback w h i c h  75  e l i c i t e d methods  i n f o r m a t i o n of  about  p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  s i g n i f i c a n t  events,  and  o v e r a l l  one-word  i m p r e s s i o n s , r e a c t i o n s  a d d i t i o n a l  c o n t e n t ,  to  comments  the  (see  s e s s i o n ,  Appendix  B).  S e s s i o n  I  The the of a  p a r t i c i p a n t s  content to  1  a l l  of  the  where  5»  r a t i n g  of  Feedback  of  impressions content  was  of  1  to  a  r a t i n g  5  was  of  a 5  was  of of  on  was  a l l  'not The  mean  mean  the  s c a l e  h e l p f u l '  and  of  of  o v e r -  h e l p f u l n e s s  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  program  was  of  L i k e r t  r a t i n g  r a t i n g  ' n o t  on  at  a p p r o p r i a t e . '  method  at  a  and  2).  the 1  impressions  h e l p f u l n e s s  the  r a t e d  p a r t i c i p a n t  i n c l u d e d ,  a  of  L i k e r t  the  s c a l e  a l l  a p p r o p r i a t e '  The  mean  p r e s e n t a t i o n  more  themes  these  t h e ' g r o u p ; others;  a  comments  comments  awareness common  f r u s t r a t i o n  w i t h  of  concern the  of  was  the  ' i m p r e s s i v e , '  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  d e t a i l e d  of  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' i n t e r e s t i n g , '  ' e n c o u r a g i n g , * and  1  Table  ' v e r y  of  of  o v e r a l l  r a t i n g  of and of  (see  4.4  3)• B r i e f  I  a l s o  r a t i n g  f o r  and  4.7  p r e s e n t a t i o n  where  t h e i r  h e l p f u l . '  (see  4.3  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s Table  r a t i n g ' v e r y  P a r t i c i p a n t s method  program  a  was  5  r a t e d  and  are  s h a r i n g f o r  of  i n  f e e l i n g s  The  s p e c i f i c  Appendix of  c h i l d r e n ; . and of  I.  The  comfort  s i m i l a r , d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  S e s s i o n  ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g , '  ' c o n c e r n . '  c o m p i l e d  i n c l u d e d :  impact  anger  w i t h i n  w i t h  and  c o u r t - e n f o r c e d  o r d e r s .  76  Table H e l p f u l n e s s P a r t i c i p a n t s :  o f  2  t h e POSI-COPE  Mean  Ratings  o n a  Program P o i n t  5-  S e s s i o n  O v e r a l l  Impressions  Content  A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s POSI-COPE Mean  4.6  4.9  4.8  4.3  4.4  4.1  4.6  4.3  4.4  5  7  7  6  7  4.7  4.0  4.0  4.6  4.3  3.8  3-9  7  8  8  Table o f  Ratings  o f  S e s s i o n s  o n a  5-  V  3  t h e Method  Program  P r e s e n t a t i o n  t o  P o i n t  L i k e r t  Method o f P r e s e n t a t i o n N  One  person  II  I I I  IV  4.4  4.3  4.0  4.4  7  8  7  5  I  d i d n o t  respond  #  o f t h e  P a r t i c i p a n t s :  S e s s i o n V a r i a b l e  Number V I I I  IV  N  Scale  VII  I I I  I  L i k e r t  t o  VI  II  V a r i a b l e  S e s s i o n s  Scale  Number VI  VII  V I I I  4.4  5.0  4.5  4.4  7  7  6  7  V  77  SESSION  M a t e r i a l s  II  -  and  RELATIONSHIP  D i v o r c e s  -  M a r i t a l  w i t h i n  P r e s e n t  Format  and  group  r e p o r t e d l a t i o n  on  The as  a  the  Response  week's  of  on  t h i s  and  R e l a t i o n s  M a r i t a l  and  J)  (see  they  had  i e n c i n g .  Since  d i f f e r e n t  stage,  the  a  became  v e r y  had  s u g g e s t i o n s  made  among and  f a c t  These  happening  the  t h a t  would  themselves.  p o s i t i v e l y  handouts,  County  and  group  D i v o r c e s  r e i n f o r c e d  Loss  1977), emphasized  i d e n t i f i e d  to  a t  a  the e x p e r -  s l i g h t l y  d i s s o l u t i o n noted  make,  e x p e r i e n c e the  d u r i n g  c u r r e n t l y  P a r t i c i p a n t s  This  of  c o n c u r r e n t l y  was  v e n t i -  d i s s o l u t i o n  handouts  r e l a t i o n s h i p  l i k e  b r i e f l y  the  Court,  were  and  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g .  D i s s o l u t i o n / P h a s e s  g r a p h i c .  and/or  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p  P a r t i c i p a n t s  i n  l e d  a c t i v e  Two  e x p e r i e n c e d  everyone  d i s c u s s e d ,  i n d i v i d u a l s  w h i c h  Hennepin  changes  changes  t h a t  was  d i s c u s s e d .  d i s s o l u t i o n .  b e n e f i c i a l  Appendix  handbook  were  Some  some  l e v e l s .  S t a f f ,  m u l t i p l i c i t y of  and  s e s s i o n  s e v e r a l  d i s t r i b u t e d  they  (see  Loss  r e a c t i o n s  a c t i v i t i e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h a t  of  i n t r o d u c e d .  f r u s t r a t i o n s  D i v o r c e  process  handout  Sheet  r e v i e w e d , were  t h e i r  theme  a  D i v o r c e  e i g h t  was  some  (Domestic were  I  process  w i t h i n  -  members  of  PROCESS  Content  S e s s i o n new  A  K)  Meeting  Number  a  D i s s o l u t i o n / P h a s e s  Appendix Post  AS  Resources  -  -  DISSOLUTION  bonds  and was  i s  progress shared v e r y  between  group  members  who  i d e n t i t i e s .  were  c h i l d r e n ,  needs  were  t h e i r  d i f f e r e n t  an  e x a m i n a t i o n  of  change,  e s p e c i a l l y  t h e i r  i n t e r a c t i o n  and  s e s s i o n  a l s o  examine  the  growth,  r e l i e f  The  of  f u l n e s s  II  mean t h i s of  t i o n  was  i n c l u d e d :  s e s s i o n  of  c l i e n t 'good  f o r  ' l e s s  the  (see  4.3  Short  r a t i n g  content  r a t i n g  ' c o n c e r n  and  of  of  members  t h e i r of  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h  of  the  of  o v e r a l l  new a  Post  to  the  to  r o l e s  as  began  to  ex-spouse  the to  group  i s s u e s  of  sex  an  b e -  b a r r i e r s  group  -  t h e i r  marked  and  the  r e l a t i n g  and  what  i n d i v i d u a l s '  members  t e n s i o n ,  use  the  responded  s e s s i o n  s t e r e o t y p i n g  concluded  the  they  t h e i r  through  i n of  a custody  r o l e s .  This  o p p o r t u n i t y  d i s s o l u t i o n  to  i n c l u d i n g  b e g i n n i n g s .  r e q u e s t Meeting  f o r  c l i e n t  Response  f e e d -  Sheet.  Feedback  mean  i n g ' ;  i n  evening  The ness  p o s i t i v e s from  This  to  e s p e c i a l l y  some  how  r e - f o r m i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e s  o t h e r  sweeping  of  f r i e n d s  p e r s p e c t i v e  a l l o w e d  through  S e s s i o n  to  of  some  w i t h  s i t u a t i o n ,  access  back  the  and  times.  r e l a t i n g  a d d i t i o n ,  understand  s i m i l a r and  In  process  e x p l o r e d  f a m i l y  at  g i n n i n g  b e t t e r  the  P a r t i c i p a n t s  t h e i r  p a r e n t s .  i n  to  was  was  and  4.0  (see  3«8  impressions the Table  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s Table  p a r t i e s b i t t e r ' ;  r a t i n g The  2). the  the  h e l p f u l -  of  h e l p -  p a r t i c i p a n t s '  method  of  p r e s e n t a  3).  d e s c r i p t i o n s l i s t e n  of  mean  of  to  of  o t h e r  i n v o l v e d ' ;  the  impact  p e o p l e ' s  of  and  II  p r o b l e m s ' ;  ' i n f o r m a t i v e ' ;  'encouragement*;  S e s s i o n  "I  'heart  f e e l  very  breakgood.  79 S p e c i f i c L.  The  and  more  themes  of  t o p i c s  d i s c u s s e d ;  o t h e r s  w i t h  the  p o i n t  of  SESSION  III  M a t e r i a l s  Post  M e e t i n g  Format  and  encouraged  II  some  of  q u e s t i o n s the  of  j o i n t e d  to  reviewed  CHANGE  t h e  h e l p i n g  u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  c h i l d r e n .  AND  COMMUNICATION  and  p r o j e c t o r  Sheet  s e r i e s  t h i s  the  This  was  f e l t  engender  week's  were  d i s c u s s e d .  a c t i v i t i e s  i n  the much  these f i l m  by  emphasized  between  the  c h i l d r e n ,  i n t r o d u c e d  which  handled t h a t  was  v i g n e t t e s .  c h i l d r e n  r e a c t i o n s  t h e i r  s e s s i o n  (1970)  of  on  and  w h i c h  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g .  communication  p a r e n t s  g e n e r a l l y  and  i n  r e c o g n i z i n g  w i t h  (1970)  f i l m  Response  group  Encounter  a  communication  r e p o r t e d  communication.  through  i n t e r e s t  c l e a r l y and  Appendix  e i g h t  was  theme  p i t f a l l s  how  -  i n d i v i d u a l s  F a m i l y  more  w i t h  i n  Content  S e s s i o n  and  s h a r i n g  FAMILY  c o m p i l e d  i n c l u d e d :  ex-spouse;  Encounter,  P r e s e n t  The  the  are  Resources  Number  Some  of  CHILDREN,  and  i n  concerns;  p o s i t i v e  -  comments  comments  p l e a s u r e  view  F a m i l y -  these  s i m i l a r  of  b e n e f i t s  d e t a i l e d  f i l m  of  were  too  e m o t i o n a l  change the  concerned Group  o u t d a t e d  and  c h i l d r e n ,  d i s c u s s i o n  i m p a c t .  f i l m ,  importance  and  q u e s t i o n s . was  showing  the  parents  Areas  f a m i l y  about  and  members  and  The  i n c l u d e d  too  focus  d i s of  80  the  s e s s i o n  ings  behind  lence how  of  the  area  D i s c u s s i o n  a d u l t s  c h i l d r e n  p l e x i t y  i n t o  words.  both  p a r e n t s .  of  moved  and  c h i l d r e n be  group  was  s u p p o r t i v e  f r u s t r a t i o n s  s e v e r a l  i n d i v i d u a l s .  expected  the  p e r s i s t e n c e ,  f l e x i b i l i t y  the  p a r t  of  spouses  f o r  b o t h  p a r t i e s . of  both  the  (or  p l o r a t i o n  of  ways  parent  f e e l i n g  A  d i s t i n c t i o n  p r o b l e m a t i c i n t e g r a t e d  d i f f e r e n t by  set  g u i l t y also  b e h a v i o u r w i t h  the  (1976, 1977)  K e l l y  h e l p  was  age  i n  of  t h e r e  was  This  and  of  between  on  open  cases of on  s a t i s f a c t o r y  to  b e i n g  p a r t a  the  group  when  ex-  the  m a n i p u l a t e d . and was  W a l l e r s t e i n  and  d i s -  of  d i s c u s s i o n  r e a c t i o n s  and  c o u r t  the  l e d  the  change  com-  c o n s i d e r a b l e  on  This  from  the  the  d e v e l o p m e n t a l  c h i l d r e n .  t h e i r  necessary  p a r t i c u l a r l y  .afraid  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  plans  d i s c i p l i n e  f a m i l y  b e i n g  a  ambiva-  between  pending  access  l i m i t s ,  s t u d i e s to  the  f e e l -  change  d i s c u s s i n g  i n t o  p a r e n t .  made  choose  and  on  f a m i l y  compromise  keep  i n f o r m a t i o n  groups  l i s t e n i n g ,  and  w i t h  access) to  to  l e d  a d d i t i o n ,  problems  n o n c u s t o d i a l  i s  In  to  surrounding This  " b r i e f l y  d u r i n g  not  The  communication  c e n t r e d  should  of  c u s s i o n  of  of  how  and  c h i l d r e n parents  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  of  can c h i l d ' s  needs. This Post  Meeting  S e s s i o n The ness  s e s s i o n  of  III mean  concluded  Response  w i t h  t h e - c o m p l e t i o n  of  the  Sheet.  Feedback r a t i n g  content  was  of 3«9  o v e r a l l (see  impressions  Table  2).  The  of  the  h e l p f u l -  p a r t i c i p a n t s '  81  mean  r a t i n g  t i o n  was  the  (see  4.0  Short ed  of  Table  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  . ' h e l p f u l , '  and  are  of  these  comments  on  c h i l d r e n s *  system  M a t e r i a l s -  i n  and  SESSION  IV  and  d u r i n g  -  from  Communication  S  To  -  Methods  W i t h of  a v a i l a b l e Post  P r e s e n t  Format  and  p r e s e n t a -  t h a t  M. i t  r e a c t i o n s ; w i t h  the  of  S e s s i o n  III  i n c l u d -  ' r e l i e v e d , '  Two was  access  more  d e t a i l e d  i m p o r t a n t  w o r t h w h i l e  and  a c t u a l  and  t h a t  many  problems  access  SKILLS  themes to  focus  i n d i v i d u a l s  b o t h  i n  the  v i s i t .  AND  PARENTING  The  -  Prophet  by  K a h i l  G i b r a n  handout  N) Roadblocks  handout  e x e r c i s e  C o n f l i c t  R e s o l u t i o n  f o r  (see  (see  Appendix  Appendix  (Kaufhold,  0)  P)  1973),  purchase. Response  Sheet.  f i v e  Content  S e s s i o n  p r o g r e s s  of  S p e c i f i c  F e e l i n g s  M e e t i n g  Number  Questions  method  ' c a r i n g , *  COMMUNICATION  -  -  impact  Appendix  c o p i n g  Appendix  Do  i n  and  the  Resources  e x c e r p t (see  the  included?  needs  f r u s t r a t e d  l e g a l  of  ' r e a s s u r i n g , '  compiled  of  3).  ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n . '  comments  were  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  III  was  r a i s e d  were  r e p o r t .  One  reviewed  and  answered member  of  r e a c t i o n s  and the  were  i n d i v i d u a l s group  d i s c u s s e d .  gave  appeared  a  b r i e f  b r i e f l y  82  to  r e p o r t  her  concerns  disappointment t h a t  about  not  b e i n g  The  G i b r a n  handout  l e d  i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  l e f t ,  a  f e e l i n g  i n t e g r a t e d about  the  h u r t  w i t h  and  the  w i t h  c h i l d ' s  a b l e  to  i l l n e s s  a t t e n d  r e q u e s t  i n c i d e n t  demonstrated  d i v i d u a l  to  feedback  about  h i s  The  o t h e r  s i d e  to  c h i l d r e n . the  and  her  the  group  and  d i s c u s s e d .  and  t h e i r p o r t .  the  were  were  at  able  i n  to  group  his  upcoming  the  was  group  r o l e p l a y e d  support, and  This  r e - e s t a b l i s h  The  a  i s s u e not  helped  a t h i s  t r i a l .  p r o v i d e d  was  d i s c u s s e d  i n t e r e s t e d  problems  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t e g r a t i n g  and  The the  concluded  p o i n t .  to  b e i n g  p e r s o n .  b e i n g  This  the  i n -  him  w i t h  w i t h  r e f n  w i t h  i n  s e e i n g  t h e i r  communicating  t h i s  of  Communication  t h i s  w i t h  the  concept  of  A c t i v e  e x e r c i s e ,  To  Do  W i t h  Road-  e x p e r i e n c e s  L i s t e n i n g  was  F e e l i n g s  was  d i s c u s s e d .  balance  need  parent  one  of  e x p l o r e d .  p r e s e n t .  evening  halfway  of  wanted,  t h i s  who  i n t r o d u c e d  completed  w i t h  of  handout,  persons  the  group  he  p a i n f u l n e s s  approach.  the  of  The  what  i n t o  on  b r i e f l y  c l e a r  l e d  blocks  the  read  l o v i n g  c o u r t  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  This  not  of  daughter.  the  c l a r i f y  c h i l d r e n  the  to  p a r e n t s  d i s t r i b u t e d ,  s t i l l  of  h i s  p e r s o n ' s  erence  was  concerns  p o s s i b i l i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  her  evening.  This  to  about  of  a  r e v i e w  C l i e n t s  i n d i c a t e d  content  and  v e n t i l a t e  P a r t i c i p a n t s  w i t h  also  t h e i r  a  of  completed  the  program  g e n e r a l  d i s c u s s i o n  f e e l i n g s ,  the  and  share Post  a t  s a t i s f a c t i o n a f f i r m e d  and  get  M e e t i n g  sup-  Response  83 Sheet.  S e s s i o n  IV  The ness  of  Feedback  mean t h i s  r a t i n g s e s s i o n  h e l p f u l n e s s  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' method  of  the  very  people;  and  S p e c i f i c  and  Q.  V  -  The  w i t h  impact  -  and  of  D i v o r c e  M e e t i n g  Number  P r e s e n t  Format  and  2).  Table of  more  S e s s i o n  these  b i t t e r ;  problems  REACTIONS FOR  The the  IV  i n c l u d e d  ' r e l i e v e d , '  comments comments  l e a r n i n g  of  TO  of  3)-  d e t a i l e d of  the  are  com-  i n c l u d e d :  from  o t h e r  c h i l d r e n .  FAMILY  CHANGE:  PARENTS  v i d e o t a p e  (School  of  S o c i a l  Work,  -  Response  Sheet  seven  Content  S e s s i o n  The  Table  of  1978)  Post  P a r t i c i p a n t s  r a t i n g  h e l p f u l -  Resources  C h i l d r e n UBC,  -  the  ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n , '  l e s s  the  of  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  the  themes  CHILDRENS"  (see  (see  STRATEGIES  M a t e r i a l s  the  mean  4.4  and  r e l i e v e d ;  d e a l i n g  SESSION  of  the  4.4  ' s a t i s f a c t i o n , *  Appendix  h e l p f u l  was of  was  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' h e l p f u l . ' i n  r a t i n g  impressions  and  4.6  content  mean  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  p i l e d  o v e r a l l  was  p r e s e n t a t i o n  S h o r t  and  of  IV  was  reviewed  r e p o r t e d  q u e s t i o n  of  on  and  t h e i r  s p e c i f i c  q u e s t i o n s  week's  were  answered.  a c t i v i t i e s .  s t r a t e g i e s  f o r  d e a l i n g  w i t h  84 c h i l d r e n duced  d u r i n g  through  This  l e d  dren  at  to the I  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p  v i e w i n g  a  l i s t i n g  of  have  to  choose  -  W i l l  I  -  W i l l  i t  -  Who  -  W i l l  have ever  w i l l I  Themes  i n  s i o n  of  w i t h  some  c h i l d ' s  l o o k  p a r e n t i n g  such  the  a d j u s t .  I t  a m b i v a l e n t be  was  s e s s i o n  Meeting  Response  S e s s i o n  V  The  This  of  are  express  some  to  a  c h i l d r e n  out  t h a t  t h e i r  concluded  w i t h  the to  on  c h i l -  included?  d i s c u s s i o n  these  i s s u e s .  the  f e a r s ,  the  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  r e l a t i n g  to  s e p a r a -  p e r s o n ' s  t h e i r  and  c h i l d  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  e x p r e s -  the  power an  the  c r i s i s  l e g i t i m a t e ,  of  a  p r o v i d e  l e d  f o c u s i n g  to  encouraging  s e s s i o n  generated  p o i n t e d  f e e l i n g s to  need  l e d  r e c o g n i z i n g  and  a l s o  r e s i l i e n c e  encouraged The  the  b r a i n s t o r m i n g  v i d e o t a p e  as  handled  f e e l i n g s .  s k i l l s  l i s t e d  of  parent?  q u e s t i o n s  i n c l u d e d :  i n f o r m a t i o n ; - and  and  concerns  parents?  noncustody  had  f e e l i n g s ;  a m b i v a l e n t  D i v o r c e .  me?  of  d i s c u s s i o n  i n t r o -  same?  a f t e r  l i s t  my  of  was  court?  the  i n d i v i d u a l s  t h i s  to  and  Questions  "between  seetsthe  t h i s  n e g a t i v e  The  go  be  s t i l l  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t i o n ,  to  process  C h i l d r e n  q u e s t i o n s  s e p a r a t i o n .  Do  some  the  of  -  how  v i d e o t a p e ,  time  G e n e r a t i n g of  d i s s o l u t i o n  i s t h a t  s t r e n g t h s . of  i s s u e s  c a p a c i t y  temporary, c h i l d r e n  concerns  the  c o m p l e t i o n  o v e r a l l  impressions  and of  the  Sheet.  r a t i n g  of  the  of  should  anger.  Feedback mean  to  the  Post  h e l p f u l n e s s the  of  t h i s  h e l p f u l n e s s  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' method  of  of  mean  ' r e l i e v e d , '  r a t i n g was of  are  compiled  comments  i n c l u d e d a l o n e ,  the  and  views  i n  of  SESSION  (see  the  impact  and  -  two  -  Post  guest  F a m i l y  Meeting  P r e s e n t  Format  and  -  a f t e r  a  F a m i l y Areas  of  of  the  more  themes  i n  V  i n c l u d e d  f e e l i n g s , '  and  The  r e l i e f  The  2).  3)»  ' c l e a r  R.  of  d e t a i l e d of  these  r e c o g n i z i n g  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  they  t h e i r  d i s s o l u t i o n .  COURT  COUNSELLORS:  ANSWERS  Court  Response  C o u n s e l l o r s Sheet  seven  Content  P a r t i c i p a n t s The  of  AND  Table  S e s s i o n  S p e c i f i c  Appendix  FAMILY  of  r a t i n g  Resources  Number  week.  Table  ' h e l p f u l , '  h e l p f u l n e s s  -  mean  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  VI  the (see  4.1  4.4  QUESTIONS  M a t e r i a l s  was  the  f e e l i n g  the  and  4.6  ' e n c o u r a g i n g , *  comments  c h i l d r e n s '  of  ' c o n c e r n , '  and  was  content  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' i n f o r m a t i o n , '  not  the  p r e s e n t a t i o n  Short  are  s e s s i o n  two  b r i e f Court  b r i e f l y  F a m i l y t a l k  on  Court how  C o u n s e l l o r ,  d i s c u s s e d -  What  i s  -  What  are  d i s c u s s e d  news  C o u n s e l l o r s  they they  were  viewed  the  answered  a  i n c l u d e d : r e a s o n a b l e the  powers  access? of  of  the  court?  t h e i r  p r e v i o u s  i n t r o d u c e d  f u n c t i o n barrage  of  of  and  a q u e s t i o n s .  86 -  What  f a c t o r s  when  d e c i d i n g  views -  What  -  How  on do  do  P a r t i c i p a n t s Court  can  F a m i l y only  were  e f f e c t i v e  p a r t i e s  i n v o l v e d .  Post  s e s s i o n  Meeting  S e s s i o n  VI  The f u l n e s s  of  of  t h a t  d e t a i l e d  access-was the  d i v i d u a l enough.  important  are  the  courts  a  an  o r d e r  do? of  the  d i f f i c u l t i e s  A c t  and  the  f a c t  as  the  g o o d w i l l  concluded  v a r i a n c e ?  statement  do,  w i t h  t h a t and  a  about of  what  F a m i l y  e n f o r c i n g  c o u r t  the  order  c o o p e r a t i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t s  i s  of  the  c o m p l e t i n g  the  Sheet.  of  the  o v e r a l l  s e s s i o n  was  4.9  the  c o n t e n t  mean  r a t i n g  court  of  of  h e l p f u l ; does  and  (see  the  impact  out  Table of  1  i n  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h a t  r a t i n g  Table  the  h e l p -  of  the  The  2).  S e s s i o n  of  the  VI  were:  S p e c i f i c  Appendix-S. on  off-the s e s s i o n s  and  The  themes  maintenance,  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a l l  the  3)•  ' i n c r e d i b l e . '  some  of  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  5-0  not " p r o v i d e  also-'pointed  mean  (see  compiled  i n c l u d e d :  the  4.6  the  and  comments'are  impressions  and  was  was  ' h e l p f u l , '  these-comments  and  c l e a r  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  of  g i v e n  p r e s e n t a t i o n  Short  What  C o u n s e l l o r s  f o r  r a t i n g  t h i s  p a r t i c i p a n t s '  more  C o u r t  Response  mean  of  custody?  c o n s i d e r  Feedback  h e l p f u l n e s s  method  c o u r t  arrange  cannot  as  the  custody?  F a m i l y  R e l a t i o n s  The  on  s p l i t  you  and  does  w i t h  answers. may  not  custody,  the An  be  f a c t  i n l o n g  87 SESSION  M a t e r i a l s  and  B i l l  Rights  -  P a r e n t s  -  Community  of  P o s t - M e e t i n g  duced  and  (see  pamphlet  d i s p l a y  handout  Appendix  Appendix  T)  U)-  (see  Appendix  (see  Appendix  W)  Sheet  d i s c u s s e d  members  news,  of  of  l e d  c h i l d r e n  problems  of  n o t a b l e  was  the  t h a t  group  spoke  i n  e x p r e s s i n g  the of  f a c t  out  more  the  p r e -  some  and  themselves  t h e i r  f e a r  a  not  p e r s o n a l Breakup  c h i l d r e n s '  the  i n t o  and  f i l m ,  about  to,  e x t e n s i v e l y  and  c h i l d r e n  d i s c u s s i o n  and  p a r t i c i p a n t s  of  demon-  than  they  s e s s i o n s .  showing  g u i l t  and  i s s u e s  the  c o n f i d e n c e  p r e v i o u s  r e l a t i o n s h i p This  (see  s i x  was  t o p i c s  b r i e f  handout  pamphlet  Response  P a r t i c u l a r l y  through  b i l i t y  -  VI  more  The  C h i l d r e n  Resources  d i s c u s s e d  q u i e t e r  d u r i n g  p r o j e c t o r  Content  week.  s t r a t e d  COPING  l i s t )  -  v i o u s  f o r  Resources  Community  and  PERSONAL  RESOURCES  and  F o r e v e r  -  S e s s i o n  t h e i r  are  a  and  l o v e .  (1973)  -  Format  a  COMMUNITY  f i l m  P r e s e n t  to  AND  Breakup  shared  CHILDREN,  Resources  Number  had  -  -  V ' f o r  the  VII  the  l o s s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y  of  understand  were  (1973)•  f e e l i n g s  d i s s o l u t i o n of  c o p i n g  of  of  t h e i r  of how what  This  l e d  r e s p o n s i p a r e n t s '  e i t h e r p a r e n t s i s  i n t r o -  p a r e n t s ' can  h e l p  happening,  88 but  a l s o  u a l s  i n  s e l v e s This on  to  f e e l  the and  t h e i r  p e r s o n a l  a l s o  Members  of  the  group  o n l y  f l e x i b l e  of  Response  S e s s i o n  VII  the  were  c o u r t  r e v i e w e d .  The  d i s c u s s e d  concluded  are  community and  w i t h  the  the  and  c o n s i d e r e d .  orders  are  The  B i l l  handouts  r e s o u r c e s  Community  c o m p l e t i o n  of  were pamphlet  Resources  of  the  Post  Sheet.  Feedback  mean of  r a t i n g  t h i s  h e l p f u l n e s s  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s '  of  the  o v e r a l l  s e s s i o n  was  4.8  the  c o n t e n t  mean  r a t i n g  p r e s e n t a t i o n  d e t a i l e d  themes  of  these  of  group system;  of  of  comments  s h a r i n g a  and  (see  the  impact  and  are  f e e l i n g  Table  Table of  c o m p i l e d the  h a v i n g  the  r a t i n g  of  h e l p the  The  2). of  the  3)• S e s s i o n  ' r e a s s u r i n g . '  s i t u a t i o n ; of  mean  of  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  i n c l u d e d :  t h e i r  the (see  4.3  the  impressions  4.5  ' h e l p f u l '  comments  and  was  was  d e s c r i p t i o n s  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  c o u r t  t h a t  system  F o r e v e r  M e e t i n g  the  c o u r t  f o c u s i n g  v i c t i m i z e d  Parents  s e s s i o n  more  the  f e e l i n g  them-  spouse.  and  and  d i s t r i b u t e d .  and  t h e i r  C h i l d r e n  was  ed?  w i t h  I n d i v i d -  about  concerned.  handout  Short  f e l t  i n d i v i d u a l s  b r i e f l y  of  they  the  was  method  s t a b i l i t y .  as  d i s p l a y  f u l n e s s  than  concluded  and  The  how  and  s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  r a t h e r  d i s t r i b u t e d  The  s e c u r i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p  emphasizing  I n e q u i t i e s  f o r  of  e x p l o r e d  former  s t r e n g t h s  p o w e r l e s s .  Rights  sense  group  i n c l u d e d  as  a  i n  VII  S p e c i f i c  Appendix  v a l u e  of  each  f r u s t r a t i o n made  i n c l u d -  some  S.  The member  w i t h  the  progress  89  i n  a d j u s t i n g  t h a t  a  v i s i t  to  f a m i l y  by  a  SESSION  change.  l e g a l  V I I I  -  a i d  -  and  SUPPORT  f o r  a  Resources  Response  Sheet  -  Post  Program  Response  Sheet  and  E x e r c i s e  -  shared  COMMUNITY  d i s p l a y  (see  Appendix  Appendix  Y)  Content b r i e f l y  d i s c u s s e d  week.  t o p i c  community  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s  F a t h e r s ,  (see  p r e v i o u s  than  h e l p f u l .  seven  P a r t i c i p a n t s  o t h e r  made  l i s t )  Meeting  Format  some  pamphlet  Post  The  a l s o  WRAPUP  -  P r e s e n t  the  AND  Network  t h e i r  be  SYSTEMS,  -  Number  of  may  was  Resources  Community V  s u g g e s t i o n  lawyer  RESOURCES  M a t e r i a l s  A  d i s c u s s e d  F a m i l y  Parents  about  Court  o t h e r  p a r t i c i p a n t s  resources t h e i r  ( i . e .  W i t h o u t  the  i n d i c a t e d  was  D i v o r c e  w i t h  L i f e l i n e ,  e t c . ) .  a v a i l a b l e t h e i r  and  plans  i n  problems  i n t r o d u c e d  e x p e r i e n c e s  P a r t n e r s ,  resources  events  and  s e r v i c e s  Concerned  I n f o r m a t i o n the  to  was  community  e x p l o r e  and  these  s e r v i c e s . The  Network  E x e r c i s e  e x e r c i s e  a l l o w e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  a v a i l a b l e  w i t h i n  t h e i r  was  system  completed to of  e x p l o r e f a m i l y  and  d i s c u s s e d .  sources and  of  f r i e n d s .  This  support It  90 a l s o  p r o v i d e d  ' d i s c o m f o r t the  an  zone  o p p o r t u n i t y and  1  d i v i d u a l s  s e s s i o n s  noted  f e a r ,  g r i e f  u a l l y  be  t h a t ,  a l t h o u g h  how  and  a  the  who  a c t i o n  l e a d e r s  t h e i r  Group v a l u e  of  to  and  a  and  was  plans  had  been  concern  w i s h  i n  t h e i r  f o r  i m p r o v i n g  and  meet a  They  r e l i e v e d  were  how  a g a i n .  and  o t h e r  and  of  They  r e s u l t , to  r e a l i z e s t i l l  to  o t h e r  h e l d  t h e i r  them.  planned  to  f o r  r e i n f o r e d  p l a n s  a  e v e n t -  s u p p o r t i v e  f u t u r e  As  was  f u t u r e  w e l f a r e  f o r  on  .  sadness,  they  move  h e l p f u l  t h e i r  r e u n i o n  the  each  the  would  t e r m i n a t e d , to  I n -  anger,  and  had  program  of  s u b s i d i n g  w i t h  f o r  summarized.  f e e l i n g s  whatever  d i s c u s s e d  to  and  c a p a c i t i e s  w i t h  POSI-COPE  exchanged  were  emphasized  members  the  expressed  f o u r  cope  members  c a r i n g  i n t e n s e  r e s o l v e d .  s t r e n g t h s  them.  group  r e v i e w e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  The  were  c o n f u s i o n  endeavours  c h i l d r e n .  and  the  c o l l e c t i v e l y phone  o c c u r  numbers w i t h i n  months. The  evening  M e e t i n g  Response  S e s s i o n  V I I I  The  mean  concluded  w i t h  Sheet  the  r a t i n g  c o m p l e t i o n  Post  t h i s  of  the  o v e r a l l  s e s s i o n  was  4.3  of  o v e r a l l  h e l p f u l n e s s  p a r t i c i p a n t s '  method  and  the  Program  of  the  Post  Response  Sheet.  Feedback  f u l n e s s  The  c o n s i d e r  t h e i r  c o m p l e t e l y  p o s s e s s e d  were  e x p l o r e  s i t u a t i o n . P r e v i o u s  the  to  to  of  mean  p r e s e n t a t i o n  was  the  4.4  and  c o n t e n t  r a t i n g  impressions  of  (see  the was  the  mean 4.4  of  the  r a t i n g  (see  Table  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  Table  3).  of  h e l p the 2).  of  the  91 Short  d e s c r i p t i o n s  c l u d e d  ' i n f o r m a t i v e , '  ' f u n , '  and  'sad  of  the  ' r e l i e v e d , *  because  i t  was  d e t a i l e d  comments  are  of  comments  i n c l u d e d :  these  t h i s  program;  and  impact  i n  l a s t . '  an  the  V I I I  Z.  and  The  i n  more  themes  e x p e r i e n c e s  i n t e r e s t  i n -  ' e n c o u r a g i n g , '  S p e c i f i c  Appendix  v a l u i n g  e x p r e s s i n g  S e s s i o n  ' h e l p f u l , '  the  compiled  of  w i t h i n  f u t u r e  s e s -  s i o n s .  Post  Program  At out  the  the  t i o n  c o m p l e t i o n  Post  on  C ) .  impressions of  5,  where  of  5  of  a  the  p h y s i c a l  of  d u r i n g  the  ments i n  POSI-COPE of  w i t h  was  the  of  l e n g t h  by  Appendix  s a t i s f a c t i o n  was  w i t h 4.3  p a r t i c i p a n t s  AA. w i t h  The the  themes  were  on  The  of  a  The  Table t h i s  was  t h e i r  of  the  from  the  p a r t i c -  and  l a r g e  was w i t h  of  and  s a t i s -  the  are  com-  c o m p i l e d  i n c l u d e d :  number  mean  r e c e i v e d  S p e c i f i c  comments  r a t i n g  program  3«1  to  1  a  r a t i n g  s e c t i o n  as-  and  s e r v i c e  4).  (see  d i f f e r e n t  these a  i n f o r m a -  s a t i s f a c t i o n  mean  o v e r a l l  under  program;  of  program  (see  r a t e  s c a l e  r a t i n g  c l i e n t s '  the  to  L i k e r t  mean  f i l l e d  h e l p f u l n e s s  d i s s a t i s f i e d '  4.7« the  members  e l i c i t e d  w i t h  l o c a t i o n  the  of  w h i c h  program  they  the  group  r e q u e s t e d  ' v e r y  f a c i l i t i e s  s a t i s f a c t i o n  made  was  r a t i n g  program  and  program  1  V I I I ,  Sheet  were  s a t i s f i e d . '  mean  w i t h  r a t i n g  Response  s a t i s f i e d  s a t i s f a c t i o n  the  f a c t i o n  how  ' v e r y  and  S e s s i o n  s a t i s f a c t i o n  r a t i n g  4.4  of  P a r t i c i p a n t s  the  was  i p a n t s '  Program  program  Appendix  p e c t s  Feedback  of  92  Table Post  Program  S a t i s f a c t i o n POSI-COPE a  5-  w i t h  V a r i a b l e  L o c a t i o n Comfort of  of  p h y s i c a l  Length O v e r a l l  of  of  Aspects  Mean  L i k e r t  of  R a t i n g s  the on  Scale  Mean  program  and  R a t i n g s  Four  Program: P o i n t  4  R a t i n g  4.4  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f a c i l i t i e s  program  s e r v i c e  r e c e i v e d  4.7 3.1 4.3  93 s u g g e s t i o n s  f o r  an  P a r t i c i p a n t s ness  of  L i k e r t a l l  v a r i o u s s c a l e  r a t i n g  of  were  and  the  mean  r a t i n g  t i o n  p r o v i d e d  to  1 a  the  the  of  the  group  l e a d e r s of  f o r  comments  and  p l i e d to  h e l p  l e g a l  A l l the  A d d i t i o n a l Sheet  are  comments  were:  i t  be  would  gram  e a r l y  s e s s i o n s  be  t h e i r  The  group  i f  to  made  a v a i l a b l e  to.  people breakup  v e r y  r a t i n g  of  Table  the 5)•  t h i s  s e c t i o n  these  comments  r e s o u r c e s  be  t h a t  t h r e e  were  Requests  they  r e q u i r e d  t h i s  persons  t h e i r  Table  quesr e -  w i l l i n g n e s s  6).  Program  themes  Response  of  these  encouraging; r e f e r r e d  problems;  i n d i v i d u a l s  the  h e l p f u l n e s s  answered  Post The  to  and  mean  h e l p f u l n e s s  the  and  f e l t  (see  was  The  3'9  the  of  a f f i r m e d  AA.  at  made.  and  the  ' n o t  c r i t i c i z e d .  persons  on  program  f a m i l y  of of  were  o t h e r s  a  p r e s e n t a t i o n s / i n f o r m a -  l e a d e r s  they  Four  f o r  was  mean  were  was  on  h e l p f u l . '  themes  f i l m s  Appendix  the  w o r t h w h i l e i n  AA.  was  n e g a t i v e l y ,  comments  t h a t  the  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n  ' v e r y  under  asked  program  c o m p i l e d  1  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s  s e r v i c e s .  ' m a y b e I!  h e l p f u l -  r a t i n g  r a t i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  two  the  (see  The  were  r a t e  4.7  t h a t  h e l p f u l .  a f f i r m a t i v e l y ,  recommend  by  program.  program  r a t i n g  and  4.8  Appendix  o r  mean mean  the  handouts  of  d i s c u s s i o n  made  P a r t i c i p a n t s  t i o n  was  o b s e r v a t i o n s  a d d i t i o n a l  f u r t h e r  The  3«4.  group  i n  The  4.0.  to  of  POSI-COPE  was  h e l p f u l n e s s  was  e f f e c t i v e  a  of  f i l m s  i n c l u d e d  the  h e l p f u l n e s s  was  compiled  of  where  5,  l e n g t h  r e q u e s t e d  5  the  are  the  of  of  S p e c i f i c  of  r a t i n g  of  h e l p f u l n e s s  a l s o  components  from  h e l p f u l '  e x t e n s i o n  d u r i n g  and  to  the  t h a t  c r i s i s  t h a t p r o -  s p e c i a l  p e r i o d s .  94  Table Post F i v e  Program  Ratings  Components  Mean  Ratings  on  V a r i a b l e  Handouts  of a  the 5-  5 of  H e l p f u l n e s s  POSI-COPE P o i n t  of  Program:  L i k e r t  S c a l e  Mean  R a t i n g  3-9  P r e s e n t a t i o n s / I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d F i l m s  4.0 3.4  Group  l e a d e r s  4.8  Group  d i s c u s s i o n  4.7  95  Table Post  Program  6 Responses  Response Q u e s t i o n  Based on program, program  your e x p e r i e n c e of would you recommend to  Yes  No  Maybe  N  t h i s t h i s  others?  Do y o u f e e l t h a t you r e q u i r e f u r t h e r h e l p or s e r v i c e s a t t h i s time?  9  -  -  9  4  2  3  9  96 Post  Program  The the  Contact  r e s e a r c h e r  w a i t  l i s t  w i t h  met  c o n t r o l  the  time,  p a r t i c i p a n t s  F a m i l y t o r y , any  the  questions  d i s c u s s e d t i o n  and  i n f o r m a l pants  Tennessee  Concept  concerns  on  the  months  the  c o m p l e t i o n  r e u n i o n  was  h e l d .  i n f o r m a t i o n they  r e a f f i r m e d  program  of of  f o r  the the  the  of  each  of  w i t h  A n x i e t y In  each  the  t h i s  I n v e n -  a d d i t i o n , person  were  i n f o r m a -  program,  meeting  p r o g r e s s  b e n e f i t s  t h i s  p a r t i c i -  and  and  an  changes.  value  of  the  the  i n t e r p r e t i n g  the  E f f i c i e n c y  of  the  Imple-  Program  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  through  s e s s i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t  the  on  POSI-COPE  a s s e s s e d  t h e i r  Coping  p r o v i d i n g  of  At  A t  them.  F i n d i n g s  e f f i c i e n c y was  about  of  and  m o n i t o r i n g a t  these  feedback  the  the  c l i e n t  c o m p l e t i o n  f i n d i n g s , was  of  g i v e n  i t  POSI-COPE  feedback of  the  should  d i r e c t l y  across  spread  s e s s i o n s  of was  mean  r a t i n g s  s m a l l ,  of  r a n g i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t from  4.0  to  be  noted  to  the  feedback 4.9  a t  p r o -  l e a d e r s . The  of  p e r i o d  program.  S c a l e .  i n c l u d e d  member  week  T r a i t  p a r t  a f t e r  and  P o s i t i v e  S t a t e  necessary.  program  group  the  where  m e n t a t i o n  the  completed  S e l f  two  POSI-COPE  r e f e r r a l s ,  D i s c u s s i o n  t h a t  the  This  POSI-COPE  In  of  the  w i t h .  a d d i t i o n ,  gram.  w i t h i n  d e a l t  shared  end  p a r t i c i p a n t  the  group  The  each  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  and  and  Four  In  c o m p l e t i o n  Change. and  w i t h  group,  f o l l o w i n g the  P a r t i c i p a n t s  f o r  o v e r a l l 3.8  to  f o r  the  impressions  Tables  and  2  i n d i c a t e d s i o n s .  On  the  t h a t  r e c e i v e d  This  was  f u r t h e r  comments  t h a t  the  s u p p o r t i v e  and  r e a s s u r i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s  had  an  of  t h e i r  ship  concerns,  d i s s o l u t i o n  concerned t h e i r  o t h e r s , them. the  p a r e n t s .  f u r t h e r This  process  a d e q u a t e l y  f o r  to  g e n e r a l goals  or  of  f o r m a t i o n components  s p e c i f i c  of  and  of  the  the  w r i t t e n  environment  and  to  share  i n f o r m a t i o n to  a f f i r m a l l  the  the  the  the  I t  t h a t  had  i m p l i c a t i o n s  and  f o r  suggesting  program  not  .  as  i n d i c a t e d to  program  f o r  achievement  the  appear  program  of to  t h a t  e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  program  f o r  some  r e l a t i o n -  p a r t i c i p a n t  the  the  i d e n t i t i e s  d i d of  s p e c i f i c  of  t h a t  t h e i r  the  u l t i m a t e  components  p r o v i d e d  the  t h i s  the  these-  about  of  c o n f i r m e d  post  of  a t  r e s o l v e  POSI-COPE  elements  i t s  themes  s e s -  and  p a r t i c i p a n t s  v a l u e  trends  p a r t i c i -  s e s s i o n  and  over  e i g h t  had  group  the  p o s i t i v e  program  program.  the  each  w i t h  POSI-COPE  recommend  the  the  (see  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  The  a d d i t i o n ,  i n h i b i t e d  change  end  5-0  p r e s e n t a t i o n  feedback  by  to  4.0  program.  feedback  of  and  each  r e i n f o r c i n g  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  program  f u l n e s s  In  s e s s i o n ;  of  and  d i s c r i m i n a t e  f a c i l i t a t e d A  g a i n  process  w i l l i n g n e s s  across  o p p o r t u n i t y to  of  v e r i f y i n g  the  each  s a t i s f a c t i o n  v a l i d a t e d  POSI-COPE  i n d i c a t e d  method  mean  4.3,  a t  of  c o n t e n t ;  program  r a t i n g s  e l i c i t e d the  post  was  mean  the  the  t h e i r  the  of  of  of  i n  c o m p l e t i o n  a  3).  comments  h e l p f u l n e s s  h e l p f u l n e s s  i n d i c a t e d  s e r v i c e  pant  the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  c l i e n t s a l l  f o r  4.6  of  r a t i n g s  program  c o n f i r m i n g  p o t e n t i a l  s u g g e s t i o n s of  the  p r o v i d e d  i n -  v a l u a b l e  m o d i f i c a t i o n  h e l p -  of  the  POSI-COPE The  the  r a t i n g s  of  POSI-COPE  program  and  p o s i t i v e .  l e a d e r s , were  the  marked  these  The  group  component  program  t h r e e  components or  i c  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  the  i s  e s s e n t i a l  l e a d e r  be  have to  an  of  the  marked  a t  a  w h i c h  t h e i i n f o r m a t i o n  (see  5)»  of  s p e c i f i c  Does  of  sex  group  p r o v i d e d  the  and  c r i t e r i a  of  these  e v a l u a t e d  ( i . e .  or  t h a t  i m p l e m e n t a -  elements  success  How  the  f u t u r e  d e f i n e d  the  of  were  i n d i c a t i n g  achievement  program  h e l p f u l n e s s mean  i n d i c a t e d  the  Table  f a c i l i t i e s  of  What  as  s p e c i f  t h e r a p e u t i c  much  group  the  f i l m s  b i a s  d i s c u s s i o n  s u c c e s s ? ) .  r e t a i n  of  and  f u r t h e r  lower  This to  h e l p f u l n e s s  i n f l u e n c e ?  program  l o c a t i o n  the  assessment  h e l p f u l ?  the  p h y s i c a l  the  the  i n h i b i t i n g i s  not  high  w i t h  the  program,  r a t i n g s  or  determine  In  c o u l d  program.  whether  of  d i s c u s s i o n ,  POSI-COPE  f a c i l i t a t i n g  the  r a t i n g s  success.  the  s i s t e n t l y  w i t h  f a c i l i t a t e d  of  The  s a t i s f a c t i o n  c o n s i s t e n t l y  t i o n s  of  .  mean  v e r y  of  program.  of  l e v e l the  than  m e r i t  o t h e r  of  the  f i l m s  i n  the  t h r e e  f i l m s  u t i l i z e d  was  c o n -  components  c o n s i d e r i n g  program, may  or  b e s t  to be  e l i m i n a t e d . The the  p o s t  program  p a r t i c i p a n t s  l e n g t h  of  to  models  the  the  c e p t u a l i z e d made  by  reached  a  were  o n l y  POSI-COPE of  by  group  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  the  members  stage  where  m o d e r a t e l y  program  (see  r e l a t i o n s h i p  K e s s l e r  (1975)  and  i n d i c a t e d the  feedback  i n d i c a t e d  s a t i s f i e d Table  4).  d i s s o l u t i o n Brown  t h a t  d i s s o l u t i o n  (1977)  most of  w i t h  the  A c c o r d i n g process  c o n -  statements  i n d i v i d u a l s t h e i r  t h a t  had  r e l a t i o n s h i p  was  e m o t i o n a l l y  e x p l o r e  and  f i n a l i z e d  focus  on  chosen  g o a l s  as  quests  f o r  l o n g e r  w h i l e  to  a  a  extend  s i n g l e  l e n g t h  w i t h  e x p l o r e  i s s u e s .  c o n f i r m e d you  f e e l  "by  r e p l i e s  t h a t  t i m e ' ?  Four  t h r e e  r e p l i e d  Table  you of  change  w i t h  i n c l u d e d  t h e i r  v a l i d i t y  f u r t h e r group  'maybe'  i n  t h a t  f a m i l y  of  and  s e l f -  t h a t  i t  the  may  he  program a  r e w o r t h -  through  w i s h  to  t h i s . s u g g e s t i o n  to  h e l p  two  e x t e n s i v e l y  e x p l a i n  express  the or  members  a v a i l a b l e  t h a t  a  l e g a l  p a r t i c i p a n t the  w r i t t e n  people  breakup  made  to  a i d  q u e s t i o n ,  s e r v i c e s  r e p l i e d  r e p l i e d  i s 'Do  a t  t h i s  a f f i r m a t i v e l y ,  n e g a t i v e l y  (see  be  comments  r e f e r r e d  problems,  i n d i v i d u a l s lawyer  be  s u g g e s t i o n s  to  t h a t  program  s e c t i o n s the  were  program  e a r l y  s p e c i a l  s e s s i o n s  be  c r i s i s  p e r i o d s ,  and  d u r i n g  i n v i t e d  f o r  to  the  s e s s i o n s  to  i n  p r o -  i n f o r m a t i o n . M o n i t o r i n g  the  POSI-COPE  confirms p o t e n t i a l  the  the  e f f i c i e n c y  program  value  of  f o r  the  based  on  the  r e s u l t s  quent  implementations elements  of  success  the  has  of of  of  the  of  of  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  POSI-COPE program  and  w h i c h  suggests  program. become  m o n i t o r i n g  program,  treatment  p i l o t  components  continuous the  t h i s  p r o v i d e d  s p e c i f i c  m o d i f i c a t i o n s  c r i t e r i a ,  t i v e  who  to  pursue  POSI-COPE  p a r t i c i p a n t s  nine  s p e c i f i c  s u g g e s t i o n s  of  The by  the  to  may  i m p l i e s  members  r e q u i r e  the  of  and  This  and  ready  6). Other  v i d e  group  were  growth  person.  program  the  they  p e r s o n a l  r e c o n t r a c t i n g these  and  the  more  r e f i n e d ,  d u r i n g  subse-  a d d i t i o n a l  i n t e r v e n t i o n s  As  may  f a c i l i t a be  100  i d e n t i f i e d . w h i c h  has  about  program  w i t h  a  g i e s , of  the  would and  d i r e c t  and  the  would  of  the  This  c o n t e n t ,  r e f i n e m e n t  e f f i c i e n c y be  ensure  i m p l i c a t i o n s  change.  v a r i e t y  t a i l o r e d  t a r g e t  This  of  the  of  the f o r  c o u l d  g e n e r a t i o n s y s t e m a t i c i n v o l v e  formats  approaches  program.  development  of  to  i n d i v i d u a l  meet  p o p u l a t i o n .  the  and  a  The  s e r v i c e  of  feedback  d e c i s i o n s  the  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  i n t e r v e n t i o n to  the  i d e a l t h a t  needs  measurement end  i s of  s t r a t e -  r e s u l t  a c c o u n t a b l e a  s p e c i f i c  101  CHAPTER  FINDINGS  ON  THE  POSI-COPE  In the  t h i s  POSI-COPE  e q u i v a l e n c y chapter  program  between  concludes  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Tests  c h a p t e r ,  of  of  groups  were  p a r t s .  The  of  f i r s t  v a r i a b l e s  e q u i v a l e n c y  on  f o r  demographic  e q u i v a l e n c y from  t h a t  there  ment  and  means  l e n c y  f o r  between  were  no  c o n t r o l  and  standard  The  p r e t e s t  between  a l l  of  r e s u l t s  v a r i a b l e s were  of  t e s t s  hypotheses.  of  This  f i n d i n g s  treatment were f o r  on  the  age,  t h i s  the  S t a t e  were  two on  f o r used  to  t h i s the  A n x i e t y  f o r  l e n g t h  a n a l y s i s  v a r i a b l e s .  i n  t e s t s  t - t e s t s  and  d i f f e r e n c e s  used  i n t o  v a r i a b l e s .  sex,  f o r  c o n t r o l  e q u i v a l e n c y  T - t e s t s  i n  of  and  d i v i d e d  concerned  used  these  d e v i a t i o n s  groups  the  were  on  s e c t i o n s :  the  t e s t s  second  s i g n i f i c a n t  groups  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  program.  v a r i a b l e s  The  of  v a r i a b l e s .  groups  spouse.  of  analyses  the  p r e t e s t  e q u i v a l e n c y  The  a t i o n  the  t e s t s  concerned and  the two  between  These  p a r t  THE  Groups  e q u i v a l e n c y  conducted.  i n  d i s c u s s i o n  Between  demographic  t e s t  a  and  OF  DISCUSSION  on  r e p o r t e d  POSI-COPE  E q u i v a l e n c y  P r e t e s t s  are  AND  f i n d i n g s  groups  the  EFFECTIVENESS  PROGRAM  the  w i t h  V  s e p a r -  i n d i c a t e d  between See  of  the  Table  t r e a t 7  f o r  a n a l y s i s . t - t e s t s and  the  f o r  e q u i v a -  Adjustment  Table T-Tests  of  E q u i v a l e n c y  C o n t r o l  V a r i a b l e  Group  Sex  Age  Length of S e p a r a t i o n  S t a t e  T r a i t  A n x i e t y  A n x i e t y  Adjustment Change  to  s i g n i f i c a n c e  Groups  oc -  7  Between on  S i x  the  Treatment  V a r i a b l e s  Mean  S.D.  Treatment  1.60  .52  C o n t r o l  1.80  .42  Treatment  2.80  1.23  C o n t r o l  2.60  Treatment  4.40  2.17  C o n t r o l  3.80  1.48  t  (pooled)  -.95  .45  • 70  Treatment  38.00  10.60  C o n t r o l  40.80  13-99  Treatment  45.60  8.36  C o n t r o l  43.60  12.80  Treatment  50.80  8.42  C o n t r o l  53.10  15.37  .05  and  .72  -.50  .41  -.42  to  Change  r a t i n g s .  t h a t  t h e r e  ment  and  means  were  The  no  c o n t r o l  s i g n i f i c a n t  groups  and  standard  The  r e s u l t s  of  between  v a r i a b l e s .  However,  the  p r e t e s t  and  performed  ates  were  dent and  i n  f o r  Adjustment to  be  Tests  of  the  The a n a l y s i s  hypotheses analyses  These to  t e s t s  t h i s l e d  See  an  the  v a r i a b l e s ,  analyses  they  the  t h a t  may  c o v a r i a t e s  Change S a l e  of  have  be  r e l a t e d  were  T r a i t  (-.81)  on  t r e a t m e n t ,  to  r a t i n g s .  c o r r e l a t e d  groups  hypotheses.  appeared  f o r  7  of  p o s s i b i l i t y  w i t h  of  t r e a t  Table  assumption  c o n t r o l  a g a i n s t  the  a n a l y s i s .  to  and  i n d i c a t e d  "between  a s s o c i a t e d  t e s t s  because  s t r o n g l y  (see  of between  c o v a r i a n c e Two  the to  c o v a r i p o t e n t i a l  the  A n x i e t y  These  thes  r a t i n g s  Appendix  depenr a t i n g s were BB<).  Hypotheses  nine of  the  a n a l y s i s  v a r i a b l e s .  f o r  guard  c o n s t r u c t s  v a r i a b l e s .  found  to  t h i s  d i f f e r e n c e s  t r e a t m e n t  dependent  chosen  c o n t r o l  the  of  these  these  c o r r e l a t i o n s  were  to  on  d e v i a t i o n s  e q u i v a l e n c e  d i f f e r e n t i a l  r e s u l t s  hypotheses  c o v a r i a n c e . appear  were  i n  T r a i t  were The  Table A n x i e t y  t e s t e d  a d j u s t e d  8. and  The  by  the  c e l l  procedure  means  c o v a r i a t e s  Adjustment  to  f o r  used  i n  Change  of these these Scale'  r a t i n g s . The  HI  r e s u l t s  There ( oc = •^.Anxie I n v e n t Lushen  of  the  t e s t s  of  hypotheses  were  as  w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .05) i n the r a t i n g s of the S t a t e ty-Scalehofc the _State . T r a i t - A n x i e t y o r y ( S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch and e, 1970) b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who have  f o l l o w s  104  Table Means the  and  A d j u s t e d  Dependent  Raw V a r i a b l e  8 Means  V a r i a b l e s  Means  Treatment  f o r  C o n t r o l  A d j u s t e d Treatment  Means C o n t r o l  P o s t - t r e a t m e n t S t a t e A n x i e t y  41.00  44.00  41.52  43.48  Adjustment Change  53.78  51.56  53.70  51.65  40.11  51.78  39.95  51.94  47.67  42.00  47.46  42.21  42.44  40 .67  42.21  40.91  50.33  43.89  50.37  43.85  52.56  43.44  52.17  43.83  S e l f T o t a l  to  C r i t i c i s m  *  Score  P h y s i c a l  S e l f  M o r a l - E t h i c a l S e l f  P e r s o n a l  S e l f  *  F a m i l y  S e l f  50.00  43.00  50.24  42.76  S o c i a l  S e l f  46.44  44.22  46.00  44.67  s i g n i f i c a n c e  ©C  =  .05  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the POSI-COPE program a n d t h o s e who h a v e not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program.  The  measurement  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o v a r i a t e s :  of  a d j u s t e d  T r a i t  p o s t t r e a t m e n t  ( cv=  A n x i e t y  f o r  .05)  and  S t a t e any  Adjustment  A n x i e t y  i n f l u e n c e to  Change  was of  the  (see  T a b l  9). The t h a t  i t  Table  r e s u l t s  was  9).  not  was  concluded  of  the  S t a t e  H2  The  s u b j e c t s  There ( ment have gram the  /  t h a t  A n x i e t y  between  measurement  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  c o v a r i a t e s :  to  r e j e c t  n u l l  t h e r e  of  the  c o v a r i a n c e  the  no  the  1  was  d i f f e r e n c e S t a t e  treatment  i n d i c a t e d  hypothesis  hypothesis  was  S c a l e i n  of  (see  accepted i n  T r a i t and  above  the  r a t i n g s  A n x i e t y  the  and  I n v e n -  c o n t r o l  group  of  p o s t t r e a t m e n t  a d j u s t e d  T r a i t  ( aC  A n x i e t y  =  f o r  .05)  and  Adjustment any  Adjustment  to  Change  i n f l u e n c e to  of  Change  (see  9). The  t h a t  the  a n a l y s i s  w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .05) i n the r a t i n g s of the A d j u s t to Change Scale between s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the POSI-COPE p r o and t h o s e who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n program.  was  Table  the  p o s s i b l e  T h e r e f o r e  i t  t o r y  of  i t  Table  r e s u l t s  was  9)•  not  T h e r e f o r e  was  concluded  of  the  Adjustment and  the  p o s s i b l e  i t  treatment  of  the  t h a t to  the  a n a l y s i s to  n u l l  there Change  c o n t r o l  r e j e c t  of  c o v a r i a n c e  the  hypothesis  hypothesis  was  no  S c a l e  groups.  i n d i c a t e d  2  was  d i f f e r e n c e between  above  (see  a c c e p t e d i n  the  s u b j e c t s  i n  and  r a t i n g s the  106  Table E f f e c t s  o f  t h e  POSI-COPE  Measures:  Dependent  V a r i a b l e  P o s t - t r e a t m e n t S t a t e A n x i e t y  Adjustment Change  S e l f  T o t a l  t o  Score  P h y s i c a l  Treatment  A n a l y s i s  Source  Treatment  S e l f  Outcome  Covariance  S .S .  df  17.05  M.S  1  17.05  .10 4.08  f  2  707.36  E r r o r  2429.28  14  173.52  T o t a l  3861.05  17  18.89  1  18.89  C o v a r i a t e s  1211.55  2  605.78  E r r o r  1578.22  14  112.73  T o t a l  2808.66  17  Treatment  637.43  1  637.43  7.04  C o v a r i a t e s  102.30  2  51.15  .56  E r r o r  1268.15  14  90.58  T o t a l  2007.88  1.7  Treatment  122.58  1  122.58  3.65  C o v a r i a t e s  575.92  2  287.96  8.58  E r r o r  '-470.08  14  33-58  T o t a l  1168.58  17  7.50  1  7.50  885-73  2  442.87 59.32  Treatment  S e l f  Nine  1414.72  C o v a r i a t e s  M o r a l - E t h i c a l  o f  on  C o v a r i a t e s  Treatment  C r i t i c i s m  9  •si-  4  • 17  5.37'*  .13  •K--8-  4  7*W  E r r o r  830.49  14  T o t a l  1723.72  17  Treatment  188.77  1  188.77  2.03  C o v a r i a t e s  223.79  2  111 .89  1.21  E r r o r  1299.10  14  92.79  T o t a l  1711.66  17  107 Table 9 (continued) E f f e c t s o f t h e POSI-COPE T r e a t m e n t o n N i n e Measures: A n a l y s i s  Dependent V a r i a b l e Personal  Self  Family Self  Social Self  Covariates  Source  Outcome  of Covariance  S.S.  df  M.S.  F  Treatment  308.36  1  308.36  4.97  Covariates  1170.56  2  585-28  9.44*  Error  867.88  14  61.99  Total  2346.80  17  Treatment  248.58  1  248.58  3.72  Covariates  216.45  2  108.22  1.62  Error  935«55  14  66.83  Total  1400.58  17  7.92  1  7.92  Covariates  483.94  2  241.97  Error  475.84  14  33.99  Total  967.70  17  Treatment  s i g n i f i c a n t at © c =  Treatment s i g n i f i c a n t a t  .05  o C = .05  .23 7.12*  108  H3  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( oc = .05) i n the r a t i n g of the S e l f C r i t i c i s m Score of the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1964) between subj e c t s who h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e POSICOPE program a n d t h o s e who h a v e not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program.  The p o r t  the  f e r e n c e  r e s u l t s  h y p o t h e s i s f o r  the  ment  group  mean  of  n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s  l e s s e r group  S e l f  (oC  =  i t  r e s u l t s  was  not The  9).  .077).  ( OG =  concluded  t h a t  Score  groups.  f o r  .05) and  of  the any  Adjustment of  the  p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s  The  the  A  s c a l e  w i t h  an  a t  an  sup-  s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f -  a d j u s t e d  a d j u s t e d  ©<* =  the  c o n t r o l  a  between  T o t a l  p a r t  to  Score of  Change  a n a l y s i s  of  r e j e c t  of  the  t r e a t m e n t  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  c o v a r i a t e s :  (see  Table  c o v a r i a n c e  the  h y p o t h e s i s  4  no  s u b j e c t s  was  d i f f e r e n c e i n  the  a c c e p t e d i n  the  t r e a t m e n t  9)•  i n d i c a t e d  h y p o t h e s i s  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  was  the  group.  i n f l u e n c e to  group  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  approached  n u l l  t h e r e  c o n t r o l  t r e a t -  T h e r e f o r e  .05.  i n d i c a t i n g on  not  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (oC = .05) i n the r a t i n g of the T o t a l Score of the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the POSI-COPE program and t h o s e who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program.  measurement  of  9)•  and  C r i t i c i s m  p a r t  Table  d i d  H4  The  T o t a l  r e j e c t e d ,  c o v a r i a n c e  on  A n x i e t y  Table  found  of  than  a d j u s t e d  t h a t  C r i t i c i s m  was  was  the  (see  39-95 (N=9)  of  of  a n a l y s i s  above  (N=9)  degree  the  S e l f  mean  51.94  The  T r a i t  of  above  (see  however and  i t  was  r a t i n g s  of  and  c o n t r o l  the  the  109 H5  The i c a n t l y a t e s :  ( = S e l f S S c a l e pated who ha  .05) i n the r a t i n g s of the P h y s i c a l core of the Tennessee S e l f Concept b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who h a v e p a r t i c i i n the POSI-COPE program and those ve not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program.  a d j u s t e d  T r a i t  i t  Table  w i l l  r e s u l t s  was  9)•  not  concluded  of  the  P h y s i c a l c o n t r o l  i t  was  9).  T h e r e f o r e  concluded  not  E t h i c a l  c o n t r o l  H7  r e j e c t  n u l l  t h e r e Score  of  the  p o s s i b l e the  t h a t  any  d i f f e r e n c e  S e l f  i n f l u e n c e to  of  Change  no  between  of  the  was  s i g n i f -  the  c o v a r i -  (see  c o v a r i a n c e  Table  was  5  d i f f e r e n c e s u b j e c t s  9).  i n d i c a t e d  h y p o t h e s i s  h y p o t h e s i s  was  Score  above  (see  a c c e p t e d i n  i n  the  the  and  r a t i n g s  t r e a t m e n t  groups.  r e s u l t s  t h a t  M o r a l  to  There w i l l be ( oC = . 0 5 ) i n E t h i c a l S e l f S Concept S c a l e p a r t i c i p a t e d i and t h o s e who program.  The  f o r  a n a l y s i s  the  S e l f  P h y s i c a l  Adjustment  the  t h a t  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  .05)  and  T h e r e f o r e  H6  of =  of  no  p o s s i b l e  was  the  ( OC  A n x i e t y  i t  and  he  measurement  The t h a t  There  n u l l  there Score  was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e the r a t i n g of the M o r a l core of the Tennessee S e l f b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who have n the POSI-COPE program have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  a n a l y s i s to  r e j e c t  h y p o t h e s i s no  between  of  c o v a r i a n c e  t h i s 6  s u b j e c t s  h y p o t h e s i s , ( s e e  was  d i f f e r e n c e i n  i n d i c a t e d  a c c e p t e d  i n  the  the  Table  and  i t  was  r a t i n g s  of  the  treatment  and  groups.  There  w i l l  be  (0^= .05) i n S e l f Score of S c a l e between  no  s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e  the r a t i n g s of the P e r s o n a l the Tennessee S e l f Concept s u b j e c t s who h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d  the  110  i n the POSI-COPE program have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  The i c a n t l y i a t e s :  measurement  a d j u s t e d T r a i t  The p o r t f o r mean  h y p o t h e s i s  hypothesis p o s i t i v e the  i t  Table  and  .074).  concluded the  F a m i l y  and  the  an  of  the than  of  the  r e s u l t s The  t h a t S e l f  c o n t r o l  t h e r e Score  r e j e c t  no  g r o u p s .  group  Score  of  the  t h i s  was  s u b j e c t s  sup-  d i f f e r e n c e group of  n u l l  on  more  the  p a r t  c o n t r o l  group.  f e r e n c e F a m i l y Concept p a r t i e - . . and those program.  i n d i c a t e d  h y p o t h e s i s  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  8  9).  not  mean  the  c o v a r i a n c e  d i f f e r e n c e  between  d i d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i g n i f i c a n t d i f r a t i n g of the Tennessee S e l f e c t s who'.have -COPE program c i p a t e d i n the  hypothesis  was  p a r t  Table  t r e a t m e n t  T h e r e f o r e  S e l f  approached  n u l l  c o n t r o l  of  c o v a r -  s i g n i f i c a n t  P e r s o n a l  a n a l y s i s to  c o v a r i a n c e  a  no s the the s u b j POSI a r t i  the  (see  Change  i n d i c a t i n g  the  s i g n i f -  to  a d j u s t e d  .05-  was  of  A  a d j u s t e d  on  Score  i n f l u e n c e  9). an  those who program.  Self.  of  w i t h  OC =  at  p o s s i b l e  The  9)•  ( o<-  not  Table  Score  w i l l be .05) i n core of between i n the ve not p  r e s u l t s  was  a n a l y s i s  group  There {.oCS e l f S Scale i p a t e d who h a  any  the  r e j e c t e d ,  t r e a t m e n t  The  f o r  .05)  (see  s e l f - r a t i n g  P e r s o n a l  Adjustment  found  was  7  H8  t h a t  was  the  and  S e l f  (N=9)  52.17  43.83 (N=9)  of  of  P e r s o n a l  of  =  A n x i e t y  r e s u l t s  t h i s the  {oC  of  and the  however  a c c e p t e d i n  the  i n  the  (see  and  r a t i n g s  i t of  t r e a t m e n t  was  I l l  H9  There (oc= Score betwe the P not p  The  a d j u s t e d  i a t e s :  T r a i t  The i t  (bee  Table  and  i t  was  the  p o s s i b l e T h e r e f o r e  to  any  n u l l  t h e r e  S e l f  the  F i n d i n g s  of  r e j e c t  the  t h a t  S o c i a l  f o r  a n a l y s i s  of  was  s i g n i f i -  i n f l u e n c e  of  to  (see  Change  c o v a r i a n c e the  no  the  9).  i n d i c a t e d above  was  9  d i f f e r e n c e  between  c o v a r -  Table  h y p o t h e s i s  h y p o t h e s i s  was  Score  Score  s u b j e c t s  a c c e p t e d i n  the  i n  the  groups.  on  the  E f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  the  Program  r e s u l t s  t r e a t m e n t  cess  of  of  because  the  f o r  t e s t s  supported  was  r e d u c i n g  r a t i n g s  s m a l l of i n  the  e f f e c t i v e  S e l f  P e r s o n a l  r e s u l t i n g  power.  the  c o n t r o l  COPE  dom,  d i f f e r e n c e  S e l f  Adjustment  the  POSI-COPE  the  of  S o c i a l  .05)  and  D i s c u s s i o n  The  not •  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  and  concluded  of  treatment  =  A n x i e t y  9)  no  of  ( oc  r e s u l t s was  r a t i n g s  be  measurement  c a n t l y  t h a t  w i l l  .05) i n the r a t i n g of the S o c i a l S e l f of the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e e n s u b j e c t s who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n OSI-COPE program and t h o s e who have a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program.  i n  m e e t i n g  C r i t i c i s m  S e l f .  sample  use  andoof  These s i z e  hypotheses the  c o n c l u s i o n s  be of  the  done  the  c r i t e r i a  i n c r e a s i n g  f i n d i n g s  r e q u i r e d  t h a t  are  t h a t  w i t h  s t a t i s t i c a l  few  POSIof  s u c -  p o s i t i v e  m e a n i n g f u l  the  analyses  degrees  t e s t s  w i t h  of  f r e e -  l i m i t e d  112  These  f i n d i n g s  an  i n c r e a s e  of  the  g o a l  seven  of  esteem of  i n  c r i t e r i a  among  a  the  g o a l  the  S e l f  was  a s s o c i a t e d The reduce  not w i t h  second  the  f o r  sense  S e l f  Concept  p o s s i b l e these  to  f i v e of  the  i n t e n s i t y  of  p a r t i c i p a n t  the  use  of  A n x i e t y  Inventory.  The t h i s  was  not  r e s u l t s n u l l  t h i r d  g o a l  f e e l i n g s  w h i c h  i n h i b i t  was  a s s e s s e d  Scale  w h i c h  d i c a t e d  was  t h a t  s u g g e s t i n g a c h i e v i n g  through  of  i n  the  the  f o r  was  not  t h a t  the  POSI-COPE  g o a l .  r e s u l t s  the  n u l l  c r i t e r i a  Scores  S e l f , of  i n d i c a t e d  hypotheses  of  t h a t  the i t  the  the  to  w h i c h  S t a t e was  T r a i t  not  t h a t  t h i s  program  was  A n x i e t y  p o s s i b l e  the  POSI-COPE  to  The  n e g a t i v e change  Change  r e s u l t s  t h i s not  of  f a m i l y  Adjustment  r e j e c t  d u r -  g o a l .  p o s i t i v e  study.  to  a s s e s s e d - t h r o u g h  a c c u m u l a t i o n of  was  e x p e r i e n c e d  was  s u g g e s t i n g  t h i s  p o s s i b l e  program  a n x i e t y  of  process  use  developed  s e l f -  P h y s i c a l  S e l f  The  two  program  f i v e  Score,  S o c i a l  a c h i e v i n g  r e d u c i n g  i t  t h i s  S c a l e  h y p o t h e s i s ,  The  were  and  r e m a i n i n g  p r o c e s s ,  i n d i c a t e d  e f f e c t i v e  autonomy  POSI-COPE  d i s s o l u t i o n  S t a t e  S e l f  and  s c o r e s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p  program  and  g o a l  the  C r i t i c i s m  POSI-COPE  T o t a l  r e j e c t  the  r e j e c t  of  S c a l e .  i n g  to  the  the  S e l f  P e r s o n a l  The  by  F a m i l y  of  of  m e e t i n g  measured  S e l f ,  i t  r a t i n g s  g r e a t e r  M o r a l - E t h i c a l  t h a t  r e d u c t i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t s .  were  Tennessee  a  p o s i t i v e  c r e a t i n g  t h i s  of  n u l l  i n h y p o t h e s i s ,  e f f e c t i v e  i n  113 Two  of  the  n i n e  j e c t e d .  I t  i s  p o s s i b l e  to  r e j e c t  One  the  p o s s i b i l i t y enough  ment.  a d d i t i o n ,  In i s  to  i s  the  of  may  need  developed  by  the  This  r e q u i r e d more  t h a n  t h a t  one  p a r t i c i p a n t d i s c u s s e d I t  i s  the  This  a l s o  have i n  the  the i s  of  n u l l The  p o s s i b l e  t h a t  there  a  the  more may  hampered  sample  have  been  l e s s  were  by  the  not t r e a t d a t a  t h a t program  of  induced  i t  f o r  end room  to  to  m a n i f e s t  p e r i o d  measure i s  w h i c h  i s  change  supported i s  i t -  at  by  t h e  r e p o r t e d  and  t h i s  of  the  was i t  the  was  p i l o t  a l s o  t r e a t m e n t  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  a  time  approach. of  the  g o a l s .  was may  change  6) .  the  not  p o s s i b l e  r e l a t e  c o n s i s t e d  w e l l - a d j u s t e d  not  POSI-COPE  weeks  program,  outcome  v o l u n t e e r s  was  i m p l i e s  t r e a t m e n t  s i n c e  potency  hypotheses  type  s e s s i o n s  t h a t  t h a t  r e -  s e l f - r e p o r t  the  e i g h t  Table  {'see  i t s  on  p o s s i b i l i t y  more  the  the  longer  POSI-COPE  of  r e a s o n  sample.  from  IV  i t  measures  This  of  necessary  r e l e v a n t  a c h i e v i n g  nine,  f o r  why  produced  e r r o r .  t h a t  a  be  to  were  hypotheses.  r e l i e d  than  This  somewhat  Another of  may  Chapter  r e f i n e m e n t  may  program  i t  t h a t  study  e x p l o r e d .  i s  more  p e r i o d .  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r  takes  r e q u e s t s  i n  and  as  changes  to  t h i s  outcome  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i n d i c a t e s  or  the  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  t r e a t m e n t  s e l f .  the  n u l l  measures  i n d i c a t o r s  Another  t h a t  s u b j e c t  i n  s p e c u l a t e  r e m a i n i n g  new  be  to  d e t e c t  p o t e n t i a l l y  to  hypotheses  i n t e r e s t i n g  s e n s i t i v e  which  n u l l  of  t h i s  of f o r  the  to  to  program  s u b j e c t s .  c o u l d  p o p u l a t i o n to  seven  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  v o l u n t e e r  them  r e j e c t  have  and  change,  as  of I t  come  t h a t r e f l e c t e d  114  by  the  few  a l t h o u g h ests and  i n  s i g n i f i c a n t  the the  p a r t i c i p a n t s program,  investment  a b l e ,  i n  r e s u l t i n g  c r i t e r i a  of  the  cussed  Chapter  t e s t s  of  having  made  p o t h e s i s because cance a l s o the  i n may  This a  when some the have  POSI-COPE  of  II  i s the  f a l s e .  a f f e c t e d  of  preassessment  t i o n  on  b l o c k s , outcomes.  i s  i s  has  and  the  n u l l  to  s m a l l  s t a t i s t i c a l of hy-  c o n s i d e r s i g n i f i -  E x p e r i m e n t a l  designed  d i s -  p o s s i b i l i t y the  In  w i t h  approached  the  v a r i -  program.  of  m o r t a l i t y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i m p l i c a t i o n s  c l i e n t  been  f a c t o r s  p l a u s i b l e  on  i n t e r -  change  analyses  a  A l s o ,  measurement  to  power  hypotheses  instruments  b a r r i e r s  d a t a  and  f o r  have  on  a c c e p t i n g  f i n d i n g s  This  may  due  d i r e c t i o n .  the  program.  i . e .  needs  POSI-COPE  the  t h e r e  This of  h y p o t h e s i z e d  ment  e f f e c t  t h a t  E r r o r ,  the  i n  measures.  c a p a c i t y  l i m i t e d  l i m i t i n g  t e s t s  s i m i l a r  i n f l u e n c e  r e s u l t i n g  thus  outcome  program  of  was  i m p l i e s  Type i t  s i z e  III,  freedom,  used.  t r e a t m e n t m o d e r a t i n g  sample  the  r e a d i n e s s ,  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  the  degrees  a  on  expressed  t h e i r  the  i n  a d d i t i o n , i n  changes  to  f o r  the  e l i c i t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  d e v e l o p i n f o r m a -  t h a t  115  CHAPTER  SUMMARY,  CONCLUSIONS,  CHANGE  AND  FOR  VI  SUGGESTIONS FURTHER  FOR  PROGRAM  RESEARCH  Summary  The  focus  POSI-COPE  of  t h i s  program  study  through  was  on  the  development  i n v e s t i g a t i n g  i t s  of  the  e f f i c i e n c y  and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A  survey a  of  t h e r e  i s  group  programs  p a u c i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p  t e g i e s were  the  The  the  a  Program  or  a r e a  r e s e a r c h d i v o r c e d  p l a n n i n g  Development  1978),  Markman,  f o r m a t i v e  and  i n  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  the  of  parents  Model  f o r m a t i v e  d e v e l o p i n g  feedback  summative  i n v o l v e d program  c o n t r o l  s t r a t e g y  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t  gram  s e p a r a t e d  t h i s  f i e l d c o p i n g  w i t h  and  the  of  r e s e a r c h  summative  POSI-COPE  s t r a ^  program  implemented. The  i n g  s y s t e m a t i c  i n  d i s s o l u t i o n .  and  f o r  l i t e r a t u r e  of  f o r  U t i l i z i n g (Gottman  the  and  group.  hypotheses  the  of  on  the  i t s  s t r a t e g y assessment  i t s  goals  A n a l y s i s  generated  i n v o l v e d  POSI-COPE  w i t h i n  program  d e s c r i b -  and  m o n i t o r i n g  e f f i c i e n c y . f o r  the  development  of  the  o v e r a l l  r e l a t i v e of  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  to  c o v a r i a n c e t h i s  a  of  t h i s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  n o - t r e a t m e n t was  segment  of  p r o -  used the  to  of  w a i t  t e s t  study.  l i s t  the  116  C o n c l u s i o n s  A  s t r a t e g y  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y through of  i t s  t i o n s the  the  of  of  t h i s  This  i n f o r m a t i o n  w i l l f o r  of two  and  an  the  meeting  c r i t e r i a i n c r e a s e  t h i s  Score  i n  and  p a r t i c i p a n t of  i n h i b i t  i n  were  Scores. m e e t i n g  a n x i e t y  r e d u c i n g the  not  P h y s i c a l  S e l f  e f f e c t i v e  d i d  w h i c h  the  S o c i a l  p o s i t i v e  the  process  to  The  the  p i l o t  p o s i t i v e  i n  a  r e -  s p e c -  the  the  C r i t i c i s m  not  g o a l s  The  c r i t e r i a  r a t i n g s  of  T o t a l  F a m i l y  S e l f ,  found of  r e l a t i o n s h i p f e e l i n g s  change.  outcome  p a r t i c i p a n t s .  f i v e  a l s o  of  was  S e l f .  S e l f ,  n e g a t i v e  f a m i l y  of  S e l f  P e r s o n a l  was of  of  among  p o s i t i v e  d u r i n g of  and  i n t e r v e n t i o n  M o r a l - E t h i c a l  a c c u m u l a t i o n  needs  r e m a i n i n g  c r i t e r i a  f a c i l i t a t e  i n c r e a s e d  c r i t e r i a  of  program  i m p l e m e n t a -  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  r e d u c t i o n  the  e x p e r i e n c e d  of  and  autonomy  i n c r e a s e  S e l f ,  the  change  r a t i n g s  meet  f u r t h e r  d e c i s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g  seven  a  r e f i n e d  assessment  i s o l a t e d  t r e a t m e n t  and  the  f u r t h e r  the  the  was  and  by  were  w i t h i n  ongoing  i n h i b i t  m e e t i n g  s e l f - e s t e e m  i n  be  the  program  w i t h  i n  t h i s  of  a c h i e v e d  program  g o a l  t h a t two  which  program  program  program  t h a t  w i l l  demonstrated  i n c r e a s i n g  POSI-COPE  and  of  generated  a d d i t i o n a l  s y s t e m a t i c  been  The  be  p r o v i d e  f a c i l i t a t i n g  POSI-COPE  i m p l i e s  goals  I t  e f f e c t i v e  and  i t s  p o p u l a t i o n .  has  ideas  f a c t o r s  t a r g e t  POSI-COPE  g o a l  and This  of  and  d e v e l o p i n g  program,  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  the  the  f i n d i n g s  achievement  i f i c  m o n i t o r i n g  e f f i c i e n c y .  f i n e d .  of  f o r  to  r e d u c i n g d i s s o l u t i o n w h i c h  117 S u g g e s t i o n s  f o r  Program  1.  Increase  2.  S y s t e m a t i c a l l y of  the  Change  l e a d e r s ,  p o p u l a t i o n  3.  a l t e r  (see  Chapter  ment  the  e f f i c i e n c y  POSI-COPE  f o r  the  F u r t h e r  POSI-COPE  using  the  l i s t  d i f f e r e n t  b a r r i e r s  IV  f o r  and  and  t a r g e t  d e t a i l s ) .  approaches the  program  to  the  measure-  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i n  s u g g e s t i o n s  randomized  s i z e s ,  to  and  of  and  sample  instruments  s t r a t e g i e s  types  of  Research  the  l a r g e r  f o r m a t s ,  program.  Rerun  Use  program.  c o n t e n t ,  i n t e r v e n t i o n  r e f i n e  of  the  the  and  S u g g e s t i o n s  2.  of  Improve  the  1.  l e n g t h  and  e l i c i t  c l i e n t  a  v a r i e t y  f o r  program  comparison  develop  of  forms, change.  groups,  preassessment  i n f o r m a t i o n  on  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  b l o c k s , t h a t  e f f e c t  of  p a r t i c i -  outcomes.  3.  Devise pant  s t u d i e s  change  a s c e r t a i n  4.  to  determine  produced  the  l o n g  term  p a r t i c u l a r  behaviours  u l a r  of  types  Assess t i o n s  the of  by  the  the  treatment  impact  and  form  of  the  a t t i t u d e s  and  to  program  or  on  on  p a r t i c -  c l i e n t s .  r e l a t i v e  s e v e r a l  c o s t s ,  types  of  b e n e f i t s  and  i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  l i m i t a -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  119 A s s o c i a t i o n  of  P o r t l a n d ,  F a m i l y  C o n c i l i a t i o n  Oregon:  C o u r t s .  Parents  are  f o r e v e r .  1977.  B a r r e t t , R.K. "The r e l a t i o n s h i p of e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r to m a r i t a l maladjustment and d i s r u p t i o n . " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1974, j|4 ( 9 b ) , 4651-4652. 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U n c o u p l i n g : a p a r t . New York: D e l l , 1972.  t h e a r t o f coming  Smith, R.E. "Changes i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as a f u n c t i o n o f l i f e c r i s i s r e s o l u t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 21* 328-332.  126 S n i d e r , J . G . Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e . : P u b l i s h i n g Co., I969. ' S p i e l b e r g e r , a n x i e t y .  C.D. New  S p i e l b e r g e r , the  and  York:  C.D.  R.  John  Sons'!  Gorsuch,  s t a t e - t r a i t  C o n s u l t i n g  D i a z - G u e r r e r o ,  a n x i e t y  P s y c h o l o g i s t  S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r York: McGraw H i l l , S t u a r t , I.R. d i v o r c e .  and Abt, New Y o r k :  W i l e y R.L.  and and  Press,  the 1975.  S o c i a l  A l d i n e  C r o s s - c u l t u r a l 1976.  Lushene,  i n v e n t o r y .  Chicago:  Palo  R.E.  A l t o ,  Manual  f o r  C a l i f . :  1970. S c i e n c e s  L.E. (eds.). C h i l d r e n Grossman, 1972.  Thompson, M. E v a l u a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n York: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1975•  i n  E d . ) .  (2nd  of  s o c i a l  New  s e p a r a t i o n  programs.  Toomim, M.K. " S t r u c t u r e d s e p a r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l i n g : p e u t i c approach f o r couples i n c o n f l i c t . " F a m i l y  and  New  a t h e r a P r o c e s s ,  1972, 11, 299-310. Tubbs, A.L. D i v o r c e t h e i r c o u n s e l o r . Vancouver  P e o p l e ' s  c o u n s e l i n g : a workbook f o r the couple D a n v i l l e , 111.: I n t e r s t a t e , 1973. Law  S c h o o l ,  F a m i l y  Court,  Vancouver,  and  1976.  V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the F a m i l y . C o n c i l i a t i o n : a seminar on the law and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s as a p p l i e d to d i v o r c e p r o ceedings i n Canada. Toronto, 1973. Vinge, B. "A p r o p o s a l f o r a Unpublished paper, 1978. Court, South O f f i c e . ) W a l l e r s t e i n , community American  J.S.  and  s e r v i c e J o u r n a l  K e l l y , f o r  of  c o n c i l i a t i o n c o u r t f o r Vancouver." ( a v a i l a b l e from Vancouver F a m i l y  J.B.  f a m i l i e s  " D i v o r c e i n  t h e  O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y ,  c o u n s e l i n g :  midst 1977,  of *iZ  a  d i v o r c e . " (!)>  ^-22.  W a l l e r s t e i n , J.S. and K e l l y , J . B . "The e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l d i v o r c e : e x p e r i e n c e s of the c h i l d i n l a t e r l a t e n c y . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1976, 46 (2), 256-269. Weiss, C. a c t i o n  E v a l u a t i n g a c t i o n programs: readings i n and e d u c a t i o n . Boston: A l l y n and Bacon,  s o c i a l Inc.,  Weiss, C.H. E v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h : method f o r a s s e s s i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1972. Weiss, R.S. J o u r n a l  1972.  program  "The e m o t i o n a l impact of m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n . " of S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1976, 3_2 (1), 135-145.  127 Weiss,  R.S.  M a r i t a l  s e p a r a t i o n .  New  York:  B a s i c  Books,  W e i s s , W.W. and C o l l a d a , H.B. " C o n c i l i a t i o n c o u n s e l i n g : c o u r t ' s e f f e c t i v e mechanism f o r r e s o l v i n g v i s i t a t i o n custody d i s p u t e s . " F a m i l y C o o r d i n a t o r , 1977, 26 (4),  Welch,  G . J .  and  d i v o r c e d : m e n t s . "  an  G r a n v o l d ,  D.K.  e d u c a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l  of  Sex  "Seminars  approach  and  M a r i t a l  t o  f o r  the  31-39. Wiseman, R.S. " C r i s i s t h e o r y and the process S o c i a l Casework, 1975, j56, 205-212.  1977,  of  Zuckerman, M. and S p i e l b e r g e r , C D . Emotions and concepts, methods a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s . New Y o r k : and Sons, 1976.  the and  s e p a r a t e d /  p o s t d i v o r c e  Therapy,  1975.  a d j u s t 3_  (1)  d i v o r c e . "  a n x i e t y : new John W i l e y  128  APPENDICES  129 APPENDIX  MEMORANDUM  TO:  FAMILY  L u c i e Hanson H e a t h e r Hyde  FROM:  F a m i l y RE:  program i s a p F a m i l y Court S y S e r v i c e s of t o r of Group P  ( D i r e c t o r (U.B.C.)  S e r v i c e s  of  i l o t p t a f f ( G r e a t e rogram  of  Group  G r e a t e r FAMILY  Programs)  and  Vancouver CHANGE  r o j e c t which i s b e i n g r u n c o n j o i n t l y c o n t a c t Ann W i n t e r or Bob M o r r i s ) , r Vancouver ( c o n t a c t L u c i e Hanson, s) and Heather Hyde (U.B.C.).  REFERRALS  R e f e r r a l s  may  be made t I t i s p r e f parents who o d , a l t h o u g h mportant req ensure t h a t group.  (327-9277)• or d i v o a long ment. c o u n s e l come t o  r c e d p e r i An i l o r the  hrough e e r r e d t h have be t h i s i s uirement the peop  I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be c o n t a c t e d the f i r s t s e s s i o n . There may gram w i l l b e g i n l a t e i n May.  II  COUNSELLORS  POSITIVE COPING WITH PROGRAM (POSI-COPE)  This w i t h F a m i l D i r e c  I  COURT  A  i t h e r A a t the en i n v o not a i s t h a l e who  by be  nn r e f l v e har t t are  Wi e r d d he r  nt r a w i an f e f  e l t d a e  r s h  or Bob M o r r i s be s e p a r a t e d the c o u r t over f a s t r e q u i r e m i l y c o u r t r r e d want to  phone by the l e a d e r s b e f o r e a w a i t i n g l i s t . Another p r o -  GOALS To p r ment them from r e l i e  1.  •  2.  the and  o v i d e where and r e o t h e r f from  a s u p p o r t i v e and r e a s s u r i n g group e n v i r o n p a r t i c i p a n t s can i d e n t i f y problems f a c i n g c o g n i z e t h a t they are not r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s i n c o n f l i c t , thus p r o v i d i n g some d i s a b l i n g p r e s s u r e s . This l e t t i n g go of  p a s t should l e a d s e l f - e s t e e m .  To p r o v i d e i n f i n the process t h e i r own and concerns and t e x h i b i t at t h i  to  a  g r e a t e r  sense  of  autonomy  o r m a t i o n and to h e l p parents who are of s e p a r a t i n g to understand some of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s needs, problems and he k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r c h i l d r e n may s t i m e .  130 - 2-  I l l  3.  To share s u g g e s t i o n s as t o how p time may be most c o n s t r u c t i v e l y p r o v i d e a n impetus t o p a r t i c i p a n t h e i r own workable s o l u t i o n s as from t h e coping s t r a t e g i e s used group.  4.  To d i s c u s s v i e w p o i n t .  5.  To a c q u a i n t through t h e to make r e f e thus i n c r e a s n i n g w i t h o t  custody  a n d access  a r e han t s w e l by  from  n d t l o  t i n g a t t h i s led a n d t o o generate as t o l e a r n thers i n t h e  t h e  c h i l d ' s  p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h resources a v a i l a b l e F a m i l y Court and i n t h e community and r r a l s where necessary a n d a p p r o p r i a t e , i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n a n d p l a n h e r S o c i a l S e r v i c e agencies.  FORMAT How?  When?  S m a l l g r o u p o f 10-15 p a r t i c i p a n t s t o f a c i l i t a t e group i n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f mutual support. 8 weeks  -  s e s s i o n s Where?  Who?  What?  S e s s i o n  I  A t  F a m i l y  W.  7th  2  hour  evening  s t a r t i n g S e r v i c e s  Avenue,  (7:30  o n A p r i l o f  G r e a t e r  i s  a  t e n t a t i v e  o u t l i n e ed t o t h e ne ocess t grou c o n s i b e f o r e  -  r e s e a r c h  -  -  p.m.) (Mondays).  Vancouver,  (Family  n e c e s s a r i l y be adher w i l l be t a i l o r e d t o group. The group pr ance. ( F o r t h e f i r s a r e s e a r c h component n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d gram) . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  9:30 1978  l6l6  Vancouver.  C o - l e a d e r s : M i r i a m Webber Heather Hyde (U.B.C.) Below  -  3rd,  o f  r e i p s  which  S e r v i c e s )  w i l l  a n d  n o t  i g i d l y . The program ds and s h a r i n g o f t h e s o f utmost i m p o r t t h e r e w i l l also be t i n g o f q u e s t i o n a n d a f t e r t h e p r o -  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  ( i . e . s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e , e t c . ) . d i s c u s s p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d l e a d e r ' s g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t o a r r i v e a t a consensus about the program. ground r u l e s i n c l u d i n g f e e s ($2.50/session), coming o n t i m e , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e n d every s e s s i o n o r l e t us know b e f o r e h a n d .  131  - 3 -  S e s s i o n  S e s s i o n  S e s s i o n s  II  III  IV  -  s i m p l e way of i n t r o d u c i n g group members to each o t h e r . end w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of evening and f e e d b a c k .  -  hand  -  -  l e c t u r e t t e on the loss of a g r i e v i n g process (parents an group; d i s c u s s i o n . s t r e s s on b o t h p o s i t i v e and end w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of eveni  -  showing of f i l m (Breakup). d i s c u s s i o n , communication s k i l l s  -  end  and  V  out  w i t h  B i b l i o g r a p h y .  e v a l u a t i o n  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p , d c h i l d r e n ) and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . ng and f e e d b a c k .  evening  and  emphasis. f e e d b a c k .  -  c h i l d r e n - t h e i r needs and r i g h t s . l e c t u r e t t e - How P a r e n t s Can Help t h e i r C h i l d r e n a t t h i s Time. - audiotape - R i c h a r d Gardner ( c h i l d p s y c h i a ' t r i s t ) . - group d i s c u s s i o n . - hand out B i l l of Rights f o r C h i l d r e n . end w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of evening and feedback. S e s s i o n  S e s s i o n  S e s s i o n  VI  VII  V I I I  -  d i s c u s s i o n of Custody and Access i s s u e s . f a m i l y c o u r t s t a f f p r e s e n t to answer q u e s t i o n s . hand out P a r e n t s are F o r e v e r pamphlet.  -  end  -  d i s c u s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n r e l a t i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community s e p a r a t i n g p a r e n t s .  -  end  -  windup  -  r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  w i t h  w i t h  e v a l u a t i o n  e v a l u a t i o n  and  of  of  evening  the  and  evening  f e e d b a c k . to f o r  and  feedback,  e v a l u a t i o n . of  r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  132  APPENDIX  POST  A s s i g n e d  MEETING  B  RESPONSE  SHEET  Number  Date M e e t i n g  Number  Your feedback i s i m p o r t a n t to us. e x p l a i n your answers w i t h s p e c i f i c  1.  What are s e s s i o n ? Not  a t  P l e a s e  2.  Was  the  Not  a t  P l e a s e  3.  Was  the  Not  a t  P l e a s e  4.  y o u r  a l l  o v e r a l l  h e l p f u l  P l e a s e t a k e some t i m e to examples, i f p o s s i b l e .  impressions  1  2  h e l p f u l  to  '3  4  of  t h i s  "5  e v e n i n g ' s  Very  h e l p f u l  Very  h e l p f u l  e x p l a i n ;  c o n t e n t a l l  h e l p f u l  you?  1 2  3 ^ 5  e x p l a i n ;  method a l l  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n  a p p r o p r i a t e  1  2  a p p r o p r i a t e ? 3  4  5  Very  a p p r o p r i a t e  e x p l a i n ;  What one word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your has happened d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  f e e l i n g  about  what  Were t h e r e any s i g n i n t e r a c t i o n s , event t h i s evening t h a t s s i g n i f i c a n t wayi)  i f i c s, i t r u c P l e a  a n t events? ( i . e . Any s p e c i f i c deas or f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g or s e "be s p e c i f i c .  P l e a s e use the space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t you would l i k e t o make about t h i s evening or to make s u g g e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s .  134  APPENDIX  POST  A s s i g n e d  PROGRAM  C  RESPONSE  SHEET  Number  Date  Program 1.  S a t i s f a c t i o n  We a aspe q u e s s a t i  r c t s  e i n t e r e s t e d i n how s a t i s f i e d y o u a r e w i t h d i f f e r e n t ts of t h i s program. For each of the f o l l o w i n g i o n s , use the t a b l e below to i n d i c a t e your degree of f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Very D i s s a t i s f i e d  M o d e r a t e l y D i s s a t i s f i e d  1  2  (a)  (b)  How do y o u f e e l t h i s program i n f o r s e r v i c e ? How  s a t i s f i e d  i c a l ness, (c)  How t h i s  (d)  Comments:  about terms  you  do  you  f e e l  w i t h  the  the  1 2  3  4  5  1 2  3  4  5  p h y s -  a t t r a c t i v e -  l e n g t h  of  program?  program?  5  the l o c a t i o n of of g e t t i n g here  (comfort,  about  Very S a t i s f i e d  4  e t c . ) ?  In g e n e r a l , how o v e r a l l s e r v i c e t h i s  M o d e r a t e l y S a t i s f i e d  3  are  f a c i l i t i e s  N e i t h e r S a t i s f i e d Nor D i s S a t i s f i e d  1 2 do y o u f e e l a b o u t you have r e c e i v e d  3 ^ 5  the i n 1 2  3  4  5  135 2 Program  We w o u l gram yo r a t e th degree  2.  Not  H e l p f u l n e s s  a t  a l l  Not  h e l p f u l  1 (a)  d l i k e your o p i n i o n about which p a r t s of the p r o u found most h e l p f u l . Use the s c a l e below to e v a r i o u s aspects of the program i n terms of the to w h i c h they were h e l p f u l to y o u .  v e r y  No  h e l p f u l  way  2  f e e l i n g s or  the  one o t h e r  H e l p f u l  3  Very  4  h e l p f u l  5  Handouts (Recommended Reading, Parents are F o r e v e r , B i l l of R i g h t s , e t c . )  1  2  3  4  5  (b)  P r e s e n t a t i o n s / I n f o r m a t i o n  1  2  3  4  5  (c)  F i l m / t a p e  1  2  3  4  5  (d)  Group  l e a d e r s  1  2  3  4  5  (e)  Group  d i s c u s s i o n  1  2  3  4  5  p r o v i d e d  Comments:  3.  4.  5.  Based on mend t h e  your e x p e r i e n c e of Coping W i t h F a m i l y  1.  2.  Yes No  3.  Maybe  Do y o u f e e l t h i s time?  t h a t  1.  Yes  2.  No  3.  Maybe  Please use the t h a t you would  you  r e q u i r e  t h i s program, would you recomChange program to o t h e r s ?  f u r t h e r  h e l p  or  s e r v i c e s  space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments l i k e to make about t h i s program.  a t  APPENDIX  POSITIVE  Assigned  COPING  WITH  FAMILY  D  CHANGE  PROGRAM  QUESTIONNAIRE  Number:  Date:  A.  Demographic  I n f o r m a t i o n : 1. 2.  Male Female  1.  Sex  2.  Age  3.  What i s the h i g h e s t you have completed?  4.  1.  18-22  2. 3. 4. 5.  23-29 30-39 40-49 50 + e d u c a t i o n one)  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Some h i g h s c h o o l High s c h o o l diploma Some c o l l e g e o r v o c a t i o n a l B a c h e l o r ' s degree Some g r a d u a t e work Completed graduate work  7.  Other,  s p e c i f y :  Employment  s t a t u s  ( p a i d  1.  2. 3. 5.  l e v e l of f o r m a l ( I n d i c a t e o n l y  (a)  M a r i t a l 1.  Employed p a r t Employed f u l l Not employed  t r a i n i n g  work) time time  s t a t u s D i v o r c e d  2. 3.  Separated ( l i v i n g a p a r t ) M a r r i e d , c o n s i d e r i n g s e p a r a t i o n  4. 5.  d i v o r c e M a r r i e d Other, s p e c i f y :  or  t h a t  137 - 2 (b)  I f  s e p a r a t e d  you  and  P l e a s e i n d i c a t e the number of c h i l d r e n you have t h e i r sex b e s i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e age range.  and  your  6.  or  d i v o r c e d ,  spouse  been  1.  0=1  month  2.  2-3  months  3. 4. 5.  4-6 7-12 13-24  months months months  6. 7.  25+ Not  months a p p l i c a b l e  how  s e p a r a t e d  l o n g  or  have  d i v o r c e d ?  Number  W i t h  7.  1. 2. 3. 4.  0-5 years 6-8 years 9-12 years 13-18 years  5.  19+  years  6.  Not  a p p l i c a b l e  whom  are  W i t h  1.  B.  R a t i n g  of  U s i n g  8.  your  2. 3. 4. P r e s e the  Not  a p p l i c a b l e  Very  1  now  s t a y i n g ?  mother  t a b l e  the  c h i l d r e n  W i t h f a t h e r Some w i t h m o t h e r a n d some W i t h o t h e r s , s p e c i f y : n t Adjustment:  p r e s e n t  ( C i r c l e  the  Sex  below,  adjustment c o r r e c t  poor  2  p l e a s e i n  w i t h  i n d i c a t e  the  f a t h e r  how  f o l l o w i n g  you  see  areas:  number)  Poor  Average  3  Very  4  good  E x c e l l e n t  5  6  Home: (a) (b) (c) (d)  C D D B  are o i s c i p a i l y udget  f c h i l i n e house ing a  l d r e n of c h i l d r e n keeping and nd h a n d l i n g  r o u t i n e s money  1 1 1 2  2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  6 6 6  . . 1 2 3 4 5 6  H e a l t h : (e)  Your  own:  P h y s i c a l  1  2  3  4  5  6  (f)  Your  own:  E m o t i o n a l  1  2  3  4  5  6  (g)  C h i l d r e n :  P h y s i c a l  1  2  3  4  5  6  (h)  C h i l d r e n :  E m o t i o n a l  1  2  3  4  5  6  138  - 3 Using the t a b l e below, p l e a s e you are w i t h : ( C i r c l e c o r r e c t  9.  i n d i c a t e number)  how  s a t i s f i e d  N e i t h e r Not a p p l i cable  Very D i s s a t i s f i e d  M o d e r a t e l y D i s s a t i s f i e d  2  1  S a t i s f i e d Nor D i s S a t i s f i e d  3  4  M o d e r a t e l y S a t i s f i e d  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)  (a)  P r e s e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h  (b)  P r e s e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h  (c)  Your l e v e l of s o c i a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  C o n f i d e n t S o c i a b l e Calm Independent M o t i v a t e d ( a c t i v e ) Good problem s o l v i n g C l e a r t h i n k i n g  (i) (j) (k)  Less g u i l t y " U s e f u l "  (1)  G e t t i n g t h i n g s Less b i t t e r T r u s t i n g  (0) H a p p y 11.  1  2  2  3  3  4  5  6  4  5  6  4  5  6  P l e a s e i n d i c a t e on each of these s c a l e s how y o u have g e n e r a l l y f e l t d u r i n g the l a s t month ( c i r c l e the c o r r e c t number).  D e c i s i v e H o p e f u l  (m) (n)  6  5  . .. . 1  10.  Very S a t i s f i e d  done  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 44 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3. 4 3 4 3 4  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  Lack of c o n f i d e n c e Lonely Upset Dependent F e a r f u l ( i n a c t i v e ) Poor problem s o l v i n g Confused t h i n k i n g I n d e c i s i v e Hopeless G u i l t y " U s e l e s s " P u t t i n g things  o f f  B i t t e r S u s p i c i o u s Depressed  I t w o u l d be h e l p f u l to know i f you have seen anyone e l s e f o r help i n the past two months. Please use the t a b l e b e l o w t o i n d i c a t e how s a t i s f i e d y o u w e r e w i t h the h e l p g i v e n .  139  Not . at a l l h e l p f u l  Not a p p l i c a b l e  1  Not very h e l p f u l  2  12.  3  f e e l i n g s way or o t h e r  H e l p f u l  Very H e l p f u l  5  6  4  (a) (b)  F r i e n d Neighbour  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  6 6  (c) (d) (e) (f)  R M P L  1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3  4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5  6 6 6 6  (g) (h) (i)  Clergyman S o c i a l W o r k e r / c o u n s e l l o r Other, s p e c i f y  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  6 6 6  e l a t i v e e d i c a l d o c t o r s y c h i a t r i s t awyer/Legal A i d  Have any m a j o r or c r i t i c a l changes or i n your l i f e i n the past two months?  1. 2.  YOUR  No one the  events  happened  Yes No  COOPERATION  IN  FILLING  THIS  OUT  IS  5 5 5  APPRECIATED  140  APPENDIX  SELF  RATINGS  TREATMENT  OF AND  ADJUSTMENT CONTROL  E  (PRE-TREATMENT)  GROUPS  (HOME  AND  "2  1 Group:  T  C  T  C  T  1  -  1  -  -  1  -  - -  -  1  -  - -  -  1  3  THE  HEALTH)  R a t  V a r i a b l e  FOR  i  n  T  C  6 C  T  C '  T  C  1  Home: Care of c h i l d r e n D i s c i p l i n e c h i l d r e n D a i l y and  1 3  6 5  1  1  2 4  4 3  2 -  1  6 5  2  1  1  1  - 2  6 4  2  1  1  1  3 3  4 2  2 4  3 1  - 2  of  housekeeping r o u t i n e s  Budgeting  and  h a n d l i n g  money H e a l t h : P h y s i c a l h e a l t h i n d i v i d u a l E m o t i o n a l  of  h e a l t h  of  i n d i v i d u a l P h y s i c a l h e a l t h c h i l d r e n  of  E m o t i o n a l h e a l t h c h i l d r e n  - -  1  -  - -  _  _  2 -  2 2  2 4  3 3  - -  1  -  2 2  5. 2  - 5  1  1  2  of  Key 1 2 3 4 5 6  Not a p p l i c a b l e Very poorPoor Average Very good E x c e l l e n t  T C  Treatment group C o n t r o l group  -  141 APPENDIX  F  SELF RATINGS OF ADJUSTMENT (PRE-TREATMENT) FOR THE TREATMENT AND CONTROL GROUPS (RELATIONSHIPS)  R a t Variable  Group:  i n g  1 T C  2 T C  3 T C  T C  T C  6 T C  1 2  i -  - 1  - 1  4 3  4 2  1  4 5  4 3  1 3  3 2  1 2  Relationships: Relationships relatives  with  Relationships friends  with  L e v e l o f s o c i a l and recreational activities  1  1 -  Key  1 2  Not a p p l i c a b l e Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  3 4 5 6 T C  Moderately d i s s a t i s f i e d Neither s a t i s f i e d nor d i s s a t i s f i e d Moderately s a t i s f i e d Very s a t i s f i e d Treatment group C o n t r o l group  - -  3 2  142  APPENDIX  RATINGS  OF  THE  MONTHS  TWO  SOURCES  OF  PRIOR  G  SUPPORT TO  THE  AND  HELP  START  OF  R 1  a  DURING  TREATMENT  K  i n  t  6  4  2  T  C  T  C  T  C  T  C  T  C  T  C  F r i e n d  4  2  _—  -  1  1  1  3 3  1  2  Neighbour  7 7  -  - -  1  -  1  1  - -  R e l a t i v e  6  - -  -  1  1  3-  1  5 7  -  1  - -  -  1  4  -  - -  8  9  - -  - -  1  -  - -  - -  4  4  -  -  1  1  1  3  1  1  -  Clergyman  6  8  - -  - -  1  -  2  -  -  1  S o c i a l  2  2  - -  -  1  3  4  3  2  -  V a r i a b l e  M e d i c a l  Group:  d o c t o r  P s y c h i a t r i s t Lawyer/Legal  A i d  W o r k e r / C o u n s e l l o r  4  Key 1  Not  2  Not  a t  3  Not  v e r y  4  No  5  a p p l i c a b l e a l l  h e l p f u l  h e l p f u l  f e e l i n g s  one  H e l p f u l  6  Very  h e l p f u l  T  Treatment  C  C o n t r o l  group group  way  o r  the  o t h e r  1  2  1  1 - 1  -  143 APPENDIX  H  HELPFUL BOOKSPOSITIVE COPING WITH FAMILY CHANGE PROGRAM Bohannan, P. D i v o r c e and a f t e r . New  York: Doubleday and Co.,  C o r r e c t i o n s Branch, M i n i s t r y o f the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . a c t s e r v i c e s handbook. Vancouver, 1976.  Family r e l a t i o n s  C u l l , J . , and Hardy, R.E. D e c i d i n g on d i v o r c e . S p r i n g f i e l d C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r , 1974. F i s h e r , E.O. 1974.  D i v o r c e : the new  freedom. New  The boy's and g i r l ' s book about d i v o r c e . New  Gardner, R.A. 1977.  The p a r e n t ' s book about d i v o r c e . New  Gordon,  New  Publishers,  York: Doubleday  York: The F r e e P r e s s ,  T. P a r e n t e f f e c t i v n e s s t r a i n i n g . New  Charles  York: Bantorn  Gettleman, S. and Markowitz, J . The courage to d i v o r c e . New S c h u s t e r , 1974. After divorce.  111.:  York: Harper and Row  Gardner, R.A. Books, 1970.  Goode, W.J.  1970.  Books,  York: Simon and  1956.  York: P e t e r H. Wyden,  Gordon, T. Parent e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g i n a c t i o n . New den, 1977.  1970.  York: P e t e r H.  Wy-  Grollman, E. T a l k i n g about d i v o r c e : a d i a l o g u e between p a r e n t and c h i l d . Beacon P r e s s , 1975. Hunt, M.  The d i v o r c e e x p e r i e n c e . New  York: Mc Graw H i l l ,  Boston:  1977.  K a u f h o l d , D. (ed) Methods o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n ; p a r e n t e f f e c t i v n e s s t r a i n i n g : power p l a y o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Vancouver: G r e a t e r Vancouver F a m i l y S e r v i c e s , 1972. K e s s l e r , S. The American way o f d i v o r c e . Chicago: Nelson H a l l , K r a n t z l e r , M. C r e a t i v e d i v o r c e . New  York: Evans and Co.,  K r a n t z l e r , M. L e a r n i n g t o l o v e a g a i n . New M o f f e t t , R.K. 1976.  1975.  1974.  York: Thomas Y. C r o w a l l Co.,  1977.  and S c h e r e r , J . F . D e a l i n g w i t h d i v o r c e . Boston: L i t t l e Brown,  Ramos, S. Teaching your c h i l d t o cope w i t h c r i s i s . New 1975.  York: D a v i d McKay Co.,  R i c h a r d s , A. and W i l l i s , I . How t o g e t i t t o g e t h e r when your p a r e n t s a r e coming a p a r t . New York: D a v i d McKay Co., 1976. S a t i r , V. Peoplemaking. P a l o A l t o : S c i e n c e and Behaviour Books, 1972. Sheresky, N. and Mannes, M. U n c o u p l i n g : the a r t o f coming a p a r t . New York: D e l l , 1972. S t u a r t , I.R. and Abt, L.E. (eds) C h i l d r e n o f s e p a r a t i o n and d i v o r c e . New York: Grossman, 1972. Vancouver People's Law S c h o o l , F a m i l y c o u r t . Vancouver, 1976. Weiss, R. M a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n . New York: B a s i c Books, 1975.  145 APPENDIX  POST  MEETING  RESPONSE SESSION  1.  What -  3•  4.  5.  the  f e l t  of seven and i t ' s  v e r y  of  SHEET I  impressions  of  a t l e a s t one good to know  p r e s e n t a t i o n  r e l a x e d  and  l o s t  my  t h i s  e v e n i n g ' s  has shared y o u ' r e not  the the  s e s s i o n ? same only  a p p r o p r i a t e ? i n i t i a l  word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  i n t e r e s t i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n ,  COMMENTS  f e e l i n g  i m p r e s s i v e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n c e r n , i n t e r e s t i n g .  nervousness.  about  what  has  encouraging,  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , events, ideas or f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s evening t h a t s t r u c k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t way.) -  my i t  problems seem t o be t h e same as seems everyone i s so i n t e r e s t e d  t h e i r  6.  o v e r a l l  method  What one happened -  your  i n a group e x p e r i e n c e one.  Was -  are  I  the knowledge t h a t u s e l e s s and t h a t a u s e l e s s .  -  i n my l e a s t l a t e r  even a breach  c o u r t o r d e r to g a i n access of t h a t o r d e r i s j u s t as  case, I s t i l l have a chance to get what i s c o m i n g t o me d a t e .  P l e a s e use the you would l i k e g e s t i o n s about  -  f o r  c h i l d r e n .  -  -  the m a j o r i t y . i n what i s r i g h t  i t a l s o seems e n f o r c e d . very good.  f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n 'now' and not at a  i s  at  space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t to make about t h i s evening or to make s u g f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . wrong  t h a t  a  c o u r t  o r d e r  cannot  be  APPEhDIX  J  From: The d i v o r c e e x p e r i e n c e , Domestic R e l a t i o n s S t a f f , Hennepin County C o u r t , M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a , 1977.  APPENDIX MARITAL  DIVORCES WITHIN A MARITAL DISSOLUTION  K  DISSOLUTION/PHASES  OF  LOSS  LOSSES  THE SOCIAL/COMMUNITY DIVORCE  LOSS OF ROUTINE  THE PHYSICAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF HOPES/EXPECTATIONS  THE SEXUAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF PLACE  THE LEGAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF ROLES  THE FAMILIAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF RELATIONSHIP  THE FRIENDSHIP/COMPANIONATE DIVORCE  LOSS OF FORM & STRUCTURE  THE PARENTAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT PERSON  THE EMOTIONAL DIVORCE  LOSS OF IDENTITY  THE FINANCIAL/ECONOMIC DIVORCE From: The divorce experience. Domestic Relation Staff, Hennepin County Court, Minneapolis, Minnesota., 1977.  PHASES OF LOSS  Note:  The H n e s Indicate one example of the way 1n which each 11st applles to each i tem on the preceding list.  148  APPENDIX  POST  1.  What are s e s s i o n ? -  4.  5.  d i f f e r e n t  What one happened -  your  MEETING  o v e r a l l  s u b j e c t  of  L  RESPONSE  SHEET  SESSION  II:  impressions  one  of  a n o t h e r ' s  word best d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  COMMENTS  t h i s  e v e n i n g ' s  problems.  f e e l i n g  about  what  has  good to l i s t e n to o t h e r p e o p l e ' s problems, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , I f e e l v e r y good, encouragement, i n f o r m a t i v e , l e s s b i t t e r , hear.tbreaking, c o n c e r n f o r the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d .  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , events, ideas or f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s evening t h a t s t r u c k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t way.) -  i t was h e l p f u l to l e a r been through are h e l p f I was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d t o be p e r s i s t e n t i n a to hear o t h e r p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n are the most s what i t ' s l i k e not hav the f e a r t h a t Sam's w i she i s going through. I was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d person.  n t h a t some o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s I've u l to o t h e r s and v i c e v e r s a . i n e v e r y t h i n g . p o s i t i v e way. problems as w e l l a s my o w n i n my i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s . ing custody o f my c h i l d r e n . f e has. I somehow understand what i n  e v e r y t h i n g  t h a t  i n v o l v e d  each  149 APPENDIX  M  POST MEETING RESPONSE SHEET COMMENTS SESSION I I I  1. What a r e y o u r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n s session?  o f t h i s evening's  - b e h a v i o u r w i t h o t h e r c h i l r e n ; have been w o r r i e d how I'm r a i s i n g him. - w i l l be g o i n g back t o c o u r t .  about  4. What one word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your f e e l i n g about what has happened d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ? - r e a s s u r i n g , i n f o r m a t i v e , c a r i n g , i n f o r m a t i v e , communication, relieved, helpful. 5. Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any s p e c i f i c e v e n t s , i d e a s o r f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s e v e n i n g t h a t s t r u c k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g o r s i g n i f i c a n t way.) - child's reactions. - how so many p e o p l e don't know what they r e a l l y want i n c o u r t . I n s h o r t , t h e i r l a w y e r seems t o keep people illinformed. - t h e f e e l i n g o f the c h i l d was touched upon i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l w h i c h was my main c o n c e r n . - I found them a l l t o be v e r y h e l p f u l . - t o hear o t h e r p e o p l e ' s problems. - about c h i l d r e n ' s needs. - t h e movie where the p a r e n t s f i g h t and argue i n f r o n t o f the c h i l d r e n . 6. P l e a s e use t h e space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t you would l i k e t o make about t h i s e v e n i n g o r t o make sugg e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . - t h e f i l m was a b i t o l d - f a s h i o n e d and j u s t what i s t h e l e g a l r i g h t o f the p e r s o n w i t h a c c e s s p r i v i l e g e s ? - more about c h i l d r e n s r e a c t i o n . - how t o handle k i d s when t h e y come back from a v i s i t w i t h the f a t h e r and t e l l you how i t was; when t o b e l i e v e i f you don't have any f a i t h i n him.  150 APPENDIX  EXCERPT  Y T T A  our hey hey nd t  Y F Y F  o o o o  u r u r  You For You The  Let For  The  c h i l d r e n are are the sons come t h r o u g h hough t h e y ar  FROM  not and you e w i  THE  N  PROPHET  BY  KAHIL  GIBRAN  your c h i l d r e n . daughters of L i f e ' s l o n g i n g f o r i t s e l f . hut not from you. t h you y e t they b e l o n g not to you.  may g i v e them y o u r l o v e hut not y o u r thoughts, they have t h e i r own t h o u g h t s . may house t h e i r bodies but not t h e i r s o u l s , t h e i r s o u l s d w e l l i n the house of tomorrow, w h i c h cannot v i s i t , not even i n your dreams.  may s t r i v e t o be l i k e them, l i k e you, l i f e goes not backward nor t a r e t h e bows f r o m w h i c h y o u r are s e n t f o r t h . a r c h e r sees the mark upon th He b e n d s y o u w i t h H i s m i g h t s w i f t and f a r . your bending i n the A r c h e r ' s e v e n as He l o v e s the arrow t t h e bow t h a t i s s t a b l e .  P r o p h e t ,  by  K a h i l  G i b r a n ;  but  seek  not  to  make  you  them  a r r i e s w i t h y e s t e r d a y . c h i l d r e n as l i v i n g arrows e  p a t h of t h a t His  the i n f i n i t e , arrows may go  hand be f o r h a t f l i e s , so  A l f r e d  A.  Knopf  gladness; He l o v e s  P u b l . ,  and  a l s o  1971.  151  APPENDIX  COMMUNICATION  ROADBLOCK  0  ROADBLOCKS  #1  You a r e p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f a p a r e n t who f i r m d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , y o u do a l o t ing, and d i r e c t i n g . This k i n d of p a r e n t t h i n g s as: " W e l l , expect  i f your grades a new g u i t a r . "  go  down  i n  the  "I d o n ' t know what has g o t t e n i n t o your room and t h i n k about i t u n t i l decent a g a i n . " "I d o n ' t want to hear anymore around t h i s house a g a i n . " "I d o n ' t know where a t t i t u d e s , but I do them."  ROADBLOCK  you  "I'm " J u s t  d o n ' t  you. Now go you can a c t  t h a t  k i n d  you l e a r n such nasty, know you are g o i n g t o  the r o l e of a admonishing.  d o n ' t  w a r n i n g w a i t  " Y o u ' l l  ROADBLOCK  c l a s s ,  of  t o  t a l k  h o r r i b l e u n l e a r n  #2  You are p l a y i n g t h r e a t e n i n g , or sages as: "If  of  f e e l s c h i l d r e n need of o r d e r i n g , demandmight say such  be  s t r a i g h t e n you  p a r e n t who u s e s a Your t a l k i s f u l l  out,  no  more  l o t of w a r n i n g , of such mes-  a l l o w a n c e . "  now."  u n t i l  your  s o r r y  i f  f a t h e r  you  do  comes  home."  t h a t . "  #3  Y o u a r e p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f a p a r e n t who t y p i c a l l y t r i e s to c o n t r o l your c h i l d by m o r a l i z i n g , p r e a c h i n g or o b l i g i n g by b r i n g i n g i n o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y . Your t a l k i s f u l l of " s h o u l d s " and "oughts."  152 - 2 "You  should  " P r o p e r  know  g i r l s  d o n ' t  "You  ought  to  "The  B i b l e  says,  "You  should  "A  good  ROADBLOCK  be  t u r n  c h i l d  b e t t e r . V behave  t h a t  way."  k i n d e r . V "Love the  would  your  o t h e r never  enemies." cheek."  a c t  l i k e  t h a t . "  #4  You a r e p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f a p a r e n t who a t t e m p t s t o away y o u r c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s through l o g i c , arguments, t i o n s and l e c t u r i n g such as: "She c e r t a i n l y c o u l d n ' t y e a r s of c o l l e g e i f she "You l i k e Mr. Green, he w o u l d n ' t k e e p h e r  have gone through 4 or 5 was as s t u p i d as y o u say."  the p r i n c i p a l , i f she were so  " H a n d l i n g 40 k i d s everyday i s no p r o b a b l y gets worn out sometimes " I ' v e met p e r s o n . "  ROADBLOCK You are h e l p i n g  her  and  argue i n s t r u c -  s h e ' s  a  very  and I'm b a d . "  p i c n i c . .'!  neat,  sure  She  f r i e n d l y  #5  p l a y i n g the r o l e of a parent i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s o l v e your c h i l d ' s problems w i t h the v e r y best a d v i c e  or s u g g e s t i o n s on what to This k i n d of p a r e n t might "Maybe about  you  c o u l d  go  and  t a l k  i s  j u s t  to  the  the  s i t u a t i o n .  p r i n c i p a l  t h i s . "  "What I w o u l d do ' s t i c k i t o u t ' . " "Why  do o r how t o h a n d l e say such t h i n g s as:  d o n ' t  s c h o o l  so  you she  "When I was my t e a c h e r s ings to get  make can  an  'keep  my  appointment  e x p l a i n  the  nose  w i t h  g r a d i n g  y o u r age, I f e l t t h a t t o o , but I l e a r n e d to a l o n g i n t h i s w o r l d . "  c l e a n '  her  system  and  a f t e r to  y o u . "  way about some of c o n t r o l my f e e l -  153 - 3 "Why d o n ' t y o u ask y o u r s c h o o l a d v i s o r t r a n s f e r i n t o a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s . "  ROADBLOCK  i f  you  c o u l d  #6  You are p l a y i n g the r o l e of b e h a v i o u r and f e e l i n g s w i t h blaming or n a m e - c a l l i n g :  a p a r e n t n e g a t i v e  who .judges c r i t i c i s m ,  your c h i l d ' s r i d i c u l e ,  " I f y o u ' d j u s t t e n d t o y o u r own k n i t t i n g , 'Lady J a n e ' , maybe y o u ' d be b e t t e r o f f a l l the way a r o u n d . " "If  she  now,  I  a c t s  a n y t h i n g  agree  i t ' s  l i k e  p r e t t y  y o u ' r e  "You d o n ' t know the f i r s t t h i n g Why d o n ' t y o u j u s t l e a r n how t o f o r a change." " A c t  your  "O.K.,  ROADBLOCK You  are  c h i l d This  Miss  K n o w - i t - a l l . "  an  a  r o l e  e f f o r t  of  to  p a r e n t  of  a  p a r e n t  m a n i p u l a t e  might  say  "You've a  got  too  l i t t l e  "Everyone are  has  and  much  t h i n g  always  how  they  p r a i s e s c e r t a i n  backbone  to  down." how  k i d s  "Sweetheart, y o u ' v e always been a b l e ' o l d c r a b s ' l i k e her. Y o u ' l l handle  a  g e t t i n g  you  about  t h e i r  i n as:  a t  your  get  remarked wished  a c t  good  i n  t h a t  f r e q u e n t l y  t o  t h i n g s  so  s t a r c h  l i k e  who  him  such  "Honey, y o u ' v e always been a l o n g w i t h your t e a c h e r s . "  you  about t e a c h i n g . be a good student  #7  k i n d  l e t  r i g h t  a g e . "  p l a y i n g  i n  a c t i n g  b a d . "  easy-going w e r e . "  to get i t . "  around  your way.  154  _ 4 ROADBLOCK  #8  You are p l a y i n g the when y o u r c h i l d has t a l k him out of h i s the l i f e , as e x e m p l  r o l e probl f e e l i i f i e d  o f a p a r e n t who f e e l s v e r y d i s t r e s s e d ems. T h e r e f o r e , you g e n e r a l l y t r y t o n g s through s u p p o r t , r e a s s u r a n c e and by the f o l l o w i n g :  "Everybody f e e l s t h a t i n t h e i r l i f e ; y o u ' l l of d a y s . " "I'm look  sure i f you got so bad t o y o u . "  "I know away."  ROADBLOCK  t h i s  y p r p  "Maybe  maybe  you  h i g h e s t "Maybe  t o  her  you  b e t t e r ,  now,  but  she  i t  w o u l d n ' t  w i l l  go  y o u ' r e  f e e l  j u s t  j e a l o u s  t i r e d  about  and  not  need  g e t t i n g  a  l i t t l e  the  g r a d e . " Mrs.  you  today,  Y c c a  b i g  know  i n g t h e r o l e o f a p a r e n t who f e e l s f a i r l y s o p h i s s y c h o l o g i c a l 'know how' and t h e r e f o r e you are p r e t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l , anxious to g e t to y o u r er r e a s o n s . This k i n d of p a r e n t might say such  "I t h i n k r e s t . "  ROADBLOCK  to  #9  You are p l a t i c a t e d i n h i g h l y i n t e c h i l d ' s dee t h i n g s as:  "If  seems  way about someone sometimes f o r g e t about i t i n a c o u p l e  Morgan  reminds  you  of  grandmother."  d i d n ' t have your assignment you are j u s t t a k i n g i t  maybe  w e l l p r e p a r e d out on h e r . "  #10  ou a r e p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f a p a r e n t who q u e s t i o n s , probes and ross-examines a l l the time so you can h e l p f i g u r e out y o u r h i l d ' s p r o b l e m s . This k i n d of p a r e n t might ask such q u e s t i o n s s: "How "Do "How  l o n g the o l d  have  o t h e r i s  you  f e l t  t h i s  k i d s  f e e l  t h i s  s h e ? '  way?" way  about  her?"  155 - 5 "Did  you  ever  "What  do  "When  d i d  ROADBLOCK  the  You are t e a s i n g  "When "Did  -  Adapted New  t e l l  you  about  t h i n k  about  the r o l e of d i g r e s s i n g  not h e l p  you  go  b r i n g me  out up  bake  her  of  t h i s ? " h e r ? "  g r a d i n g  system?"  a p a r e n t who does by such messages  a l o t as:  of  d i v e r t -  and  r i d e  problems t h i s  your  of  k i d d i n g ,  b i k e . "  t o d a y . "  c a k e . "  #12  p l a y i n g the and sarcasm  "Why  teachers  her  i t . "  d o n ' t  " L e t ' s  ROADBLOCK  to  #11  "Forget  "Come  t a l k i n g  other  she  You are p l a y i n g i n g , b y - p a s s i n g ,  "Why  t r y  d o n ' t d i d you  of a as:  parent  you  burn  down  the  they  make  you  get  from  York:  r o l e such  up  on  Gordon,  P e t e r  H.  the  T.  uses  a  l o t  s c h o o l . "  P r i n c i p a l ? " wrong  Parent  Wyden,  who  s i d e  of  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  1970.  bed?"  t r a i n i n g .  156 APPENDIX  TO  DO  WITH  P  FEELINGS  EXERCISE  In each s e t below, a l l the sentences convey f e e l i n g s , i . e . any o f them c o u l d have b e e n s p o k e n by t h e same p e r s o n i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . Each sentence, however, may be e i t h e r of two d i f f e r e n t ways of communicating f e e l i n g s by words. Put the  a D b e f o r e each sentence s p e a k e r ' s f e e l i n g .  Put  a  not  d e s c r i b e  No  b e f o r e  each  what  t h a t  sentence  i t  t h a t  conveys  f e e l i n g  conveys  1.  a. b.  Shut up! Not a n o t h e r I'm r e a l l y annoyed by  Item  2.  a.  C a n ' eyes I'm r u p t You f e e l  c.  Item  3 •  a. b.  t yo ? b e g i i o n s have i n g s  u  see  I'm  Item  5.  a.  I  b. c.  when I'm around you. We a l l f e e l y o u ' r e a Everybody l i k e s you.  b. c.  Item  7.  out you  D o n ' t  I f e e l d i s c o u r a g e d because of t h a t happened t o d a y . This has been an a w f u l day.  a. b.  a.  but  does  of you! j u s t s a i d . you  have  n n i n g to r e s e n t your f r e q u e n t . no c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a n y b o d y . Y o u ' r e c o m p l e t e l y s e l f i s h .  4.  6.  word what  busy?  Item  Item  d e s c r i b i n g  i s .  Item  b.  f e e l i n g  by  some  i n t e r e l s e ' s  t h i n g s  Y o u ' r e a w o n d e r f u l p e r s o n . I r e a l l y r e s p e c t your o p i n i o n s . . . y o u ' r e so w e l l - r e a d . f e e l  If loo D i d to I'm my  c o m f o r t a b l e  and  f r e e  to  w o n d e r f u l  be  m y s e l f  p e r s o n .  t h i n g s d o n ' t improve around here, I ' l l k f o r a new j o b . you ever hear of such a l o u s y p l a c e work? a f r a i d to admit t h a t I need h e l p w i t h work.  a.  This  b.  I  i s  f e e l  a  v e r y  t h i s  i s  poor a  e x e r c i s e .  v e r y  poor  e x e r c i s e .  157 -  Item  8.  a. b.  Item  9«  a. b. c.  Item  10.  2  -  I f e e i n t h I am t h i s  l inadequate to c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g i s group. inadequate to c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g i n group.  I am t h i n g That a n y t h I'm d t h a t  a f a i l u r e - I ' l l . t e a c h e r i s a w f u l i n g . epressed because t e s t . and  -  he  I  d i d  i s o l a t e d  amount d i d n ' t  i n  so  my  to  any-  t e a c h  p o o r l y  me  on  a.  I  b.  For a l l the a t t e n t i o n anybody pays to what I say I might a s w e l l n o t b e i n my group. I f e e l t h a t nobody i n my g r o u p cares whether I'm t h e r e or n o t .  c.  f e e l l o n e l y  never  group.  158 APPENDIX  POST  4.  What one happened -  MEETING  Q  RESPONSE  SHEET  SESSION  IV  word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  COMMENTS  f e e l i n g  about  communication,  what  has  r e l i e v e d ,  h e l p f u l .  5.  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any ideas or f e e l i n g s t h a t s t r u c k you i n an s i g n i f i c a n t way.) -  6.  a d o u  l l the t h i n g e a l i n g w i t h t h e r p e o p l e ' s e f u l f o r th  s p e c i f i c events, i n t e r e s t i n g or  s d i s c u s s e d were good. the problems of c h i l d r e n ; l e a r n i n g from s problems w h i c h I b e l i e v e are h e l p f u l and e o t h e r p e o p l e who a r e l i s t e n i n g .  P l e a s e use the space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t you would l i k e to make about t h i s evening o r to make s u g g e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . -  v e r y  h e l p f u l  and  r e l i e v e d ,  l e s s  b i t t e r .  159 APPENDIX  POST  MEETING  R  RESPONSE  SHEET  SESSION  2.  Was -  3.  k.  6.  the  f i l m  h e l p f u l  t o  on  s e p a r a t i o n .  method  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n  and  V  you?  views  What one happened -  5.  c o n t e n t  c h i l d s  Was -  the  COMMENTS  a p p r o p r i a t e ?  d i s c u s s i o n .  word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  h e l p f u l , h e l p f u l , encouraging, r e l i e v e d , c l e a r f e e l i n g s .  f e e l i n g  about  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  what  has  concern,  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n s , e v e n t s , i d e a s , or e v e n i n g t h a t s t r u c k you i n way.)  events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t  -  i t ' s  of  -  I'm not a l o n e . v i d e o t a p e r e a c t i o n the f e a r of l o s i n g  good  r e l i e f  to  know of my  o t h e r  c h i l d r e n c h i l d r e n  to a t  p e o p l e ' s  problems;  s e p a r a t i o n . one s t a g e .  P l e a s e use the you would l i k e g e s t i o n s about  space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t to make about t h i s evening o r to make s u g f u t u r e s e s s i o n s .  -  to  I  would  l i k e  know  more  about  m a i n t e n a n c e .  160 APPENDIX  POST  MEETING  RESPONSE SESSION  1.  What are s e s s i o n ? -  3.  4.  the  method  r e l a x e d  What one happened -  o v e r a l l  SHEET  COMMENTS  VI  impressions  of  t h i s  the o p i n i o n s of people t h a t are more w i t h the c o u r t system were h e l p f u l . v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l .  Was -  your  S  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n  atmosphere  i s  always  h e l p f u l ,  c l o s e l y  i n v o l v e d  a p p r o p r i a t e ? b e s t .  word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  i n f o r m a t i v e ,  e v e n i n g ' s  f e e l i n g  i n f o r m a t i v e ,  about  what  i n f o r m a t i v e ,  has  i n c r e d -  i b l e . 5.  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n s , events, ideas, or evening t h a t s t r u c k you i n way.) -  yes, p e o p l e s h o u l d be a d v i s e d more r e a d i l y n i s i i n f o r m a t i o n ; r e a s o n a b l e access should m i t t e d i n a supreme c o u r t o r d e r .  -  t h a t maybe these s e s s i o n s are not long enough and a l s o i n ensuing ones t h a t t h e p e o p l e h e r e may be h e l p f u l i n a s s i s t i n g o t h e r s . about maintenance and custody and access.  -  6.  events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r f e e l i n g s y o u . e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t  of the n o t be  P l e a s e use the space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l t h a t you would l i k e to make about t h i s evening s u g g e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . -  the  -  having guests i m h e l p f u l t o us a l I d o n ' t t h i n k we many i f s and b u t  -  t e a  was  decree p e r -  comments or to make  g r e a t ! f r o m f a m i l y c o u r t or f a m i l y l . got d i r e c t answers f o r some s .  s e r v i c e s  i s  things  too  -  161 APPENDIX  B I L L  1.  The  r i g h t  son  and  p a r e n t 2.  to  not or  he as  both  OF  RIGHTS  t r e a t e d a  pawn,  as  FOR  an  T  CHILDREN*  i n t e r e s t e d  p o s s e s s i o n  or  and  c h a t t e l  a f f e c t e d of  p e r -  e i t h e r  p a r e n t s .  The r i g h t t o g r o w t o m a t u r i t y i n t h a t home environment w h i c h w i l l b e s t guarantee an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c h i l d grow to mature and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p .  to  3.  The r i g h t to the day-by-day l o v e , c a r e and. p r o t e c t i o n of the p a r e n t h a v i n g custody of  d i s c i p l i n e the c h i l d .  k.  The r i g h t to know the n o n - c u s t o d i a l p a r e n t b e n e f i t of such p a r e n t ' s l o v e and guidance quate v i s i t a t i o n s .  and to have the through ade-  5.  The r i g h t to a p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h both p a r e n t s , w i t h n e i t h e r p a r e n t t o be p e r m i t t e d to downgrade or degrade the o t h e r i n the mind of the c h i l d .  6.  The r i g h t t p r e c e p t s an h a v i o u r so s e l f - d i s c i p  7.  The r i g h t to the most adequate l e v e l of economic t h a t can be p r o v i d e d by the b e s t e f f o r t s of b o t h  8.  The r i g h t to the c h i l d would have broken up.  9.  The r i g h t to p e r i o d i c r e v i e w of c u s t o d i a l arrangements c h i l d maintenance o r d e r s , as the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the parents and t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c h i l d may r e q u i r e .  10.  and  o have m o r a l and e t h i c a l values developed by d p r a c t i c e s and to have l i m i t s set f o r beht h a t the c h i l d , e a r l y i n l i f e , may develop l i n e and s e l f - c o n t r o l .  same o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r had i f the f a m i l y u n i t  support p a r e n t s .  e d u c a t i o n t h a t had not been  the  and  The r i g h t to r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n a s e p a r a t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y disadvantaged p a r t i e s and t h a t a f f i r m a t i v e steps must be t a k e n t o p r o t e c t t h e i r w e l f a r e .  D e r i v e d  from:  "From the C o u r t : An Courts Rev Connaught U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n  1976) .  Cantor,  Judge  I.  and  Ferguson,  P.:  J u d g e ' s View: F a m i l y C o u n s e l l i n g i n the C o n c i l i a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e to Custody L i t i g a t i o n " i n C o n c i l i a t i o n iew, 1976. (A p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e b y the Program i n F a m i l y Law and S o c i a l W e l f a r e a t the of Toronto Law S c h o o l a t the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n , Toronto, Canada on November 19th a n d 20th,  PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL, PHAMPLET fROM LEAVES "162-165, NOT MICROFILMED,  PHAMPLET: "PARENTS' ARE FOREVER"  ® ASSOCIATION OF -FAMILY" CONCILIATION COURTS 10015 S.W, TERWILLIGER BLVD., PORTLAND, OREGON 97219 PRINTED IN U.S.A.  163  DEAR PARENT, As you know, a divorce or separation decree cannot and does not end your responsibility as a parent. PARENTS ARE FOREVER. Both parents should make every attempt to continue to play a vital part in the lives of their children. Children need the ongoing interest and concern of their parents. Children must feel they have two parents who love them, even though those parents could not live happily with each other. It is our hope that the information in this pamphlet will assist you in helping your children cope with your divorce or separation with a minimum of hurt. The practical guidelines which follow are based on the many years of experience of court marriage and family counselors. If you are like most people, you probably have some feelings of isolation, despair, depression, loneliness, grief, guilt and a loss of self-confidence. You are worried about many things, such as finances, a new social life, employment, fulfillment of sexual needs and the welfare of your children. You can use this present time of difficulty as an opportunity for growth or a surrender to self-pity. The way you feel about yourself will affect the way your children feel about themselves. The way you cope with your divorce will in large part determine how your children cope with it. Yes, you are at a cross-roads and can choose from alternative routes. One road leads to self-pity, living in the past, nurturing bitterness and turning the children against your former marriage partner. This is a dead-end road which spells trouble for you and your children. The other road, and the constructive one, leads to becoming involved with experiences that provide opportunities for you to again feel success, to get to know yourself better, restore your self-confidence, reach out for goals that will make your life productive, satisfying and meaningful. The task of all parents, whether or not a marriage continues, is not easy. All parents make mistakes. But if you have a good relationship with your children and they feel your love and acceptance, they will soon forget your mistakes and remember only your goodness.  Guidelines for Parents As we have already indicated, the way you cope with your divorce will in large part determine how your children cope with it. Try to use the experience of divorce as an opportunity for personal growth not defeat. In this way you can continue to be effective as a parent and to not only effectively meet your children's needs, but just as important, your own needs as a person. Continuing conflict between you and your marriage partner during and after divorce can interfere with your effectiveness as a parent. 1. Allow yourself and your children time for readjustment. Convalescence from an emotional operation such as divorce or separation is essential. 2. Remember the best parts of your marriage. Share them with your children and use them constructively whether or not you have custody. 3. Assure your children that they are not to blame for the breakup and that they are not being rejected or abandoned. Children, especially the young ones, often feel they have done something wrong and believe the problems in the family are the result of their misdeeds. Small children may feel that some action or secret wish of theirs has caused the trouble between their parents. 4. Continuing anger or bitterness toward your former partner can injure your children far more *han the divorce or separation itself. The feelings you show are more important than the words you use. 5. Refrain from voicing criticism of the other parent. It is difficult but absolutely necessary for a child's healthy development. It is important that the child respect both parents. 6. Do not force or encourage your children to take sides. To do so encourages frustration, guilt and resentment. 7. Try not to upset a child's routine too abruptly. Children need a sense of continuity and it is disturbing to them if they must cope with too many changes at once. 8. Divorce or separation often leads to financial pressures on both parents. When there is a financial crisis, the parents' first impulse may. be to try to keep the children from realizing it: Often, they would rather make sacrifices themselves than ask the child to do so. The atmosphere is healthier when there is frankness and when children are expected to help.  164  3 -  Visitation Guidelines 9. Marriage breakdown is always hard on the children. They may not always show their distress or realize at first what this will mean to them. Parents should be direct and simple in telling children what is happening and why, and in a way a child can understand and digest. This will vary with the circumstances and each child's age and comprehension. The worst course is to try and hush things up and make children feel they must not talk or even think about what they sense is going on. Unpleasant happenings need explanation which should be brief, prompt, direct and honest. 10. The story of your divorce or separation may have to be retold after the children get older and consider life more maturely. Though it would be unfortunate to present either situation as a tragedy and either parent as a martyr, it would be a pity also to pretend there are no regrets and that the breakdown of a marriage is so common it hardly matters. 11. The guilt parents may feel about the marriage breakdown may interfere in their disciplining the children. A child needs consistent control and direction. O v e r - p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , or indecisive parents who leave a child at the mercy of every passing whim and impulse interfere with a Child's healthy development. Children need and want to know quite clearly what is expected of them. Children feel more secure when limits are set. They are confused when grown-ups seem to permit behavior which they themselves know to be wrong and are trying to outgrow. Children need leader-, ship and sometimes authority. Parents must be ready to say " N O " when necessary.  The behavior of parents has a great influence on the emotional adjustment of their children. This is equally true after the breakdown of a marriage. The following visitation guidelines have been found to be helpful in achieving meaningful visits: 1. It is important to try to maintain contact between the child and the parent who has left home. Maintaining some form of contact helps the child deal with his fantasies which are much worse then the reality of what is happening; helps to decrease feelings of rejection; decreases feelings that the divorce happened because he is a bad child; reduce his feelings that he may never see the other parent again. 2. Visits should be pleasant not only for the children but for both parents. Visitation should help your children maintain a positive relationship with their visiting parent. It is important that neither parent verbally or physically attack the other parent in the presence of the children. Children tend to view such attacks as attacks on them. 3. The parent with whom the children live must prepare them physically and emotionally for the visit. The children should be _available promptly at the time mutually -agreed upon and returned at the time agreed upon. 4. The visits should not take place only in the children's home. The visiting parent may wish the children to visit in his or her home overnight, or may want to plan an enjoyable outing. 5. The question is often asked, "Should the father take the children to the girlfriend's house?" The same question is asked about the mother if she is the noncustodial parent. Visitation is the time for the children and parent to be with each other; to enjoy each other; to maintain positive relationships. Having other people participate may dilute the parent-child experience during visitation. However, it should not be ruled out altogether. Avoid "parades." 6. Visits should be as frequent as practical. Any schedules established should be flexible. Should scheduled visits need to be cancelled (and sometimes they have to be), inform the other parent as soon as possible  1  APPENDIX  COMMUNITY  Beyond -  D i v o r c e course ment  -  -  sponsored  -  -  -  June  Through -  28  UBC  August  D e p a r t 16,  1978  Centre S e r v i c e s  by  Church  Centre  C h r i s t C e n t r e ,  C a t h e d r a l ,  P a s t o r a l  N o r t h  I n s t i t u t e ,  and  Shore  L i v i n  YWCA.  Court  and  P e o p l e ' s  Youth  A l c o h o l  F a m i l y  S a t t e r b e r g  Community  L e a r n i n g  Vancouver  F a m i l y  DISPLAYED  L i f e l i n e  and F a m i l y  John  E d u c a t i o n ,  Resource  B r i t a n n i a  D i v o r c e  "by  C o n t i n u i n g  P l a y  PAMPHLETS  S e p a r a t i o n  p r e s e n t e d  of  C h i l d r e n s '  and  RESOURCE  V  Task  C o u n s e l l i n g  and  V i o l e n c e  Law  Drug  on  S e r v i c e  Commission  Resource  F o r c e  S c h o o l  L i s t  F a m i l y  V i o l e n c e ,  U n i t e d  Way  of  G r e a t e r  Vancouver. Free  Law -  C l a s s e s ,  Vancouver  Groups Galore and F a m i l i e s -  F a m i l y  I n f o r m a t i o n L e g a l -  L e g a l -  Summery P e o p l e ' s  and  Law  C o u n s e l l i n g  S e r v i c e s  of  S c h o o l For  G r e a t e r  I n d i v i d u a l s ,  Couples  Vancouver  C h i l d r e n  Psychology A i d  1978.  Department,  S o c i e t y  and  Lawyer  Simon  F r a s e r  R e f e r r a l  U n i v e r s i t y .  S e r v i c e  Pamphlets  i . e . M a r r i a g e i s a C o n t r a c t ; W i f e ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t ; M a r i t a l S e p a r a t i o n . Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. Branch, F a m i l y Law S e c t i o n . Resource L e g a l  Centre  S e r v i c e s  Commission.  167 -  LIFE  ( L i v i n g -  The  f o r  -  Women A  and  S t r e s s  s e p a r a t e d , of  the  Resource and  B r i t i s h  pamphlets  on  Centre  d i v o r c e d  women.  Columbia  c o u n s e l l i n g  s e r v i c e s .  Groups  l i s t produced by S i n g l e S i n g l e Parents c l u b s i n and  -  L i n e  Parents  Parents Resource Centre the Lower M a i n l a n d .  of  Law  Vancouver  Woman's -  Everyone)  I n s t i t u t e  c a l e n d a r  P a r e n t a l S i n g l e  f o r  widowed,  P a s t o r a l -  i s  2  P e o p l e ' s  Law  S c h o o l .  P l a c e  m u l t i l i n g u a l  s e r v i c e s ,  Employment  and  Immigration  Canada.  168 APPENDIX  COMMUNITY  Canadian  S i n g l e  RESOURCES  #353-588  A s s o c i a t i o n ,  876-6379.  Vancouver, -  Parents  W  organizes f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s and outings f o r or w i t h o u t custody of the c h i l d r e n ; a s s i s t s of s i n g l e parenthood.  C a t h o l i c  Community  #102-150  S e r v i c e s ,  Robson  5th  East  Ave.,  parents w i t h w i t h traumas  S t . ,  Vancouver,  687-4557. -  p r o v i d e s  D i v o r c e  i n d i v i d u a l ,  L i f e l i n e ,  922-3535. -  S e r v i c e s  Vancouver, -  of  C h i l d r e n ,  J e w i s h  G r e a t e r  Lawyer -  D r i v e ,  Vancouver,  c o u n s e l l i n g .  West  Vancouver,  Churc u r t h weekl e p a r a a s l  h C a t h e d r a l , Tuesday of every y group b a s i s t e d , or have i d i n g s c a l e a c -  West  1616 or  Ave.,  7th  f a m i l i e s ;  charged  a c c o r d i n g  Department,  Simon  i n f o r m a t i o n c h i l d r e n . S e r v i c e  i n d i v i d u a l s  or  Psychology  resource of young F a m i l y  f o r  bank  Agency,  266-2396. -  Marine  marriage  731-4951.  291-3548. -  and  rBeheld at C h r i s t ancouver, every f o and support on a s e p a r a t i n g , have s a d i v o r c e ; fees on and n e g o t i a b l e .  f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . f e e s may be w a i v e d  I n f o  #385-1425  monthly meetings a 690 B u r r a r d S t . , V month; c o u n s e l l i n g f o r those who a r e r e c e n t l y o b t a i n e d c o r d i n g to income,  F a m i l y  f a m i l y  and  950  r e f e r r a l  West  4lst  to  a b i l i t y  F r a s e r  to  f o r  w i l l may h a l f  S e r v i c e ,  and  682-638I.  p r o v i d e you w i t h a d v i c e f o r a hour i n t e r v i e w .  seek  parents  Vancouver,  casework s e r v i c e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s w i t h p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l problems, m a r i t a l , p a r e n t - c h i l d , o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s . R e f e r r a l  pay.  U n i v e r s i t y ,  s e r v i c e  Ave.,  group  t h e name o f a l a w y e r f r o m whom you nominal charge o f $5.00 f o r a one-  169  -  2  -  L e g a l A i d S o c i e t y , 257 E a s t 1 1 t h A v e . , V a n c o u v e r , 195 A l e x a n d e r S t . , Vancouver, 687-1831. -  f o r those who cannot a f f o r d a modest f e e , o r who cannot a f f o r d t o p a y t h e f e e a l l a t once, t h i s s o c i e t y w i l l p u t you i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l a w y e r who w i l l e i t h e r accept a l e s s e r f e e o r reasonable monthly payments.  P a s t o r a l  I n s t i t u t e  o f  B . C . ,  - i n t e r - f a i t h agency c o u n s e l l i n g . P a r e n t a l S t r e s s Line to 1 0 : 0 0 p . m . ) -  telephone d i f f i c u l t  Parents  o r  helps  Parents  2950  o f f e r i n g  (VRB),  1946  l a y c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s w i t h  i n C r i s i s  525-6033 -  S o c i e t y ,  24 hours, parents  W i t h o u t  L a u r e l  West  P a r e n t  f a m i l y  Broadway,  a n d  marriage  734-2323  f o r p a r e n t s i n s t r e s s f u l t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  #101-26  L o m e  S t . , New  (6:00 o r  Westminster,  584-9818. s u f f e r i n g  P a r t n e r s ,  from  2097  West  serves e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  P r o j e c t  879-5788.  S t . , Vancouver,  personal;,  266-7624. -  872-0271 a n d  (VRB),  2800  Block  s t r e s s .  44th  A v e . ,  needs  East  o f  Vancouver,  s i n g l e  Broadway,  parents  Vancouver,  733-8111. -  helps groups o f parents t o work a t m a i n t a i n i n g home l i f e f o r themselves a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  U n i t a r i a n F a m i l y L i f e Vancouver, 263-0624. -  Centre  o f  Vancouver,  i n d i v i d u a l a n d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g programs.  Vancouver  F a m i l y  C o u r t ,  Intake  Worker,  c r i s i s  c o u n s e l l i n g ,  949  West  s e r v i c e s ,  2625  Y a l e  s h o r t  term  s t a b l e  49th  A v e . ,  workshops,  S t . , '  255-5131. -  a  r e f e r r a l s , e t c .  Vancouver,  170  APPENDIX  POST  1.  What are s e s s i o n ? -  -  -  k.  -  5.  RESPONSE  SHEET  SESSION  VII  o v e r a l l  impressions  ke up r e h e r s i t r u s t t h i s gro u l t as hers, pr n the f i l m d i d I f e l t t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n . was sad; I w i s  h e l p f u l ,  COMMENTS  of  t h i s  e v e n i n g ' s  t u a t i o n and up s i t u a t i o oves i t i s not d e a l d i group l e a d  I f e e l the f a c t t h a t n to e x p l a i n a problem of some r e l e v a n c e . r e c t l y w i t h our s i t u a e r s p r e s e n t e d more  h  see  we  could,  w o r d "best d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  r e a s s u r i n g ,  h e l p f u l ,  more  f e e l i n g  movies  about  what  l i k e  has  i n f o r m a t i v e .  Were there any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , events, ideas or f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s evening t h a t s t r u c k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t way.) -  I r e a l i z e t h a t some p e o p l e t a k e a f r o n t of o t h e r people but even to has t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o us a l l i n  -  our group system.  -  rChere w e r e t w o s p e c i f i c c a s e s i n the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o u r t a l l areas were good.  -  my  f a c e d  s e p a r a t i o n  v e r y  6.  your  Kathy spo you c o u l d as d i f f i c once a g a i t i o n and r e l e v a n t the movie i t .  What one happened  MEETING  X  hard  to  and make  w h i l e to open up i n hear o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s one way o r t h e o t h e r .  d i v o r c e ,  how  I  the  f o r  the  best  i t  t h a t  and  -  i t would e q u i v a l e n was more r e a l i z e t  be h e l p f u l i f t h e r e was a t ) to give e x a c t answers r t h a n h e l p f u l t'o.understand he problems of others but  re  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  c o u r t  the meeting about i t .  b r i n g s  back  came bad  up  t r y i n g  f u t u r e .  P l e a s e use the space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l t h a t you would l i k e to make about t h i s evening s u g g e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . -  proved  comments or to make  l e g a l a i d lawyer (or e l e g a l o p t i o n s . I t our s i t u a t i o n and the same q u e s t i o n s  and  memories  were but  never I  do  s o l v e d .  f e e l  good  t  DISCOMFORT  NETWORK BflEJfclSf  172  APPENDIX  POST  MEETING  RESPONSE SESSION  1.  What.are s e s s i o n ? -  3.  4.  o v e r a l l  comments  method  of  of  t h i s  e v e n i n g ' s  i n t e r e s t i n g .  p r e s e n t a t i o n  a p p r o p r i a t e ?  i n t e r e s t i n g h u t I do n o t n e e d h e l p through f a m i l y c o u r t and  word b e s t d e s c r i b e s your d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n ?  encouragement, encouragement, the l a s t .  COMMENTS  V I I I  impressions  were  the r e s o u r c e s were r i g h t now; I found a i d .  SHEET  f e e l i n g  about  them l e g a l  what  has  h e l p f u l , encouragement, i n f o r m a t i v e , r e l i e v e d , f u n and sad because i t was  Were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t events? (Any s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , events, ideas or f e e l i n g s you e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s evening t h a t s t r u c k you i n an i n t e r e s t i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t way.) -  6.  the  What one happened -  5.  o v e r a l l  Was -  your  Z  f u t u r e p o s s i b l e a l l events were  m e e t i n g s . v e r y good.  P l e a s e use the space below f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments t h a t you would l i k e to make about t h i s e v e n i n g or t o make s u g g e s t i o n s about f u t u r e s e s s i o n s . -  I  h i g h l y  a v a i l a b l e  recommend as  needed  t h a t on  s e s s i o n s a  r e g u l a r  of  t h i s  b a s i s .  type  be  made  173  POST  1.  We a r f e r e n p i l e d l e n g t made -  -  2.  PROGRAM  e t  i n t e r e s t e d i n aspects of t h i i n Table 4, are h of the program under t h i s s e c t i  APPENDIX  AA  RESPONSE  SHEET  how s p l o , a o n  s a t i s f i e d you are w i t h the d i f rogram. (Aspects r a t e d and comc a t i o n , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , nd o v e r a l l s e r v i c e ) . Comments were:  the only t h i n g i s t h a t maybe i t c o u l d have been longer; i t may be j u s t c u r i o u s i t y but I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g o u t how t h e o t h e r p e o p l e are g e t t i n g on. i t was a l i t t l e warm on most n i g h t s ; v e r y i n f o r m a l ( g r e a t ! ) . f e e l two o r t h r e e more s e s s i o n s would have been h e l p f u l ( c o u l d n ' t make i t a coupf>e o f n i g h t s s o r r y ! ) . more l e g a l a d v i c e (lawyers a v a i l a b l e ) . very good and encouraging e f f o r t f o r a p i l o t s e s s i o n . would l i k e to see the program l a s t l o n g e r but enjoyed i t v e r y much. I wish t h i s program c o u l d go on i n o t h e r ways l i k e meeti n g once i n a w h i l e and i n f u t u r e i f we have any problems, t h e r e ' l l be someone to t a l k t o . I f e e l t h a t a f t e r a t t e n d i n g t h i s program, I l o s t l o t s of f e e l i n g s I had f o r my husband.  We w o u l d l i k e your o p i n i o n about gram you found most h e l p f u l . (As i n Table 5 are handouts, p r e s e n t a l e a d e r s , and group d i s c u s s i o n ) . s e c t i o n were: the  -  the F a m i l y Court C o u n s e l l o r s had a to c h i l d r e n s ' needs and f e e l i n g s . f i l m s poor, very o u t d a t e d .  -  -  book  I  r e c e i v e d  was  very  which p a r t s of the p r o pects r a t e d and c o m p i l e d t i o n s , f i l m s , group Comments made u n d e r t h i s  -  -  COMMENTS  group l e a d e r s very e f f e c t i v e t i o n t h a t might o t h e r w i s e bee a few r e s e r v e d p e o p l e , but f e a c c e p t e d t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n , program should be i n f o r m a t i v e a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , d e a l w i t h i n as p o s s i b l e . both the program, the l e a d e r s k i n d , easy to t a l k to and the a p p r o p r i a t e .  f e e l i n g  and  w e l l  r e a l i s t i c  w r i t t e n . a t t i t u d e  i n ' r e a d i n g ' out the s i t u a n thought o f as c o m i c a l . l t even t h e y a d m i t t e d and the b i g g e s t s t e p . as to f a m i l y law, emotiond i v i d u a l problems as much and the people were p r e s e n t a t i o n s were  very  1  -  P l e a s e t h a t  use  you  the  would  space l i k e  2  below to  make  -  f o r  -  v e r y  -  recommend the program b e f o r e h e l p f u l ; breaks the f a l l .  -  I f e e l s e s s i o n I h i g h l a v a i l a b to be r breakup  -  any  about  a d d i t i o n a l t h i s  comments  program.  e n c o u r a g i n g . the  a c t u a l  d i v o r c e ,  more  f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d "butthe knowledge t h s are a v a i l a b l e i n rough spots w o u l d be h e y recommend t h a t a program of t h i s k i n d be l e on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . People s h o u l d be e f e r r e d to such a program e a r l y i n t h e i r f a p r o b l e m s .  a t l p f u l made a b l e m i l y  175  APPENDIX  BB  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Pre T e s t and Post T e s t V a r i a b l e s : Pre - T r a i t A n x i e t y (TrAnx), Pre-Adjustment Post S t a t e A n x i e t y (StAnx), Post Adjustment Self-Criticism  ( S e l f C r i t ) , T o t a l Score  Moral - E t h i c a l S e l f Family S e l f  TrAnx  PreACh  t o Change  (PreACh), (PosACh),  (TotSc), P h y s i c a l S e l f  (MorEthS), P e r s o n a l S e l f  (FamS), and S o c i a l S e l f  (PhyS),  (PerS),  (SocS)  Post T e s t  Pre T e s t Variable  to Change  StAnx  PosACh S e l f C r i t TotSc  PhyS  MorEthS ^'PerS  FamS ' SocS  Pre T e s t :  1.000  TrAnx PreACh  -0.811  1.000  Post T e s t :  0.587 -0.570  StAnx PosACh  -0.506 0.091  SelfCrit  1.000  0.656 -0.750 -0.176  1.000  0.087 -0.193 1.000  TotSc  -0.645  0.695  -0.662  0.515  PhyS  -O.634  0.712  -0.680  0.698 -0.219 0 . 8 1 8 1.000  MorEthS  -0.258  0.356 -0.130  PerS  -0.679  O.683 -0.703  0.642,  -0.253 0.889  FamS  -0.099  0.289  -0.309  0.161  -0.295 0.510 0.250 0.398  SocS  -0.712  0.571  -0.564  0.299  -0.279  -0.391 1.000  -0.05^ -0.437 0.759  0.846  0.463 1.000 0.752 O.516 1.000 0.638 0.673  NOTE - Sample s i z e i s 18 at  o< .05 c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than .250 are s i g n i f i c a n t ,  at  oc  .01 c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than  .325 are s i g n i f i c a n t .  0.290 1.000 0.719 0.193  1.000  

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