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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A case-driven parser Taylor, Brock H. 1975

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A CASE-DRIVEN  PARSER  by Brock H. fi.Sc,  University  Taylor  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the . '  Department  •  o  COMPUTER  f  SCIENCE  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as t o the r e q u i r e d  The U n i v e r s i t y  standard.  of B r i t i s h  May  conforming  1975  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at  further  agree  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I  in p a r t i a l  freely  available  for  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  of  this  representatives. thesis for  It  financial  this  thesis or  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department  that  reference and study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s  for  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  ABSTRACT A parser for English transition  network  is  sentences described.  syntax, semantics,  and  their  particular  role  in this  a re-affirmation and  with  computational  of the  cautious  u s i n g c a s e and  case  i s examined system.  The  an  interaction  with s p e c i a l The  thesis  of s y n t a x and  optimism  the  linguistics.  future  between  emphasis  concludes  inseparability for  augmented  on  with  semantics, cf  case  in  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 1 SECTION 1.1: Introduction 1 SECTION 1.2: A Brief Look at Some Relevant Case Systems 2 SECTION 1.3: A top-level description .6 CH APT ER 2 : CAS ES SECTION 2.1: SECTION 2.2: SECTION 2.3: SECTION 2.4:  9 L i s t of Cases 11 Determination of Case 18 Verb Specific Cases ......................21 The Structure Returned ...................23  CHAPTER 3: THE DICTIONARY SECTION 3.1: Verb Definitions CHAPTER 4: AN EXHAUSTIVE EXAMPLE  .....25 ........26 32  CHAPTER 5: SOME DETAILS 45 SECTION 5.1 Anaphoric references ......................45 SECTION 5.2 P a r t i c l e s 49 SECTION 5.3 Ergative Verbs .......51 SECTION 5.4 Some Obvious Extensions 52 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I: Some Examples............. APPENDIX I I : Some Non-examples  .57 .............59 .....74  APPENDIX I I I : A Description of Hhat the System Returns ....75 APPENDIX IV: The Dictionary  77  APPENDIX V: The Code ......................................95 The Case Analysis Code ..96 The ATN Grammar .............................. 129 Some Auxiliary Routines ...................... 137 The ATN Parser ............................... 138  iii TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE  1:  An Example From Schank  FIGURE 2: The D i c t i o n a r y E n t r y  f o r the Verb " t o o r d e r "  FIGURE 3: An ATN P a r s e o f S e n t e n c e FIGURE 4: I n c o r r e c t  Initial  *J  (4.1)  Structure  FIGURE 5: The S t r u c t u r e f o r " t h e man FIGURE 6: C o r r e c t  Initial  FIGURE 7: The F i n a l  Structure  Structure  ....28 33  f o r Sentence beside  ..37  t h e window" ...40  f c r Sentence  f o r Sentence  (4.1)  (4.1)  (4.1)  ....42  ..........44  Each man  has a way to betray the revolution This i s mine  1  CHAPTER 1 I fought i n the o l d r e v o l u t i o n on the s i d e c f the ghcst and the king Cf course I was very ycung and I thought that we « e r e winning pretend I s t i l l f e e l very much l i k e s i n c i n g as they c a r r y the bodies away  I can't  -L.  SECTION U\:  Introduction  The work d e s c r i b e d Roger  Schank's  although i t ideas.  [11]  in this  i s not intended  It  is  a  names  paper was  largely  work with Conceptual  parser  breakdown of a sentence, case  tc  be  an  inspired  Dependency  and which l a b e l s  the  structure  w r i t t e n i n LISP  and  it  runs  sentence  that i t returns. at  the  a  transformational integration obvious  of  much  grammars  are.  It  semantics  into  the  that t h i s i s  partially  unifies  not  its with  of  is  British  system.  tc language than  only  parser,  his  case in parts  University  more i n t u i t i v e approach  of  The system  Columbia on an IBM 370-168 under the MTS o p e r a t i n g is  by  Netwcrks,  implementation  which uses the n o t i o n of  in  Case  Cchen  demands but  where the semantics belong.  these long separated components  it  makes  Case at of  the it  least  language.  2  SECTION _1.2:  Since 1968  A Brief  Fillmore  there  has  linguistics Very  been  strong case  movement  analysis  in  computational  c f the E n g l i s h  language.  i n t r o d u c e d a n o t i o n o f deep c a s e  i s composed o f a v e r b  Fillmore  as e s s e n t i a l .  FACTITIVE,  with c e r t a i n  by t h e i r  cases  accept.  they In  cases:  1972  OBJECTIVE,  and  case environments,  Celce-Murcia  [3]  CASUAL-ACTANT, THEME, LOCUS, has  classifies way  surface  written all.verbs the  five  structure.  belongs  a system into  based  a case  the  system GOAL.  "paradigms" with  paradigm  p a t t e r n s i n the surface s t r u c t u r e  set  which  Simmons He to  the verb i n t h e " t o break".  allows  i n the a c t i v e  of  of f i v e  according  He g i v e s t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e v e r b  to the "ergative"  he  Verbs are  on C e l c e - M u r c i a *s t h e o r y .  may be a r r a n g e d  of  INSTRUMENTAL,  i s , by  SOURCE,-and  what he c a l l  cases  list  E. ESE. FACT IV E.  proposed  labelled  a few c a s e s t h a t  DATIVE,  that  i n wiich  properties  dees n e t g i v e an e x h a u s t i v e  They a r e : AGESTIVE,  LOCATIVE,  classified  [13]  Svstems  "The C a s e f o r C a s e " i n  deep c a s e s i n E n g l i s h , b u t he d o e s l i s t  views  It  h i s paper  Case  a s t e n s e , a s p e c t , e t c . , and a s e t o f noun p h r a s e s  w i t h c a s e names.  the  a a  Fillmore  a simple sentence  the  [6] wrote  towards  briefly,  such  l o o k a t Some R e l e v a n t  voice:  fcur  case  3  (1.1)  John b r o k e  t h e window  with  t h e hammer.,  (1.2)  John  (1.3)  T h e hammer b r o k e t h e window.  (1.4)  The window  b r o k e t h e window.  broke.  They c a n a l l be g e n e r a t e d  from t h e s t r u c t u r e :  b r e a k : CASUAL-ACTAST1: John THEME: window CASUAL-ACTAHT2:  with  the  appropriate  hammer  deletions  ergative  verbs.  I f enough v e r b s  provides  a  yet  generating  language,  leads  the  to  simple,  usual  and  re-arrangements  can  be  apparently  using  this  problems  classified,  powerful  scheme case  so  for  systems have.  what i s t h e CASUAL-ACTADT1, t h e AGIST i n  What  i s t h e CASUAL-ACT ANT 2,  able  I  do  to t e l l not  Simmon's in  mean  work.  t o imply  these  three The  structure  t o four  cases  basic  information  that these  f o r ergative problem  with  which i s f a i r l y tends  to  in  the  however,  In sentence terminology?  The system  intelligent  gu€ss.  a r e problems p a r t i c u l a r  H i s paradigm  idea  i s very  may  to  useful  t h e number o f p o s s i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s of verbs. using  readily  only  sentence.  infer For  five  available  become o b s c u r e d ,  (1.1) , f c r i n s t a n c e , we c a n explicit  o r t o make an  They a r e n o t .  that i t limits  my  my INSTRUMENT c a s e ?  from c o n t e x t ,  this  mechanism f o r  parsing,  (1.4)  be  allowed  a  in  i f net l o s t . l o t of  instance,  cases  i s that  the  surface  I n sentence  information we g u e s s  that  net John  4  performed to  some a c t  break  held  the  through  but  have  struck  he  could the  is this  with  verbal  pane o f g l a s s i n t h e struck  strike,  window.  the  window  have thrown i t t h r o u g h t h e window s i l l  more g e n e r a l  or  and Ke  thus  probably  with  i t s metal  window;  frame t h u s c a u s i n g  p i c t u r e that  h i s conceptual  dependancy n e t s . .  p r i m i t i v e s , or  ACTs, and  R E C I P I E N T , D I R E C T I V E , and of  primitives  say  "at  least  implicit  he the  could pane  to  which  Schank  least  the  build  "meaning"  because o t h e r  tries  cf  to  employs  fcur cases  INSTBOBEETAI) t o  captures  four cases"  at  Schank  up the  cases such  build  fourteen  (OBJECTIVE, a  structure  sentence. as  AGENT  I are  i n his structures.  (1.5)  For in  hammer t o  etc.  It up  the  the  hammer i n h i s hand and  head,  break,  which c a u s e d  John grew t h e instance,  from  plants sentence  with  fertilizer.  (1.5)  he  builds  the  structure  1.  figure  +-  > plants  ground  |c object  past John <  > trans  fertilizer  <  <  I I  •- | p |i |e  in It  | lintent plants  <  I i  ->  Figure Notice case  in  that  the  +-  grow 1 -  An  "fertilizer"  surface  Example  from  Shank  a p p e a r s t o be  s t r u c t u r e , but  < tag  in  the.  i t i s in fact  the  instrument objective  5  c a s e o f t h e ACT " t r a n s " . t h e meaning  Schank's s t r u c t u r e s  of the sentences  Currently  at  t h e HAPL p r o j e c t .  than  HIT K a r t i n [ 9 ] He has p r o p o s e d  Fillmore's  capture  mere  of  deep s t r u c t u r e d o .  i s building  a case  system f o r  a s e t o f some t h i r t y  cases.  6  SECTION  1.3:  The of  basic objective  case  in  structure and  A Top-level Description  a  system  like  set of verbal  fourteen Verbs  etc.,  are  represented  "run",  and  like  " l e a v e " by  important  by  select,  the  multiple  consists  verb  stole  the  (1.7)  John  stole  i n t o the  two  meanings  the  (1.6)  and  frames  f o r the verb.  (1.6)  demands  locative  phrase  a  He  (1.7) The  "take", like  lore  "steal",  "go",  "come",  cn. which  of  list  Simmons  frames" a  c a n be  verb,  of  case  does  its  net  used  to  intended  cf a  verb i n  frames  which  way  stole.  by  jewel. building.  are  of  the  while  adverbial Schank.  verb  "to  distinguished  case frame f o r  PATIENT,  w i t h an  in a similar  (1.8)  seemed  of  meanings.  John  sentences  used  a  (1.6)  For i n s t a n c e  they  a  A loose  instead  procedural d e f i n i t i o n  of  use  sentences i n t o  used  verbs  "case  meanings The  were  "give",  case  Fillmore's  meaning i n t h e s e n t e n c e .  distinguish  of  so  the  networks.  because  "trans";  feature  that  dictionary  ACTs  "move"; and  is  my  to explore  English  primatives  "buy", " s e l l " ,  acknowledge from  was  parsed  primative  intuitive.  An  which  thesis  Schank's c o n c e p t u a l dependancy  incomplete  Schank's  in this  the  t h e one  for  preposition.  steal"  by t h e two  in case  meaning  used  (1.7)  requires  This  notion  in a is  7  Sentence for  (1.8)  i s ambiguous t o my s y s t e m  t h e verb cannot  must  resort  ambiguity. the  will  which  context,  the c a s e  meaning i s i n t e n d e d .  as  you  and  I  do,  frames  The  system  to resolve the  T h i s mechanism h a s n o t been programmed, s c c u r r e n t l y  system  after  to  tell  since  will  return  several  the f i r s t  failures  meaning i t s u c c e e d s  to find  a patient  on,  which,  cr a locative  phrase,  be " t c t h i e v e " . The  rest  of this  description  chapter  of the c o n t r o l  will  be  devoted  s t r u c t u r e i n which  tc  these  a  simple  case  frames  operate., The of  takes the sentence  t h e frames,  used  that  i s , i ttries  i n the sentence by l o o k i n g  parts, the  system  and t h e i r  meanings  semantic  without  to  The t u r n i p  (1.9),  sentence  categories.  finding  find  an  weakened,  agent  list  meaning i s b e i n g structure,  I f i t gees that.fits  categories,  refered  really  to  dance  i t s  through a l l of  the sentence, i t  and t h e n  tries a l l  cn t h e v i o l i n .  t h e system  so t h a t frames  as  the  a  will  at  a l l o f t h e case frames  i f n o t human, a g e n t .  however o f case  because  prccess of going through is  one  played a wild  f o r instance,  demand an a n i m a t e ,  the  which  one  t h e meanings a g a i n .  (1.9)  In  to find  to f i t i t into  a t the sentence  weakens i t s t e s t s on t h e s e m a n t i c of  and t r i e s  These  on t h e s e c o n d , meaning  will  the case frames top-level  fail  f o r " t c play"  tests  or t h i r d be  first  will  time  be  through  selected.  This  a g a i n w i t h weaker  tests  back-up, a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t  back-up i n t h e u s u a l sense, s i n c e  decision  points  are not  8  stacked  and b a c k e d - u p t h r o u g h  This are  on f a i l u r e .  was done f o r a s p e c i f i c  tried  in  disambiguate  order,  the  the verb.  ordering  In d e f i n i n g  verb,  f o r instance, i t i s often  first  c a s e f r a m e has f a i l e d . If  test,  t h e system however,  would  fail  efficiency.  obviously the  t h e weaker  verb i t w i l l  already  the  looked  proceed  the  after  by  stack  i s  a r e EVALed,  handle  case  frames  frame  sense,  are t r i e d  s h o u l d be beacuse  on a  put  is  i n order, first  the tests  particular  I f t h e system sentence  of the sentence  unwound  in  are t e c first  part,  meaning  of  o f the sentence net Here a  thinks  genuine  i t has  the  i t s t a c k s a form to  to  this  this  at  the  is  handled  correctly,  e n d , a l l o f t h e forms  and t h e s e s u b - s t r u c t u r e s a r e put i n .  o t h e r hand, the system up  a weaker  case  usual  the framing process.  for a particular  I f the rest  the  back  the f i r s t  the  c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b - s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h e main s t r u c t u r e c f  parse.  stacked  that  that  frame w i t h  t c look a t the r e s t  case  when  be t r u e  has s u c c e e d e d  correct  the  case frame f o r a  tests.  mechanism i s e m p l o y e d .  the  second  help  wants t o t r y t h e most common meanings  back-up  put  this  commmon v e r b u s a g e s  Once t h e s y s t e m the  to  t o use t h e f a c t  f o r n o t b a c k i n g up i n t h e  still  used  the second  I f a l l o f t h e meanings f a i l one  be  frames  test.  Since  t h e most  list.  severe, with  reason  not  S i n c e the c a s e  can  useful  up i n t o  may  on t h e weaker  Another for  backs  i t  reason.  fails  decision  particular  later  point  sentence  part.  I f , on  on i n t h e p a r s e , i t  and l o c k  f o r another  so  will  waj t o  9  CHAPTER 2  at  They w i l l never ever reach the icocn l e a s t not the one that t h e y ' r e a f t e r I t i s f l o a t i n g broken on the open sea and i t c a r r i e s nc s u r v i v o r s -1.  Cchen  CASES  The q u e s t i o n o f how many cases we need to d e s c r i b e is  a c o n t e n t i o u s one.  the i s s u e ,  whereas  The purpose of t h i s a  sentence  structure. function  are and  work i s to capture  then,  a sentence  have been used, not adamant  F i l l m o r e i s vague cn  C e l c e - M u r c i a c l a i m s that f i v e cases  as i s p o s s i b l e , Case,  of  As mentioned above,  English  will  do.  as much o f the meaning c f  and t o make i t e x p l i c i t i n a formal  is  an  part,  explanation  so a f a i r l y  of  semantic  large number of c a s e s  one f o r each of these "semantic about our s e t of c a s e s .  the  functions".  The system i s  We  flexible  s t r u c t u r e d enough, t h a t the a d d i t i o n or d e l e t i o n of cases  is  a simple o p e r a t i o n . The system  was o r i g i n a l l y designed  cases as i t s b a s i s .  There  cases  plus numerous v e r b - s p e c i f i c  implemented,  are  with M a r t i n ' s t h i r t y - o d d  currently  M a r t i n ' s cases have been dropped c o m p l e t e l y , not  been implemented y e t , and s e v e r a l The  following  list  of  twenty-fcur cases.  some  have been  have  general Some cf simply  added.  these twenty-four cases should be  10  fairly (mostly in  self-explanatory. from  question  certain  Leonard  each  case  is a  set  Cohen, i f t h e y seem s t r a n g e )  underlined.  prepositions  Sith  Those  have t h e s e  cases  which  prepositions  cf  examples  with the  are  listed.  flagged  case by  11  SECTION 2.1:  List  o f Cases  Agent The  man i n w h i t e s a y s he has no f r i e n d s .  The  trees  I  a r e burning i n your promised  g o t wiped  Love  calls  o u t by s e v e r a l c h a r i s m a t i c  land. holjj men.  you by y o u r name.  Patient He t r a i n e d  a hundred  an u n b o r n You  women j u s t  to k i l l  child.  can r e a d t h e i r  a d d r e s s by t h e moon.  I  am p u n i s h e d by y o u r s o l i t a r y  truth.  I  washed mv e v e l i d s i n t h e r a i n .  Location A scalpel Your I In I Flagged  b l a d e l a y b e s i d e mv s i l v e r  l e t t e r s a l l say t h a t  s l e e p beneath citv  the g o l d e n  and i n f o r e s t  have l a i n  by. t h i s  sp_oon.  you a r e b e s i d e me  now.  hill.  our steps w i l l  window l o n g  always  rhyme,  enough.  by a t , i n , on, by, n e a r , b e s i d e , b e f o r e , b e n e a t h ,  upon.  12  Time I  l o v e y c u i n the  or n i JJCJ .  I f by c h a n c e I wake a t n i g h t and a s k you who I  suppose t h a t  he f r o z e  when t h e wind t o o k  I am.  your  clothes. We a l l s h o u l d She  by  while,  before  we s t u d y  magic.  i n l o v e f o r us i n J 9 6 J .  fell  Flagged  study e t i q u e t t e  at,  i n , on, by, near,  during, before, after,  around.  Recipient She  said  that  They b r o u g h t Flagged  you g a v e i t t o h e r . me t h e i r  comfort.  by t c .  Source We w i l l  come f r o m  t h e shadows.  T h a n k s f o r t h e t r o u b l e you t o o k Taking  from of I  Flagged  by  h i s wallet  trains,  . from  her eyes.  an o l d s c h e d u e l  h e ' l l say, " I told  y c u when I came  was a s t r a n g e r . "  from.  Destination I  will  Into She  l e t you take  this  me  home.  f u r n a c e I a s k you now  l e a d s you t o t h e t i v e r .  T a k e me t o t h e s l a u g h t e r h o u s e .  to venture.  when,  Flagged  by t o , i n t o , o n t o ,  toward,  towards.  Duration You  have l i v e d  He w i l l he  f o r years  s l e e p f o r one nicjht  with  t h e woman  p l a n s t o abandon.  They p l a y e d t h e i r Flagged  f o r nothing.  by f o r ,  game i n two  hours.  in.  Instrument She  touched  Cover The Flagged  your  up y o u r  infant  perfect  body  with  f a c e with scajj,  with  h e r mind.  new y c u ' r e  h i s cord i s hauled  Santa  in like  a  Clause.  kite.  by w i t h .  Manner They I  left  i n a hurry.  walk w i t h  my mouth s h u t i n t o  I c h o o s e t h e rooms t h a t I am e a t i n g Flagged  a juicy  I live  p e a c h by  the d r i f t i n g  world.  i n with c a r e .  lajjglisht.  by i n , w i t h , by.  Path We s t a r t e d through  up_ t h e m o u n t a i n ,  t h e graves  I journeyed We p o u r e d Flagged  t h e wind  down a h u n d r e d  i s blowing. stej>s. ,  across the border.  by by, about,  a l o n g , up, down, a r o u n d ,  across.  Method. I dc not intend to save you any work by keeping s i l e n t . Some men Who  f i n d s t r e n g t h bv going t h e i r l o n e l y  ways.  would have f o r e t o l d t h a t the heart grows o l d from t o u c h i n g o t h e r s .  Flagged by by, from.  £g£§£ted-§ffect I am only whispering itself  will  to my tomahawk sc the image  reduce ycu t c scorn.  They blamed M i t c h e l l so the Jjeoj-le «culd net  Flagged  by so.  Quantity What i s grey and comes by, the guart? We produce o i l by the b a r r e l and s e l l i t by the CUD Flagged  by by.  Exchange I bought i t with a n i c k l e and I s o l d i t f o r a dime. He wants to trade the game he p l a y s f o r s h e l t e r . Xou could not trade them f o r ££iesthood. They are w a i t i n g to see a s i g n a l that some will Flagged  be l i g h t i n g f o r pay.  by with, f o r . /  killer  15  iSi^ry I fought  every  I sing this for  to the  crickets,  the  I sing  night  was  ever.  this  to pray f o r the a n g e l s ,  and by  f o r her u n t i l  t h e army.  I forgot  Flagged  man  so t h e a n g e l s  forgot  to pray  f o r us.  f o r , to, before.  Co-agent I  went w i t h  I  lived  Nancy  with a c h i l d  wore g r e e n with  Oh, Flagged  t h e one  Descriptive  snow.  s t o c k i n g s , and  me  my  (A c a s e  she  slept  little  one.  o f t h e Noun) you down t o h e r p l a c e n e a r  The  woman i n b l u e  The  hand o f y o u r  after,  me.  with.  Suzanne t a k e s  Flagged  of  found  everyone.  come w i t h by  who  by o f , from, along,  up,  i s asking f o r  down, a r o u n d ,  river.  revenge.  beggar i s burdened a t , i n , on,  the  down w i t h  w i t h , by,  near,  money.  beside, before,  a c r o s s , under.  Toric It i s time  we  L e t s not t a l k  began t o l a u g h a b o u t of love or c h a i n s .  Sometimes I f i n d Flagged  by o f ,  i t a l l again.  about,  I get t o t h i n k i n g  c f the  jast.  Cause It  r a i n e d so I g o t j e t .  Flagged  by s c .  Purjaose You  who  build  these a l t e r s  these c h i l d r e n , You  were t r a n i n g 221iiself  I l i ta thin  to sacrifice  you o u s t n o t do i t any more.  with  m i r r o r s t o make  £§rfact. green  candle t o Jake you  j e a l o u s o f me. Flagged  by t o .  Enable He r o b b e d  t h e bank so he and h i s w i f e c o u l d  have  separate holidays. I  had t o k i c k savour  you down t h e s t a i r s s o I c o u l d  unemployment  once  again.  We have t o p u t h e r away s c we c a n g e t back Flagged  t c the v a r .  by s o .  Like He s a n k Like  The  wisdom l i k e a s t c n e .  on a w i r e ,  choir,  I have t r i e d i n my  sun pours  by  your  a bird  the Flagged  beneath  way t o be  jidnight free.  down l i k e honey c n o u r l a d y c f  morning.  like.  l i k e a drunk i j a  17  With The room  just  filled  up w i t h  He l o c k e d h i m s e l f i n a with the d e t a i l s Flagged  by  with.  moscjuitos.  library  shelf  o f o u r honey-mccn.  18  SECTION  that  2.2:  Determination  With  most o f t h e c a s e s above  flag  each  case.  relationship preposition another  which f l a g s  one  f o r cne  (2.2)  I talked  about  the  room.  v e r b s o f movement l i k e  flags  across up  but  verb  mas  "walk",  case as i n  verb  cf  the  cases.  A  very  well  flag  "about"  flags  the  path  (2.2).  meaning t o l i s t  like  "talk", i t  Martin notes  this  and  a l l of the c a s e s f l a g g e d  preposition.  Since there i s a great  verbs i n t h i s  r e g a r d , however, i t much mere e f f i c i e n t  a master to l i s t  (2.3)  only the  s c a n d a l was  (2„3)  case,  topic  slot  we will  verb,  want t o p i c  a l r e a d y be  r e j e c t e d , and  This  whispered  illustrates  just  uniformity  then  for  to each  irregularities.  case f o r a communication path  d e a l of  t a b l e f o r a l l verbs i n the system,  The  Sentence  be  prepositions  and  f o r verbs of ccmmunicaticn  the t o p i c  f o r each  the  verb.  room.  each  will  case  the  (2.1),  listed  prepositions,  about  as i n  verb,  verbs,  I walked  proposes  set  between  (2.1)  usually  by  is  This i s a gross o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  case f o r a d i f f e r e n t  For case  c f Case  the  about  the  room.  t h a t "about"  can  flag  so  we  dc  t o be  filled  by  path c a s e  foregrounding of cases  net  want t c r u l e  tried  first.  "the  scandal",  will  the  be t r i e d  i s specified  by  In  path  cut  the  (2.3)  the  so  topic  next. the  person  who  19  w r i t e s the d i c t i o n a r y . laugh,  whisper, e t c . ,  should t r i g g e r There i s  He may s p e c i f y  the verbs  the occurrence of the p r e p o s i t i o n  the t o p i c case before  the path  talk, "about"  case.  another obvious way c f determining case names  p r e p o s i t i o n a l and noun phrases.  The  that f o r  Consider the s e n t e n c e s :  (2.4)  Fred bought the car f o r Mary.  (2.5)  Fred bought the c a r f o r one d o l l a r .  preposition  " f o r " f l a g s many c a s e s . and i n  (2.5)  for  flags  (2.4)  the  it  flags  exchange  the  beneficiary  case,  associated  with each case i s a t e s t which a phrase must pass  be accepted  as t h a t  case.  it  In  case,  In the b e n e f i c i a r y case the t e s t  to  is:  (BUST-BE ABIBATE)  i n d i c a t i n g that test for  the b e n e f i c i a r y  the exchange case  has to  be  animate,  while  the  is: to  (NOT  indicating  that  (SH0ULD-BE HUMAN ABSTRACT) )  one u s u a l l y dones not exchange  person or something a b s t r a c t . the cases i n sentences In  general  adequately.  (2.4)  tests  on  These t e s t s  something f c r a  correctly  cases  are  very d i f f i c u l t t o  What t e s t would be a p p r o p r i a t e  verb and context  out  and (2.5) .  for  the t o p i c  What c o u l d not be t a l k e d , laughed, or c r i e d about? complex  sort  dependant  design case?  Perhaps some  t e s t c o u l d be c o n c c c t e d , but  20  one has not been designed  for t h i s  topic  T.  case  is  therefore  system.  is  exchanged f o r something.  (HOT  is  put  in  which  either.  will  almost  as  for  the  be c a r e f u l when  always  succeed.  bad,  Anything  can  be  The weak t e s t  (SHOULD-BE HUMAN ABSTRACT) )  w i l l at f i r s t  noun i s the c a n d i d a t e , fit  test  One must t h e r e f o r e  i n v o k i n g the t o p i c case because i t The exchange case  The  This  but w i l l  fail  if  pass i f  a human or an a b s t r a c t  nothing  else  seems  tc  s i m p l e t e s t runs i n t o problems with c e r t a i n  sentences.  It  (2.6)  I p a i d a fortune for my mother's  (2.7)  I paid a f o r t u n e f o r my mother.  (2.8)  I p a i d a fortune  will initially  mother's it  will  will is  (2.6)  prcsititute.  case  because i t i s  tc  reject  abstract,  it.  Sentence  (2.7)  is  ambiguous,  c e r t a i n l y i n the b e n e f i c i a r y r o l e h e r e ,  test  works  (2.8)  is  c o r r e c t l y by r e j e c t i n g  a l s o ambiguous,  that " p r o s t i t u t e " will,  "fcr  tut l a t e r  i t s i n c e a l l of the other cases flagged  also reject  almost  system  f o r c e the exchange  release" in accept  for the  release.  is  (2.7).  is  to be u s e f u l .  but our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  being used i n the exchange  however,  in  the exchange  by  cn  "for"  tut "mother"  sc  again  case.  would u s u a l l j case here.  i f this  the  Sentence  a s s i g n i t the b e n e f i c i a r y case as  Much work must be done on case t e s t s  my  be The  i t did  paradigm  21  SECTION 2.3:  V e r b - s g e c i f i c Cases  The cases l i s t e d all  of  which  can  i n SECTION 2.1 are g e n e r a l be  associated  cases,  with any verb.  almost  Many verbs,  however a l s o have s p e c i a l cases. The verb " t o be" i s a prime example. be" has e i g h t meanings.  In  this  system  "to  l e t * s look at a few o f them.  The t h i r d meaning o f " t c be" i s " t o have the property . . „ " , as i n sentence  (2.9).  (2.9) The house i s r e d .  If  you  look  at  the  entry  for  " t o be" i n the d i c t i o n a r y i n  APPENDIX IV you w i l l sea that t h i s meaning i s picked up  by  the  form:  ((ADJ-LIST T) AD J CBL  The  function  ADJ-LIST  a d j e c t i v e phrase  looks  i s considered  (AGENT T) AG OEL)  for  an a d j e c t i v e phrase.  Sc an  to be a s p e c i a l case c f the  verb  " t o be". The s i x t h meaning of " t c be" i s " t o be from . sentence  .", as i n  (2.10).  (2.10) The lady i s from  This  .  special  case  Ouagadougou.  i s looked f o r by the f u n c t i o n CLAUSE, which  takes as arguments a l i s t  of p r e p o s i t i o n s to look  for,  a  test  22  that it  the p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase  i s locking  (CLAUSE  for.  must  In t h i s case  p a s s , and a name f o r t h e  case  the form i s :  • (FROM) • (MUST-BE COUNTRY CITY TOWN CO NT IS EST  LOCATION)  •LOCATION) *  In  other  a location (The It  is  cases. of  words:  function  third  argument  possible  to turn  This i s useful but t h o s e  notion of case of  the following are  starting  with  "from"  which i s  o f some k i n d .  the t e s t s My  Look f o r a p h r a s e  a case chapter  e m p l o y e d t o do  i s needed f o r  the  t h e MUST-BE t e s t s  when you a r e happy associated  back-up  c f f f c r only  with t h e a c t i o n  with a c e r t a i n  case  i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l , i n which an  i s to distinguish we  will  mechanism.  betwen  look c a r e f u l l y  verb  cr  certain cf a l l two.)  important  meanings.  at just  how  In  cases  this.  * Note that (MUST-BE LOCATION) w i l l s u f f i c e a s the t e s t h e r e , s i n c e COUNTRY, CITY, e t c . , a l l have t h e a t t r i b u t e LOCATION. The o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s a r e p u t i n s i n c e t h e y o c c u r most o f t e n i n this structure, and will t h u s s p e e d up t h e s e a r c h . "He ccmes from t h e West.", would a l s o be h a n d l e d s i n c e "West" would also have t h e a t t r i b u t e LOCATION.  23  SECTION 2.4: T h e S t r u c t u r e  APPENDIX returned and  I I I gives  by t h e s y s t e m .  intuitive  these  a formal This  description.  description of the structures  section  w i l l give  APPENDIX I g i v e s  a more  lots  informal  o f examples c f  structures. The  EVALed was  Returned  basic  idea  was  by L I S P f o r f u r t h e r  to  be  "<==>"  which  t o return  a structure  processing.  The  top-level  would be an FIXER s i n c e  v a r i a b l e number o f a r g u m e n t s .  The f i r s t  agent o r s u b j e c t  The " o r s u b j e c t "  cases  like  of the verb.  sentence  PROP i n t h i s  (2,11)  case, allow  which  argument  b e c a u s e some verb  <==>  to  take  c o u l c be function  i t can t a k e a t o <==> i s t h e  i s necessary  in  p r i m i t i v e s , HAVE-  sentences  as  a  first  argument.  (2.11) T h a t I came i s s i l l y .  The  second  The  third  argument t c <==> i s t h e t e n s e argument i s t h e p r e d i c a t e .  beginning  with  this  be a form t o be EVALed.  a  would  verb-primitive.  for  some v e r b s ,  phrase  t h e verb  symbol  »•<—".  and n o t f o r o t h e r s .  structure beginning with  go  This  again  list  was t h a t  argument f o < — i s  arguments  The s e c o n d  "<-ADV-".  quickly .  i s always a  The i d e a  The f i r s t  The s e c o n d a n d t h i r d  c f the v e r t .  are  optional  i s an a d v e r b i a l  For instance,  24  Would  have t h e  structure:  (<—  If  the verb takes  follows  a  patient  the adverbial  f o l l o w s the verb The verb,  MOVE (<-ADV- QUICKLY))  rest  and  sentence  phrase  the sentence,  this  patient  i f i t i s t h e r e , otherwise i t  primitive.  o f the  any  in  a r g u m e n t s t o <==>  top-level  adverbial  a r e the cases phrases,  like  c f the "well" i n  (2. 12) .  (2.12) He p l a y e d  Their  order  they  just  <--.  The c a s e s a r e  the.piano  well.  i s not considered important appear i n a l i s t lists  i n the  structure,  a t t h e same l e v e l a s the  beginning  with  an atom o f  verb  so  symbol  t h e form  <-CASE-  were CASE i s r e p l a c e d by a n y o f t h e c a s e s ' but AGENT, PATIENT, c r DESCRIPTIVE. mentioned  above,  the patient is  a  These  special  cases  t h e agent  i sthel a s t  prepositional is  three  case  phrases  are treated  i s the f i r s t  argument o f < — . which  i s used  which m o d i f y  to  embedded i n t h e n o u n ^ p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e .  explicit  i n CHAPTER 4.  argument The  nouns.  specially.  o f <==>, a n d  DESCRIPTIVE  handle  As  a l l  case  c f the  T h i s case, t h e r e f o r e , This  i s made  more  25  CHAPTER 3  Thanks for the t r o u b l e ycu took from her eyes I thought i t was there for coed sc I never t r i e d -L.  Cchen  THE DICTIONARY  Each word i n the d i c t i o n a r y i s  set  (WORD 11 P1 12 V2 . , .  where  WORD  is  property l i s t  .  the word i n q u e s t i o n ,  i s an i n d i c a t o r and a property  up as  In Pn)  and each p a i r  which  are  The  property  under N i n d i c a t e s  singular  the  put  on  the  a  part  of  information  fcr  For a noun, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  how the p l u r a l of  property  under  v  the  noun  indicates  and past tenses are formed;  On the p r o p e r t y l i s t  of ncuns  For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of what word types see APPENDIX IV.  1  be  should be  under t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s  the morphology r o u t i n e s .  verbs,  to  ( I i P i ) , i>0  o f WORD.1  For each word, one of the i n d i c a t o r s speech.  fellows:  is  how the  the  property  formed;  fcr  first-person  etc. is  a  list  of  the  noun 's  j u s t what p r o p e r t i e s  gc with  26  properties For  verbs  V-HEAN. to  u n d e r N-PROP, i t s s u p e r s e t under SUPERSET, one  puts  To u n d e r s t a n d  s e e how  and so o n .  a p r o c e d u r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the verb j u s t how  t h e system  these p r o c e d u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s  under  works i t i s n e c e s s a r y  work.  27  SECTION 3 . 1 :  The verb is  Verb  verb  Definitions  i s treated  as the f o c a l  c a n have many m e a n i n g s . intended  doing, i t  by  looking a  builds  point o f the sentence.  The s y s t e m  at  the  structure  rest  d i s c o v e r s which  meaning  of the sentence.  representing  a  parse  A  In so cf  the  sentence. Hith verb,  These  of the verb.  found  in  necessary long  verb,  some o b l i g a t o r y ,  optional. list  each  APPENDIX  then,  i s associated a set cf cases  some  optional,  cases  a r e embedded  a  IV,  i n a form  but a c a r e f u l  f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  conditionally cn the p r o p e r t y be  l o c k a t ene i n d e t a i l i s  o f t h e system. just  can  In  CEAPTIB  how t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s  1  a  work i n  sentence.  Consider fellows:  some  Ample e x a m p l e s o f v e r b a l d e f i n i t i o n s  example i s g i v e n s h o w i n g  parsing  and  cf the  the  verb " t o order."  I t s d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y i s as  28  (ORDER V S-ED PREP-CASE ((WITH WITH)) V-MEAN (IF ( (AGENT (MOST-BE HUMAN)) AG (OPT (GETR PASSIVE) "SOMEONE) (PATIENT (MOST-BE ANIMATE)) PA OBL (TO-COMP (GETS PA)) TOC OBL) (BOILDQ («<==>" ? "•" ( « < — " ORDER " • " ) ) AG TNS TCC) ( (AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN) ) AG (OPT (GETR PASSIVE) * SOMEONE) (PATIENT (AND (MUST-BE THING) (NOT (MUST-BE HUMAN))) PA OBL) (BUILDQ («<==>" ? "•" ("<--« GREER ?) ) AG TNS P A ) ) )  Figure  2 - The D i c t i o n a r y  Under t h e i n d i c a t o r  i s a function  number  of  verb. looked are  for,  ( (AGENT .  .  which t a k e s an e v e n ,  arguments,  The f i r s t  f o r t h e Verb " t c o r d e r "  V-MEAN you w i l l  (IF  IF  Entry  each  pair  element o f each  s e e a form  .  but  otherwise  representing  pair  beginning  variable,  a meaning  i s a set cf  cases  and t h e s e c o n d i s t h e s t r u c t u r e t o be b u i l t  of the to  be  i f they  found. It  lies.  L e t us l o o k The  first  i s i n the f i r s t  list  element  of  element of the p a i r  a t i t mere cases  i s a form  that  the  complexity  closely.  i s , i n fact,  t o be EVALed,  a list  of t r i p l e s .  I t i s usually  The  lecking f o r  29  a case, but any form i s a d m i s s i b l e . triple  i s an atom: a r e g i s t e r  The second element  name.  If the f i r s t  a n o n - N i l v a l u e , the value i s put i n t o example, f o r i n s t a n c e , the f i r s t  this  form EVALs to  register.  function  sentence.  of  the  form  'SOMEONE))  i s to f i n d the agent c f the  I f i t succeeds, t h i s agent  The t h i r d element If  first  i s put i n t o  register  sc  t h i s meaning. is  a  case  was  so i f i t was not found, then IF should f a i l on t h i s  meaning o f the verb. optional,  AG,  of the t r i p l e says what t o do on f a i l u r e .  i t i s t h e atom "OBL", then t h i s i n d i c a t e s that the  obligatory,  In cur  triple is:  (AGENT (MOST-BE HUMAN) ) AG (GPT (GETS PASSIVE)  The  of the  I f the atom i s "OPT",  the r e g i s t e r  then  the  case  i s l e f t . e m p t y , and I I continues with  The t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s that t h i s t h i r d  form, i n which case i t i s EVALed.  "OPT", then t h e r e s u l t  i s as d e s c r i b e d  anything  that  else,  then  is  is  put  element  I f i t r e t u r n s "OEL" c r abcve.  into  If  i t returns  the r e g i s t e r ,  and IF  c o n t i n u e s with t h i s meaning of the verb. Let first  us look a t " t o o r d e r " again.  c f the  triple i s  (OPT  OPT  The t h i r d element  is  a  very simple f u n c t i o n which,  non-NIL, r e t u r n s i t s "OBL".  (GETB PASSIVE) 'SOMEONE)  second  argument.  i fits first  argument i s  Otherwise  i t returns  30  (GETS PASSIVE)  is  true  i f the sentence  So  the f i r s t  Look  i s i n the passive  triple  f o r an  put i t i n r e g i s t e r  c a n be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :  agent AG.  find  second  an a n i m a t e The  for found  a  third case,  will  EVAL  builds BOILDQ  i s equally  form  ("<= = >»  the basic  ?  I t merely  put i t i n r e g i s t e r  is  passive,  says:  PA, e l s e  s i m p l e , but i t i s I f these  t h e system  i t has f o u n d t h e c o r r e c t  will  meaning  not  If ycu fail. looking  three elements a r e  l o o k no f u r t h e r , b u t cf  of the p a i r : i n t h i s  the  verb.  It  case:  • ("<—" ORDER +)) AG TNS TOC)  structure f o r the sentence.  takes a variable  a kind o f template fill  then  but a to-complement.*  (BDILBQ  which  patient,  the second  I f ycu f i n d one,  fail.  i s more s i m p l e .  i n the sentence, then  assume t h a t  must be huitan.  Otherwise  triple  triple  which  Otherwise, i f the sentence  make SOMEONE t h e a g e n t . The  voice.  number o f a r g u m e n t s .  with s l o t s  in it.  The r e s t  The f i r s t i s  c f the  arguments  the s l o t s . The  "+ "  denotes  a slot  which  i sfilled  by t h e c o n t e n t s c f a  register. The  "?"  Is  filled  by  NOON-POT t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f a  the  application  c f the f u n c t i o n  register.  An example o f a to-complement i s : " F r e d t o o k t h e book t o anger Mary." 1  31  Finally, the r e s u l t the  second,  t h e »«#" i n d i c a t e s t h a t a f o r m i s t o t e E V A L e d , a n d  put.into third,  So i n t h i s  (SOON-POT  the s l o t .  The s l c t s  are f i l l e d  e t c , arguments.  case:  (GETB AG)) i s p u t i n f c r t h e ?,  (GETR TNS) i n p l a c e  of the f i r s t  (GETB TOC) f o r t h e s e c o n d  Where GETR r e t u r n s  the contents  +.  +.  of a  register.  i n crder  ty  32  CHAPTER H  Yen who b u i l d the a l t e r s now to s a c r i f i c e these c h i l d r e n ycu must net do i t any more A scheme i s n o t a v i s i o n and you n e v e r have been tempted by a demon or a god  AN  Programming All  of  the  following  details  example,  be,  basic  a l g o r i t h m and  look  at  way  on  a  parent  Consider  the  The  structural incomplete.  kind.  structure will  excessive  A detailed be  More complex  c l a u s e s are  In  details  account  given.  the  of  We  the will  s t r u c t u r e s such  treated i n  much  the  as  same  sentence:  beside  step  augmented t r a n s i t i o n is  this  sentences.  man  first  "Partial"  control  sentence.  out.  of  interested.  and  left  subordinate  as t h e i r  The  i n a thesis  whole,  simple  and  (4. 1)  t c not b e l o n g  t h e n , f u n c t i o n names  the  Cohen  EXABPIE  code i s i n APPENDIX V f o r t h e s e  will  relative  EXHAUSTIVE  -1.  used  i n the network  window  process (ATN)  because the  description That  the  i s , no  usually  played  the  p i a n c f c r -Mary.  i s a partial  as  parser  described i s purely  associated  d e c i s i o n s are  parse by  using  Wcocs[15],  syntactic.  with  made a b o u t  an  a what  parse  The is  modifies  33  what,  what  idea  behind  this,  i t m i g h t as w e l l  There but  are  meaning  i s being  t h e ATS i s t o f i n d chop t h e  problems with  w i t h most  sample  o f t h e verb  sentences  parses  in  just  The  basic  but w h i l e  i ti s dcing  sentence  up  i t s parts.  how t h i s  I  etc.  the verb;  i t i s straight  APPENDIX  used,  intc  chopping forward,  s h o u l d be d e n e , A look  at the  w i l l g i v e more e x a m p l e s c f t h i s  notion. The  ATN p a r s e  returned w i l l look  like  this:  NP NIL DET THE N MAN NUMBER SG PP NIL BESIDE NP NIL DET THE N WINDOW NUMBER SG VP NIL TNS PAST VOICE ACTIVE V PLAY NP NIL DET THE N PIANO NUMBER SG PP NIL FOR NP N i l NPR MARY  F i g u r e 3 - An ATN P a r s e  ATNs procedural their  have  been  definitions  slowness.  found  to  o f S e n t e n c e (4.1)  be  o f grammars,  Because  this  a  useful  b u t have been ATN  returns  formalism  for  criticized fcr such  a  simple  34  structure, total  however,  time  parse  to  that the First,  which form  This  eight verb  i s found,  list  i t here,  been b r i e f l y  of  you  described  first  meaning  The  first  case  musician, the  this  cf  the  preliminary  a  in  function This  verb very  t c the  APPENDIX  is a call  that  the  indicator  so r a t h e r  entry  fcr  than  PLAY  in  whose mechanism  has  this  has  IV.  In  there  invoked IVALS  the  one,  to IF,  i n SECTION 3.1.  function  under  long  is  are  four  case  IF  meanings t o  the  system.  The  EVALing  the  is listed  arguments, i n d i c a t i n g  a  I t i s on  and  are r e f e r e d  in question  PLAY i n t h e  consumes l i t t l e  works.  form f o r PLAY i s a  form  and  t o p - l e v e l back-up.  d i c t i o n a r y which The  to  the  fast,  a sentence.  main v e r b  property  reproducing  be  program  the  the  V—MEAN.  the  process  controls on  i t i s very  i s "to  looked  and  first  play  a  musical  f c r i s the  must  be  f o r m i n the  AGENT.  human.  first  instrument." This  This  triple  agent  search  of the  should  i s made  first  by  argument  IF:  (AGENT  (AND  (SHOOLD-BE MUSICIAN) (EUST-BI  AGENT i s f a i r l y component  of  the  partial-parse) agent,  and  •appropriate  complex,  ATN  parse  passes  position  1  is  basically  (in future called  which i s i n an  which  but  appropriate  the  test  meant,  sentence i s i n the  active voice,  noun p h r a s e i n t h e  sentence.  i t the  instance,  agent  looks  for  a  "p-parse", f o r  position  (the argument  for the  EOMAN)))  to  be  t c AGENT,) that  if  i s i x c b a b l j the  an By the  first  35  In  this  case,  AGE NT  immediately  finds "the man" as the  obvious candidate, and i t applies the test (AND (SHOULD-BE MUSICIAN)  (MUST-BE HUMAN) )  Now, unless something special has been put on the property of MAN previously,  the  (SHOULD-BE  part of the test w i l l (There  are  list  two  MUSICIAN)  fail. levels of tests i n t h i s system: SHOULD-BE  tests and MUST-BE t e s t s .  This crude laechanism  is  very  useful  for forcing a verb l i k e PLAY to lock hard fcr a musician tc play an  instrument  - - but fo accept any human i f i t f a i l s  at  first.  This i s especially powerful for resolving anaphoric references.) So AGENT f a i l s .  This invokes  the  third  element  of  the  AGENT t r i p l e :  (OPT (GETfi EASSIVE) 'SOMEONE)  This  may  be read as:  AGENT i s optional i f the sentence  is  i n the passive voice, i n which case put SOMEONE in as the agent. Otherwise AGENT i s obligatory. passive,  AGENT  is  obligatory.  So, since the Since  sentence  is  net  the AGENT case was not  found, this f i r s t meaning of PLAY f a i l s . So IF goes on to the next pair of arguments.  This pair  is  36  designed  to pick  Note so  that  i t will So  sport."  On  o f PLAY a s i n " t c p l a y  on AGENT i s j u s t  Here t h e t e s t  this  MAN  meaning  does  It  i s just  play  a  (MUST-BE HUMAN) )  not  have  meaning.  "to play"  SPORTS-MAN  cn i t s  This  is  sort  as i n " t c e n t e r t a i n  oi  a  oneself."  on AGENT i s  (BUST-BE  "The man" p a s s e s t h i s t e s t . has t h e p r o p e r t y Since  "to  fails.  t o t h e f o u r t h , and l a s t ,  Here t h e t e s t  one,  on AGENT i s  providing  catch-all.  the previous  meaning o f t o PLAY:  (SHOULD-BE SPORTS-MAN)  list,  like  music."  fail*  we go on t h e t h e t h i r d  again,  property  the t e s t  also  (AND  Once  up t h e meaning  AGENT  ANIMATE)  (Note t h a t  in  the  dictionary  MAN  ANIMATE under N-PSOP) is  t h e only  taken  t o be t h e c o r r e c t one,  built  by t h e c a l l  t o BUIIDQ:  case  and  locked  the  for, this  following  meaning i s  structure  i s  37  MAN NUMBER SG <-BEFINITE- THE PAST < — EO <-CAUSE<==> N MAN NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE PRESENT <-- HAVE-PROF ENTERTAINED H  F i g u r e 4 - The I n c o r r e c t I n i t i a l So IF has completed be  the correct  i t s job.  meaning  sentence must be handled. list is  of  S t r u c t u r e f c r Sentence  (4. 1)  I t has found what i t takes t c  the verb.  Now  the r e s t cf the  The second element o f every t o p - l e v e l  i n t h e p-parse i s a f l a g  which i s i n i t i a l l y  NIL, tut which  turned on when that part o f the sentence i s c o n s i d e r e d t c be  correctly  handled.  In our example, so f a r o n l y two p a r t s are sc  f l a g g e d : the f i r s t  noun phrase: " t h e man", and the verb  The f u n c t i o n which  takes care o f the r e s t o f t h e sentence simply  goes  down  t h e p-parse  checking these f l a g s .  which  i s NIL i t works on that part  e i t h e r succeeds, or f a i l s In  our example,  —  then,  of  phrase.  I f i t f i n d s one  the sentence  until i t  c a u s i n g back-up. the f i r s t  phrase  i t comes upcn  needing work i s the p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase: " b e s i d e the window." There i s a s t r u c t u r e i n the system p r e p o s i t i o n with t h e cases i t may f l a g ,  which  associates  each  BESIDE f l a g s the c a s e s :  LOCATION and DESCRIPTIVE. All  of  t h e cases  but DESCRIPTIVE a r e cases c f the verb.  DESCRIPTIVE i s a s p e c i a l case  which  i s used  for preposition  38 o  phrases  which m o d i f y  When  the  nouns.  list  of  cases a s s o c i a t e d  with a p r e p o s i t i o n i s  retrieved,  t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n a s t o which c a s e  For  there  this  criteria  of a l l ,  o f which  sentences. question tried  for  question,  cases  associated  with  this  preposition,  phrase  and  immediately  i f  so i t i s t r i e d  seemingly  DESCRIPTIVE c a s e  obscure  i s just  rule  a heuristic.  will  phrase  the  phrase  phrase  for  done  I n c u r example,  man who i s b e s i d e t h e window beside feasible  the  we know n o t h i n g a b o u t  of  the  prepositional  will phrase  in  is  put  at  the  foregrounding  the  tests  associated  or  not.  t o the  In  some first,  f o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s the  (DESCRIPTIVE c a s e ) ; he d i d n o t p l a y  window  (LOCATION  case).  But  i t i s  f o r him t o have p l a y e d i t b e s i d e t h e window  (if  cases  a  cr preposticnal  a r e good e n o u g h , i t makes no d i f f e r e n c e  be t r i e d .  cf  or  however, i f t h e DESCRIPTIVE c a s e i s n o t t r i e d  never  be  i n the l i s t  ncun  I f the  outcome i f t h e f o r e g r o u n d i n g i s  perfectly  they  in  first.  final  piano  preposition  so  DESCRIPTIVE  each  the  a  noun  with  instances,  case  a  i n the previous  the  precedes  i f t h e noun i n t h a t  of the l i s t ,  kept  f i r s t , etc.)  i s not a proper noun, then  will  first.  are several  verb i s  i f DESCRIPTIVE i s one o f t h e c a s e s  and  This  it  of each  p r e p o s i t i o n s f l a g g e d which c a s e s  ( t h e most r e c e n t c a s e  prepositional  front  There  ( i f t h e r e a r e any) a r e f o r e g r o u n d e d ,  Secondly,  phrase  on t h e p r o p e r t y l i s t  The  first  cases  try  f o r foregrounding:  First record  i s a foregrounding routine.  to  the l o c a t i o n  succeed. that  It  indicates  of the plane.)  Sc  i s only the position which c a s e i s c o r r e c t .  either cf the  39  Continuing foregrounded, invoked  with  Since  the  with and  the  phrase  immediately  "beside  the  a man  nouns  we  have  do  a  has  a s an  pin  sentences  returns  i t ,  DESC  base  associated  as  or  o u t by  an  phrases.  changed  by  This  Canada." like  "He  In  t c see  if  there  a g e n e r a l one.  Most  and  "a  a  thought  to r u l e  event,  "beside  man",  "beside" i s a  beside  so  the  DESC  locative  indicator  into  eleven 0.  pin" i s size  sizes  adjectives, not  f e a t u r e i s c u r r e n t l y not  had  the  colleague, these  the  same  or size  implemented.)  out  A b s t r a c t nouns have nc  any  man."  i s probably  " b e s i d e " i s m e r e l y used  to see i f  "the  classifiers,  A toy elephant  a  prepositional  them under  esteemed  argument.  checks  to check  10  is  involves  breakdown o f o b j e c t s  been p o i n t e d a b l e t o be  its  always  first  with  case  f u n c t i o n , DESC, i s  noun p h r a s e  i s size  things  size the  like  The "the  information, ocean"  windcw" i s f o u n d  are  so not  t c be  a  succeeds.  type  cf  preposition,  DESC  the s t r u c t u r e :  (<-LOC- BESIDE  A  the  have a d a t a  m o d i f i e r of "the  Since  almost  world"  ambiguous. likely  case  window"  "The  for  beside  case  before  not  elephant.  check  the  T h i s i s a very crude  (As  modifying  "beside  modifying  size  categories.  be  descriptive  BESCBIETIVE  a window, our c h e c k must be  size  should  the  window" i s a p o s s i b l e d e s c r i p t o r o f  beside  OBJ-SIZE.  the  phrase  phrase  is  so  example:  descriptive  prepositional  Since  our  form  main s e n t e n c e  is  (NP  (N WINDOW  stacked  (NUMBER SG)  which w i l l p u t  s t r u c t u r e i f the  rest  of  (<-DEFINATE-  this the  THE))))  structure intc sentence  can  the fce  ao  handled. the as  Just  where i t i s p l a c e d i s d e t e r m i n e d  prepositional  phrase  by IESC.  m o d i f i e s " t h e man", i t w i l l  be  Since put i n  follows:  N HAN NUMBEB SG O D E F I N I T E - THE O L O O BESIDE N WINDOW N0MBEB SG O D E F I N I T E - THE  Figure So  5 - The S t r u c t u r e f o r " t h e man b e s i d e t h e window" the  prepostional  phrase  " b e s i d e t h e window" i s f l a g g e d  as completed,  and t h e n e x t  unflagged  phrase,  "the  piano",  is  p i c k e d up. Here the  structure?  are It  we r u n i n t o  relatively could  of  for this  All  to  be  has gone wrong.  the  the  What i s i t s c a s e ? c a n be u s e d  i t would  case.  So  we  There  at t h i s  It have have  I F must have c h o s e n  point.  could  this be  a  t o be a noun a  t h e wrong  failure, meaning  So we back up.  and we back up i n t o  that  So we f a i l  was  rejected  that  IF a g a i n .  a r e no meanings o f t h e v e r b  meanings  "the piano" f i t into  TIME-test.,  following  the parts of the sentence  un-flagged,  one.  few ways a noun p h r a s e  but t h e p h r a s e  the verb.  there  What does i t m o d i f y ?  but "piano" f a i l s  classifier,  Something  Where does  be an example o f t h e TIME c a s e , a s i n " I came home  morning.",  phrase  problems.  left  earlier  are flagged  as u s e d a r e  Here i t i s found to  try.  must have been  o u t o f I F a n d g e t back i n t o  One  that  c f the  the c o r r e c t  the top-level  tack-  up  mechanism. There  1) resolve  a r e two  Either  we  reasons  d i d not  we  c o u l d have  failed:  l o o k f a r enough back i n c u t a t t e m p t  to  an a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e . or  2)  Our  tests  made us f a i l  yet,  were t o o s e v e r e .  when t h e y s h o u l d  The  anaphoric  that  will  sentence,  so  the  come l a t e r ,  but  t h e r e were  the  r e a s o n can  That  first a flag  we  enter  IF once  SECULE-EE  system  has  not  no  will  be r u l e d  out.  succeed  in  w i l l succeed,  (AND  succeeds.  So  In o r d e r  the to  tests.  future.  again.  because  the  structure  invocation  cf  test  (SHOULD-BE MUSICIAN)  the  in  SHOULD-BE  file s t a r t a s b e f o r e , b u t t h i s t i m e t h e f i r s t AGENT  tests  been e x p l a i n e d  pronouns  i s s e t t o shut o f f the  i s , a l l SHOULD-BE t e s t s So  the  have.)  of  weaken t h e t e s t s ,  part  not  (ie:  (MUST-EE HUMAN))  i t r e t u r n s i s put  i n the  register  AG. Then I F t a k e s  us i n t o  the  second  triple  of parameters.  form  (PATIENT  (MUST-BE  MUSICAL-INSTBUMENT))  The  0  42  is  EVALed. PATIENT  appropriate It  then  our  i s very place  applies  similar  to  i n the sentence  i t s TEST t o i t .  AGEST:  for the patient  the verb.  in  the  c f the verb.  I n an a c t i v e s e n t e n c e , s u c h  e x a m p l e , t h e c a n d i d a t e f o r PATIENT  after  i t looks  "The p i a n o " i s f o u n d .  i s the f i r s t Since  ncun  as  phrase  i t passes t h e t e s t  (HOST-BE MUSICAL-INSTR UMENT)  PATIENT  returns  So a g a i n verb, and  "the piano" as t h e p a t i e n t o f t h e sentence.  IF thinks  i t has found  the correct  a n d s o i t EVALs t h e BOILDQ a s s o c i a t e d  thefollowing  with  meaning o f t h e that  meaning,  structure i s b u i l t :  <==> N HAN NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE PAST < — DO <-CAOSE<==> N PIANO NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE PAST < — EMIT NP N SOUND  Figure  (An system  6 - The C o r r e c t  aside:  returns.  Schank's  system  Initial  I do n o t i n t e n d They  Structure  t c defend  a r e vaguely  returns,  like  as i l l u s t r a t e d  f o r S e n t e n c e (4.1)  the structures  t h a t my  the structures i n Chapter  that  1, b u t a r e  43  more o r l e s s easy  arbitrary.  I f the user  dees r e t l i k e  them t h e y a r e  t o change.) Once a g a i n  the  we must t r y t o c l e a n up t h e u n f l a g g e d  sentence.  exactly  one a g a i n  t h e same t h i n g i s done  decided "the  The f i r s t  that  "beside  only other  Mary."  As  returned  from  EXCHANGE, yet.)  with  "beside", the cases  that  done  before:  for later  there  have  a s s o c i a t e d with  the foregrounding  of  cases  will  i s"for "for"  are  BENEFICIARY,  h a s n o t been nc  is  action.  t c be h a n d l e d  been  i t  d e s c r i p t o r of  They a r e : DURATION,  (IND-SUBJ  of  t h e window", a n d  i s a locative  part o f the sentence  a n d IND-SUBJ.  sentences,  was  i s stacked  t h e CASE-TABLE.  Assuming  that  t h e window"  man", and t h i s d e c i s i o n The  i s "beside  parts  implemented  relevant  previous  have no e f f e c t cn  this ordering. The  DURATION  particularly noun p h r a s e under  simple  next  that  since  phrase  ANIMATE.  So BENEFICIARY  WOMAN  succeeds  (<-BENEFICIARY-  Unlike All  "beside  cases  t h e window",  o f the verb  this  a  t c see t h a t the  has t h e p r o p e r t y test,  The o n l y t e s t  be a n i m a t e .  i t h a s t h e SUPERSET  is  TINE  s c DURATION i s  case.  i s BENEFICIARY.  t h e noun  DURATION  i t checks  phrase  "Mary" f a i l s  the c o r r e c t  case  first.  Basically  i n the p r e p o s i t i o n a l  as being  The  i s tried  case.  t h e f l a g N-PROP.  rejected  is  case  this  and  f c r this  "Rary" passed WOMAN  this  case test  h a s t h e N-ERCP  and r e t u r n s :  (NPR MARY))  phrase  i s a case o f the verb.  (but AGENT a n d PATIENT)  are considered  to  44  ba  essentially  put i n t o  parallel  the structure  a t t h e same  symbol  "<—",  stacked  t o p u t t h e above  structure Next  and  with respect  their  i n the c o r r e c t  order  t c the verb, sc they are  level:  that  of  i s independent.  structure  into  the  t h e verb  So a form i s isain  sentence  location.  t h e p - p a r s e i s checked  f o r more unused  phrases.  None  a r e f o u n d , s o we a r e d o n e . The two forms returned  a r e put  into  the structure,  and  a s t h e "meaning" o f t h e s e n t e n c e :  <==> N HAN NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE <-LOC- BESIDE N WINDOW NUMBEB SG < - D E F I N I T l - THE PAST < — DO OCAUSE< ==> N PIANO NUMBEB SG <-DEFINITE- THE PAST <-- EMIT NP N SOUND <-BENEFICIARYNPR MABY  Figure  7 - The F i n a l  Structure  f o r S e n t e n c e (4.1)  i t  i s  45  CHAPTER 5  He gave you a german s h e p h e r d t c walk w i t h a c e l l a r o f l e a t h e r and n a i l s he n e v e r o n c e made you e x p l a i n o r t a l k about a l l c f the l i t t l e d e t a i l s  and  -L.  Cchen  SOME DETAILS  SECTION 5.1  Anaphoric  Perhaps  i t  is  anaphoric references, front be  end  References  not  the  but t h i s  s o a mechanism  been  before,  particular  said  domain i n  resolution solely have  of  some k i n d  be  changed  which  of a parser  this  would r e q u i r e  system  so  no  them  base  is  therefore,  The a n a p h o r i c  and  how i t f i t s  i n t o the world  The  anaphoric c a p a b i l i t i e s  describing  be  references  was p u t  t o work i n a l a r g e r s y s t e m  of global structure  to  in.  i s not designed  data  references,  sentences.  to resclve  was c o n s t r u c t e d  for resolving  mind,  anaphoric  on t h e p r e v i o u s to  system  t o a l a r g e r system  resolved,  has  function  to As  w i t h any  kept. must  routines which  a  The depend will  maintains  what has gene cn so f a r  knowledge t h a t  were p u t i n t o t h i s  the  system  has.  system b e c a u s e , i f  46  a r e f e r e n c e i s u n r e s o l v e d t h e system it  i s .  They  mechanism  were  fits  Only  into  the  also  be  idea  resolved  will  the range  o f t h e system's  of  how  anaphoric  ANAPHORIC  how  vhat  case  w e l l such a  references  with examples  are  illustrating  capabilities.  found  in  the  sentence  n o t t h e ATN p a r s e ) , i t t r i g g e r s a c a l l  ANAPHORIC.  tell  paradigm.  given here, along  When a pronoun i s analysis,  put i n to i l l u s t r a t e  the case  basic  o f t e n cannot  takes four  (in the  case  t c the f u n c t i o n  arguments:  1.  A list  of cases t o lock f o r .  2.  A test  that  3.  A number i n d i c a t i n g  the r e f e r e n t how  must  pass,  f a r back i n the h i s t o r y t c  lock.  hard  4.  The pronoun r e f e r e n c e d .  The  search i s breadth f i r s t ,  to  find  the  referent  The  test  i s an a r b i t r a r y  of  the  test  (5.1)  The  call  very  possible  sentence.  MUST-EE  elements  SHCU1D-EE and  (See C h a p t e r  tries  as they a r e i n the r e s t c f 4)  t h e system  i s given  the s e n t e n c e :  He p l a y e d t h e p i a n o .  t o AGENT would  (AGENT  Since  form.  f o r instance, that  t h e program  i n the e a r l i e s t  a r e s h u t o f f on f a i l u r e  the back-up p r o c e d u r e . Say,  i n that  the  be t h e f o r m :  (AND (SHOULD-BE MUSICIAN)  obvious  candidate  for  (MUST-BE HUMAN)))  the  agent  is  a  pronoun.  47  ANAPHORIC  would be  (AND So parses  cf  the  would  recent  looking  insist  look  back  sentences  the  resolved.  referent  be  male and  (5.2)  F r e d went t o London so  (5.3)  Jack took  to events  you  and  up  as  pass  global  this  make t h e t e s t i s smart  p-  test. less  enough  to  animate,  a sentence  itself  can  also  p l a c e s can  I t was  (5.5)  I went t o F r a n c e ,  resolution  unfortunate that  of l o c a t i o n a l By  must be  a location,  system.  "Here"  treating  is  i s highly  visit  also  be  the c h i l d r e n  Fred l i v e s  queen,  handled  fairly  more d i f f i c u l t  c o n t e x t d e p e n d a n t , and  were  killed.  there.  r e f e r e n c e s ("here"  is  much  the  handled:  " t h e r e " as a p r o n o u n  "there" a  he c c u l d  in his airplane.  (5.4)  resolution  kept  will  more d e s p e r a t e i t w i l l  p a r s e s and  For i n s t a n c e :  a hard problem.  at  that  1  that  the  are  S i n c e "'he ' i s t h e p r o n o u n , ANAPHORIC  References  The  HUMAN))  through  which  Most^pronoun r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n be  be:  (BUST-EE  f o r a noun p h r a s e  i t becomes more and  strict.  I t s TEST would  (SHOUID-BE BUSICI&B)  ANAPHORIC  variables, As  invoked.  and  "there") i s  whose well  referent by  the  problem,  since i t s  i s hardly  addressed  all. There  is  still  one  problem  I  with  references  within  a  48  sentence, and that i s that i f the referent cf a pronoun main  clause  resolved.  (5.6)  is  in  a  in  the  subordinate clause, then i t w i l l net be  For instance, i n the sentence: While he walked home, Fred was mugged.  "Fred" i s not even considered as a candidate for "he".  It is  a  simple extension to put t h i s i n (ANAPHORIC just has tc lock into subordinate c l a u s e s ) , but i t has just not been done yet. More d i f f i c u l t problems are i l l u s t r a t e d by sentence  (5.7).  (5.7) Mary was aboard the T i t a n i c when she sank. This  sentence  i s ambiguous: Mary could have sunk in a swimming  pool while she was on the T i t a n i c , but t h i s i s probably not intended meaning.  the  If "to sink" i s defined with a test l i k e  (SHOULD-BE BOAT)  then  the  system  will  pick up " T i t a n i c " c o r r e c t l y .  choice as a candidate i s "Mary", however, so i f not  rule  the  Its  first  test  does  "Mary" out, the system w i l l choose her as i t s  initial  guess. This perhaps i l l u s t r a t e s a system's  anaphoric  routines.  fundamental  problem  with  the  The f i r s t candidate found which  passes the test i s chosen, rather than  all  of  being locked a t , and the most l i k e l y accepted.  the  candidates  49  SECTION 5.2: There  Particles are  many  verbs  i n English which, when used with a  p a r t i c l e , take on a very different  (5.6)  Pick a g i r l .  (5.7)  Pick up a g i r l .  (5.8)  Pick a g i r l up.  (5.9)  Pick out a g i r l .  The policy with p a r t i c l e s  meaning.  in t h i s system i s to create a new  verb by tacking the p a r t i c l e onto the end of the i n f i n i t i v e form of the verb.  So (5.7)  and (5.8)  both become  (5.10) Pick-up a g i r l .  This conduction takes place i n the takes  one  or  more  particles  property l i s t under look",  for  the  instance  has  indicator  has  (FOR  (Look can take other p a r t i c l e s :  a list  Bach  PARTICLES.  The  AT LIKE).on i t s  In  the  verb  cf particles  up, i n t o , e t c . ,  currently handled by the system.) entries  ATN.  that cn i t s  vert  property  "to list.  but they are net  dictionary  explicit  are made for the verbs LCCK-FCR, LOCK-AT, and LOOK-LIKE  as well as LOOK. leads to problems.  This usually  works  well,  but  it  sometimes  Consider the sentence  (5.11) John looked for Mary.  This  sentence i s ambiguous.  "Mary" could be the patient cf the •  50  verb " l o o k - f c r " , Mary"  be  the b e n e f i c i a r y  problem i s t h a t of  the  back-up  "look-for" Let on  or the p a t i e n t  t h e ATS  could  be u n s p e c i f i e d ,  c a s e , or even  i s purely  s y n t a c t i c , and  mechanism, so t h e s y s t e m  r e - i t e r a t e that  the system  p a r t i c l e s , but i n a more competent  semantics  "for  case.  The  i t i s not  will  always  usually  works  Fart  choose  the  meaning.  me  conjoining  the exchange  and  p a r t i c l e s to verbs w i l l a r e a t work.  have  system  correctly  the d e c i s i o n  t o be p u t o f f u n t i l  about the  51  SECTION  5.3:  Ergative  There In  If  are  particular,  problems  The  door  (5.13)  The  key  (5.14)  He  (5.15)  The  opened  opened key  the  the door  with the  on s e n t e n c e  calls  They  them e r g a t i v e Basically,  a  sentence. if If  i t  would  return  There  verbs.  choose  "the  verbs  that  i s a whole s e t o f  T h i s system  1.2.'  h a n d l e s them  ERGATIVE,  for returning  unspecified,  i t would  i n SECTION  was  Simmons specially.  written  tall  i t i s t h e agent If  i t  the i s  sentence not  phrase  o r the p a t i e n t or i n s t r u m e n t . offers  DC  problems  the a g e n t , then t h e system  in  t h e p a t i e n t by c h e c k i n g  if  the verb.  there i s a patient  details in  "the key"  following  i n sentence  (5.15)  l o o k a t the d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y  tc  Thus the system  as the p a t i e n t .  i n APPENDIX  V.  see would  F o r more  f o r "to open" o r " t o  APPENDIX IV and t h e ERGATIVE r o u t i n e  this  can d e c i d e  between t h e i n s t r u m e n t c a s e and  interpret  uses  By c h e c k i n g t o s e e i f i t i s a n i m a t e ERGATIVE c a n  (5.14)  noun  which  the  the agent as i n  the f i r s t  "the  of  is  regard.  i t  Similarily,  are described  routine,  AGENT as a r o u t i n e  (5.12)  whereas t h e a g e n t i s a c t u a l l y  (5.13).  k e y " as t h e a g e n t i n open.  key.  opened.  the agent,  like  defined.  door.  and " t h e d o o r " i s t h e p a t i e n t .  behave  system.  opened.  AGENT were c a l l e d as  w i t h many c f t h e c a s e s i n t h i s  the agent c a s e i s not p r o p e r l y  (5.12)  door"  Verts  break"  52  SECTION 5 . 4 : The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s was tc implement a f a i r l j  case system, between  Some Obvious Extensions  and to e x p l o r e the use of case and the  case,  syntax,  and semantics.  interaction  In the time a l l o t t e d  t h i s work, t h e n , the main c o n c e n t r a t i o n was on c a s e s . fairly  large  gaps were l e f t  i n p a r t s of the system.  handle d e c l a r a t i v e sentences, it  for i n s t a n c e .  would be i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g questions  just  large  because t h e r e were other t h i n g s that  Thus some It  This i s  can c n l y  net because  and i m p e r a t i v e s ,  type,  wculd  j u s t i n v o l v e extending the ATN t c transform them  declarative etc.  sentences There are  with  the  but  were mere c h a l l e n g i n g .  Adding the a b i l i t y to parse these o t h e r types of sentences basically  for  appropriate  flags  into  indicating  l o t s of ATN•s around which do t h i s  fairly  well. Harder  questions  conjunction, e l l i p s e s ,  which  were  not  and n e g a t i o n .  these  and f a s t  p o r t i o n of the system.  and  difficult  questions It  are  but  I  do  net  is  system i f the ATN j u s t kept them as parse.  That i s ,  possible  routines  using case and  separate  that  left  semantics.  these  simple  negation  have a  entities  i f i t d i d not attempt  being negated or c o n j o i n e d , but  advocate  i n t o that supposedly  c o n j u c t i o n c o u l d be put i n t o the ATN, and s t i l l  initial  those of  Again, there are some ATNs  which do mediocre jobs i n these a r e a s , pushing  addressed  in  fast its  to say what was  decisions  to  the  6  CHAPTER  Some women w a i t f o r J e s u s some women w a i t f o r C a i n s o I hang upon my a l t e r and h e i s t my axe a g a i n -L.  Cchen  CONCLUSION  A sentence  p a r s e r i s a v e r y s m a l l p a r t o f what i s needed  have machine i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Among a v a s t number o f o t h e r  the  a parser  structures returned  global  structure  conveyed  in  by  which  the  must be  represents  previous  at  things,  incorporated into  least  u t t e r a n c e s , and  to  the  a  information  seme r e l e v a n t  world  knowledge. This global  the  to the  question  It a  not but  of  i s clear  with  c o n v e y i n an actually and  an  the  that  attempt  thoughts  a  system.  Also  relevant  u s e f u l n e s s of case  i n such  type  want more t h a n  Schank i s a l m o s t dependency  a  list  c f case  networks.  these  on  competence  Much c f  by  with  i m p l i c a t i o n s and  in i t s global structure.  parses the  utterances  Much i s i m p l i e d o r i n f e r r e d  able to determine  a structure.  certainly  u t t e r a n c e , or i n a s e r i e s of  make them e x p l i c i t  such  of  of t h i s  his conceptual  stated.  build  certainly  we  in this  cr  are  i f a c o m p u t e r i s t o have any  must be  tc design  direction  extension  global structure.  track  to  was  structure,  relevant is  thesis  the  is  in  right what  we  never  listener,  language  it  i n f e r e n c e s , and Some a t t e m p t  has  54 been  made  i n t h i s system to make e x p l i c i t some of the  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s e n t e n t i a l  unstated  parses.  What has been learned by the work on t h i s system? g l a r i n g message i s  probably t h a t  syntactic  parser before  were  write  to  pre-parser. is  this  using  using semantics system a g a i n ,  even  the  in  SECTION  5.2,  where the parser  more  that  syntactically  I  how  do to  net  believe  break  a  sentence  components f o r a semantic a n a l y s i s . as  one  I am n o t . s u r e  I  is  causes  unable  a particle,  one up  ATN  can  that Schank*s f o u r t e e n  but  correct  T h i s becomes more and  and subordinate  to  decide  i n t o the  pushes t h i s system i n t o more complex  i n v o l v i n g nested r e l a t i v e  If  I would net use an ATN as a  a word as  generally,  simple  leads to problems.  undo an erroneous d e c i s i o n to c l a s s i f y  obvious  most  One of the problems t h a t my use of the  illustrated  The most  more  sentences  clauses. ACTs form a  good  set  of v e r b a l p r i m i t i v e s : they were not i n t u i t i v e enough f c r me when I  started  this project,  but my experience  me to s t r o n g l y support h i s i n t e n t , down  a  small  change the s e t  set  set  of  manner. hampered problems. naivity  primitives,  least,  cf c a r e f u l l y  leads laving  and being very h e s i t a n t  tc  later.  No semantic project.  of  at  with t h i s system  p r i m i t i v e s were s e t  down at the o u t s e t of  New ones were merely c r e a t e d as  this  they were needed.  The  cases was extended i n a s i m i l a r , though more c o n t r o l l e d Future work with the c u r r e n t system by  this  unstructured  Ptolemaic astronomers when  they  added  attempts to model the s o l a r  approach  will to  probably  these  have  been  seemed  epicycles  upon  epicycles  system.  be  difficult for  their  in t h e i r  We should t h e r e f o r e be very  55  suspicious with  of a natural  language system  that  t h e r e a r e some p r c b i e m s  b o t h l i n g u i s t i c and c o m p u t a t i o n a l , b u t I f e e l of i t s objectives.  range  of English  certain  approach,  difficulties. who  t h e same  thing  s e m a n t i c p r i m i t i v e s and c a s e s . We have s e e n t h a t  all  dees  understanding  sentences. and  Finally,  believe that  The s y s t e m  we this  case w i l l  o f language.  with t h i s that  employs c a s e  I t has i l l u s t r a t e d ways  i t  system, has  met  t c handle a  wide  problems  have  seen  system  l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h o s e o f us  p r o v e t o be a u s e f u l  around  with a these  t c c l i n machine  56  I t i s your world . . . It i s your f l e s h that I wear  57  2I2££&6fiAPHY 0 [1]  Bach, Emmon. "Noun and Noun Phrases" U nivergals L i n g u i s t i c Theory. E d i t t e d by Bach and Harms. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1968  [2]  Bruce, Bertram. Case Systems f o r New J e r s e y , ?974  [3]  C e l c e - M u r c i a , M. "Paradigms f o r Sentence R e c o g n i t i o n " , i n System Developement Corp, Final Report Nc. ERT15092/7907.  [4]  Chafe, Wallace L. l e a n i n g and the S t r u c t u r e c f language. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , " 1 9 7 0  [5]  C h a r n i a k , Eugene., Comprehension. dissertation  [6 ]  Fillmore, C h a r l e s , , "The Case f o r Case" finiyersals L i g u i s i t i c Theory. E d i t t e d by Each and Earms. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1968  [7]  Jesperson,  [8]  McCawley, James D. "The Bole cf Semantics i n a Grammar" HJJiJZSJJsals i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory. E d i t t e d by Bach and Harms. New York: H o l t , B i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1968  [9]  M a r t i n , William A. " T r a n s l a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n t o MAPL Using Winograd's Syntax, S t a t e Transition Networks, and a Semantic Case Grammar" Automatic Programming Group I n t e r n a l Memo 11, MIT P r o j e c t MAC, 1973  [10]  To wards a Cambridge,  Natural language. ~  in  Rutgers,  Model of Children's Story Massachusetts: MIT 1972. PhD in  O t t o . The Philosophy of Grammar. New York:  W. W. Norton CoT, 1965T~(original~pubT 1924)  Rosenbaum, Peter S. The Grammar f o r Com£lement Construction Cambridge, Press~1967  English Predicate Massach usetts:~MIT  £ 1 1 ] Schank, Roger C. "Conceptual Eependancy: A Theory of Natural Language Understanding" C o g n i t i v e P s j c h c l o g y 3 (1972) 552-631 [12]  Schank, Roger C. "Identification of Conceptualizations U n d e r l y i n g N a t u r a l Language" Computer Models cf Thought and. Language. E d i t t e d by Schank and C o l b y . San F r a n s i s c o : W. H . Freeman and Co. 1973  [13]  Simmons, R. F. "Semantic Networks: T h e i r Computation and Use for Understanding English Sentences" Computer Models of Thought and Language. E d i t t e d by Schank and C o l b y . San F r a n s i s c o : W . H . Freeman and C c . 1973  58  [14]  Winograd, Terry "A Procedural Model of Language U n d e r s t a n d i n g " Computer M o d e l s o f Thought and L a n g u a g e . Editted by Schank and C o l b y . . San I r a n s i s c o : W. E. Freeman and Co. 1973  [15]  Woods, W. A. "Transition Network Grammars for Natural Language Analysis" Communications cf t h e ACM V o l 13 (Oct. 1970) 591-606  59  APPENDIX I : Some Examples  The in  following  two p a r t s . to  i s a sample r u n o f t h e s y s t e m .  First  comes t h e ATN p a r t i a l  out  only  illustrate  that  comes t h e f i n a l  with  t h e symbol <==>.  * (LETS-GO) > HELLO. 100 ARE > ANY L I S P FORMS > YO 0 MA Y RE TORN > I F Y00 ENTER A > >  parse  parse.  Each p a r s e  This i s printed  the n o t i o n o f the p a r t i a l o f the  sentence.  is  parse.  I t alwajs  After begins  NOW I N C 0 N V1HS ATION AL MODE. WILL BE EVALED IN THIS MODE. TO LISP BY ENTERING A #. «9 AS A WORD IN A SENTENCE, TEAT SENTENCE WILL BE ABORTED  >  * THE MAN WITH THE WIFE WHO I S BIGGER THAN HE GOES * TO VIENNA WITH A WOMAN WHO I S SMALLER THAN E l . > PARSE: S > NP NIL > DET THE > N MAN > NUMBEB SG > PP NIL WITH > NP NIL > DET THE > N WIFE > NOHBEB SG > BEL NIL > BELPBO WHO > VP NIL > TNS > PRES ENT > VOICE ACTIVE > V BE > <-ADJ- NIL BIG > COMP-SOP COMPARATIVE > THAN-PH N I L > > NP NIL PRC HE > VP NIL > TNS > . PRESENT > VOICE ACTIVE > > V GO PP NIL TO >  60  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > * Y > > > > > > > >  >  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  >  > > > > >  SP NIL NPR VIENNA PP NIL W IT B NP N I L DET A N WOMAN NUMBER SG REL NIL RELPRO WHO VP NIL TNS PRESENT VOICE ACTIVE V BE <-ADJ- NIL S M I L COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE THAN-PH NIL SP S I L PRO HE BY HE I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE MAN I S THAT CORRECT? <==> S MAS NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE <-DESC- WITH S WIFE NUMBER SG < - D E F I S I T E - THE  <==>  H WIFE NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE PRESENT < — HAVE-PROP BIG <-COMPARED-TON KAN NUMBER SG <-EEEINlTE- TEE  PRESENT <-- MOVE <-SOURCE- SOMEPLACE <-DESTINATIOBNPR VIENNA <-CO-AGENTN WOMAN NUMBER SG <-INDEFINITE- A  <==>  N WOMAN NUMBER SG <-INDEFINITE- A PRESENT < — HAVE-PROP  > > > > > > >  SMALL <-CGMPfiBEE-TCN MAN NO ME IB SG <-DEFINITE- THE  * FBED LOVED THE OLD WOMAN BEFORE HE CAME TO CANADA. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > NPR FRED > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V LOVE > NP NIL > DET THE > N WOMAN > BOMBER SG > O A D J - OLD > BEFORE NIL > NP NIL >  > > > > > > > > > > * Y  >  > > > > > > > > >  >  > > > > > > >  PRO  HE  VP NIL TNS PAST VOICE ACTIVE V COME PP NIL TO NP NIL NPR CANADA BY HE I ASSUME YOU MEAN FBED IS THAT CORRECT?  <==>  NPR FRED PAST <-- HAVE-AFFECTION-FOR <-ADV- KOCH N WOMAN NUMBER SG O A D J - OLD <-DEFINITE- THE <-TIME- BEFORE  <==>  NPR FRED PAST < — MOVE <-SOURCE- SOMEPLACE <-DESTINATIONNPR CANADA  > * THERE I S A SMALL  PEN IN THAT BOX.  62  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  PARSE: S <-ADV- NIL THERE VP NIL TNS PRESENT VOICE ACTIVE V BE NP NIL DET A N PEN NUMBER SG <-ADJ- SMALL PP NIL IN NP NIL DET THAT N BOX NUMBER SG <==> N PEN NUMBER SG <-ADJ- SMALL <-IN DEFINITE- A PRESENT < — HAVE-LOC IN N BOX NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THAT  >  ,  * IT IS IDIOTIC THAT FRED WENT TO INDIA TC PLAY FOGIEAIL. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > PRO IT > SUBJ > OBJ > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PRESENT > VOICE ACTIVE > V BE > <-ADJ- NIL IDIOTIC > THAT-COHP NIL >  > > > > > > >  > >  <==>  NPR FRED PAST <-- MOVE <-SOURCE- SOMEPLACE <-DESTINATIONNPR INDIA <-PURPOSE-  <==>  KPR FRED  63  > > > >  >  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  >  <==>  PRESENT <— FLAY H FOOTBALL BURBEB SG  <==>  NPB FBED PAST <— HOVE <-SOUBCE- SOMEPLACE <- DE S TI N AT 10 KNPR INDIA <-PURPOSE<==> NPB FRED PRESENT <— PLAY N FOOTBALL NUMBEB SG PRESENT <— HAVE-PROP IDIOTIC  * THE PIANO HAS PLAYED IS THE EMPTY HALL. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N PIANO > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE PASSIVE > V PLAY > PP NIL IN > NP NIL > DET THE > N HALL > NUMBER SG > <-ADJ- EMPTY > <==> SOMEONE > PAST > <— DO > <-CAUSE> <==> > N PIANO > NUMBER SG > <-DEFINITE- THE > PAST > <— EMIT > NP > N SOUND > <-LOC- IN > N HALL  64  > > > >  NUMBER SG <-ADJ- EMPTY <-DEFINITE- THE  >  * THE MAN HITH THE BIG HANDS PLAYED THE EIANO * LIKE EEETHOVEN FOR MARY. > PARSE: >  S  >  <==>  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  >  >  > > > > > > > > >  NP NIL DET THE N MAN NUMBER SG PP NIL WITH NP NIL DET THE N HAND NUMBER PL <-ADJ- BIG VP NIL TNS PAST VOICE ACTIVE V PLAY NP NIL DET THE N PIANO NUMBER SG PP NIL LIKE NP NIL NPR BEETHOVEN PP NIL FOR NP NIL NPR MARY N MAN ' NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE <-DESC- WITH N HAND NUMBER PL <-ADJ- BIG <-DEFINITE- THE PAST <—  DO  <-CAUSE-  <==>  N PIANC NUMBER SG < - D E F I » I T E - THE PAST <— EMIT NP N SOUND OBENEFICIARYNPR MARY  65  > > >  <-LIKENPB BEETHOVEN  > * THE NAN IN THE HOUSE HAS HANDS. > PABSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N MAN > NUMBEB SG > PP NIL IN > NP NIL > DET THE > N HOUSE > NUMBEB SG > VP NIL > TNS > PBESENT > VOICE ACTIVE > V HAVE > NP NIL > N HAND > NUMBEB P L  >  > > > > > > > > > > > >  <==>  N MAN NUMBEB SG O D E F I N I T E - THE <-LOC- IN N HOUSE NUMBEB SG <-DEFINITEPBESENT <-- POSSESS N HAND NUMBEB PL  >  * FRED WENT TO INDIA WITH JACK. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > NPR FRED > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V GO > PP NIL TO > NP NIL > NPR INDIA > PP NIL WITH > NP NIL > NPR JACK  >  >  <==>  NPR FRED  THE  66  > > > > > > > >  PAST <-- MOVE <-SOURCE- SOMEPLACE <-DESTINATIONNPR INDIA <-CO-AGENTNPR JACK  >  * FRED PLAYED JACK FOOTBALL. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > NPR FRED > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V PLAY > NP NIL > NPR JACK > NP NIL > N FOOTBALL > NUMBER SG > <==> > NPR FRED > PAST > < — PLAY > N FOOTBALL > NUMBER SG > <-CO-AGENT> NPR JACK >  >  * FRED PLAYED FOOTBALL WITH JACK. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > NPR FRED > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V PLAY > NP NIL > N FOOTBALL > NUMBER SG > PP NIL WITH > NP NIL > NPR JACK > <==> > NPR FRED > PAST > < — PLAY > N FOOTBALL > NUMBER SG  67  > > >  <-CO-AGENTNPB JACK  > * THE HOUSE WITH THE PIANO IN I T WAS > PABSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N HOUSE > NUMBER SG > PP NIL HITH > NP NIL > DET THE > N PIANO > NUMBEB SG > PP NIL IN > NP NIL > PRO IT > SUBJ > OBJ > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE PASSIVE > V GIVE > PP NIL TO > NP NIL > NPR FRED > PP NIL BY > NP NIL > DET > POSSPBC HIS > N WIFE > NUMBER SG > BY HIS I ASSUME YOU MEAN FRED > I S THAT COBBECT? * Y > < = => > N WIFE > NUMBEB SG > <-POSS-BY- FRED > PAST > <-- TRANSFER > N HOUSE > NUMBER SG > <-DEFINITE- THE  >  > > > > > > >  GIVEN TO F BE! EY BIS WIFE.  <==>  N HOUSE NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE PRESENT < — CONTAIN N PIANO KUKEEB SG  <-DEFINITE- THE <-RECIPIENT~ NPR F BED <-SOURCEN WIFE NUMBEB SG <-POSS-BY-  FBED  BEETHOVEN WROTE A PIANO SONATA IN VIENNA PARSE: S > NP NIL > NPR BEETHOVEN > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V WRITE > NP NIL > DET > DET A > N SONATA > NUMBER SG > OCLASS> N PIANO > NUMBER SG > PP NIL IN > NP NIL > NPR VIENSA > PP NIL FOR > NP NIL > NPR FRED  >  > > > > > > > > > > > > >  <==>  NPR BEETHOVEN PAST < — COMPOSE N SONATA NUMBER SG <-CIASSN PIANO NUMBER SG <-BENEFIC IAR I NPR FRED <-LOC- IN NPR VIENNA  > * HE WROTE A SYMPHONY FOR HIM > PARSE:  >  > > > > >  S  NP NIL PRO HE VP NIL TNS PAST  IN MUNICH.  FOE FB EE,  69  > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  VOICE ACTIVE V WRITE NP NIL DET A N SYMPHONY NUMBEB SG PP NIL FOR NP NIL PRO HIM PP NIL IN NP NIL NPR MUNICH BY HE I ASSUME YOU MEAN BEETHOVEN I S THAT CORRECT?  > > * Y  BY HIM I ASSUME YOU IS THAT CORRECT?  * y  >  > > > > > > > > > > >  >  MEAN FRED  <==>  NPR BEETHOVEN PAST < — COMPOSE N SYMPHONY NUMBER SG <-IN DEFINITE- A <-LOC- IN NPR MUNICH OBENEFICIARYNPR FRED  * THE BIG MAN IN THE RED HOUSE PLAYS THE PIANO > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N MAN > NUMBER SG > <-ADJ- BIG > PP NIL IN > NP NIL > DET THE > N HOUSE > NUMBER SG > <-ADJ- RED > VP NIL > TNS > PRESENT > VOICE ACTIVE > V PLAY > NP NIL > DET THE > N PIANO > NUMBER SG > <-ADV- NIL WELL > <==>  WELL.  70  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  N MAN NUMBEB SG <-ADJ- BIG O D E F I N I T E - THE <-L0C- IN N HOUSE NUMBEB SG <-ADJ- BED <-DEFINITE- THE PBESENT <— DO <-CAUSE<—> N PIANO NUMBER SG <- DEFINITE- THE PBESENT <-- EMIT NP N SOUND  >  > <-ADV- WELL * THE MUSIC PLAYED LOUDLY FBOM THE SMALL ECCM. > P ABS E : >  > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  >  S  NP NIL DET THE N MUSIC NUMBER SG VP NIL TNS PAST VOICE ACTIVE V PLAY <-ADV- NIL LOUD PP NIL FROM NP NIL DET THE N ROOM NUMBER SG <-ADJ- SMALL <==> SOMEONE PAST <-- PLAY N MUSIC NUHBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE <-SOURCEN ROOM NUHBER SG <-ADJ- SMALL O D E F I N I T E - THE <-ADV- LOUD  71  * THE HAMMER BROKE THE WINDOW. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N HAMMER > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V BREAK > NP NIL > D E I THE > N WINDOW > NUMBER SG > <==> SOMEONE > PAST > < — BREAK > N WINDOW > NUMBER SG > -(-DEFINITE- THE > <-INSTRUMENT > N HAMMER > NUMBER SG > <-DEFINITE- THE >  >  * THE DOOR OPENED. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N DOOR > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V OPEN > <==> SOMEONE > PAST > < — OPEN > N DOOR > NUMBER SG > O D E F I N I T E - THE >  >  * THE KEY OPENED THE DOOR WITH EASE, > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > DET THE > N KEY > NUMBER SG > VP NIL  72  > > > > > > > > > >. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >  TNS PAST VOICE ACTIVE V OPEN NP NIL DET THE N DOOfi NUMBER SG PP NIL WITH NP NIL N EASE NUMBER SG <==> SOMEONE PAST < — OPEN ' N DOOR NUMBER SG O D E F I N I T E - THE OINSTRUM ENT N KEY NUMBER SG <-DEFINITE- THE <-MANNER- WITH N EASE NUMBER SG  >  * I BROKE THE WINDOW WITH VENGENCE WITH A HAMMER. > PARSE: > S > NP NIL > PRO I > SUBJ > NUMBER SG > VP NIL > TNS > PAST > VOICE ACTIVE > V BREAK > NP NIL > DET THE > N WINDOW > NUMBER SG > PP NIL WITH > NP NIL > N VENGEN CE > NUMBER SG > PP NIL WITH > NP NIL > DET A > N HAMMER > NUMBER SG > WHAT IS YOUR NAME? * BROCK  >  >  <==>  NPR BROCK  73  \  > > > > > > > > > > > >  PAST < — BBEAK N WINDOW NUMBER SG < - D E F I K I T E - THE <-INSTRUM EiJTN HAMMER SOMBER SG <-INDEFIKITE- A <-MANNER- WITH N VENGENCE NUMBER SG  74  APPENDIX  into Here  I I : Some Non-examples  In CHAPTER 2 many examples a r e g i v e n of p h r a s e s my s e t o f c a s e s . T h e r e a r e , however, many which a r e a few o f them.  which f i t do not.  I know from h e r s m i l e t h a t t o n i g h t w i l l be f i n e . The~METHOD~case~"expects a s e n t e n c e a f t e r " f r o m " . I l i s t e n a l l n i g h t f o r y o u r s t e p on t h e s t a i r . LISTEN-EOR i s "not " d e f i n e d i n the system, a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be. Looking  at the l a t e  late  S§lil£I§£i2 S s t o n e .  show t h r o u g h a  u  T h e r e ~ " i s no I  DIRlcTION  o r MEDIUH c a s e .  walked t h r o u g h t h e m o r n i n g . T h i s i s ~ r i o t ~ r e a l l y ~ t h e PATH c a s e , a l t h o u g h t h a t t h e s y s t e m would c a l l i t .  .  . .Between  t h e o c e a n and  .  . . Between t h e hour  y o u r open  and t h e  vein.  age.  . ,..,. R u s t e d f r o m t h e elbow t o t h e f i n g e r . The t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e s e t h r e e examples d e f i n e d t o the system, I met a woman l o n g ago. The TIME c a s e w i l l n o t a c c e p t turning into gold. TURN-INTcfis n o t ~ d e f i n e d .  you  h e l d o n t o me l i k e I was a c r u c i f i x . The L I K E c a s e does not e x p e c t a s e n t e n c e .  She  l o o k e d once b e h i n d h i s s h o u l d e r . This i s a n o t h e r example"\>f~the case. died without a whisper. The s y s t e m d o e s n o t know d i f f i c u l t word.  is  not  this,  I am  He  i s what  about  n o n - e x i s t a n t DIRECTION  "without".  It  is  a  75  JkilMfiJX  III-  A  Formal  Description  o f What t h e System  Returns.  Symbols i n upper-case are terminal s y m b o l s . Symbols i n l o w e r c a s e a r e n o n - t e r m i n a l s y m b o l s . A v e r t i c a l b a r , "I", means either, b u t n o t b o t h , c a n be t a k e n . A s y m b o l i n p a r e n t h e s e s e , " ( • • • ) " » i s o p t i o n a l . A symbol i n sguare brackets with an asterisk following i t , " [ . . . ] * " , may be r e p e a t e d one o r more times. s sub j np nh noun nmods nu det def defdet indef indefdet adjp adj advp adv comp-sup cs class cnp quant gp intp int ordp ord desc prep poss npc tns pred vp vtp vt vip vi vcp vc adjmod adjmodl than-ph  : ZZ <==> s u b j t n s p r e d c a s e s ( a d j p ) • s | np j npc : « = nh noun nmods N | NPR : • = MAN | WOMAB | FRED | DOG | TREF | . . := (NUMBER nu) ( d e t ) (s) (adjp) ( c l a s s ) (guant) (desc) ( l o c a t i o n ) (poss) SG | PL : = def \ i n d e f <-DEFINATE- d e f d e t : = THE | THAT | THIS | . . . <-INDEFINATE- i n d e f d e t : = A | AN | AKY | . . . := [<-ADJ- a d j (advp) (comp-sup) ] * : = BIG | SMALL | RED | HAPPY | . . . <-ADV- adv (advp) : = VERY | SUPBISINGLY | . . . COMP-SUP c s : = COMPARATIVE | SUPERLATIVE <-CLASS- cnp : = nh noun := QUANT qp : = ( i n t p ) (ordp) INTEGER i n t ONE | TWO | THREE | . : ORDINAL o r d (gp) : = F I R S T | SECOND | THIRD | . . . := <-DESC- p r e p np , = WITH | OF | BESIDE | ON | IN | UPON | := <-POSS-BY- np : .ts SOMEPLACE | SOMEONE | . . . ; - PAST \ PRESENT | FUTURE | . : . = < — vp := v t p | v i p J v c p | v l ; = v t (advp) np : = TRANSFER | PLAY | HEAR | INHABIT | SEASCH-FOR | EXAMINE | ORDER | . . . : : = v i (advp). : := MOVE | DO | . . . vc adjmod : : := HAVE-PROP | APPEAR | . . . : : = a d j p | adjmodl | a d j (than-ph) : ; = a d j (comp-sup) : ; s; <-COMPARED-TO- np <  76  vl lprep cases  location time tt prep-time tprep noun-time stime wp duration dprep manner mprep destination dtprep dsn co-agent instrument exchange beneficiary recipient topic purpose path pathprep method guantity source expected-ef cause enable like with  HAVE-LOC l p r e p np ID | ON| EY | NEAR | BESIDE | BEFORE | UNDER l o c a t i o n | time | d u r a t i o n | manner | d e s t i n a t i o n | co-agent | instrument j exchange | b e n e f i c i a r y j r e c i p i e n t | t o p i c | purpose | path | method | g u a n t i t y | source | expected-ef | cause | enable | l i k e | with <-LOC- l p r e p np <-TIHE- t t prep-time | noun-time f stime tprep np IS | AT | BY | ABOUT | NEAR | BEFORE j AFTER | DURING YESTERDAY | TODAY | TOMORROW | . . . wp s WHEN | WHILE | BEFORE | AFTER <-DURATION- dprep np IN | FOR <-MANNER- mprep np IN I WITH <-DESTINATION dtprep np TO | INTO | ONTO | TOWARD | TOWARDS np | SOMEPLACE CO-AGENT- np <-INSTRUMENT- np <-EXCHANGE- np <-BENEFICIARY- np <-RECIPIENT- np <-TOPIC- np <-PURPOSE- s <-PATH- pathprep np ACROSS j ABOUND | DOWN | UP | ALONG j ABOUT | BY <-M ETHOD- s <-QUANTITY- EY np <-SODRCE- (FROM) dsn <-EXPECTED-EFFICT- S <-CAUSE- s <-E NABLE- S <-LIKE- np <-WITH- np  77  APPENDIX i v : The D i c t i o n a r y  Below i s a copy o f the d i c t i o n a r y system.  Chapters 3 and  definitions,  but  4 briefly  currently  used  by the  r e f e r to c e r t a i n p a r t s  i t i s appropriate  t o give a f u l l e r  c f word  description  of what appears i n the d i c t i o n r y . Each d i c t i o n a r y entry  i s o f the  form  (WORD 11 P1 1 2 P2 . . . I i Pi)  where  P i i s a property which i s t o be put  of WORD under different  the i n d i c a t o r  indicators  i n t o more than one  ADJ.  The  described  Por i n s t a n c e  types o f word whose  i n full  v e r b s . I f these are  property  word  types  here  list have  If a word f a l l s  s y n t a c t i c category i t may have the  thus i t would have the  only  Different  on t h e i r property l i s t s .  of a l l of the c a t e g o r i e s . adjective,  Ii.  on the  properties  " c l o s e " i s a verb and an  i n d i c a t o r V and  be  a r e t h e two complex.ones: nouns  and  l e s s e r word  entries  indicator will  understood, the  dictionary  the  types  will  be  easy t o f o l l o w . Nouns have the  N:  following  T h i s i n d i c a t e s that  the WORD i s a noun. The property under N  i n d i c a t e s how p l u r a l s are  (BOY  N S)  (CLASS N ES)  properties:  formed. For  instance:  78  (OX N IRR) (OXEN N  (OX  (FRED NPR  (NUMBER P L ) ) )  NONE)  (WATER N MASS)  The e n t r y  f o r "ox"  irregularily. a separate the  indicates  The p l u r a l f o r m  word. NPR  under  i t  must  forms  its  plural  be i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y  as  i s a s p e c i a l case of N i n d i c a t i n g that  noun i s a p r o p e r  plural  that  noun. NONE i n d i c a t e s t h a t  there  is  form o f t h e n c u n . Mass nouns have t h e p r o p e r t y  nc  MASS  N.  N-PROP: Under t h i s  indicator i s a  list  of  properties  of  the  under  this  noun.  (BOY N S N-PROP  indicates  SUPERSET:  that  The  (YOUNG))  a boy has t h e p r o p e r t y  noun's  super-sets  YOUNG.  are put i n a l i s t  indicator:  (BOY N S N-PROP (MAN  (YOUNG) SUPERSET  N IRR N-PROP  (HUMAN N S N-PROP  the BOY,  (MALE)  SUPERSET  (ANIMATE)  will  (HUMAN))  SUPERSET  N-PROP and SUPERSET p r o p e r t i e s f o r instance,  (MAN))  be f o u n d  form  (ANIMAL))  a  network  t o be a n i m a t e  whereby  through the  79  above c h a i n of SUPERSETS and N-PBOPS. To searching,  avoid  a  l e t of  redundant i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n put i n :  (BOY B S N-PBOP (HUMAN MALE YOUNG) SUPERSET  OBJ-SIZE: 10  (MAN HUMAN))  i s t h e i n d i c a t o r whose property :  g i v i n g a rough estimate  of the s i z e of an  nouns such as JOY w i l l not have t h i s  NUM:  This  i s a number from 0 object.  Some  property.  i s used i f a.noun can have more than one number. For  i n s t a n c e , the noun "paper" i s d e f i n e d as:  (PAPER N S N-PROP (INFLAMABLE LITERATURE) SUPERSET  The property  (OBJECT) OBJ-SIZE 1 NUM  (MASS))  under NUM i n d i c a t e s t h a t paper can be  a  mass  noun, as i n "the room i s f u l l of paper." " F o o t b a l l " has  NUM  (MASS  (SPORT GAME))  on i t s property  list  a  i t only has the N-PBOPs SPOBT and GAME from  mass  noun,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i f f o o t b a l l appears as  the whole s e t on i t s property  N-PBOP (SPOBT GAME OBJECT)  list:  80  T h i s i s needed because the system  only  uses  one  set  cf  the verb i n d i c a t o r . I t s property i n d i c a t e s hew  the  p r o p e r t i e s to cover a l l of i t s meanings.  Verbs  V:  have t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t o r s : x  This  is  f i r s t - p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and the past tense are formed.  (KICK V  S-ED)  (GIVE V  IBB)  (GAVE V (GIVE (TNS (GIVING V  (GIVE  PAST)))  (PART PREPART) ) )  (GIVES V (GIVE (TNS  PRESENT) ) )  I r r e g u l a r verbs have IRR as the property under the  tenses  V.  All  of  o f an i r r e g u l a r verb must be l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y  i n the d i c t i o n a r y , g i v i n g the i n f i n i t i v e  form of  the  verb  and the tense or whatever of the form i n q u e s t i o n .  PREP-CASE: of  T h i s i s f o r the f o r e g r o u n d i n g r o u t i n e s . I t i s a l i s t  lists.  followed  Each s u b - l i s t s t a r t s with a p r e p o s t i o n , which by  always t r i e d when  the  that  verb.  a  variable  first  number of cases. These cases are  and i n the order i n  prepostion  is  is  encountered  which  they  appear  i n the sentence  with  V-MEAN: The p r o c e d u r a l d e f i n i t i o n of the verb i s the property c f  81  V-HEAN. CHAPTER 3 g i v e s a l l o f t h e d e t a i l s .  TO-COMP: I f t h e v e r b c a n t a k e a t o - c o m p l e m e n t ,  T is  under  this  indicator.  THAT^COMP: this  If  the  verb can take a that-complement,  T i s under  indicator.  PARTICLES: I f t h e v e r b listed  here.  t a k e s one o r  more  particles,  they  are  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1*  IA DET «l (APUUT PREP *) (ACROSS P R C P • ) ' *• (ADAGE N S O P . J - S I Z E 3 NUM (MASS) N - P R O P (MACHINE)) (AFRICA NPR NONE N-PROP (LOCATION) SUPERSET (CONTINENT) O H J - S I Z E 9) (AFTER P R E P * ) (AIRPLANE N S O B J - S I Z E 4 NUM (MASS) N - P P O P (CCNVEYANCE MACHINE)) ( A L E N S N-PKOP ( L I Q U I D ALCOHOLIC) SUPERSET (BEVERAGE) NUM (MASS))  15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2* 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 6T 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 9 1 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  I A L L C U A N T I F I E R *) (ALONG PREP » ) • (AH V (BE (TNS PRESENT) (PNCODE " I S C ' I I I ( A N DET *) (AND CONJ «) (ANGER N NCNE N-PROP I ABSTRACT)) (ANIMAL N S SUPERSET ( T H I N G ) C B J - S I Z E 3) (ANNOY V S-EO PREP—CASE ( ( W I T H INSTRUMENT)) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) "SOMEONE) (PATIENT (MUSI-BE ANIMATE)) PA OBL) (BUILDQ (»<= = >» 7 (••<—« ANNOY ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (ANYONE CENPttO » N-PRCP (HUMAN)) ( A P P L E N S N-PROP ( E A T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E I SUPERSET ( F R U I T ) ) (ARE V ( B E (TNS P R E S E N T ) ) ) (ARM N S O B J - S I Z E 2 ) (AROUND PREP *) (AT PREP (AT ADJ) P A R T I C L E T ) , (AT PREP *) I ATE V ( E A T (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (AUSTRALIA NPR NONE N-PROP (LOCATION) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) O B J - S I Z E 8 ) (AUSTRIA NPR NONE N-PROP (LOCATION) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) O B J - S I Z E 8) (AUTOMOBILE N S C B J - S I Z E 3 NUM (MASS) N-PROP (CCNVEYANCE MACHINE)) ( B A C H NPR » SUPERSET (COMPOSER MAN) N-PROP (COMPOSER HUMAN MALE) DEFAULT ( ( P A T I E N T ) (WRITE COMPOSE) (N MUSIC (••<—NUMBER—" S G ) ) ) OBJ-SIZE • 3) (BAO ADJ IRR N NONE N-PROP ( A B S T R A C T ) I (BADLY ADV * ) (BE V IRR PREP-CASE ( ( W I T H W I T H ) ) THAT-COMP T V-MEAN ( I F ( ( T H E R E - I S ) TH OBL (AGENT T ) AG OBL ( E E - L O C I ) LCC OBL) (BUILDQ ("<==>» ? ("<--« HAVE-LOC " • " ) ) AG TNS L O O ( ( T H E R E - I S ) TH OBL (AGENT T) AG OBL) (BUILOQ ("<==>•• ? " • " ( " < — " E X I S T ) ) AG TNS) ( ( A D J - L 1 S T T) AOJ OBL (AGENT T) AG OBL) ( e u l L O Q ( » < = = > " ? « • » { " < - - - H A V E - P R O P " • " ) ) AG TNS A O J ) ( ( P A T I E N T (MUST-BE THING I) PA OBL (AGENT (NOT (EQ (CAR T E S T E E I 'THAT-COMP))) AG IBUJLOQ (»<==•>" 7 ( " < — " # 7 ) ) AG TI\S ( B E I ? (GETR A G ) ) PA) I (COPULAR-ACV? (NOT (EO (CAR T E S T E E ) 'THAT-COMP))) ADV OBL (AGENT T)• AG OBL) (BUILDU « " < = = > " 7 ( " < — " HAVE-LCC "•") ) AG TNS ADV) ( ( C L A U S E '(FROM) '(MUST-BE COUNTRY CITY TOWN CONTINENT LCCATION) 'LOCATION) LOC 00 L (AGENT (HUST-BE HUMAN)) AG OOL) (BUILDQ (»<==>•• 7 PAST (•'<—" INHABIT ? ) ) AG LOC) ( ( B E - L O C ) LCC CBL (AGENT (NCT (EO (CAR TESTEE) 'THAT-COMP))) AG GBL) (BUILDO ("<==>*• ? ••»'• ( " < — " HAVE-LOC ••••')> AG TNS LOC) ((AGENT (NOT (EQ (CAR T E S T E E ) •THAT-COMP11) AG 0 8 L ) (BUILDO !"< = = >" ? ('•< — •• E X I S T ) ) AG T N S ) ) ) ( B E A T R I C E NPR * N-PROP (HUMAN FEMALE) SUPERSET (WOMAN) O B J - S I Z E 3) IBEAUTY N NONE N-PRUP (ARS TRACT)) ( B E E F N MASS N-PRCP (FCOD AN(MAL) O H J - S I Z E I SUPERSET ( F O O D ) ) (BEER fl S U" PROP ( L I Q U I D ALC0HCL1CI SUPERSET (LEVERAGE) NUM (MASS)) (BEETHOVEN NPR . » SUPERSET (COMPOSER MAN I N-PROP (COMPOSER HUMAN MALE) DEFAULT ( I P A T I E N T ) I W r t l l l COMPOSE) IN MUSIC l''<-NUNUER- S O ) ) ) OBJ-SIZE 3) (BEFORE PREP (BEFCRE ADV A D J ) ) (BEHIND PREP (HEMIND AOV A D J ) ) (eERKLEY NPR NONE N-PRUP (LOCATION) SUPERSET ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 61 I B E S I O E PREP •) h  OBL)  101 102 103 10<i 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129. 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200  (BEST AUJ (CCOD I S U P E R L A T I V E ) I ADV IHFLL ( S U P E R L A T I V E ! ) ) ( B E T I E R AOJ (GOOD ICOMPARAIIVE)) ADV (WELL ( C O M P A R A T I V E ) ) ) ( B I G ADJ E K - E S T ) I BLUE AO J K-ST) (BOAT U S U U J - S I Z E 3 NUM (MASS) N-PRDP (CONVEYANCE MACHINE)) (BOOK N S N-PROP ( L I T E R A T U R E ) SUPERSET (UUJECTI O U J - S I Z E II (BOX N ES N-PROP (CCNT AI NEK) OBJ-SIZC 2 SUPERSEI ( O B J E C T ) ) (BRAHHS NPR . • SUPERSET (COMPOSER HAN) N-PROP (CUHPOSER HUMAN MALE) DEFAULT ( ( P A T I E N T ) IWRITE COMPOSE) IN MUSIC I"<-NUMDER- S G ) ) ) OBJ-SIZE 3) I BREAD N S N-PROP ( E A T A B L E ) SUPERSET (FOOD) 0 8 J - S I Z E 1) (BREAK V IRR PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) TO-CC*P T V-MEAN (ERGATIVE 'CREAK)) (BREAKING V (BREAK (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (BREAKS V (BREAK (TNS P R E S E N T ) ) ) (BROCK NPR « N-PROP (HUMAN MALE) SUPERSET ( f A N ) O B J - S I Z E 3) (BROKE V (BREAK (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (BROKEN V (BREAK I PART P A S T P A R T ) ) ) (BOUGHT V (BUY (TNS P A S T ) ( P A R T P A S T P A R T ) ) ) (EULL N S N-PROP (MALE BOVINE ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) O B J - S I Z E 3) IBUSH N ES N-PROP (VEGETATION) O B J - S I Z E 3 SUPERSET ( O B J E C T ) ) (BUT CONJ *) (BUY V IRR PREP-CASE I ( W I T H EXCHANGE)) TO-COMP T V-MEAN ( I F ( ( A G E N T (MUST-BE HUMAN)) AG H  I OPT '(GETR P A S S I V E ) 'SOMEONE) ( P A T I E N T (NOT (SHOULO-BE HUMAN))) PA SOMETHING ( PREP-CASE-LCOK '(EXCHANGE) •I I F O R ) ) •(SHOULO-BE MONEY)) EX MONEY (OR (PREP—CASE-LOOK •I EXCHANGE I •(I FOR WITH)) '(SHOULD-BE (IND-OBJ (SHGULO-BE HUMAN O R G A N I Z A T I O N ) ) ) REC  HUCAN))  IGETR AG) (PREP-CASE-LCOK '(SOURCE) ' ( ( F R O M ) ) MSHOULO-BE HUMAN ORGANIZATION)) SOU SOMEONE) I8U1L0Q C < = 0 " 7 «•" ' ("<--" TRANSFER 7) ( " < - R £ C I P I E N T - " 7) ("<-SOURCE-" 7) I ^ - E X C H A N G E - " ?)> AG TNS PA REC SOU EX)) I I BUYING V (BUY (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) . (BUYS V (BUY (TNS P R E S E N T ) ) ) (BY PREP (BY AOV A C J ) ) (CABBAGE N S N-PRCP ( E A T A B L E ) SUPERSET ( V E G E T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E I ) (CAKE N S N-PROP (FCOO) 0 6 J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( F O C O ) (CAME V (CUME (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (CAN MODAL *) (CANADA NPR * N-PROP (PLACE COUNTRY LOCATION) C B J - S I Z E 8 ) (CANDOR N NONE N-PROP (ABSTRACT)) (CANDY N ES N-PROP (FOOO SWEET) O B J - S I Z E 0 SUPERSET (FOOD)) I CAR N S O B J - S I Z E 3 NUM (MASS) N-PRCP (CONVEYANCE MACVINE)) (CARROT N S N-PROP (ORANGE EATABLE) SUPERSET ( V E G E T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E I ) (CAT N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (AN I PAL) O B J - S I Z E 3) (CHICKEN N S N-PRCP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET I AN I PAL) C U J - S I Z E 3) (CHOCOLATE N S N-PROP (FOOO SWEET) C C J - S I Z E 0 SUPERSET (FOOO)) (CIOER N S N-PROP ( L I C U I D ALCOHOLIC) SUPERSET (BEVERAGE) NUM (MASS)) (CLOSE ADJ R-ST V S-ED TO-COMP T V-MEAN (ERGATIVE ' C L O S E ) ) ( C O F F E E N S N-PROP ( L I U U 1 0 ) SUPERSET (FEVERAGEI NUM ( M A S S ) ) (COLOUR N S NUM (MASS)) . (COME V ' IRR PREP-CASE ( ( T O DESTINATION PURPOSE) (WITH WITH) (AT TIME R A T E ) ) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG  oeL (PREP-CASE-LOOK DEST HERE  •(OESTINATI ON)  ' ( ( T O INTO ONTO TOWAROS TOWARD)) T)  (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(SOURCE) '((FKOM)I T) SRC (COND (IWHERE-IS INOUN-LIST-GFT IGETR A C ) ) ) ) H 'SOMEPLACE))) (BUILDQ ("<">" 7 (»< — •• MOVE) ("<-SOURCE-" 7) ("<-OEST I N A T I C N - " 7)1 AG TNS SRC  201  OESTD)  202 203 2Ci 205 206 207 208 209 210  (COMES V (COME (TNS PRESENT) (PNCODE " 3 S G " ) ) ) (COMPOSER N S SUPERSET I MAN MUS I C - M A K E M ) N-PROP (HUMAN MUS 1 COMAKER) O B J - S U E 3 ) (COMPUTER N S O B J - S I Z E * MUM (MASS) N - P R O P (MACHINE)) (CONDUCTOR N S SUPERSET (MAN MUSIC-MAKER) N-PROP (HUMAN MUSIC-MAKER) O B J - S I Z E 3) (CONIAIN V S-EO) (CONTENTMENT N NONE N-PKOP ( A B S T R A C T ) ) (CONTINENT N ES N-PROP (LOCATION PLACE) O B J - S I Z E 9) (COUNTRY N ES N-PROP (LOCATION PLACE) O H J - S I Z E 8) ICOULU MODAL *)  211 212 213 21*. 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 22 3 22* 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 23* 235 236 237 238 239 2*0 2*1 2*2 2*3 2** 2*5 2*6 2*7 2*8 2*9 250 251 252 253 25* 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 26* 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 27* 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 28* 285 286 2B7 288 289 290 291 292 293 29* 295 296 297 298 299 300  (COW N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) O B J - S I Z E 31 (CUP N S N-PROP (CONTAINER V E S S E L ) SUPERSET ( U T E N S I L ) O B J - S I Z E 1) (CYDNEY NPR « N—PROP (HUMAN FEMALE) SUPERSET (WCMAN) OISJ-SIZE 3) (DAY N S N-PROP ( T I M E ) NUM (MASS 1 ) (DENMARK NPR NONE N-PROP (LOCATION) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) O O J - S I Z E 8) ( D E S P I T E PRE P *) (DID V (DO (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (DISCOMFORT N NONE N-PROP (ABSTRACT)I (DISCONTENTMENT N NONE N-PROP ( A B S T R A C T ) ) ( D I S L I K E TO-COMP T V S-D PREP-CASE ((FOR CAUSE)1 V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN)) AC OBL (OR (TO-COMP (GETR AG)) (PATIENT T ) ) PA OBL) (BUI LOG (••< = = >" ? " • " (•<<—•• O I S L I K E ? ) ) AG TNS . P A ) ) ) ( D I S S A T I S F A C T I O N N NONE N-PROP ( A B S T R A C T ) ) (DO V IRR) (DOG N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) (DOING V ( 0 0 (TNS PRESENT) (PART PRE SPAR T ) ) ) (DONE V (DO (TNS PAST) (PART P A S T P A R T ) ) ) (DOOR N S SUPERSET (OBJECT) O B J - S I Z E 3) (DOWN PART * PREP *) (DRANK V (DRINK (TNS P A S T ) ) I (DRINK V IRR PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT I I V-MEAN .. ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)I AG (OPT ( G E T R PASSIVE) 'SOMEONE! (PATIENT (MUST-BE L I Q U I D ) ) PA (OPT ( N O T (GETR P A S S I V E ) ) •LIOUI 0! (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(SOURCE) ' ( ( F R O M ) ) T) SOU GLASS) (BUILDQ ("< = =>" ? ("<—" TRANSFER ? ) ("<-SOURCE-" ?) ("<-DESTI NAT I ON-" INTO ? ) ) AG . TNS PA SOU AG))) (DRINKING V (DRINK (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (DRINKS V (DRINK (TNS P R E S E N T ) ) ) I DRUNK V (DRINK (PART P A S T P A R T ) ) N S N-PROP (HUMAN) SUPERSET (MAN WOMAN)) (DURING PREP *) (EACH QUANTIFIER *) (EARLY AOV * ADV-PROP ( T I M E ) ) (EAT V IRR PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG ( OPT M G E T R P A S S I V E ) • SOMEONE) (PATIENT (SHOULD-BE FOOD)) PA (OPT •(NOT (GETR P A S S I V E ) ) 'FOOD)) (BUILDQ (•"<==>•• ? "•" ( " < — " TRANSFER 7! ( < - S C U R C E - " SOMEPLACE) I " < - O E S T I N A T l O N - " INTO ?>> AG TNS PA AG))) (EATEN V (EAT (PART P A S T P A R T ) ) ) (EATING V (EAT (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (EATS V (EAT (TNS PRESENT) (PNCODE " 3 S G " ) ) I (EIGHT NUMBER « ) (EIGHTH OROINAL EIGHT ADV *) ( E L E C T R I C ADJ *> (EMPTY ADJ " ER-EST PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V ES-EO V-MEAN ( I F 1 (AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATED AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) ' S O M e - O N E ) (PATIENT (MUST-BE CONTAINER PLACE L O C A T I O N ) ) PA OBL ( S E C - S U B J (OR (GREATERP ( S I Z E IGETR P A ) ) ( S I Z E T E S I E O l l ) SEC 1  1  H  ( I ) U I L D Q ( C O N T E N T S - O F ••»••) P A D ( B U I L D Q ( " < « > » ? " » " ("< — " T R A N S F E R ») ( " < - S O U R C E - " ? ) ("•<-DEST I NA n (IN - " 0 1 ) AC TNS (COND l(EQ ' C O M T E N T S - O F ICAK ( G E T R S E C D I (GETR S E C I ) IT ( N O U N - P U T SEGD) PA (BUILDQ (OUT-OF 71 P A D ) ) ( E M P T Y V E S - E D A D J ») ( E N G L A N D NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I C N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E 8 ) ( E V E R Y QUANT IF I ER * ) ( F A R AOV * ) ( F A S T ADV E R - E S T ) (FAT A O J E R - E S T ) ( F I F T H O R D I N A L F I V E ADV «) ( F I R S T O R D I N A L ONE ADV * ) ( F I S H N ES N - P R O P ( A N I M A T E ) S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ) NUM ( M A S S ) O B J - S I Z E 2 ) ( F I V E NUMBER * ) (FOOD N MASS N - P R C P ( E A T A B L E ) S U P E R S E T ( T H I N G ) C B J - S I Z E 1) ( F O O T B A L L N S N - P R O P (GAME SPORT O f l J E C I ) O B J - S I Z E 1 NUM ( M A S S ( S P O R T G A M E D ) (FOR P R E P ( F O R A D J ) P A R T I C L E T ) (FORK N S SUPERSET ( U T E N S I L ) O B J - S I Z E 1) (FOUR NUMBER * ) ( F O U R T H O R D I N A L FOUR ADV * ) ( F R A N C E NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E 8) ( F R E D NPR * N-PROP (HUMAN MALE S P O R T S - M A N ) • DEFAULT ((PATIENT) ( P L A Y ) ( N SPORT ( " < - N U M B E R - " S G ) ) ) SUPERSET (MAN) OBJ-SIZE 3) (FROM P R E P * ) ( F R U I T N S N - P R O P ( V E G E T A T I O N FOOD) S U P E R S E T ( F C O D ) O B J - S I Z E 1) (FUNNY A D J E R - E S T ) ( F U R T H E R ADV ( F A R ( C O M P A R A T I V E ) ) ! ( F U R T H E S T ADV ( F A R ( S U P E R L A T I V E 1 D (GAME N S N - P R O P (SPORT!) (GAVE V (GIVE (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (GERMANY NPR * N - P R O P ( P L A C E COUNTRY L O C A T I C N ) C B J - S I Z E 8 ) . ( G E R T R U D E N P R * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WOMAN) 0 8 J - S I Z E 3 1 (GIVE V IRR FEATURES (TRANS INDOBJ) PARTICLES (UP I N O U T ) PREP-CASE ( ( T O R E C I P I E N T ) (FROM S O U R C E ) ) V-MEAN (CONO ( ( A N D ( EQ • G I V E (CAOR ( S T A R T - L I S T ' V S E N T E N C E D ) (CASE ((AGENT (MUST-BE A N I M A T E D AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) • S O M E O N E ) (OR ( P R E P - C A S E - L C O K ' ( R E C I P I E N T ) ' ( ( T O ) ) • I MUST-BE A N I M A T E D I I N D - C B J (MUST-BE ANIMATED) REC •SOMEONE I P A T I EN T (NOT I S H C U L D - B E A N I M A T E ) ) ) PA OBL) ) ( S E T Q STRUCT ( B U I L O Q («<==>•« 7 114.11  I I AIL-ENDS)) STRUCT)))  AG TNS PA REC AG))  ( " < — " TRANSFER 7) ( " • C - R E C I P I E N T - " 7) I "<-SOURCE-" ? ) )  (GIVE-UP V IRR PREP-CASE ( ( T O R E C I P I E N T ) (FROM S O U R C E ) ) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE A N I M A T E D AG OBL ( P A T I E N T (NOT ( M U S T - U E A B S T R A C T ) ) ) PA OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(RECIPIENT) '((TOD REC •SOMEONE) ( B U I L D Q ("<==»>" 7 •1  1  AG TNS PA AG  '(MUST-BE  a  I »<--•• TRANSFER 7) ("<-MANNE R - " UNWILLINGLY) ( "<-SI)URCE-" ?) ( " < - R E C I P I E N T - " 71)  ANIMATED  K r. c. > ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) AG (JUL > ( P U I L O C ( " < = = >" ? " I " !•'< — " S U R R E N O E R ) ) AG I N S ) ) ) ( G I V E N V (GIVE (PARI .PASTPART )) ) ( G I V E S V ( G I V E ( T N S PRE SEN I ) I P N C O D E » 3 S G " ) I > ( G L A S S N fcS N - P R O P ( C O N T A I N E R V E S S E L ) S U P E R S E T ( U T E N S I L ) O B J - S I Z E 1 ) ( G L E E N NONE N - P R C P ( A B S T R A C T ) ) (GO V IRR ' '• PREP-CASE ( ( T O OES TI NAT ION P U R P O S E ) ( A T R A T E T l ' M E M U I I H W I T H ) ) V-MEAN (IF I(AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(DESTINATION) ' ( ( T O INTO ONTO TOWARDS TOWARD))  T)  DEST SOMEPLACE (PREP-CASE-LCOK '(SOURCE) '((FROM)) Tl SRC (COND ( I W H E R E - I S ( N C U N - L I S T - G E T (GETR A G ) ) ) ) (T 'SOMEPLACE))) ( B U I L O Q ( " < = «=>" ? " • " ( • • < — • ' MOVE) ( " < - S O U R C E - " ?) ( " < - B E ST I N AT I C N - " ? ) ) AG TNS SRC DEST))) I GO PART * V I R R F E A T U R E S (INTRANS)) ( G O E S V (GO ( T N S P R E S E N T ) ( P N C O D E " 3 S G " ) ) ) ( G O I N G V (GO ( P A R T P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (GONE V (GO P A S T P A R T ) ) (GOOD A D J I R K N S N - P R O P ( A B S T R A C T T H I N G ) NUM. ( C A S S (ABSTRACT))) (GRAPE N S N-PROP ( E A T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E 0 SUPERSET ( F R U I T ) ) (GRAPEFRUIT N S N-PROP (EATABLE) O B J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( F R U I T ) ) (GREEN AOJ E R - E S T ) ( G U I T A R N S N - P R O P ( M U S I C A L - I N S T R U M E N T ) O B J - S I Z E 2 NUM ( M A S S ) ) (HAD V (HAVE ITNS P A S T ) (PART PASTPART))) (HALL N S N-PROP ( B U I L D I N G PLACE LOCATION CONTAINER) SUPERSET (BUILDING THING) O B J - S I Z E (HAMMER N S N - P R O P (TOOL I N S T R U M E N T ) S U P E R S E T ( T C C L O B J E C T ) ) (HAND N S O B J - S I Z E 1) ( H A P P I N E S S N NONE N - P R O P I A B S T R A C T ) ) (HAPPY A D j E R - E S T ) (HAS V (HAVE (TNS P R E S E N T ) ) ) I HATE TO-COMP T V S-D ' PREP-CASE ( (FOR CAUSE)) V—MEAN U F ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E HUMAN) I A G O B L (OR ( T O - C O M P ( G E T R A G ) ) ( P A T I E N T T ) > PA O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ( " < = = >•' 7 " • " ( " < — " U I S L I K E ( " < - A D V - " MUCH) ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (HAVE V IRR V-MEAN (IF ( ( A G E N T (AND (NOT ( M U S T - B E A B S T R A C T ) ) 1 S H C U L D - B E ANIMATE))) AG CBL (PATIENT T) PA OBL) ( B U I L D O (••< = = >" 7 " • • ( " < — " P O S S E S S ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) ( H A V I N G V (HAVE (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (HE PRO * P E R S O N A L T) •(HEAR V IRR P R E P - C A S E ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) THAT-COMP T PREP-CASE ((OF T O P I C ) ) V-MEAN ( I F ( ( P A T I E N T (MUST-BE MUSIC M U S I C - M A K E R ) ) PA OBL (AGENT ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) "SOMEONE!) ( B U I L D Q ( » < « > " 7 " + " (••< — •• HEAR 7 ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (HEARD V (HEAR ( T N S P A S T ) (PART PASTPART))) ( H E L E N NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WO^AN) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) ( H E L G A NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WOMAN) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) (HER DET ( H E R I . P O S S P R O I ) PRO ( H E R ( P O S S ! ( O B J ) (NUMBER S G ! ) P E R S O N A L T ) ( H E R E ADV * A D V - P R O P (LOCATION)) ( H I M PRO * P E R S O N A L T ) ( H I S DET ( H I S ( P O S S P R O I ) PERSONAL T ) 1 H I X O N NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) SUPERSET (CITY) O B J - S I Z E 6) ( H O L L A N D NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y I O U J - S I Z E 8) ( H O R S E N S N - P K O P ( A N I M A T E ) S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ! O L ' J - S I Z E 31 (HOUR N S N - P R O P ( U N I T T I M E ) ) (HOUSE N S N - P R O P ( P L A C E L O C A T I O N C O N T A I N E R ! SUPERSET ( B U I L D I N G THING) C U J - S I Z E 4 ) (HOW OOET * ( (HUMAN N S S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ) N - P R C P (AM I M A T E ) O e j - S I Z E 3 ) ( H U S B A N D N S O B J - S I Z E 3 N - P R O P (HUMAN M A L E ) S U P E R S E T ( M A N ) ) ( I PRO ( I ( S U B J ) (NUMBER S G ! ) P E R S O N A L I ) I IDIOT N S N-PROP (AN(MATE) O B J - S I Z E 3) ( I D I O T I C AUJ *) ( I N P R E P ( I N ADV A D J ) P A R T I C L E T ) ( I N D I A NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) O B J - S I Z E B ) ( I NN SB ROOK NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E (')  4)  501 502 50 3 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 52 9 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 58 5 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600  ( INTO P R E P 1 INTO ACV) ) I IS V ( B E ( T N S PRESENT) (PNCOOE " 3 S C " > > ) (II PRO ( I T (SU11J) ( O B J ) (NUMBER S G ) ) ) ( ( V E S NPR  *S U P E R S E T  (COMPOSER M A N ) N-PROP (COMPOSER HUMAN M A L E ) DEFAULT ((PATIENT) (WRITE COMPOSE) OBJ-SIZE 3) ( J A C K NPR  . (N MUSIC  ("<-NUHUEK-"  SG ) ) )  *N - P R O P  (HUMAN M A L E M U S I C I A N ) SUPERSET (MAN) DEFAULT ( ( P A T I E N T ( P L A Y ) (N M U S I C A L - I N S T R U M E N T ) ) ) OBJ-SIZE 3) (JAGUAR N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) C B J - S I Z E 3) ( J O A N NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WOMAN) O B J - S I Z E 3) ( J C H N NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN M A L E ) ) ( J O Y N NONE N - P R O P ( A B S T R A C T ) ) ( J U I C E N S N - P R O P ( L I Q U I D ) S U P E R S E T ( B E V E R A G E ) NUM ( M A S S ) ) (KEY N S N-PROP (INSTRUMENT) SUPERSET ( O B J E C T ) C B J - S I Z E 1) ( K N I F E N IRR O B J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( U T E N S I L ) ) ( L A K E N S N - P R O P (CONVEYOR WATER) S U P E R S E T ( T H I N G ) O B J - S I Z E 6 NUM ( M A S S ) ) (LARGE ADJ R - S T ) ( L A S T O R D I N A L L A S T ADV * ) ( L A T E ADV * A D V - P R O P ( T I M E ) ) (LEAST * *) (LEAVE V IRR PREP-CASE ( ( T O P U R P O S E ) ( A T R A T E T I M E ) ( I N MANNER) ( B Y METHOD) ( F C R DURA T ( C N ) ( W I T H WITH) V-MEAN (IF ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG (OPT ( G E T R P A S S I V E ) ' S O M E - O N E ) (PATIENT (MUST-BE PLACE BUILDING LOCATION)) PA (COND ( I W H E R E - I S ( G E T R A G ) ) ) (T • S O M E P L A C E ) ) ) ( B U I L D Q ("<==>" 7 " + " ( " < — " MOVE) ( " < - S C U R C E - " 3 ) ("< - D E S T I NAT I O N - • #11 AG TNS ( L E A V E - S O U (GETR P A ) ) ( L E A V E - D E S T (GETR P A ) ) ) ) ) (LEAVES V (LEAVE (TNS PRESENT))) ( L E A V I N G V ( L E A V E (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) ( L E F T V ( L E A V E (TNS PAST) (PART P A S T P A R T ) ) ) (LEMON N S N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( F R U I T ) ) (LEOPARD N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) C B J - S I Z E 3 ) ( L E T T E R N S N - P R O P ( L I T E R A T U R E ) O B J - S I Z E 1) (LETTUCE N S N-PROP ( E A T A B L E ) SUPERSET (VEGETABLE) O B J - S I Z E 1) ( L I K E PREP  • *  PARTICLE T TO-COMP T V S-D PREP-CASE ((FOR CAUSE)) V-MEA.'I (IF ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - 8 E H U M A N ) ) AG O B L (OR ( T O - C O M P (GETR A G ) ) I P A T I ENT T) ) PA O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ("<==>" 7 " + " ( " < — " H A V E - A F F E C T ( G N - F O R ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) ( L I O N N S N - P R O P ( A N I M A T E ) S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ) O B J - S I Z E 31 (LISTEN V S-EO PREP-CASE ((TO T O P ( C ) ) V-MEAN (IF ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) • S O M E O N E ) ( T O P I C - L O O K ( M U S T - B E N O I S E HUMAN M U S I C - M A K E R T H I N G ) ) TOPIC (OR ( A N A P H O R I C ' ( T O P I C P A T I E N T ) • ( M U S T - B E N O I S E HUMAN M U S I C - M A K E R T H I N G ) (COND I I E Q A N A P H O R - C E P T H 0 ) I S E T Q A N A P H O R - O E P T H 1 ) 1 IT ANA P H O R - D E P T H ) ) NIL ) •CPT1) ( B U I L D Q I "< = = >" 7 " • " ( ' • < - - " L I S T E N ( " < - T O P I C - " # ) ) ) AG TNS 1 L I S T E N - T O P I C ? IGETH T O P I C ) ) ) ) ) (LIVE V S-D PREP-CASE 1IWITH WITH)) • V-MEAN ( I F ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) AG OBL I P R E P - C A S E - L O O K ' ( L O C A T I O N ) ' ( ( I N A T ) ) T ) (( (UAUG1ELN0T0 AG  (("< MU= S =>" T - B E 7 A»N IfM A(T"<E )— ) "  INHABIT  7 ) 1 AG TNS L )  OBL I P R E P - C A S E - L O O K '(METHOD) • ( ( O N ) ) MSHOULD-tlE PA GBL ) ( B U I L D O ("<==>" ? •i + •• ("<—" EXIST) ( " ( - M E T H O D - , " I"<==>'  FOOD))  1  (»<—" TRANSFER 7) ( " ( - S O U R C E - " SOMEPLACE) ( " < - U E S r I NAT I O N - " INTO ? ) ) ) )  AG TNS AG TNS PA AC) ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) AG O B L I ( B U I L D O ( " < = = >" ? ••••• ("< — " c X I S T I ) AG T N S ) ) ) N P R NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 )  (LONDON (LOOK V S-EO P A R T I C L E S ( F O R AT L I K E ) PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V-MEAN ( I F ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) AG O B L ( A D J - L I S T T ) A O J O B L ) ( B U I L O Q ("<==>" ? " + " ( " < — " A P P E A R " + " ) ) AG TNS A D J ) ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(DIRECTION) ' ( ( A C R O S S INTO OUT UP ONTO TOWARD TCWAROS ALONG DOWN AROUND U N D E R ) ) T) OIR OPT) ( B U I L D O ( S ("<==>"> ( ? ) ( " • " ) ( ( - < L O C K ) ) 9) AG TNS (COND ( ( N U L L ( G E T R D I R D N I L ) (T (GETR D I R 1 ) ) ) ) ) t LCOK-AT V S - E D P R E P - C A S E ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG I O P T (GETR P A S S I V E I ' S C M E O N E ) ( P A T I E N T T ) PA O B L ) ( B U I L U C ("<==>" ? • ( " < — " E X A M I H E ? ) ("(-INSTRUMENT-" I N E Y E (NUMBER P L ) ( " < - P O S S - B Y - " ? ) ) ) ) AG TNS PA A G ) ) ) (LOOK-FOR V S - E D PREP-CASE ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V - M E A N ( I F ( ( A G E N T (MUST-I3E A N I M A T E ) ) AG ( O P T I G E T R P A S S I V E ) ' S O M E O N E ) ( P A T I E N T T ) PA O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ("<==>» ? •• ( " < — " S E A R C H - F O R ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (LOOK-LIKE V S-ED V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG O B L ( P A T I E N T T ) PA O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ("< = = >" 7 • ( " < - - • • H A V E - A P P E A R A N C E - O F ? ) ) AG TNS P A D ) (LOUD AOJ E R - E S T ) (LOVE TO-COMP T V S-O PREP-CASE (IFOR C A U S E D V-MEAN ( I F ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E H U M A N ) ) AG O B L (OR ( T O - C O M P ( G E T R A G D ( P A T I E N T T ) ) PA O B L ) ( B U I L O Q ("<==>" ? I"<—" HAVE-AFFECTION-FOR ("<-ACVMUCH) ? ) ) AG TNS P A D ) I MAN N I R R ' S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ) N - P R O P ( A N I M A T E HUMAN M A L E ) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) (MARY NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WOMAN) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) (MEAT N MASS N - P R O P (FOOD A N I M A L ) C B J - S I Z E 1 S U P E R S E T ( F O O D ) ) ( M E L B O U R N E N P R NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 ) I ME N N ( M A N (NUMBER P L ) ) ) ( M E X I C O N P R NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E 8 1 ( M O N t Y N MASb U B J - S U t U l (MORE AOV * COMP * ) (MOST * * ) (MOST ADV * ) (MUG N S N - P R O P ( C O N T A I N E R V E S S E L ) S U P E R S E T ( U T E N S I L ) O B J - S I Z E 1 ) ( M U N I C N P R NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 ) ( M U N I C H NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 ) (MUSHROOM N S N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) S U P E R S E T ( V E G E T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E 1 ) ( M U S I C N NONE S U P E R S E T ( S O U N D ) N - P R O P ( M U S I C SOUND I ) (MY D E T (MY ( P O S S P R O ) P E R S O N A L T ) (NEAR PREP * I (NEW A D J E R - E S T ) (NEWPAPER N S N - P R O P ( L I T E R A T U R E ) S U P E R S E T ( P A P E R ) O B J - S I Z E I ) ( N E X T O R D I N A L NEXT ADV * ) ( N I G H T N S N - P R O P ( T I M E ) NUM ( M A S S ) ) ( N I N E NUMBER * ) ( N I N E T H O R D I N A L N I N E ADV * ) (NO N E G * ) (NOISE N S ) (NONE NEG * ) (NOT N E G * ) (NOTE N S N - P R O P ( L I T E R A T U R E ) O B J - S I Z E 1 ) (NOVEL N S N - P R O P ( L I T E R A T U R E ) SUPERSET (BOOK) C B J - S I Z E 1) ( O B J E C T N SI ( O C E A N N S N - P R O P (CONVEYOR WATER) S U P E R S E T ( T H I N G ) O I 3 J - S I Z E <) NUM ( M A S S ! ) ( C F P R E P (OF A O J ) )  70S 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800  (OLD A D J E R - E S T ) (ON P R E P (UN ADV A O J ) ) I ONE NUMBER * PRO * ) ( O N I O N N S N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) S U P E R S E T ( V E G E T A B L E ) 0 8 J - S U E 1) (ONTO P R E P (ONTO A D V ) ) (OPEN V S - E D TO-COMP T V - M E A N ( E R G A T I V E 'OPEN)) ( C R C O N J 4) (ORANGE N S N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) C B J - S I Z E I S U P E R S E T ( F R U I T ) ) (ORCHESTRA N S SUPERSET (MUSIC-MAKER O B J - S ( Z E 4) N-PRCP ( M U S I C - M A K E R ) ) (ORDER V S-ED PREP-CASE I(WITH WITH)) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN)) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) (PATIENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) PA OBL (TO-COMP (GETR P A ) ) TOC OBL) ( B U ( L D C ("<==>" ? ( " < — " ORDER " + " ) ) AG TNS T O C ) ((AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN!) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) ( P A T I E N T (AND ( M U S T - B E T H ( N G ) (NOT ( M U S T - B E H U M A N ) ) ) ! PA OBL) ( B U I L D Q ( " < ==>" ? ••+" ( " < — • • ORDER ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (OTTAWA NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 ) (OWN V S-EO V-MEAN ( I F (IAGENI I AND ( N U I ( M U S T - B E A B S T R A C T ) ! ( S H U U L U - B t A N I M A I t l l ) AG OBL (PATIENT T ) PA OBL) ( B U I L D Q ("<= = >" 7 ( " < — " P O S S E S S ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) ( P A P E R N S N - P R O P ( T H I N F L A M A B L E L I G H T L I T E R A T U R E ) S U P E R S E T I O B J E C T ) O B J - S I Z E 1 NUM ( M A S S ) ) ( P E A C H N ES N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) C B J - S I Z E 1 S U P E R S E T ( F R U I T ) ) (PEANUT N S O B J - S I Z E 0) (PEAR N S N-PROP (EATABLE) O B J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( F R U I T ) ) ( P E N N S N - P R O P ( W R I T I N G - I N S T R U M E N T 1 S U P E R S E T ( C e J E C T ) . O B J - S I Z E 1) ( P E N C I L N S N-PROP (WRITING-INSTRUMENT! SUPERSET ( O B J E C T ! O B J - S I Z E 1) ( P I A N O N S N - P R O P ( M U S I C A L - I N S T R U M E N T ) O B J - S I Z E 3 NUM ( M A S S ) ) ( P I E N S N-PROP (FOOD) O B J - S I Z E 1 SUPERSET ( F O O O ) ( P I G N S N-PROP (ANIMATE! SUPERSET (ANIMAL) O B J - S I Z E 3) ( P L A N E N S O B J - S I Z E 4 NUM ( M A S S ) N - P R O P ( C O N V E Y A N C E M A C H I N E ) ) (PLAY V • S-ED V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (AND (SHOULO-BE MUSICIAN) (MUST-BE HUMAN))) AG ( O P T (GETR P A S S I V E ) • S O M E O N E ) (PATIENT (MUST-BE MUSICAL-INSTRUMENT)) PA ICOND H A N D (NOT F A I L - T E S T ) 1 D E F A U L T ' P A T I E N T ( N O U N - G E T ( G E T R A G ) ) ) ) ) (T ' O B L ) ) ) ( B U I L O Q ("< ==>" 7 " + " ( " < — " 0 0 ) ( " < - C A U S E - " (."<= = >" ? + ( " < — " E M I T 1NP I N S O U N D ) ) ) ) ) ) AG TNS PA TNS) ( ( A G E N T (AND ( S H O U L D - B E M U S I C I A N ) ( M U S T - B E H U M A N ) ) ) AG : O P T (GETR P A S S I V E ) ' S O M E O N E ) (PATIENT (MUST-BE MUSIC)) PA OBL ) ( B U I L O O ("<==>" ? " + " ( • • < - - " P L A Y 7 ) 1 AG TNS P A ) ( ( A G E N T ( A N D ( M U S T - B E HUMAN) ( S H 0 U L C - 8 E S P O R T S - M A N ) ) ) AG ( O P T (GETR P A S S I V E ) ' S O M E O N E ) ( I N D - C B J ( M U S T - B E HUMAN)) CO-A OPT 1PATIENT (MUST-BE SPORT)) PA (COND ( ( N O T F A I L - T E S T ) ( D E F A U L T ' P A T I E N T ( N O U N - G E T (GETR A G ) ) ) ) (T ' O B L ) ) ) ( B U I L O O I S ("•< = = >") ( 7 ) I " * " ) ( ( " < — " P L A Y ? ) ) ») AG TNS PA (PROG (TEMP) ( R E T U R N (CONO ( ( S E T Q TEMP (GETR C O - A l ) (LIST ( L ( S T '"<-CO-AGENT-" ISOFT-NOUN-LIST-GET (NP-BUILO T E M P ) ) ! ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E AN [ M A T E ) ) AG O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ("<*=>" 7 "+" ("<--" 00) ("<-CAUSE-" ("<==>" 7 ("<—" HAVE-PROP E N T E R T A I N E D ) ) ) ) AG TNS AG TNS) ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E M U S ( O ) PA C B L )  BO 1 B02 803 H0<> 805 806 B07 B08 809 810 311 B12 813 814 B15 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 B27 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900  ( B U I L O O ("< = ->•• SOMEONE • [••<—'• P L A Y ?) ) TNS P A ) ) ) ( P L A Y N S N - P R O P ( L I T E R A T U R E ) S U P E R S E T ( B O C K ) O B J - S I Z E 1) (PLUM N S N-PRIJP ( E A T A B L E ) O I I J - S I Z E I SUPEHSFI ( F R U I T ) ) ( P O P N S N - P R O P ( L I Q U I D ) S U P E R S E T ( B E V E R A G E ) NUM ( M A S S ) I ( P O R T U G A L NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E «) (PUSSESS V ES-ED V-MEAN , -, ( I F ( ( A G E N T ( A N D (NOT ( M U S T - B E A B S T R A C T ) ) ( S H O U L D - B E ANIMATE))) AG OBL (PATIENT T) PA OBL) ( B U I L D Q ( « < = = > " ? " + » (•><—" P O S S E S S ? ) ) AG TNS P A ) ( ( P A T ( E N T I AND ( S H O U L D - U E HUMAN) 1 M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) ) ) PA O B L (AGENT T) AG D E V I L ) ( B U I L D C ("< = = >" ? (••< — •• CONTRCL ( N MIND ( " < - P C S S - B Y - " ? ) ) ) ) AG TNS P A ) ) ) (POTATO N S N-PROP ( E A T A B L E ) SUPERSET ( V E G E T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E II (POUND N S O B J - S I Z E 0 N - P R O P (QUANTITY)) ( P R A G U E NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ! C ( T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6 ) (OUIET ADJ E R - E S T ) (QUILL N S N-PROP (ANIMAL-PART WRITING-INSTRUMENT) S U P E R S E T ( O B J E C T ) O B J - S I Z E 1) ( R A D I S H N ES N - P R O P ( E A T A B L E ) S U P E R S E T ( V E G E T A B L E ) O B J - S I Z E I ) (RAN V (RUN (TNS P A S T ) (PART P A S T P A R T ) ) ) ( R A Y NPR * N - P K O P (HUMAN M A L E ) S U P E R S E T ( M A N ) O e j - S I Z E 3 ) (RED AOJ E R - E S T ) ( R I C H A R D NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN M A L E ) S U P E R S E T ( V A N ) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) ( R I V E R N S N - P R O P (CONVEYOR WATER) S U P E R S E T ( T H I N G ) O B J - S I Z E 5 NUM ( M A S S ) ) (ROAD N S N - P R O P ( C O N V E Y O R ) S U P E R S E T ( T H I N G ) O B J - S I Z E 5 NUM ( M A S S ) ) (ROOF N S O B J - S I Z E 3) (ROOM N S N - P R O P ( P L A C E L O C A T I O N C O N T A ( N E R ) S U P E R S E T ( B U I L D I N G T H ( N G ) O B J - S I Z E 4 ) (ROOSTER N S N - P R C P ( M A L E ANIMATE) SUPERSET ( A N I M A L ) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) (RUN V IRR PREP-CASE ((WITH WITH)) FEATURES (TRANS INTRANS) PREP-CASE ( ( B Y PATH METHOD)) V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG OBL I PREP-CASE-LOOK '(DESTINATION) ' ( ( T O INTO ONTO TCWARD TOWARDS)) T ) DEST SOMEPLACE (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(SOURCE) '((FROM)) T) SRC (RUN-SOURCE?)) ( B U I L D Q ("<==>" 7 •• + " ( " < — " MOVE ( " < - A D V - " Q U I C K L Y ) ) ' ("<-MANNER-" BY ( N FOOT (NUMBER P L ) ) ) ("<-SOURCE-" ? ) ("<-DESTINATION—" ?)) AG TNS SOU DEST) ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E M A C H I N E ) ) AG O B L ) ( B U I L O O ("<==>" SOMEONE "•" ( " < — " DO) 1 " < - C A U S E - " ("<==>" 7 (3 ( » < - - " FUNCTION) 0 1 ) ) ) TNS AG TNS (START-LIST '"<-ADV-" (START-LIST 'VP SENTENCE))))) (RUNNING V ( K U N (PART P R E S P A R T ) ) ) (RUNS V ( R U N ( T N S P R E S E N T ) (PNCOOE " 3 S G " ) ) ) ( R U S S I A NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E 8 ) ( S A D N E S S N NONE N - P R O P (ABSTRACT)) ( S A L L Y NPR * N - P R O P (HUMAN F E M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (WOMAN) O B J - S I Z E 3 ) ( S A L Z B U R G NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I C N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) C B J - S I Z E 6 ) ( S A T I S F A C T I O N N NONE N - P R D P ( A B S T R A C T ) ) (SCHOOL N S N - P R O P ( P L A C E L O C A T I O N SCHOOL) O B J - S I Z E 5 SUPERSET ( T H I N G ) ) ( S E C O N D O R D I N A L TWO AOV * ) (SEE V IRR P R E P - C A S E ((WITH INSTRUMENT)) V-MEAN ( I F ( ( A G E N T ( M U S T - B E A N ( M A T E ) ) AG ( O P T • ( G E T R P A S S I V E ) ' S O M E O N E ) ( P A T I E N T T) PA O B L ) ( B U I L D Q ("<==>" » " + " I •'<—•• S E E « ) ) ( N C U N - P U T A G ) TNS ( N O U N - P L T P A ) ) ) ) (SELL V IRR TO-COMP T V-MEAN ( I F ((AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN)) AG (OPT ' ( G E T R P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) ( P A T I E N T (NOT ( S H O U L O - B E H U M A N ) ) ) PA SOMETHING ( P R E P - C A S E - L O O K ' ( E X C H A N G E ) ' ( ( F O R ) ) •( SHOULD-8F.-M0NF.Y ! ) EX MONEY (OR ( 1 N 0 - C B J ( S H O U L O - B E HUMAN O R G A N I Z A T I O N ) ) ( P R E P - C A S E - L O O K ' ( R E C ( P 1 E N I I ' ( ( 1 0 1 ) ' ( S H O U L D - B E HUMAN O R G A N I Z A T I O N ) ) ) REC  SOMEONE ( PREP-CASE HEN (GETR IBUII.DQ  LOOK  '(BENEFICIARY)  M(FCR))  MSIiOULD-BE  HUMAN  ORGANIZATION))  AC)! ("< = = > ("(—" TRANSFER ("<-SOURCE-" ?) ("<-REC IPI1-NT-" ?) ("(-EXCHANGE-" ?lI AG TNS PA BEN REC EX) ) )  I PART P R E S P A R T ) ) I SELLING V ( SELL (TNS PRESENT))) (SELLS V (SELL ( S E V E N NUMBER *)  I  ( S E V E N T H O R D I N A L S E V E N AOV » ) ( S H A L L MODAL *) (OBJECT)) (SHRUB N S N-PROP (VEGETATION) O B J - S I Z E 3 SUPERSET ( S I D E N S NUM ( M A S S ) ) (SILENT ADJ ER-EST) (SIX NUMBER *) *) (SIXTH ORDINAL S I X ADV (SLOW ADV E R - E S T ) (SMALL ADJ ER-EST) (SO PREP *) (SOFT ADJ E R - E S T ) (SOLD V ( S E L L (TNS PAST I (PART PASTPART))) (SOME Q U A N T I F I E R «) ( S O M E O N E GEN PRO * N - P R O P (HUMAN)) (SONATA N S SUPERSET (MUSIC) N-PRCP (MUSIC!) (SOON ADV * A D V - P R O P (TIME)) (SOUND N S S U P E R S E T (NOISE) N-PROP (NOISE)) (LOCATION) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) OBJ-SIZE ( S P A I N NPR NONE N - P R O P N S S U P E R S E T ( U T E N S I L ) O B J S I ZE I) . (SPOON 3) . (STACK N S O B J - S I Z E (STEAL V I RR PREP-CASE ((WITH WITH)) TO-COMP T V-MEAN (IF ((AGENT (SHOULD-BE ANIMATE)) AG OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(DESTINATION PATH) • ( AND  (NOT  8)  ' ( ( I N T O TO O N T C TOWARD T O W A R D S ) ( B Y A B O U T B E S I D E A L O N G UP DCWN A R O U N D HUMAN)) (SHOULD-BE PLACE LOCATION)))  (MUST-BE  D E S T OBL ) STEALTHILY)) MOVE ("<-ADV(BUILDQ ( " < — > " ? " + '* <"<-((AGENT (MUST-BE HUMAN)) AG I OPT ' ( G E T R P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) (PATIENT ( N O T ( S H O U L D - B E HUMAN A B S T R A C T ) ) ) PA SOMETHING (OR ( I N D - O B J  (SHOULD-BE  I PREP-CASE-LOOK REC (GETR  HUMAN))  '(RECIPIENT)  ((FOR))  MSHOULC-BE  SOU SOMEPLACE) (BUILDQ ("<=  '(SOURCE)  HUMAN  TNS  OEST)  ORGANIZATION)))  '((FROM))  '(SHGULD-BE  TRANSFER  ("<-SCURCE-" ?l ("(-RECIPIENT-"  (FROM  PLACE))  ?!  ?)  1" ( - E X C H A N G E - " NOTHING)1 AG TNS PA SOU REC))) ( S T E A L I N G V ( S T E A L (PART PRESPART))) ( S T E A L S V ( S T E A L (TNS PRESENT))) (STOLE V (STEAL (TNS PAST))) (STOLEN V ( S T E A L (PART PASTPART))) (STORY N ES N - P R O P (LITERATURE) SUPERSET (BOOK) CBJ-SIZE I ST R A N G E A D J ER-EST) (STUPID ADJ ER-EST) (SUPPORT N S OBJ-SIZE 3) ( S t ) P R I S I N G L Y ADV *) (SYMPHONY N S S U P E R S E T (MUSIC) N-PROP (MUSIC)) (TABLE N S O B J - S I Z E 31 (TAKE V IRR FEATURES (TRANS) PREP-CASE RECIPIENT)  HUMAN O R G A N I Z A T I O N  ? (..<__..  SOURCE)  (BY  MANNER)  (WITH  1)  INSTRUMENT)  V-MEAN (IF  AG  AG)  I PREP-CASE-LOOK  ((TO  +)  ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATED AG (OPT (GETR PASSIVE) 'SOMEONE) (PATIENT T) PA ODL (PREP-CASE-LOOK ••(RECIPIENT) '((TOD  '(MUST-BE  HUMAN) )  (INTO  DESTINATION))  ACROSS))  1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011  REC OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(SOURCE) '((FROM)) SOU (COMO ( I W H E R E - I S (GETR PA))) (T 'SOMEPLACE))) ( B U I L O Q ("< = = >" ? " • " ("< — TRANSFER AG ' i TNS PA SOU  1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017  REC) ((AGENT (MUST-OE AG OB.L (PATIENT T) PA  MMUST-BE  ?)  PLACE  ("<-SOURCE-"  L O C A T I O N IUMAN  7)  CONTAINER) )  I " < - R C CI PI EN T - "  71)  ANIMATE))  1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056  OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(SOURCE) '((FROM)) M M U S T - B E HUMAN C O N T A I N E R P L A C E L O C A T I O N ) ) SOU (COND ( I W H E R E - I S (GETR PA))) (T • S O M E P L A C E ) ) (NOT ( P R E P - C A S E - L O O K ' ( R E C I P I E N T ) '((TO)) M M U S T - B E HUMAN) ) ) REC OBL) (BUILDQ ["< = = >" 7 " • " ( "< — •• T R A N S F E R 7) ("<-SOURCE-" ?) ("(-RECIPIENT-" ?)) AG TNS PA SCU AG) ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) (PATIENT T) PA OBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK '(DESTINATION) '((TO TOWARD TOWARDS NEAR B E S I D E I N T O ONTO)) MMUST-BE PLACE LOCATION)) DEST CBL (PREP-CASE-LOOK •(SOURCE) '((FROM)) T) SOU (CONO ( ( W H E R E - I S (GETR PA))) (T 'SOMEPLACE))) ( B U I L O Q ("<==>" ? ("<—" T R A N S F E R ?) ( " ( - S O U R C E - " ?) ( " < - C E S T I NAT I O N - " ?)) AG TNS PA SCU . DEST))) (TAKEN V (TAKE (PART PASTPART))) ( T A K E S V ( T A K E (TNS PRESENT ) (PNCOOE " 3 S G " ) ) ) (TAKING V (TAKE (PART PRESPART))) (TEA N S N-PROP (LIQUID) S U P E R S E T ( B E V E R A G E ) NUM ( M A S S ) )  1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 10B0 1081  ( T E N NUMBER *) ( T E N T H O R D I N A L T E N ADV * ) ( T E R R Y NPR * N - P R O P ( H U M A N M A L E ) S U P E R S E T (MAN) C B J - S I Z E 3) (THAN * *) ( T H A T DET * PRO ( T H A T ( S U B J ) (OBJ) (NUMBER SG))) (THE DET *) ( T H E M PRO ( T H A T ( S U B J ) (OBJ) I NUMBER PL))) ( T H E R E AOV * A O V - P R C P (LOCATION)I ( T H E S E PRO ( T H I S ( S U 8 J ) (OBJ) (NUMBER PL))) ( T H I N G N S) ( T H I R D O R D I N A L T H R E E ADV *) ( T H I S PRO ( T h I S ( S U B J ) (OBJ) (NUMBER SG))) ( T H O S E PRO ( T H A T ( S U B J ) (OBJ) (NUMBER PL))) ( T H R E E NUMBER *) (TIGER N S N-PROP (ANIMATE) SUPERSET (ANIMAL) O B J - S I Z E 3) (TO PREP (TO ADV)) (TO PREP *> ( T O D A Y ADV * A D V - P R O P (TIME)) ( T O M NPR * N - P R O P ( H U M A N M A L E ) S U P E R S E T ( M A N ) O B J - S I Z E 3) (TOMATO N ES N - P R O P (EATABLE) SUPERSET (VEGETABLE) O B J - S I Z E 1) (TOMORROW A D V • A C V - P R O P ( T I M E ) ) (TOOK V ( T A K E (TNS PAST))) (TOOL N S SUPERSET ( O B J E C T ) O B J - S I Z E 1) ( T O P N S NUM ( M A S S ) ) ( T O R O N T O NPR NONE N - P R O P ( L O C A T I O N ) S U P E R S E T ( C I T Y ) O B J - S I Z E 6)  1082 1083 1084 1085 10B6 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099  (TOWARD P R E P *) (TOWAROS P R E P *) ( T R A I N N S O B J - S I Z E 4 NUM ( M A S S ) N - P R O P (CONVEYANCE MACHINE)) (TREE N S N-PROP (VEGETATION) O B J - S I Z E 4 SUPERSET (OBJECT)) (TROMBONE N S N - P R O P ( M U S I C A L - I N S T R U M E N T ) O l U - S I Z E 2 NUM ( M A S S ) ) (TURNIP N S N-PROP (EATABLE) SUPERSET (VEGETABLE) O B J - S I Z E I) ( T f i O N U M B E R *) ( U B C N NONE N - P R O P (UNIVERSITY LOCATIONI O B J - S I Z E 5 SUPERSET (UNIVERSITY) ) ( U G L I N E S S N NONE N - P R O P (ABSTRACT)) (UNCOVER V S-ED) (UNDER P R E P (UNDER AOV A O J I ) (UNDER PREP *) (UNEASINESS N NONE N - P R O P (ABSTRACT)) I U N M A P K I N t b S N NUNt N-PKUP (ABSIRACIII (UNIVERSIY N ES N - P R O P ( P L A C E LOCATION SCHOOL) O B J - S I Z E 5 SUPERSET (SCHOOL)!' (UP PART *) (UP PREP * P A R T I C L E T) (UPON PREP * I  1100 1101 1102 1103 l i d 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 111* 1115  ( U S A N P R NUNC N - P R U P (LOCATION) SUPEHSEf ( C O U N T R Y ) O B J - S I Z E 0) ( U S S R NPR NUNE N - P R C P ( L O C A T I O N ) SUPERSET (COUNTRY) O B J - S I Z E 8) (UTENSIL N S SUPERSET (TOOL) OBJ-SIZfc II ( V A N C O U V E R N P R NONE N - P R O P (LOCATION) SUPERSET (CITY) OBJ-SIZE 6) I V E N G E N C E N NONE N - P R C P (ABSTRACT)) ( V E R Y AOV * l ( V I E N N A NPR * N - P R O P ' ( P L A C E COUNTRY L I J C A I I O N ) O B J - S I Z E A) ( V I N C E NPR * N - P R C P ( H U M A N M A L E ) S . U P E R S E I (MAN) O B J - S I Z E 3) (VINE N S N-PROP (VEGETATION) O B J - S I Z E J SUPERSET (OBJECT)) (WANT T O - C O M P T THAT-COMP T V S-ED V-MEAN '  1116 1117  (IF  1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124  ((AGENT AG  (MUST-BE  ANIMATE))  (OPT (GETR PASSIVE) •SOMEONE) (PATIENT (MUST-BE THING)) PA OBL) ( B U I L D Q (•'< = = >" S O M E O N E FUTURE (•!<__•• T R A N S F E R  1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130  7)  ("(-SOURCE*) (RECIPIENT 7) 1"<-CAUSE-" ( » <==> « 1 1  PA (COND  ((NOUN-LIST-GET (T ' S O M E P L A C E ) )  1131 1132 1133  AG AC) ((AGENT IMUST-BE  1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143  AG ( O P T (GETR P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) (TO-COMP (GETR A G ) ) PA OBL) (BUILDQ ("<= = >" •• + " ( " < - C A U S E - " ((AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE)) AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) •SOMEONE) (PATIENT (MUST-BE THING))  1144 1145 1146  PA OBL (TO-COMP  1147 1148 1149  TOC OBL) (BUILDQ  ?  FUTURE  (WHERE-IS  (GETR  ( "<—" HAVE-PROP  PL E A S E O ) ) ) )  PA))))  ANIMATE))  (••< = = >"  ?  FUTURE  (•'< — "  H A V E - PROP  ("<==>"  ?  FUTURE  ("<—" HAVE-PROP  (GETR P A ) )  ("<==>"  " +"  ("<-CAUSE-"  1150 1151 1152 1153 1154  TCC AG))) (WAS V ( B E ( T N S P A S T ) ) ) ( W E L L AOV I R R ) (WENT V (GO ( T N S P A S T ) ) )  1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161  (WHAT Q D E T * ) (WHERE QDET * A D J *) (WHICH QDET * R E L P R O T ) (WHILE PREP *) (WHO Q D E T * R E L P R O T ) (WHY Q D E T * ) ( W I F E N IRR O B J - S I Z E 3 N-PROP  1162 1163 1164  ( W I L L MODAL * ) (WINDOW N S N - P R O P ( P L A C E L O C A T I O N ) (WINE N S N - P R O P (LIQUID ALCOHCLIC)  1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173  (WIT N S) (WITH PREP ( W I T H AOV A O J ) ) (WOMAN N IRR S U P E R S E T ( A N I M A L ) N - P R C P ( A N I M A T E HUMAN F E M A L E ) O B J - S I Z E 3) (WOMEN N (WOMAN ( N U M B E R P L ) ) ) (WORLD N S N - P R O P (PLACE LOCATION EARTH) SUPERSET (PLANET OBJECT) O B J - S I Z E (WORSE A D J ( B A D ( C O M P A R A T I V E ) ) ) (WORST A D J ( B A D ( S U P E R L A T I V E ) ) ) (WOULD MODAL * ) (WRITE THAT-COMP  1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179  T TO-COMP T PREP-CASE ((OF TOPICMWITH V  1180 1181 1182  IRR V-MEAN I IF ( ( A G E N T  1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 119.9  (FEMALE  HUMAN)  SUPERSET SUPERSET  SUPERSET  ( O B J E C T ) O B J - S I Z E 2) ( B E V E R A G E ) MUM ( M A S S ) )  INSTRUMENT))  (AND (MUST-BE  HUMAN)  (SHOULD-BE  COMPOSER)))  AG (OPT (GETR P A S S I V E ) SOMEONE) (PATIENT ( M U S T - B E MUSIC L I T E R A T U R E ) ) PA (OR ( D E F A U L T ' P A T I E N T ' ( N O U N - G E T ( G E T R A G ) ) ) ' ( N P N I L ( O E T A ) ( N L E T T E R (NUMBER SG)))) (INO-OBJ (MUST-BE HUMAN)) IND OPT) (BUILDQ  PLEASED))))  (WOMAN))  1  -  PLEASED))))  (3 ( " < = = >") ( ? ) ( " + " ) ( ( " < — " » ? ( ) II) AG INS (WRITE7 (GETR P A ) ) PA (WR I T E - I N D - O B J (GETR IND) (GETR PAD))) ( W R I T E S V (WRITE (TNS PRESENT))) (WRITING V (WRITE ( I N S PRESENT) (PARI PRESPART)))  l'O)  PA  AG)  (WRITTEN V (WRITE ll'ART PASTPART) ) I (WROTE V (WRITE (TNS P A S T ) ) ) (YEAR N S N-PROP (TIME) SUPERSET (TIME!) (YELLOW AOJ E R - E S T ) ( Y E S T E R O A Y AUV * ADV-PROP (TIMED ( YCU PRO (YOU I S U B J ) (OliJI (NUMBER SC-PL))) ( Y O U N G AO J E R - E S T ) . -, (YOUR PRO ( Y O U (NUMBER S C - P L ) ( P O S S E S 1 V E ) ) P E R S O N A L T) (YOUTH N S N-PROP (HUMAN T I M E ) S U P E R S E T ( T I M E MAN WOMAN) ("1805" ("197'." ("3270" NIL  N NONE N - P R L P ( Y E A R T[M£)I N NONE N - P R O P (YEAR T I M E ) ) ' N S OBJ-SIZE 3 NUM I M A S S ) N - P R O P  (MACHINE))  OBJ-SIZE  3 NUM ( M A S S ) )  95  APPENDIX V: The The The f i r s t code.  code  Code for this  i s t h e main  The r o u t i n e s The The  next part third  system  part  of  i s presented the  are i n alphabetic i s t h e ATN  system:  the  parts.  case-analysis  order.  grammar. T h i s  p a r t i s on page 137,  here i n f o u r  starts  and i s j u s t  on  page  a few  129.  auxiliary  routines. Finaly  i s listed  Raymond R e i t e r a t  t h e ATN  UBC.,  parser  which  was  written  by  Dr.  ADJ-LISr  ilDEFUN i; ;  NEXPR  (TESI)  T H I S . I S A C A S E O F T H E V E R B " T O B E " . IT H A N D L E S : " H E IS B I G . " AND " H E IS S M A L L E R T H A T F R E D . " (PROG  ITESTEE  (SETO LOUP (COND  K - S FT  lb  RET)  K - S K E E P - S E N T) ( (NULL K - S ) (COND  (FT (SETQ  FAIL-TEST  T FAIL-TEST-LIST  (APPEND  (LIST  'AD.I-LIST)  F A I L - T E S T - L 1 S T ) )) )  (RETURN M I L ) ) ((AND  ( EO ( C A A R (NOT  K - S)  "<-AD.)-" )  (CAOAR K - S ) )  (SETO  TESTEE  ( SETO  FT T )  (EVAL  (CAR  K-S))  TEST))  (FLAG-ON (CONO  1  TESTEE  HAND  KEEP-SENT T)  ( E Q (CAAR  (SETO  K - S (CDR K - S ) ) )  ' C O M P A R A T I V E (CAOR (START-LIST 'COMP-SUP '(COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE) T E S T E E )  (RPLACO  (END-LIST TESTEE) (LIST (LIST •"<-COMPARED-TO-" (NOUN-LIST-GET  (FLAG-ON (RETURN IT  (DE FUN [EQ  ADJTYPE  (SETQ  (DEFUN  ADV-MOD?  ;  THIS  ;  " H E CAME (PROG  WORKS  (CUDR  (SUPER-NP-BUILD  (COPY  (CAR  K-S))))))))  (CAR K - S ) K E E P - S E N T T ) ) )  TESTEE)I)  K - S (CDR K-S'))  (GO L O O P ) ) ' ) ) )  Z)>  •ADJ)  (PART  TEST  KASE)  OUT A O V E R R I A L  YESTERDAY."  MODIFICATIONS:  " H E WENT  THERE."  I TEMP) (COND  ( ( A N D (MEMBER ' T I M E ( S E T Q TEMP ( G E T (CADDR P A R T I 'ADV-PROP))) (EVAL TEST)) (SETQ FN M R P L A C D (END-LIST (FIND-LIST S T R U C T •"<==>")) (LIST STRCT) ) MOD ( P H R A S C - N U U ' V P K E E P - S E N T ) ) (LIST •"<-IIME-" (CADDR PART))) ((MEMBER ' L O C A T I O N T E M P ) ( A D V - L O C PAR T T E S T K A S E ) I (T  (SETQ  FN MRPLACD (END-LIST (FIND-LIST STRUCT MOD (PHRASE-NUM 'VP KEEP-SENT)) (CAR (COPY P A R T I ) (CDDR PART))))))  (CONS  (DEFUN ADV-LOC (PART T E S T K A S E ) T H I S R O U T I N E T R I E S TO R E S O L V E (PROG  (COPY  TESTEE))))  (Z>  NEXPR  ( G E T NEW-WORD  •THAN-PH)  (EO (DELETE  (TEMP  (COND (COND (SETQ LOOP (CONO  AD  INVOLVING  "HERE"  (LIST  STRCT))  AND " T H E R E " .  RET)  ((NOT  (MEMBER  ((ZEROP AD  REFERENCES  "•<= = > " ) >  PART)  1CAOOR  ANA P H O R - O E P T H )  '(THERE  (SETQ  HERE)))  (RETURN  NIL)))  AN A P H O R - D E P T H £ ) ' ) )  ANAPHOR-DEPTHI  ((AND ( N O T (NUL L ' K A S E ) ) ( S E T Q T E M P ( C AS E - A N A P HOR K A S E P A R T TEST))) ( F L A G - O N PART K E E P - S E N T ( S E T Q R E T ( L I S T (MAKE-ARROW K A S E ) (NOUN-LIST-GET (SET-UP-FN KASE N I L ) ( R E TURN R E T ) ) I I S E T U TEMP ( A N A P H O R I C (FLAG-ON  ' 'LOCATION  PART KEEP-SENT ( S E T Q R E T (COND  ANAPHOR-DEPTH  (CDR P A R T ) ) )  ( ( G E T (CARTEMP) 'PREP) (LIST '"<-LOC-" ( C A R TEMP) (LIST "<-LOC-" TEMP)))))  (T (SETO  TEST  TEMP))))  (NOUN-LIST-GET  TEMP)))  ,  A N A P H C R - D E P T H -AO FN  MRPLACD  NUM  (END-LIST  IPHRASE-NUM  (FIND-LIST  STRUCT  •"<">"))  (LIST  STRCT))  'VP KEEP-SENT))  (RETURN R E T ) ) ((LESSP IT  ANAPHOR-DEPTII  (PKIN 1  ""I  CANNOT  (PRI NI  ( CAUUIl  )  (SETQ  RESOLVE  AN A P H O R - D E P T H  YOUR  (ADUl  ANAPHOR-DEPTHI)  (GO LOOP) )  REFERENCE T O " )  PART ) )  ( T ER PR I ) (PRINT  "'I  (FLAG-ON (SETU  SHALL  PARI  CONTINUE  KEEP-SENT  ANYWAY.")  ( SETC  RET (LIST  •*'<-LOC-"  • SOM E P L A C E ) 1 1  AN API 1 0 R - D E P TH Al) FN  MRPLACD  MOD (RETURN  (ENO-LIST  (PHRASE-NUM  RET)))))  (FIND-LIST  'VP KEEP-SENT))  STRUCT  •"<==>"))  (LIST  STRCT))  .(DEFUN A F T C R - A N D - M O O ? (PREP NN) (LESSP IPHKASE-NUM 'VP KEEP-SENT)  (DEFUN  AGENT  AGENT IK  THE  IF  THE  I S  STARTING,  THE  BE  CORRECIED  IF  THE  IT  IS  TO TU  SE N T E C E THE  IT  CALLS  PASSIVE-AGENT  WITH  A  L.I ST  OF  NOUN  PHRASE  OF  ALL  OF  " B Y "  IS  N O T  P A S 5 I V E  I T  B E  T H E  A G E •IT.  T H I S  M A K E  M O R E  A G E N T  BEGINS  A  WlIH  THE  T A K E I S  A  FIRST  A N D  ERRCR  M A J O R  S H O U L D  I N T E L L E G E N T .  THAI-COMPLEMENT  UR  A TO-COMPLEMENT,  AGENT.  (TESTEE ' ICONO  C A S E  P A S S I V E  W I T H  SENTENCE  SENTENCE  (PROG  A G E N T  SENTENCE  PHRASES THE  (TEST)  NEXPR  FINDS  NND  TEMP  PRN  ( (GETR  LSI  NUMS  VNUM  NUM)  PASSIVE)  (PROG  (K-S) I SETU  K - S  K E E P - S E N T '  N U M  1  )  LOOP (  I COND  ( N U L L  ( ( C U  K - S )  ( R E T U R N K - S )  ' V I M  [ S E T Q  1 E O  ( C A A R  K - S )  ' P P )  ( ( A N D  ! S E \ Q  ( SETU (CO (ISETU  K - S  ( C D R  V N U M  L S T ' ' I A P P E N D ' L S T  C  K - S )  [ADOl  N U M  L S T  T E S T  N U M S  V N U M )  )  )  N U M D  ( L I S T  ( C A R  K - S  ) ) )  N U M S  ( A P P E N D  N U M S  ( L I S T  L  I C A D R  N U M 1 D D )  N U M D  LOOP)))  TESTEE  (COND  ( P A S S I V E - A G E N T  ( C A A R  (COND  ((NULL  ((AND  ( EO  ( (AMD  I A TOM  (SETQ  (CONO  PRN  ((OH  (CAAR  (CAR  (TEST-UFF?  'PRO  ICADAR  'NP  1C A A D R  (EVAL  (CONO  ((NOT  (NULL  (SETQ  TEMP  (CAR  D  ( N O T  L D  {C A D A D R  D  )  D  (ANAPHORIC  (APPEND '(AGENT  (LIST  'AGENT)  BENEFICIARY RECIPIENT PATIENT TOPIC)  TEST ANAPHOR-DEPTH PRN)))) TESTEE  (RETURN ((AND  (GET (EO  VERB  KEEP-SENT  T)  TEMP)I))))  'THAT-COMPI  'ThAT-COMP  (FLAG-ON  (CAR  TESTEE  (SETC  TESTEE  KEEP-SENT  (CAR  KEEP-SENT))))  Tl  TESTEE)> ((AND  (GET (EQ  VERB  'TO-COMP)  'TO-COMP  (SETQ  (CAR  TESTEE  (FLAG-ON  (SETO  (EVAL  (CAR  TESTEE  (CONS  'S (LIST  KEEP-SENT)  (CAR  KEEP-SENT))))  (APPEND  KEEP-SENT  (LIST M N P T (N SOMEONE))) (REL-MODS-JOIN (CCOP. T E S T E E )  !))))))  T)  TESTEE)))) )  (DEFUN  ALL-FLAG-OFF  (MAPC  ' I LAMBDA  (K-S)  (X)  (FLAG-OFF  X  K-S))  K-S)  K-S)  (DEFUN A L L - H I S T - O F F (S-H) (COND ((NULL S-H)) (T ( A L L - F L A G - O F F (CAR  (DEFUN  ALL-PREPS  THIS ;  OF  ROUTINE  K-S  (COND  ARE  (NN  I OR (OR  T  IF  PREPOSITION  ANAPHOR?  (AND  (NULL  (CDR  S-H)))))  ALL  OF  THE  FIRST  NN  SENTENCE  PARTS  PHRASES.  (CAAR  K-S)))  I S U B 1  NN)  (TESTEE  (TEST-OFF? I AND  (ALL-HIST-OFF  K-S)  RETURNS  (INOT (£0 'PP ((EQ NN 0)) (T (ALL-PREPS  (DEFUN  S-HD  KASE  HIST  KASE)  NIL)  (CDR  K-S)))))  TEST  (EVAL  PRN)  TEST))  PRN) (UR  (ANAPHOR-QUERY  INOT  (EQ  'PRO  (CAR  PRN)))  IPRN-MATCH?  PRN  TESTEE))  TESTEED  ANAPHOR-CASE-LOOK  (DEFUN (PROG  (TEMP (SETQ  (KASE  TEMP)  K-S ) K-S KEEP-SENT)  L 0 0 P 1  (COND  ( INULl  KASE)  ((NULL  K-S)  (RETURN N ( L D )  LOOP £ (COND  ( (OR ((AND  (SETO  (CADAR (EU  K-S)  '"<-A()V-"  (MEMBER (SETO ( R E TURN (SETO  (CDR  KASE)  ' P P (CAAR ( CAAR  'LOCATION  TEMP  (FLAG-ON (T  KASE (EO  K-S)  .(SETQ  (GET  (CADAR  (CAR  K-S)  KEEP-SENT  K-S) TEST Tl)  I EMP) ) K-S  (CUR  K - S D  K-S  (GO (CDR  K-S)).  (AUV-MOU?  (CAR  KEEP-SENT)  K-S  K - S D )  (GO  LOOP?)))))  D  FAIL-TEST-LIST))  CO-AGENT  (FLAG-ON  I  TEST))  MIL))) IT  L  T)  FAIL-TEST-LIST  FAIL-TEST  L ) D  TESTEE)))  KEEP-SENT  TESTEE) )  (SETO  (MOT  (EO  "AGENT)  TESTES  (RETURN  L)>  L>)  (START-LIST  (FLAG-ON (T  ' NP  'ADV-PftOPl N  ID)  )  L 0 0 P 1 )  )  K-S))  (GO  L 0 0 P 2 ) )  PRN  TESTEED)  I C  (DEFUN ANAPHORIC (KASE T E S T D E P T H PKM) ANAPHORi: IS T H E M A I N A N A P H O R I C R E F E R E N C E ROUT 1N I: • IT T A K E S A L I S T . LIE C A S E S T O LOOK F O R . A T E S T T H E R E F E R E N T • MUST P A S S , A NUMBER 1 MO I C A T I N G WHAT S E N T E N C E IN THE H I S T O R Y TO L O O K A T , AMI) ( H E P R O N O U N B E I N G R E S O L V E D . T E S T E E D K H S ) ( H I S T ( PROG (RETURN (SPEAKER (CACR ( C A D R PR.N) • ( I ME MY M I N E D (CUND ( ("E'IKER [ ( AN!) T H A T - C M P "IT IS U N F O R T U N A T E T H A T YOU C A M E . " TH I S H A N D L E S S E N T E N C E S L I K E : (GET VERB ' T H A T - C O M P ) (MEMBER •ACENT KASCI ( E O ( C A D R PRN) • I I) (SETO TESTEE (START-LIST 'THAT-COMP KEEP-SENT) ) (NOT (CADR TESTEE))) (FLAG-ON TESTEE KEEP-SENT T) 1 R E TURN T E S T E E ) ) ((AND (GET VERB 'TO-COMP) "IT IS N E C E S S A R Y TO GO H O M E . " THI S H A N D L E S S E N T E N C E S L I K E : ( M E M B E R ' A G E N T KASI: ) (EQ (CADR PRN) 'If) (SETO TESTEE ( S T A R T - L I S T 'TO-COMP KEEP-SENT)) I MOT ( C A D R T E S T E E D ) (FLAG-UN IESTEE KEEP-SENT TI (RETURN (TO-COMP MNP T (N SOMEONE))))) T H I S R E T U R N S I N T E R N A L R E F E R E N C E S TO THE A G E N T AS IN: " F R E D M A R R I E D THE WOMAN T H A T H E L O V E D . T E S T PRN) ) ((AND AG-AMAPHOR (ANAPHOR? AG-ANAPHOR KASE HIST AS IN: THIS P I C K S U P I N T E R N A L R E F E R E N C E S TO T H E P A T I E N T " F R E D T O O K MARY TO H E R H O U S E . " ((AND PA-ANAPHOR (ANAPIIOR? P A - A N A P H O R K A S E H I S T T E S T P R N ) ) ((AND AG-AMAPHOR THIS R E S O L V E S OTHER INTERNAL REFERENCES L I K E : " F R E D P L A Y E D T H E M U S I C F O R MARY SO S H E WOULD RE H A P P Y . " (SETQ  TESTEE  (RETURN (SETQ THIS  PART  HIST DOES D  ( F INO-ANAPHOR  SUPER-SENT  '• CHECK . TE S T  PRNDD  iRETURN  AG-ANAPHORD  (RETURN  PA-ANAPHOR))  PRN  SUPER-SEMTD  T E S T E E ) )) )  HISTORY THE  REFERENCES  TO  PREVIOUS  SENTENCES.  I  H-S SENT-HIST K (COND ((AND ( ATOM K ASE ) ( N O T (NULL K A S E ) ) ) (LIST KASED (T KASE))) (RETURN NIL))) ( COND I I G R E A T E R P D D E P T H ) LOOP (RETURN NIL)) (COND ( ( N U L L H I S T ) ( 1 L F S S P D DEPTH) (S>=TQ D ( A O O l P ) H-S (COR H - S ) HIST (CDR I (Fl.NU-ANAPHOR  (CAR  HIST)  K  TEST  PRN  (CAR  H-S)D  )  HIST))  (GO  LOOP))  D  ( D E F U N A N A P H O R - Q U E R Y (PRN TESTEE) O N C E A P O T E N T I A L R E F E R E N T H A S B E E N F O U N D FOR A P R O N O U N THE FIRST PAR T M A K E S S U R E THE U S E R IS A S K E D IF IT C O R R E C T . IT H A S NOT A L R E A D Y B E E N A S K E D . I PROG ( R E S P T E M P I TEMP2) TEMPI ( T O P - L E V E L - S T A R T - L I S T P R N A N A P H O R - R E SP ) ) ) ' • ' P R N ) . (COND ( ( E Q U A L (CAR ( SETO (MA I N - W O R O - G E T (CADR TEMPI))) ICOND ( ( E Q (MAIN -WORU-GET T E S T E E ) NIL))). ( R E T U R N I S E L E C T O (CADADK T E M P I ) ( Y E S T ) (NO N I L ) ((EQ  (CA'OAOR  I(OEEP-MEMBEK1 (PRIN1  'BY).  (PRINI  (CADR  (PRIN1  ""I  (PRIN1  (SETQ  ( T E R PR I ) (PRINT LOOP (COND  "MS  TEMPI)  'YES)  TESTEE  'YES)  YOU  T E MP 2  (PROC.  BE1-DET  NIL)))  MEAN")  (MAI N - W O R D - G E T  TEST' E ) ) ) ;  , THAT  CORRECT?")  (READ) ) ) ) ) ) (( ( (E Ef ) 0 •* YY ( C A R ( E X P L O D E ( S E T Q R E S P (MY E V AL PRN ( L I S T T E S T E E ( SE TO A N A P H O R - R E S P (APPEND (LIST ILIST ((EG •N (CAR (EXPLODE RESP))) PRN ( L I S T T E S T E E ( SETQ ANAPHOR-RESP (APPENU (LIST (LIST NIL) (GO LOOP))))) (T ( P R I N T ' " P L E A S E ANSWER Y E S OR N O " )  (DEFUN B E I ? (NLIST) (COND ((EQ 'PL (CADR (START-LIST (T ( U E 1 - D E T NLIST D))  (DEFUN  (RETURN M I L ) ) ) ) (RETURN ANAPHOR - R E S P )  PRN))  ASSUME .  (LIST  •NUMBER  NLIST)))  •YES))) 'NO)))  •SUUSET-OF-SET)  (NO  J cu"u* C f MULL  (SETQ  TEHP  ( ( D E F I N I T E - DET? ( T  • SUBSET-OF-SE  (START-LIST  (CADR T D D  TEMP) )  'DET  Ntlll  ' ELEMENT-OF-SCT )  'ELEMENT-OF-SET)  ANAPHOR-RESP))) ANAPHOR-RESP))  IDEFUM ; mis CCUND  (DEFUN (PROG  BEEOKE-AFTER-DESC? IIESTEE PKI:P NNI ROUTINE i r. F U R P H R A S E : ; L I K E : "IHE  Q  HOUSE  li.'.IEE)))  AFTER  THIS  one.  .  ."  Q  II  ( I tH) I ( E O 'UP (CAI NIL) I T ( P R O G (Ml) P R O 'OL I NOUN) I C O N O I I OK ( A N D (MEMBER (CADR ( S E T Q DET (START LIST 'DET TESTEE))). •IIIIIS IH A T T H E S E I H O S T ) ) I EC) ( O A D R ( S E I O NOUN ( S T A R T - L I S T *N TESTE!:))) 'ONE) ( S E T O NCI ( C A D R (START-LIST 'NUMBER NOUN)))) (AND '(MEMBER (CADR ( S E T O PRO (START-LIST 'PRC TESTEE))) M I H I S THAT THESE THOSE)) ( S E T O NU ( C A D R (START-LIST 'NUMBER PRO))))) ( U E F I I R E - A F T E H - O E S C 1? T E S T E E P R E P MN N U ) ) ) ) ) ) )  BE F O R E - A F T E R - D E S C I ?  (TESTEE  PREP  NN  NU)  (BFURC) .(SEIO BFORE ( NOUN-L I S T-GET (ELMT ( SUB I . NN . K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) ) (COND ( ( E O N U ( C A U K ( S TAR T-(. I S T * N U M B E R U F O K E 1 I ) ( N P - H U I L U  BFORE)))))  (OEFUN BE-LOC () THIS IS THE LOGA TIONAL C A S E OF " T O B E " : "FRED IS IN THE ATTIC." "FRED IS WITH M A R Y . " (PROG (PREPS PREP TESTEE RET) (SETQ PREPS M I N O N U N D E R W I T H AT B Y N E A R B E S I D E B E F O R E U P DOWN A R O U N D A C R O S S UPON)) (RETURN I COND ( ( S E T O TESTEE (ELMT (ADM (PHRASE-MUM 'VP KEEP-SENT)) KEEP-SENT)) (COND ((AND (EU (CAR TESTEE) 'PP) (NOT (CADR TESTEE)) (OR (TEST-OFF? 'LOCATION) (NOT (MUST-BE ABSTRACT))) (SEIO PREP (CAR (MEMBER (CACOR TESTEE) PREPS)))) (FLAG-ON TESTEE KEEP-SENT (SETC RET  (CONO  ((EC) P R E P 'WITH) (LIST ' " < - L O C - C F - " (NOUN-LIST-GET (T  R E T ) ) ) ) ) ) )  IDEFUN BE-LOC1 (PROG (PREPS  () PREP  (SETQ  PREPS  (SETQ  NNN  LOOP ICOND  TESTEE M I N  (ADO  OM i  RET  (NP-BUILO  PREP INOUN-LIST-GET  TESTEE))))  (NP-BUILD  T E S T E E ) ) ) ) ) ) )  '  NNN)  UNDER  WITH  (PHRASE—NUM  AT  "VP  BY  NEAR  BESIDE  BEFORE  UP  DOWN  AROUND  ACROSS  UPON))  KEEP-SENT) ) )  ((SETQ T E S T E E (ELMT NNN K E E P - S E N T ) ) (COND ((AND.(EO (CAR T E S T E E ) 'PP) (NOT (CADR TESTEE)) (UR (TEST-OFF? 'LOCATION) (NOT (SETQ PREP (CAR (MEMBER (CACOR (FLAG-ON TESTEE KEEP-SENT (SETQ RET (COND ((EQ PREP (LIST (T (RETURN  (LIST  (LIST  (MUST-BE ABSTRACT))) TESTEE) PREPS))))  'WITH)  * "<-LOC-OF-" PREP  (NCUI'l-LIST-GET  (NOUN-LIST-GET  (NP-BUILD  (NP-BUILD  R E D )  (DEFUN B E N E F I C I A R Y (TESTEE PREP) ; T H I S F I N D S THE B E N E F I C I A R Y C A S E : "FRCO P L A Y S (PROC (PRN) ( R E T U R N (CUND ( ( S E T Q PRN ( P R O ? T E S T E E D (PROG (TEMP) (COND ( ( S E T Q TEMP  THE  PIANO  FOR  (PRO-ANAPIIOR?  MARY."  ' (AGENT  BENEFICIARY CO-AGENT TCP I C PATIENT) ' • '(MUST-BE ANIMATE) PRN TESTEE)) (SET-UP-FN 'BENEFICIARY PREP) ( R E T U R N '.LIST " ^ - B E N E F I C I A R Y - " T E M P ) ) ) ) ) ) ((MUST-BE ANIMATE) (SET-UP-FN 'BENEFICIARY PREP) ( L I S T • " < - B E N E F I C I A R Y - " (NOUN-L I S T - G E T ( N P - B U I L C T E S T E E ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN BUILD1 (FRAG) ; T H I S I S PART OF THE B U I L D Q F U N C T I O N FOR B U I L D I N G F I N A L S T R U C T U R E S . (PROG ( A ) ( R E T U R N (COND ( ( N U L L F R A G ) N I L ) ( ( E Q F R A G ••'•'•) ( C E T R V (CAR REGLSTD) ( ( E O ( R A G • ? ) (NOUN-PUT (CAR REGLSTD) l(Ei> FRAG M M I EVAL (CAP R E G L S T D ) . I(EU FRAG •*) *) ( I ATOM F R A G ) F R A G ) ( ( E Q (CAR F R A G ) •"*") ( S E I O A (IINCUNS R E G L S T R E G L S T D ( C U N S ( G E T R V A l ( B U I L D I (CDR FRAG)))) ( ( E(j (CAR F R A G ) • V) (SETI) A (UNCCINS R E G L S T R E G L S T ) ) ICONS (NOUN-PUT A ) ( B U I L D I (COR FRAG)))) ( ( EO ( CAR F R A G ) ' .'/ ) ( S E I Q A (UNCONS R E G L S T R E G L S T ) ) • (CUNS ( E V A L A) ( B U I L D I (COR FRAG)))) I I E O ( C A R F R A G ) •*) I C U N S * ( B U I L D I (CDR FRAG)))) ( ( E O (CAR F R A G ) ' S I (GI.UF ( B U I L C I (CDR FRAG)))) (T ( C U N S ( B U I L D I (CAR F K AG D ( B U I L D I (CDR FRAG))))))))  TESTEE) ) ) )  T E S T E E ) ) ) ) ) ) )  I i(DEFUN C A N - C L A S S ? (NI' IMP) Till S ROUTINE ASKS Till! USER I E A NOUN P H R A S E IS A C L A S S I F I E R ; OF A N O T H E R N O U N P H R A S E . (CUM D ( ( A N D (EO (CAR PIP) 'NP) (NULL ( S T A R T - L I S T ' O E T THP)1 (NOUN-GET ( P R I Ml MSI (PRINT (NOUN-GET NP)) ( P R IN L ' " A C L A S S I E I E R O F " ) ' (PRINl (NOUN-GET IMP)) ITERPRI)  too  1  i  NPI)  i  (COND  < (EO 'Y (CAR (EXPLODE (READ)))) ( S E T O FN M R P L A C O ( E N D - L I S T PLACEI (LIST (RETURN ( L I S T ' " < - C L A S S ( N O U N - L 1ST - G E T n  (DEFUN  CAN-MOD-DESC?  (APPLY1  (IMPLODE  (TESTEE  (LIST  PART  'UESC  STRCTI) P L A C E ( NOUN-L I S'T-GE T (NP-ilUILU PARTI))))))))  TMP I >  PREP)  '"-"  PREP 1 )  TESTEE  PART))  (DEFUN CASE NEXP3 (CASES) T H I S R O U T I N E G O E S T H R O U G H A L I S T (IF C A S E F R A M E S FOR A V E R B TO ; F I N D THE CORRECT O N E . (PROG ( O U - O P T FAIL-TEST) LOOP (COND ( (NULL CASES ) ) ((PROGN (SETQ F A I L - T E S T NIL) (EV-SETR (CADR C A S E S ) (CAR C A S E S ) ) ) ( S E T Q C A S E S (CDODR CASES)) (GO LOOP)) ((EQ ' O B L ( S E T Q O U - O P T ( M Y E V A L (CAODR C A S E S ) ) ) ) (ALL-FLAG-CFF KEEP-SENT) NIL) ((EC 'OPT OB-OPTI I S E T O C A S E S ICOCIJR C A S E S ) ) (GO LOOP)) (T ( E V - S E T R (CADR C A S E S ) OB-OPT) ( S E T Q C A S E S (COOUR C A S E S ) ) (GO LOOP)))))  (DEFUN CA SE-ANAPHOR (KASE PART TEST) ; THIS R O U T I N E IS I N T E N D E D TU B E E X T E N D E D . ; C U R R E N T L Y I T O N L Y WORKS W I T H T H E S O U R C E C A S E . IF THE SOURCE ; C A S E I S L O O K E D l-UR BUT NOT F O U N D IN A S E N T E N C E , THIS ; R O U T I N E T R I E S TO F I N D T H E S O U R C E B Y L O C K I N G FOR WHERE T H E ; T H I N G OR P E R S O N WAS B E F O R E T H E M O V E M E N T D E S C R I B E D IN T H E S E N T E N C E . (PROG (TESTEE) (SELECTQ  KASE (SOURCE  (AND  (SETO TESTEE IWHERE-IS (NOUN-LIST-GET (OR ( T E S T - O F F ? K A S E ) IEVAL TEST)) TESTEE))  (GETR  AG))))  NIL)))  (DEFUN C A S E - A T O M - A S S O C (KASE) (SELECTQ KASE (LOCATION ' L O O  KASE))  (DEFUN CASES? (PART NN) T H I S R O U T I N E IS G I V E N A S E N T E N C E P A R T AND A S K E D TO F I N D WHAT C A S E I T IS. I F I T S T A R T S W I T H A P R E P O S T I T I O N OR IS A C O M P L E M E N T , T H E N C A S E - C A L L ER I S C A L L E D . OTHERWISE MODIFY? IS INVOKED. ( P R O G (NUM F A I L - L I S T P L A C E P R E P R C A S E S T R C T F N TEMP) (COND ( ( A N D ( P R E P - S T A R T PARTI ( C A S E - C A L L E R (C4DDR P A R T ) V E R B (CCOOR P A R T ) NN))) ((AND ( S E T Q TEMP ( C O M P L E M E N T P A R T ) ) ( C A S E - C A L L E R TEMP V E R B (CDDR P A R T ) NMD) ( ( M O D I F Y ? (COND ( ( A T O M (CAR P A R T ) ) PART) (T ( C A R P A R T ) ) ) N N D D )  ( D E F U N C A S E - C A L L E R ( P R E P V E R B NP NN) C A S E - C A L L E R C A L L S T H E F O R E G R O U N D IMG K O U T I N E , T H E N I N V O K E S T H E ROUTINE FOREGROUNDED. I F T H A T R O U T I N E F A I L S , OR T H E S Y S T E M FAILS LATER (VIA CONTINUE) T H E N T H E N E X T R C U T I N E IS INVOKED. THIS I S T H E R E F O R E THE R O U T I N E W H I C H C O N T R O L S T H E D E C I S I O N POINTS FUR T H E B A C K - U P . (PROG (TEMP) (SETQ  TEMP  ( C A S E - E D R E - G R U UN i)  VERB  PREP  ( P R E P - L I 5T-CET  PREP  CASE-TABLE)  NN ) )  LOOP j • | ;  (COND •  (I N U L L T E M P ) NIL) ((AND (EO (LENGTH (NOT  (MEMBER  ( S E TO T E M P  (CDR  NP)  2)  (CAR  TEMP)  •I METHOD C A U S E  TIME  PURPOSE  EXPECTEO-EFFECT)D)  TEMP))  (GO LOOP)) ((AND (SETQ STRCT ( A P P L Y l (T ( S E T Q TEMP (CDR T E M P ) )  ( C A R T E M P ) NP (GO L O O P ) ) ) ) )  PREP))  (CONTINUE)))  •'TusVuMPLOof ^ ^ ^ - " I c ^ A T O M - A S S O C (OEEUN ;  CASE-DELETE  THIS  ALLOW  (PROG  (VERB  CERTAIN  PREP  CASES  . . - « » ,  (NCUN-USr-GET  PREP  (NP-BU.LD  TESTEE...,  L)  TO H E R U L E D  OUT  FORC E R T A I N VERBS  AND P R E P O S T I O N S .  (TEHP) (RETURN  ( COND  ((NULL (SETO TEHP ((OR ( N U L L (CAI)OR (SOFT-DELETE ( T  IT IS (PROG  ii Y  USED  (TEMPI (RETURN  A CASE  THEANA HUKIC  (CADR  TEMPI  1 L l )  IN A P R E V I O U S  FINAL  AN f l - C A S E - T A B L E >> > L ) (CACIJR TEMP)))  ((SETO  STRUCIURE.  ROUTINES.  P  (COND  ( PREP-I. I S T - C E T VERB TEHP). (('EMBER PREP  L ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN C A S E - F I N D IX KASE) ; THIS IS USED FOR F I N D I N G ;  KASE,  TEMP  (CUR ( S T A R T - L I S T  (SELECTQ  KASE ( A G E N T "'<==>••) (PATIENT '"<—") (LOCATION "<-LOC-") (RECIP!EN T '"(-RECIPIENT(TIME '"(-TIME-") ( D U R A T I ON *"(-DURATION-") (DESC '"OUESC-") (TOPIC '"(-TOPIC-") ( P.EMEF I C ! ARY ' " ( - B E N E F I C I A R Y - " ) (PATH '"(-PATH-") (EXCHANGE •"(-EXCHANGE-") (CO-AGENT '"(-CO-AGENT-") (DESTINATION '"(-DESTINATION-") • "(-SOURCE- " ) (SOURCE I LIKE ' '(-L IKE-" ) (WITH ' ' ( - W I T H - " ) 1  NIL) X) ) ) (COND  ((SETQ  ( I C Q KASE - P A T I E N T ) (CACR TEMP)) ((EQ KASE ' A G E N T ) (CAR T E M P ) ) KNOT (ATOM ( C A R T E M P ) ) ) (CAR TEMP)) IT TEMP))) X... (CASE-FIND T E M P ( S T A R T - L I S T " ' ( = = >" ( C D R  TEMP  KASE))))):  (DEFUN C A S E - F O R E - G R O U N D (VERH PREP KASES NN) A F T E R V - F O R E - G R N O IS THIS I S T H E T O P - L E V E L F O R E G R O U N D ING R O U T I N E . C A S E S TO B E C A L L E D . C A L L E D IT C H E C K S T O S E E I F D E S C IS O N E OF T H E IF S O , I F T H E P R E V I O U S P H R A S E IS A N O U N - OR A P R E P - P H R A S E , I T FOREGROUNDS D E S C . (PROG (TEMP B E F ) (SETQ TEMP ( C A S E - D E L E T E V E R B PREP ( S E T Q TEMP ( V - F O R E - G R N D V E R B (APPEND PREP ( CDR ( P R E P - L I S T - G E T  (COMP-INTERSECTION ICUNU  ( ( A N D (MEMBER (MEMBER (NOT (RETURN (T  (DEFUN (PROG  ' D E SC T E M P ) (CAR (SETQ B E F (ELMT  (START-LIST (APPEND  ( (NULL  TEMP)  ( ( INT-LIST (SETQ (GO  KASES)  TEMP))))  NN) K E E P - S E N T ) J )  '(PP  MP.)  'NPR BEF)))  (LIST  'DESC)  (SOFT-DELETE  'DESC  T  TEMP))))  TEMP ) ) ) )  CASE-PREPS (VERB K) (TEMP L C S S ) (SETQ TEMP (GET VERB  LOOP (COND  (SU81  (COR  TEMP  'PREP-CASE)  I RETURN  C S S 1COAR  Ll ) TEMP))  C S S ICOND  (SETQ  L  ((ATOM  (APPEND  K)  (LIST  (CUR TEMP))  LOOP)))  I D E F U N C A S E - R E T U R N (ARROW P R E P P H . (APPEND ( L I S T (MAKE-ARROW ARROW)) (CUNI) ( ( N O T ( N U L L P R E P ) . ( L I S T PREP))) (LIST (LIST (NOUN-LIST-GET ( N P - B U I L I ) I CAR  (LIST  PH)))))))  K))  (CAAR  (T K ) ) >  TEMP) )  L) )))  PREP (GET  VERB •PREP-CASE ))))')  ( DEFUN CAUSE (TESTEE PREP) CAUSE IS INVOKED EUR S i l - C U M I ' L E M C N T S CONSTRUCTS, "SO.  .  THEN  IT  SORTS  . C A N " CONSTRUCTS  ARE  SENTENCES.  ARE  SE I  ISELECTO  S  IS  UUT  ARE THE E N A B L E  CALLED.  FOR INTERNAL  IT  THE E N A B L E AC-ANAPHOR  REJECTS  "SO.  AND C A U S E  CASE.  .  .WOULD"  CASES.  SINCE  S O - C CMPL E V E N T S  AND HA™ANAPHOR  REFERENCES.  PREP I • so (CONO  ( ( N O T I E O "WOULD ( C A R T E S T E E ) ) ) (PROG I TEMP) ( S E T U A G - A N A PHOT'. ( G E T R A G ) P A - A . N A P H O K ( G E T R P A ) ) ICOND ( ( N O T (ATOM ( S E T O TEMP ( E V A L (CONO ( I N C T ( E U ' S (CAAR TESTEE))) (CADR TESTEE)) (T (CAR T E S T E E ) ) ) ) ) ) ) (SET-UP-FN 'CAUSE NIL) ( S E T O AG-ANAPI'.UR N I L PA*-ANAPHOR N I L ) ( R E T U R N ( B U I L O U ( '/ •') ) (CONO I(MEMBER (CAR T E S T E E ) '"<-ENABLE-") (T ""<-CAUSE-")) TEMP I ) ) ) ) ) ) I  "(COULD  CAN))  NIL))  (DEFUN  CHARACTERISTIC  THIS  CASE  IS  (A  D)  NOT I M P L E M E N T E D Y E T .  NIL)  ( D E F U N C H O O S E - E L M T ( P A R T NN F - L ) THIS ROUTINE IS U S E D T O C H O O S E A C A N D I D A T E WHEN T R Y I N G T O F I C U R E WHAT A C E R T A I N S E N T E N C E P A R T MODIFIES. F-L I S T H E L I S T OF C A N D I D A T E S A L R E A O Y F A I L E D . I T B E G I N S BY L O O K I N G A T T H E P A R T B E F O R E T H E P A R T IN Q U E S T I O N , THEN T H E ONE B E F O R E T H A T , E T C . IF THEY A L L F A I L , I T COOKS AT T H E O N E A F T E R THE PART IN Q U E S T I O N , THEN THE ONE A F T E R T H A T , E T C . I PROG (P) (COND  ( ( A N D ( N O T ( M E M B E R ( S E T Q NlfM ( S U B L N N ) ) F - L ) ) ( R E T U R N ( E L M T NUM K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) ((AND ( N O T ( M E M B E R ( S E T Q NUM ( A D D 1 M M ) ) F - L ) ) ( R E T U R N ( E L M T NUM K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) (T ( S E T Q NUM ( S U B 2 N N I ) (RETURN  (PRUG M I L LOOP (COND  (LESSP (NOT  0 NUM))  (GREATERP  NUM ( L E N G T H  K E E P - S E N T )•) ) )  ' ( ( G R E A T E R P 0 NUM) ( C O N D ( ( N O T ( M E M B E R NUM F - L ) ) ( R E T U R N I E L M T NUM K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) I T ( S E TO NUM ( S U B 1 N U M ) ) ( G O L C O P ) ) ) ) I T ( S E T Q NUM ( A D O 2 N N ) ) (RETURN (PROG N I L LOOPl ICOND ( ( A N D ( N O T ( M E M B E R NUM F - L ) ) ( S E T C P ( E L M T NUM K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) (RETURN P)) ( P ( S E T Q NUM ( A O O l N U M ) ) ( G O L O O P l ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )  ( D E F U N C H O O S E - E L M T - P R E P ( N P NN F - L ) THIS ROUTINE IS U S E D BY T H E L O C A T I V E C A S E . IF THE- S E N T E N C E PART IN Q U E S T I O N IS T H E F I R S T IN T H E S E N T E N C E OR F O L L O W S ONLY P R E P - P H R A S E S , THEN IT R E T U R N S THE V E R B - P H R A S E AS THE L I K E L Y CANDIDATE. THAT (COND  IS,  THE P H R A S E  ((OR (T  ( E O NN  1)  (CHOOSE-ELMT  (DEFUN C L A S S ? (NP) (PROG (TEMP) (RETURN  IS  CONSIDERED.  (ALL-PREPS NP  NN  (CONO  TO BE T H E L O C A T I V E C A S E ,  NN K E E P - S E N T ) )  (ELMT  (SETC  NOT T H E D E S C R I P T I V E NUM ( P H R A S E - N U N  CASE.  'VP KEEP-SENT))  KEEP-SENT))  F-L))))  ((SETQ  TEMP  (ELMT  (SETU  NUM ( A U D I  N))  KEEP-SENT))  (CAN-CLASS?  NP  TEMP))))))  !  I  '(DEFUN C L A U S E IPRE*' 1 EST K A S E I I H I S R O U T I N E LOOKS FOX A P R E P O S I T I O N '; P R E P O S I T I CMS I N P R E P . • j  IPKUG  (TESIEE K-S TEMP I'RII ISETQ K-S KEEP-SEMI)  LOOP (COND  J [  PR  RET  . PHRASE  BEGINNING  V.' I III  ONE  OF  THE  TGI  -, ((NULL K-S) NIL) ((AND (EO ' P P (CAR ( S E I O T E S T E E I CAR K-S)))) (NOT E G I (NOT (CADR TESTEE)) ( S E T Q PR ( C A R ( MI.MHEK ( C A O O R T E S T E E ) P R E P ) I I ) (CUND ( ( S E T O P R N ( P R O ? T E S T E E ) ) ( P R O - AN API IOR ? K A S E T E S T PRN T E S T E E ) ) f l A N L i ( E O ' " C - A D V - " (CAAR ICODDR T E S T E E ) ) ) ( S E T O T E H P (ADV-MUO? ICAOOOR T E S T E E ) T E S T K A S E I ) ) (FLAG-ON TESTEE K-S TEMP) ( RETURN T E " P ) ) MANU (OR ( T E S T - O F F ? KASE ) ( E V A L TEST)) (PROGN C E T Q F A I L - T E S T NIL) (FLAG-CN  TESTEE  K-S  (SETC  RET  1CASE-CLAUSE-fiUILO  KASE  PR  TESTEE)))  RET))) (T (T THIS IF  PART  FG  AND  IS  WILL  IS  (SETO AN  T THE MOT  (SETC  K-S  A T T E M P T MOT ROUTINE  ACCEPT (CUND (GO  FAIL-TEST  (CDR  T K-S  (CDR  K-S1)  (CO  LGOP))))  K-SI). TO B R E A K  THINKS  IT  IS  I HE P H R A S E . ((MEMBER (CAR ((CO  (CAR  UP IN  RELATIVE  TESTEE)  TESTEE)  CLAUSES.  A RELATIVE CLAUSE '(REL  .'VP)  OBJ-REL  (SETO  FG  RED-REL  OBJ-REO-REL)I  (SETO  NIL)))  LOOP)))))  (DEFUN CO-AGENT ( T E S T E E PREP) ; THIS IS T H E C O - A G E N T C A S E . (PROG (PRN) ( R E T U R N (CONO ( ( S E T O PRN ( P R O ? TESTEE)) (PRGG (TEMP) (COND ( ( S E T Q TEMP . (PRO-ANAPHOR?  RECIPIENT CC-AGENT . PAT IENT BENEFICIARY) • (MUS T - B E A N I M A T E ) PRN TESTEE)) (SET-UP-FN 'CO-AGENT PREP) (RETURN (LIST •"<-CO-AGENT-" TEMP)))))) I(MUST-BE ANIMATE) (SET-UP-FN ' C O - A G E N T PREP) (LIST '"<-CO-AGENr-" (NOUN-LIST-GET (NP-BU1LD TESTEE))))))))  (DEFUN (MAPC  C O M P - I N T E R S E C T ION '(LAMBDA  (X)  (A  (COND  * (AGENT  B) ((MEMBER  X  B)  (SETQ  A  (SOFT-DELETE  X T  A)))))  A)  A)  (DEFUN  COMPLEMENT  (SELECTQ  (DEFUN ;  THIS  (L)  (CAR L) CTU-COMP 'TO) ('BY-COMP 'BY) ( ' S O - C O M P » SO) ('WHEN •WHEN) ('WHILE 'WHILE) I * BEFORE 'BEFORE) I'AFTER 'AFTER) NIL))  CONTEXT CASE  ,, '°J  IS  (A  S)  NOT  IMPLEMENTED Y E T .  NIL)  (DEFUN CONTINUE () THIS IS T H E R O U T I N E T H A T C O N T R O L S T H E S T A C K OF C A S E S . . F N IS T H E F U N C T I O N W H I C H W I L L AOD A S T R U C T U R E TO T H E C U R R E N T S T R U C T U R E IN S T R U C T . TAIL-ENDS S U C C E E D S IF T H E R E S T OF T H E S E N T E N C E C A N B E A N A L Y Z E D IN T H E CURRENT CASE F R A M E . (SETQ F A I L - L I S T (APPEND F A I L - L I S T (LIST MUM))) I F L A G - O N PART K E E P - S E N T STRCT) (COND ((TAIL-ENDS) ( E V A L FN) ( P U T - I N - L I S T VERB ' C A S E - M I S T PREPSCASE))))  FG  TI)  IDE P U N ; ;  COPULAK-ADV?  mis  is  "I  A  ( T E S T !  NEXPK HIE  or  VEKII  /Of ir  " T O  L O O K S  A F T E R  S E N T E N C E  L I K E :  W E L L . "  AM  ( P R O G  C A S E  ( T E S T E E  ( S E T Q  K - S  K - S  P T  T E M P  NN  K E E P - S E N T  R E T )  (PIT!* ASE-HUM  NN  K E E P - S E N T )  'VP  ( E L M T  TESTEE  (SETQ  N M ( A O D 1 NN))  K E E P - S E N T ) )  LOUP ( C O N D  ( ( N U L L  T E S T E D  ICOND ( R E  (Ef  ( U R N  I EO ' " < ~ A O V - "  ((AMD  I S E T O  T E M P  ( R E TURN R E F ) ) IT (SETU TESTEE  OA  TE  (MEMBER  ROUTINE  'QUOTE  I  H  ( ( N U L L  H  K E E P - S E N T  ( N O T (CADR  • C U P U I . A R - A D V  T  I S E T O  ISE.'O  R E T  N N lADUl  ( C U O R  NN) )  T E S T E E ) )  ( SETO  NP)  IG O  KEEP-SENT ) )  LOOP)))))  O FL I .  MEMBER  (RETURN N I L ) )  I (NULL  L2)  ( ( EQUAL  ( C A R  LL)  L L (CDR L I D  (  L 2 ) (RETURN  (GO  ( C A RLI)))  LOOP)))))  H L2)  NIL)  LI  L 2 D  ((ATOM L 2 ) N I L ) (T (OR ( D E E P - M E M B E R 1  DEEP-PHRASE-NUM  (A  LI  (CAR L 2 ) )  ( D E E P - M E MBE R I  LI  ( C O R L'2 ) ) ) ) ) ) '  L)  (NN) (SET  Q  NN  0)  LOOP (COND  (DEFUN  ((NULL D O ) ( (DEE P-MEMBERI A (CAR L I I ( A 0 0 1 N N D (T (SETQ NN ( A U D I N N ) L I C D R L ) ) (GO  DEFAULT  THIS  SPECIFIED THE IN  (A  ROUTINE IN  PATIENT  THE DICTIONARY  THE S E N T E N C E . CASE  COULD  THE DEFINITION  (PROG  LOOP)))))  B)  ALLOWS  IE:  DEFAULT  WRITER  TO L E T C A S E S  " T H E P IAN I ST VM.AYED TO " T H E P I A N O "  DEFAULT  IF NOT  ALL D A Y . " —  BY U S I N G  THIS  ROUTINE  OF " T O P L A Y " .  (TEMP) (SETQ  TEMP  (GET B  'DEFAULT))  LOOP (COND  ( (NULL ((AND  TEMP) (MEMBER  (RETURN (T  (DEFUN  (SETQ  DEFIN ITE-DET?  (MEMBER  D  • OBL) VERB  (LIST TEMP  (CADR  'QUOTE  (CDDDR  TEMP))  (CADDR  TEMP)')  (0)  ' ( T H E A L L THAT  THOSE  THIS  I ME-1 B E R  A  T E !*'.'•) ) )')  (GO  THESE)))  LCQP)))))  ( EVAL  T E M P ) ) )  -N-PROP)))  L 2 I S A D E E P  F T T)  ) I  Z ) M  IF  )  (SETQ  DEEP-MEMBER!  (PROG  •COPULAR-AOV)  L 2 )  SUCCEEDS  (T  (DEFUN  (LIST  • (LIST  ( (DEEI'-MEMBERl  (COND  (APPEND  NIL  LOOP (COND  (DEFUN  T E S T E E  (ELMT  ( G E T( N O U N - G E T  D E E P - M E M B E R  THIS I PROG  FAIL-TEST-LIST  (NP)  'YEAR  ( D E F U N D B L Q (L) (LIST 'QUOTE  ( D E F U N  f  ( C A RTESTED)  I A D V - L O C  T E S T E E  (FLAG-ON  ( D E F U N  F A I L - T E S T  (SETU  FAIL-TEST-LIST))))  M I L ) )  (CAR TEMP).))  TEST))  (DEFUN DESC ( TESTEE PREP) THIS IS T H E O E S C k l P I I V E C A S E : THE C A S E DF T H E N O U N . THE P H R A S E P K E C E E O I N G IS TI.IE O N L Y ONI: C O N S I D E R E D A S THE ONE B E I N G M O D I F I E D . T H I S C O U L D BE C H A N G E D BY INVOKING CHOOSE-ELMT. THE E L E M E N I C H O O S E N MUSI BE A P R E P - P H R A S E OR A NOUN P H R A S E . (PROG (PRN IEMP) ( C O N D ( I A N ! ) ( M E M B E R PRE P ( BEFORE AFTER)) (SETO TEMP I S E I O T E S T E S TE M P ) ) ( ( S E T O PRN (PRO? T E S T E E ) I 1  (SETO .(COND  ((NULL IIOR  TESTEE TESTEE)  ( E U NM 1)  ( R E TURN (COND  ((AND  (PRO-ANAPHORV (RETURN (NOT  '(PATIENT  DESC  TOPIC  AGENT)  (CAR (SETQ  TEMP  (ELMT  (SUBl  T PRN  TESTEE  PREP  NN ) ) )  TESTEE))))  NIL) )  (MEMBER  NN)  KEEP-SENDI)  '(PR  NP I ) ) )  MIL) ) )  (OR  (START-LIST  IDESC-MOD7 (T  I B E F OR E - A F T E R - D E SC V  (RETURN  "DET T E S T E E )  TESTEE  TEMP  (NOT  ( EU (CADR  (START-LIST  'NUMBER  TESTEE))  'SG)))  PREP)))  NIL)))))  ( D E F U N D E S C - A C R O S S (A B) (OESC-TRAJ 'ACROSS A HI)  ( D E F U N D E S C - A R O U N D (A B) (DESC-TRAJ 'AROUND A B ) )  (DEFUN (NOT  DESC-AT (TESTEE M-PH) (MUST-BE HUMAN)))  ( D E F U N . D E S C - B E S I D E (A B) (DESC-BY-NEAR-BESIDE 'BESIDE  (DEFUN D E S C - B Y (A B) (DESC-BY-NEAR-BESIDE  A  B))  'BY A 8 ) )  (DEFUN D E S C - B Y - N E A R - B E S I D E (KASE O - P H M-PH) I T H I S H A N D L E S THE D E S C R I P T I V E C A S E FOR P H R A S E S B E G I N N I N G WITH ; B Y , N E A R , OR B E S I D E . IT I N S I S T S T H A T T H E N O U N S I N Q U E S T I O N E I T H E R B O T H B E S M A L L OR E L S E B E A B O U T T H E S A M E S I Z E , OR E L S E T H E S E C O N D ; ONE MUST BE A BODY OF W A T E R : "I W A L K E D B E S I D E T H E C C E A N . " (PROG (SI S 2 ) (SETQ S 2 (GET (NOUN-GET M-PH) ' O B J - S I Z E ) ) ( R E T U R N (COND { ( A N D (OR ( S T A R T - L I S T 'DET D-PH) (AND ( H A B I T U A L ? ) (NOT ( E O ' S G (CADR ( S T A R T - L I S T 'NUMBER D-PH)))))) (OR ( A N D ( L E S S P (SETO SI (GET (NOUN-GET O-PHI ' O B J - S I Z E ) ) 6 ) ILESSP S2 6 ) ) (LESSP ( A B S I SUB S I S 2 ) ) 2 ) (MEMBER ( N O U N - G E T O - P H ) ' ( O C E A N S E A L A K E ) ) ) ) (CASE-RETURN ' L O C KASE D-PH))))))  t DEFUN D E S C - F R O M ( D - P H M - P H ) I THIS HANDLES THE S T R U C T U R E : (PROG  " T H E MAN F R O M  PARIS.  .  ."  (TESTEE) (SETQ TESTEE M-PH) (COND ( ( G R E A T E R P ( G E T ( N O U N - G E T D - P H ) ' O B J - S I Z E ) 3) (CONO ( ( A N D ( M U S T - B E A N I M A T E ) (SETQ TESTEE O-PH) (MUST-BE (BUILDQ ("< = = >" 9 P A S T ( " < — " INHABIT ID) (NOUN-LIST-GET (COPY M - P H ) ) (NOUN-LIST-GET (NP-BUILD D-PH)))) (T ( C A S E - R E T U R N ' U E S C ' F . ' C M D-PH)))))))  LOCATION))  (OEFON D E S C - I N (DESC-PH MOD7-PH) ; THIS HANDLES PHRASES L I K E : " T H E MAN I N T H E H O U S E . " I PROG ( S I S 2 ) ( S E T Q SI (GET (NOUN-GET DESC-PH) "OBJ-SI/E) S2 ( G E T ( N O U N - G E T M C D 7 - P H I 'OBJ-SIZE)) (RETURN (COND ( ( O R (NULL S I ) (NULL S 2 ) ) N I L ) ( (AND T E S T - O F F ( G R E A T E R P ( S U B S I 2 ) S 2 1 ) ( C A S E - R E T U R N ' L O C M M D E S C - P H ) ) ((AND S H O U L D - T E S T - O F F (GREATERP (SUBl SI) S21I (CASE-RETURN ' L O C ' I N DESC-PH)) ( ( G R E A T E R P SI S 2 I ( C A S E - R E T U R N ' L O C ' I N D E S C - P H ) ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN D E S C - M O D ? ( T E S T E E PART PREP) (PROG (TEMP) ( C O N D ( ( A N O (OR ( S T A R T - L I S T ' D E I PART) (NUT ( E U (CADR ( S T A R T - L I S T ( S E T U TEMP ( C A N - M U D - D E S C ? T E S T E E P A R T P R E P ) ) ) ( S E T O EN M R P L A C D ( E N D - L I S T PLACE) (LIST STRCT)) PLACE ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T PART) PREPf.CASE ( L I S T PREP -DESC) NUM ( P H R A S E - N U M 2 P A R T K E E P - S E N T ) ) TEMP))))  ( D E F U N D E S C - N E A R (A B) (DESC-BY-NEAR-BESIDE  'NEAR  A  B))  'NUMBER  PART))  'SG))1  IDEFUN  " H I E  H A N D L E 'i  1HIS  ; ;  (TESTES  D E S C - U K  I PROG  (  10<°  PARI)  BOOKS  AND  JOHN.  UK  BOX OF  "THE  BOOKS.  TEMP)  (SETO  TEMP  (COND  ( ( M U ST - B E  TESTEE)  ( L I S T  •  -,  HUMAN)  "•< == >" ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T ( L I S T  ((AND  (SETO  ( L I S T IT  •"<—" I E S I E E  •"<-• = > "  PART)  T E S T E E ) ) I E ST E E  (MUST-HE  (NOUN-GET  - D E S C - "  ( L I S T  ( N P - B U I L D  ( P O S S E S S I O N PARTI  PREP  (NOUN-LIST-GET  PART)  (COPY  PART)))))  C O N T A I N E R ) )  ( L I S T  CONTAIN  • "< — "  (NUUN-I.l S T - G E T  (NP-BUILD  (NOUN-LIST-CCT  (NP-BUILD  TEMP)))))  T E S T E E ) ) ) ) ) ) )  ( D E F U N O E S C - O N (A U ) (DESC-ON-UNDER ' ON A T i l )  (DEFUN  D E S C - O N - U N D E R  THIS I T  (KASE  HAS  (PROG  THE URVIOUS  (SI  S2>  ( SETQ  SI  (NOUN-GET  (GET  (RETURN  D - P HM - P H )  (COND  D-PH) SI)  (NULL  ((OR  (AND T E S T - O F F  DESC-TRAJ  THIS  HANDLES  (PROG  (KASE  D-PH M-PH)  " T H E MAN A C R O S S T H E  (SI S2) (SETO SI  (COND  (GREATERP (CASE-RETURN  ( D E F U N DE S C - U N D E R ( A B) (DESC-ON-UNDER 'UNDER  (DEFUN  A  (D-PH M-PH)  HANDLES  " T H E BOX W I T H  THIS  ;  " T H E GIRL (PROG  WITH  S2  (GET  NIL) SI  (NOUN-GET  ' L O C KASE  ROOM .  )  0)  (LESSP  S2  2))))  D-PH))))))  ETC  SI 2)) ' L O C KASE  THE PENCILS  THE R E D H A I R .  (NEXT PRN) (RETURN (COND  M-PH) 'OBJ-SIZE)  . 10))  M-PH)  "OBJ-SIZEI  )  O-PH))))))  B))  DESC-WITH  ;  S2))  (LESSP  GET (NOUN-GET D-PH) ' O B J - S I Z E ) S2 ( G E T ( N O U N ((OR (NULL SI) (NULL S21) NIL) ((OR (AMD T E S T - O F F ( G R E A T E R P SI 0)) (AND S H O U L D - T E S T - O F F ( G R E A T E R P S I 1 ) )  (GET  (RETURN  (NULL  THE C A R .  SHOULD-TEST-OFF (LESSP SI 7>) (LESSP SI ?) (OR ( G R E A T E R P SI  (CASE-RETURN  ;  " T H E MAN U N D E R  'OBJ-SIZE)  ((OR  (AND (AND  (DEFUN  AND  MAN ON THE T A B L E " S U E RESTRAINTS.  HANDLES: "THE  .  IN  IT.  . " . ETC  ^' u V ^ E T Q ^ ^  KEEP-SENT))  ««• —  ™  ™  KEEP-SENT))) , , A N D  « E ™ R  S  (FLAG-ON  NEXD  NEXT  '.^r.^'pRN  KEEP-SENT  (PREP-VERB-ASSO-CCMPLX-RETURN (T  (CASE-RETURN  (DEFUN DESTINATION (TESTEE ( S O U R C E - D E S T TESTEE PREP  ( D E F U N DROP (M L E T S ) (COND ((ZEROP N) LETS) (T (DROP ( S U B 1 N)  (DEFUN  DR0P6G0  (SETQ  LETS  (EVAL  (CADR  (LST  (DROP  ' D E SC  (PRO?  (CADDDR  NEXT,,,  T,  'WITH  (COPY  M-PH) D-PH  NEXT))  O-PH))))))  PREP) 'DESTINATION))  tCDR  LETS))),)  LETS)  .  (LENGTH  (CAR L S T ) )  LETS))  LST))I  (DEFUN DURATION (NP PREP) ; THIS IS T H E D U R A T I O N C A S E . ICOND ((DURATION? NP) (SET-UP-CM 'DURATION PREP) (BUILDO ( " < - D U R A T I O N - " 0) (NOUN-LIST-GET  (I)EEUM DURAT I O N ? ( M P ) • THIS IS T H E TEST FOR T H E D U R A T I O N ! ';  IT  SUCCEEDS  "THEY (UR  Pt A YET)  (AND (AND  J  ON " T H E Y IN  (IS-IT (IS-IT  PLAYED  'TIME) 'TIME)  IEQ (EO  NP)))))1  CASE.  F O R AM H O U R .  AM H O U R . " MP NP  (NP-BUILD  (CAR t GETR (CAR (GETR  TNS) ) TNS) )  •PAST) (NOT (DATE NP))) •PRESENT) (HABITUAL?))))  ( P R N - MATCH?  PRN M - P H , ,  '  • tol IDEFUN ELHT IM K-SI ; THIS RETURNS T HE N T H ELEMENT OF THE LF ST K - S . (PROG NIL LOOP (CIJMO I (OR (NULL K-S I (LESSP N 1)1 NIL) ( (LESSP 1 N) (SETO N ( S U I i l N) K-S (COR K-S)) (GO LOOP)) (T (RETURN (CAR K-S)1)))I (DEFUN END-LIST (TEMP) ; THIS RETURNS THE LAST ELEMENT OF A LIST. (PROG NIL LOOP (CONO ((NULL (CDR TEMPI) (RETURN TEMP)) (T (SETO TEMP (CDR TEMP)) (GO LOOP))))) (DEFUN ERCATIVE (VERB) ; THIS IS THE D I C T I O N A R Y E N T R Y (IF ( (AGENT (MUST-BE ANIMATE) ) AG  FOR E R G A T I V E  VERBS.  SOMEONE (COND ( ( A N D ( E G 'SOMEONE (GETR A G ) ) (AGENT (NOT ( S H O U L D - B E INST OPT (PATIENT (NOT {SHOULD-BE HUMAN))) PA (PROGN ( S E T R PA ( G E T R INST)) (SETR INST N I L ) ' O P T ) ) (BUILDQ ( 3 (••<==>") ( ? ) ("«•") ( ( " < — " II ?)) #) AG TNS VERB PA (CONO  ((MULL (GETR INST)) N I L ) (T (LIST (LIST '"<-INSTRUMENT"  (NOUN-PUT  HUMAN))))))  'INST))))))))  (DEFUN E V - S E T R FEXPR ( X ) T H I S R O U T I N E E V A L S ( C A R X ) AMD S E T R ' S I T T O ( C A D R X ) . (PROG (TEMP) ( S E T Q R E G S (CONS (CONS ( E V A L ( C A R X) ) I S E T Q TEMP (CUND ( ( A T O M ( S E T Q TEMP ( E V A L ( C A D R X ) ) ) ) (T ( M Y E V A L ( E V A L (CADR X)))))))  TEMP)  REGS)) (RETURN  TEMP)))  (DEFUN EXCHANGE ( T E S T E E PREP) ; THIS IS THE EXCHANGE C A S E . (PROG (PRN) ( R E T O R N (COND ( ( S E T O PRN (PRO? TESTEE)) (PRU-AMAPHOR? '(PATIENT EXCHANGE B E N E F I C I A R Y AGENT) • ( N O T I S H O U L D - B E HUMAN ABSTRACT)) PRN TESTEE)) ((NOT ( S H O U L D - B E HUMAN ABSTRACT)) (SET-UP-FN • EXCHANGE PREP) (LIST • " < - E X C H A N G E - " ING'JN-LI S T - G E T ( N P - B U I L D TESTEE))))),))  (DEFUN E X P E C T E D - E F F E C T ( T E S T E E PREP) ; THIS IS T H E E X P E C T E D - E F F E C T C A S E . ; " F R E D P L A Y E D T H E P I A N O S U WE WOULD L E A V E . " (PROG (SUPER-SENT) (SETQ SUPER-SENT ( A L L - F L A G - O F F (COPY KEEP-SENT))) (COND ( ( A N D (EQ • S U PREP) (EO (CART E S T E E ) 'WOULD)) (PROG ( TEMP) (SETQ AG-AMAPHOR (GETR AG) PA-ANAPHOR (GETR P A ) ) (CONU ( ( N O T (ATOM ( S E T O TEMP ( E V A L (CADR TESTEE))))) (SET-UP-FN ' E X P E C T E D - E F F E C T PREP) (SETQ AG-AMAPHOR N I L PA-ANAPHGR N I L ) ( R E T U R N ( L I S T - ' " < - E X PEC I C D - E F F E C T - " TEMP)))))))))  ( D E F U N F I N D - ANA PHUR ( H I S T K T E S T P R N 111 S T - S N T ) I PROG ( T P TEMP) LOOP (COND ((NULL HIST-SNT) IRETURN N I L ) ) ((AND ( O R ( A M U ( N U L L K ( ( N O T (CAIIAK H I S T - S N T ) , ) (EO K 'CHECK)) (SETO TEMP ( A N A P H O R ? (CARH I S T - S N T ) MIL HIST-SNT TEST PRN)) (PROGN ( F L A G - O N (CARH I S T - S N T ) ICAR S E N T - H I S T ) T) T ) TEMP)) (NOT (NULL K ) ) (MOT ( E 0 ' C H E C K K) ) (SETQ TEMP ( C A S E - F I N D HIST (CAR K ) ) ) ( S E T O TP (ANAPHOR? TEMP ( C A R K ) H I S T T E S T P R N ) ) TP) ) ((AND (MOT (NULL K l ) (NOT (EO 'CHECK K ) ) (SETQ TEMP ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T (SECOND-CHANCE ( C A RK ) PRN H I S T - S N T HIST),,)) ( ( A N D (MO T ( N U L L K ) ) ( M O T ( E Q ' C H E C K K l ) ( T H I R D - C H A N C E (CAR K) PRN H I S T ) ) ) ((NULL K) (SETQ HIST-SNT (CDR H I S t - S N T l l (GO L O O P ) ) ((EQ K 'CHECK) (COMD ( ( N O T (MEMBER • ( S O - C O M P T H A T - C O M P T O - C O M P ISY-COMP ) (CAAR ( SE TO- H I S T - S N T (CDR H I S T - S N T ) ) ) ) )  ((AND  IGU LOOP)) IT ( R E T U R N NILI))) ( (NOT (NULL I S E T O K. (CUR K ) ) ) l (GO L O U P ) ) ) ) ) .  I |  •  •  I  i- •  /0%  ( DEFUN F l N O - L I S T IL A) ; (CUNU ((OR (NULL L) (ATOM ; ( IEU A (CAR L ) I L I :  j i  LII  N, I L )  ( ( F t N D - L I ST ( C A R L I All (T I FIND-LIST (CDR L ) All))  1 ; (0 E E U N F L A G - O F F I X K-S) ; THIS I URNS X ' S F L A G O F F . (PROG NIL LOUP (COND ( ( O R (NULL K-S) ( EO • • P A R T I C L E ( C A A R K - S ) ) ) X) ( IEOUAI. X ( C A R K - S ) ) I R P L A C A ICUAR K - S ) NIL) (COND ( ( M E M B E R ( C A R X) M R E L O B J - H E L P.ED-REL O B J - R E D - R E L ) ) (ALL-FLAG-OFF ( S T A R T - R E L ( C A R K - S ) ) )) ) (T  (DEFUN  X ) (SETQ  FLAG-OFF-HIST  (A  K-S  (COR  K-S))  (GO  LOOP)))])  B)  T)  (DEFUN F L A G - O N (P ; THIS TURNS P ' S IPROG  K-S FLAG) F L A G ON ( S E T S  IT  TO  FLAG).  NIL  LOOP • (COND  NIL) ((NULL K-S) ( ( E Q U A L P (CAR K - S ) ) (T  (SETU  K-S  (CDR  (RPLACA  K-S))  ( D E F U N G E T - U N F L G D - N P - A F T R - V B () ; T H I S R E T U R N S T H E F I R S T U N F L A G G E D NP (PROG (K) (SETQ K K E E P - S E N T ) LOOP ( COND ( ( N U L L K ) (RETURN NIL)) ( ( E O ( C A A R K ) ' VP ) ) ( T (SETQ K (CDR K ) ) (GO (CO^ID ( ( A N D (NULL (CADR (SETU  (DEFUN H A B I T U A L ? () (OR H A B I T U A L ( D E E P - M E M B E R  (USUALLY  (GO  (CDAR  K-S)  FLAG)  P)  LOOP)))))  AFTER  THE  LCOP) ) ) K (CADR  ALWAYS  VERB.  K ) ) ) )  (EQ  SOMETIMES  'NP  (CAR  OFTEN)  K)))  (RETURN  K)))))  INPUT*)*)))  (DEFUN IF F E X P R (X) IE IS T H E M A I N F U N C T I O N U S E D IN D E F I N I N G C A S E F R A M E S . ; I T T A K E S A N E V E N NUMBER OF A R G U M E N T S AND A P P L I E S C A S E TO ; T H E F I R S T OF T H E P A I R S , BUILDS THE S T R U C T U R E A S S O C I A T E O WITH T H A T I C A S E F R A M E , C A L L S T A I L - E N D S , AND R E T U R N S T H E S T R U C T U R E T H U S BUILT. ; IF ANY OF T H E S E F A I L S , I T G O E S ON TO T H E N E X T P A I R - . (PROG NIL LOOP (COND ( ( N U L L X) NIL) ((AND (T  (APPLY1  (SETQ  X  'CASE  (CDDR  XI)  (CAR (GO  X))  (OEFON IMPLODE (L) (COND ( ( E Q (LENGTH L) 1) (CAR L>> (T (IMPLODE (APPEND (LIST (MKATOM  I j  (DEFUN (NOT  INDEFINITE-DET IDEFINITE-DET  (DF FUN  IND-SUBJ  ;  THIS  CASE  (A  IS  NOT  (SETQ  STRUCT  (EVAL  (CADR  X)))  (TAIL-ENDS))  (RETURN  STRUCT))  LOOP)))))  (CAR  L)  (CADR  L)))  (CDDR  L)))>)>  (D) D)))  F) IMPLEMENTED Y E T .  NIL)  (DEFUN I N D - 0 6 J NEXPR (TEST) ; T H I S F I N D S AM I N D I R E C T O B J E C T ; "FRED PLAYED JACK TENNIS." (PROG ( T E S T E E PRN T E M P ) (CUNU  WHEN  IT  IS  A NOUN  PHRASE:  ( (NOT (NULL (SETQ TESTEE (GET-UNFLGU-NP-AETR-VBI I ) I (CUND ( ( N U L L ( S E T Q PRN ( S T A R T - L I S T 'I'RU TESTEE))) t C O N D ( (OR (TEST-OFF? 'INO-UilJ) (EVAL TEST)) (FLAG-UN TESTEE KEEP-SENT T) (RETURN TESTEE)) I T ( S E T U FA I L - T E . S T T ) NIL ) ) ) (T (PRO-ANAPIIUR? ' ( AGENT B E N E F I C I A R Y R E C I P I E N T  CO-AGENT  PATIENT )  TEST  PRN  T E S T E E ) t)  II  I I  /o1  j  (UEFUN A,  INFER?  (A)  .  .  I '(DEFUN INSTRUMENT (TESTEE PREP) ; THIS IS T H E INSTRUMENT C A S E . (PROG ( P R N ) ( R E T U R N (COND ( I 5 E 1 0 PRN (PP.0? T E S T E E ) ) ( I'KUG ( T E M P ) (COND ( ( S E T C ) TEMP  ( P R O - ANAPHOR ?  '(PATIENT INSTRUMENT) MINIT-TEST TESTEE VERB  PREP)  PRN TESTEE)) ISET-UP-FN (RETURN ,  {(INST-TEST  TESTEE  (SLT-UP-FN (LIST  (DEFUN  INTERSECT  THIS  RETURNS  (A  "^-INSTRUMENT-"  TEMP))))))  PREP) (MOUN-LIST-GET  TESTEE)  'NP)  (MUST-BE  (NP-BUILO  TESTEE))))))))  OBJECT)))  8)  THE I N T E R S E C T I O N  I TEMP) (COND ((NULL LOOP •. ( C O N O ( ( N U L L ((MYOR  PREP)  PREP)  'INSTRUMENT  INST-TEST ( T E S T E E VERB PREP) (NOT ( M U S T - B E HUMAN)) (EQ (CAAR  ;  (LIST  VERB  '"<-INSn<UMENT-"  (DEFUN IANU  'INSTRUMENT  OF L I S T S  A £  B.  (PROG  A)  (RETURN  NIL)))  B) (RETURN N ( L I ) (MAPCAR ' ( L A M B D A ( SETQ  (T  (SETQ  B  (SUPERSET  (X)  TEMP BI)  (MEMBER  (APPEND  X A))  (PROP-LIST  B 'SUPERSET)  (PROP-LIST  (GO L O O P ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN I N T - L 1 S T ( A B) (COND ( ( O R ( N U L L A) ( N U L L 0 ) ) N I L ) ( (MEMBER ( C A R A l B) ) (T ( I N T - L I S T (CDR A ) B ) ) ) )  (DEFUN IS-IT (PH PROP) (MEMBER PROP ( M Y E V A L  (GET (NOUN-GET  ( D E F U N L E A V E - D E S T CA) THIS IS A S T U B . IN "FRE0 UN S P E C I F I E D . WENT.  A ROUTINE  LEFT  COULD  PH)  'N-PROP))))  THE HOUSE." BE W R I T T E N  THE DESTINATION  T O TRY T O F I G U R E  IS  O U T WHERE H E  (OUTSIDE?)  • SOMEPLACE)  (DEFUN L E A V E - S O U (COND ((MUST-BE (T  (TESTEE) ANIMATE)  (NOUN-PUT  (LIST  TESTEE) ) ) )  "<-LOC-0F-"  (NOUN-PUT  TESTEE)))  B  'N-PROP )  8)))))  no (OEKUN L E T S - G O I) ; T H I S I S T H E VERY T O P - L E V E L R O U T I N E WHICH R E A D S IN S E N T E N C E S ; AS STRINGS OF I N D I V I D U A L ATOMS. IT C O N S I D E R S A S E N T E N C E E N D E D I F I T ; F I N D S A . ? OR I A T T H E E N D OF A WORD. THESE ARE THE ONLY. I P U N C T U A T I O N MARKS A L L O W E D . IT C H E C K S F O R A S T O A B O R T A S E N T E N C E , ; OR A It TO L E A V E THIS MODE. ANY L I S P FORM W I L L B E E V A L E D IN T H I S MODE. ; I F A R O U T I N E I S NOT L O A D E D ( V I A L O A D E R ) IT W I L L NOT BE E V A L E D . I PROC i l l l S I O R Y INPUT*:/ I I I A T - C M P WORD S U P E R - S E N T L E V E L Wl IM ANAPII O R - D EPTII F A I l . - T E S T - l . I S T T E S T - O F F SPEAKER AMAPHOR-RtSP R E L - L E V E L S H O U L D - T E S T - O F F S E N T - H I S T T N S - F I X ? AG-ANAPHOR PA-ANAPHOR) (PRINT ' " H E L L O . Y U U A R E NOW III C O N V E R S A T I O N A L M O D E . " ) (PRINT ' " A N Y L I S P F O R M S W I L L flu E V A L E D IN T H I S MODE.") ' ( P R I N T ' " Y O U MAY R E T U R N T O L I S P B Y E N T E R I N G A .'(.") (PRINT  ' " I F YOU ENTER  IPRINT  '"  A 3  A S A WORD  WILL  IN A S E N T E N C E ,  THAT  SENTENCE")  BE ABORTED")  (VERB-CLEAN) (SETQ SPEAKER N I L ) LOOP1 (SETQ I N P U T S N I L ) LOOP2 ( S E T Q WORD ( R E A D I ) (COND ( ( N O T (ATOM WORD)) ( P R I N T (MY EV AL W O R D ) ) (GO L O O P 2 ) ) ( ( E O WORD ' # ) (RETURN ' " B Y E D Y E " ) ) ((EQ WORD ' 3 ) (PRINT ' " S E N T E N C E AUORTED") (GO L O O P 1 ) ) ((NOT I MEMBER ( C A R ( S E T O Wl ( R E V E R S E ( E X P L O D E W O R D ) ) ) ) • ( . ? !))) ( S E T Q INPUT/I* (APPEND INPUT** (LIST WCROIII (GO L O O P 2 ) ) ) (SETQ THAT-CMP N I L INPUT!//* (APPEND INPUTS* (LIST ( I M P L O D E ( R E V E R S E ( C O R Wl.) ) ) ) ) LEVEL 0 ANAPHOR-DEPTH 0 TEST-OFF NIL FAIL-TEST-LIST NIL TNS-FIX? MIL ANAPHOR-RESP N I L SHOULD-TEST-OFF NIL • • REL-LEVEL 0 HISTORY I A P P E N D (COND ( ( A T O M ( C A R ( S E T Q T M ( L I S T (INFER? (PR T Y - PR I NT  (ALL-HIST-OFF (GO LOOP I ) ) )  (EVAL  (MYPARSE  INPUT.*/* S) ) ) ) ) ) ) )  AGENT  BENEF ICIARY)  NIL) ( T TM>> HISTORY)) SENT-HIST)  (DEFUN L I K E ( T E S T E E PREP) ; THIS IS T H E L-IKE C A S E . (PROG ( P R N ) ( R E T U R N (COND ( ( S E T Q PRN (PRO? TESTEE)) (PROG (TEMP) (COND ( ( S E T Q TEMP  (T  (SET-UP-FN  (PRO-AMAPHOR?  * ( L I K E PATIENT T PRN TESTEE))  TOPIC  (SET-UP-FN 'LIKE PREP) (RETURN ( L I S T '"<-LIKE-" TEMP)',)))) ' L I K E PREP) (LIST- ' " < - L I K E - " (NOUN-L1 ST-GET  INP-BUILO  TESTEE))))))))  (DEFUN L I S T E N - T O P I C ? (TESTEE) ; THIS B U I L D S T H E T O P I C C A S E FOR L I S T E N . " L I S T E N TO B E E T H O V E N " ; M E A N S L I S T E N T O T H E M U S I C C O M P O S E D BY B E E T H O V E N . E T C . (COND ( ( N U L L T E S T E E ) M N ( S O M E T H I N G ) ) ) ( (MUST-BE MUSIC) (NOUN-LIS T-GET TESTEE) ) ((MUST-BE COMPOSER) (LIST 'MUSIC (LIST •"<==" ( L I S T •"<==>" I N O U N - L I S T - G E T T E S T E E ) ' C O M P O S E 'MUSIC)))) ((MUST-BE MUSICIAN) (LIST 'MUSIC (LIST •"<==" ( L I S T •"<==>" ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T TESTEE) 'PLAY 'MUSIC)))) (T (LIST 'SOUND (LIST •"<==" ( L I S T •"<==>" ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T T E S T E E ) ' C A U S E 'SOUND))))))  (DEFUN L I S T - I T (A) (COMD ( (MULL A ) N I L ) (T I L I S T A ) ) ) )  (DEFUN L I S T - I T - l (A) (COND ( ( N U L L A) N I L ) (T (COND ( ( E Q ( L E N G T H A ) 2) ( S E T Q A ( A P P E N D (T ( S E T Q A ( C A R A ) ) ) I (LIST (MAPCAR ' L I S T - I T - 2 A)))))  (DEFUN L I S T - I T - 2 (A) (COMD ( ( O R ( A T O M A) ( N U L L A ) ) A ) ( (AND ( N O T (NULL (CADR A ) ) ) . ( N O T (T ( C O N S (CAR A ) (CUDR A)))))  ( E Q T .(CADR  ( C A RA)  A))).)  ICADR  A)  A))))  I (DEFUN LDCAI ION ( TESTEE PRLP) ; THIS 1S THE LOCATION CASE. (PROC MIL (COND ((NOT ILOC-TEST. PREP) ) NIL) (T (COND I I ATI ER-AMD-KI.ID? PREP NN I (SET-UP-FN •LOCATION PREP) (LIST '"<-LUC-" PREP (NOUN •LIST-GET (NP-BUILD TESTEE)))) (T (PROG (TEMP) LOOP ( SETU TEMP (CHOOSE-ELMT-PREP TE STEE NN F A I L - L 1 S T ) ) ( COND ( ( NULL 1 El'P) NIL ) ((LflC-MOTJ? TESTEE TEMP PREP ) ) (T (SETO FAIL-LIST (APPEND FAIL-LIST (LIST NUM))) (GO LOOP ))))).))))) (DEFUN LOC-MOD? (NP PHRASE PREP) (PROG (TEMP) ((EO 'VP (CAR PHRASE)) (RETURN (SET-UP-FN 'LOCATION PREP) (LIST '"<-L0C-" PREP (NOUN-LIST-GET INP-BUILO NP)))) ((OR (START-LIST •N PHRASE) (START-LIST NPR PHRASE)) (SE(0 PREPCCASE (LIST PREP 'LOCATION) PLACE (NOUN-LIS T-GE T PHRASE) FN MRPLACD (END-LIST PLACE) (LIST STRCT) ) NUM ( PIIRASE-NUM2 PHRASE KEEP- SENT ) ) (LIST '"<-LOC-" PREP (NGUN-L t ST-GET (NP-UUILO N P ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1  (OEFUN LOC-TEST (PREP) (OR (AND ( EQ PRE P MN) (SHOULO-BE CONTAINER BUILDING COUNTRY CITY CONTINENT (AND (EQ P 1 E P 'AT) (NOT (MUST-BE HUMAN ABSTRACT))) (MUST-BE THING PLACE LOCATION)))  STATE PROVINCE))  (DEFUN LOOK-DOWN (TESTEE PRN TEST) ; THIS ROUTINE 'IS CALLED B Y THIRD-CHANCE. IT LOOKS.BACK THROUGH THE OLD PARSES TO RESOLVE ANAPHORIC REFERENCES. 1 PROG (TEMP) (COND ((OR I NULL TESTEE) (NULL TEST) (ATOM TESTEE)) NIL) I(EVAL TEST)) ((AND (SETQ TEMP (LOOK-DOWN (CAR TESTEE) PRN TEST)) (ANAPHOR-QUERY PRN (NOUN-LIST-GET TEMP)) TEMP)) ((AND ISETO TEMP (LOOK-DOWN (CDR TESTEE) PRN TEST)) (ANAPHOR-QUERY PRN INUUN-LIST-GET TEMP)) TEMP)1))I (DEFUN MAIN-WORD-GET (TESTEE) ; THIS RETURNS THE MAIN WORD OF A PHRASE. I PROG (TEMP) (RETURN (COND ((SETQ TEMP (NOUN-GET TESTEE)) TEMP) ((SETQ TEMP (START-LIST 'V TESTEE)) (CADR TEMP)) ( (SETQ TEMP (START-LIST PRO TESTES)) (CADR TEMP)))))) 1  (OEFUN MAKE-ARROW (KASE) (IMPLODE (LIST "'<-" KASE ' " - " ) ) ) IDEFUN MANNER (TESTEE PREP) ; THIS IS THE MANNER CASE. (CONO ((SETQ PRN (PRO? TESTEE)) NIL) • ((MANNER-TEST TESTEE VERB PREP) (SET-UP-FN 'MANNER PREP) (LIST '"<-M ANNER-" PREP (NOUN-LIST-GET . (NP-BU(LD TESTEE)))))) (DEFUN MANNER-TEST (TESTEE VERB PREP) I THIS IS THE TEST FOR THE MANNER CASE. (OR (AND (EQ 'GO VERB) (MUST-BE CONVEYANCE)) (MUST-BE ABSTRACT))) (DEFUN METHOD (TESTEE PREP) ; THIS IS THE METHOD CASE. ; "THEY WENT BY CAR." ; "FRED HURT MAR Y BY HITTING HER." (PROG (TEMP) (COND ((AND (EQ (CAAR TESTEE) NP) (MUST-BE CONVEYOR CONVEYANCE)) (SET-UP-FN 'METHOD PREP) (LIST (MAKE-ARROW 'ME I HOD) PREP (NOUN-LIST-GET (NP-BUILD TESTEE)))) ((AND (EQ 'BY PREP) (SETQ AG-ANAPHOR (GETR AC.))) ( SE TQ I'A-ANAPHUR (GETR PA) ) (COND ((NOT (ATOM ( SETQ TEMP. (EVAL ICCNS •s (LIST (APPEND (LIST (COPY AG-ANAPHOR)) IREL-MODS-JOIN TESTEE NN)))))))I (SET-UP-FN 'METHOD PREP) ( SETQ AG-ANAPHOR NIL P.A.-ANAPHOR NIL) (LIST (MAKE-ARROW •METHOD) TEMP))))))) 1  I DEFUN MODIFY? (PART N) T H I S I S C A L L E D I F S O M E T H I N G O T H E R THAN A P R E P U S I I U N A L PHRASE OR A C O M P L E M E N T IS F O U N D I I N - F L A C G I - U IN T H E T A I L - E N D S PROCESS AND C L A S S I F I E R S A R E H ANDLED H E R E . ADVERB P H R A S E S , RELATIVE CLAUSES, "I WENT HOME L A S T N I G H T . " I HE S Y S T E M D O E S NOT H A N D L E T H I N G S L I K E : I S NOT H A N D L E D IN T H I S ROUTINE. SINCE T H E ' N O U N - P H R A S E " L A S T NIGHT IT WOULD BE S I M P L E TU C H A N G E . (PROG ( T E M P NUM) • " < - A D V - " ) ( SETQ STRCT ( A D V - M C D ? PART (CAR P A R T ) (RETURN ( C O N D I ( AND ( E Q ' R E L (CAR P A R T ) ) ( ( AND ( E O N)) ( R E L • M O O S - J O I N P A R T M) (SETQ STKCI I R E L-CLAUSE  ( C O N T IMU'J ) ) ) (EQ • R E D - R E L (CAR PART) ) ( S E T Q S T K C T ( R E D - R E L - C L AU S E ( RE L - M O D S - J 0 I N P A R T iM ) N)> (CUNT INUE) ) ) (EO ' O B J - R E L (CAR PART)) ( S E T Q S T R C T ( O B J - R C L - C L A U S E ( R E L - M O D S - J C I N PART N) N)) (COMTINUE))I (ED MJHJ-REO-KEL (CAR PART)) ( S E T O S T R C T I O R J - R E D - R E L - C L A U S E ' ( R E L - M O O S - J C I N P A R T N) (CONTINUE)))  ( I AND  ( (AND  ((AND  ((AND (T  T  1EQ  NP  1  IPRINl  (CAR  PART))  'MODIFY?)  (SETQ  (PRIN1  STRCT  PART)  (CLASS?  PART))  NIL))  (CONTINUE)))  N))  (CONTINUE)))  (TERPRI))))))  ( D E F U N MORPH I WORD) ; THIS IS THE MORPHOLOGY R O U T I N E . ( C O N D ( I G E T WORD 'OICT1) (T ( S E T Q L E T T E R S ( R E V E R S E (EXPLODE WORD))) (COND ( ( M O R P H I T MORPH—TABLE L E T T E R S ) T) ( T I Q U E R Y WORD) ) I ) ) )  (OEFUN MORPHIT ( M - T LETS) (COND ( ( N U L L M - T ) NIL) ( (MY EQ ( C A A R M - T ) L E T S ) (COND ( I N O T N ( L (T ( M O R P H I T (CDR M - T ) LETS))))  EFUN M U S T - B E (PROG (TEMP)  FEXPR (CONO  (A) ((INTERSECT  A  (SETQ  TEMP  (DROPSGO  (CAR  (NOUN-MEAN  M-T)  (NOUN-GET  LETS)))  (T  (MORPHIT  TESTEE))))  (RETURN  (COR  M-T)  LETS))))  TEMP)))))  I D E F U N MYEQ ( L S T LETS) (COND ( ( N U L L LST)) ((NOT (60 (CAR L S T ) (CAR L E T S ) ) ) N(L) ( T ( M Y E Q (CDR L S T ) (CDR LETS)))))  (DEFUN MYEVAL !Z) ; T H I S T A K E S A F O R M AND C A L L S S O E T - E V A L I W I T H A F U N C T I O N NAME S T A R T I N G IT. ; O T H E R W I S E IT J U S T R E T U R N S T H E F O R M . ( P R O G (Q F N T E M P ) (COND ( ( A T O M Z) Z) ((OR  IT  IF  IT  IS  A  (SETQ  FN  (GET  ( SETQ  Q  (CAR  Z D  (SETQ  FN  (GET  0  (SETQ  TEMP  •SUBR)))  (SETQ  FN  Q  (SETQ  TEMP  •FSUURI))  (SETQ  FN  Q  (SETQ  TEMP  'NSUBR))))  (SUFT-EVAL ( T  ON  (GET (GET FN  Z  (SETQ  LIST  TEMP  'EXPRlD  TEMP))  Z) D )  ( D E F U N MYGET (W L ) (COND ( ( A T O M L) (GET (T ( G E T W (CAR  ( D E F U N MYGET R F E X P R (COND ((NULL (CDR  W L)I L D ) ) I  (LST) LST))  (GETRV  (EVAL  (CAR  LST))))  ( (NUMBERP (CADR L S T ) ) (CUNO ( l / F R O P (CADR L S T ) ) ( G E T R V ( E V A L (CAR LST)))) (T (CDR (ASSQ (CAR LST) (CADAR (NTH S T A C K (CADR LST ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) (T (CDR (ASSQ (CAR L S T ) (CADR (ASSQ (CADR L S T ) STACK)))))))  ( D E F U N MYOR (L) (COND ((NULL L) NIL ) I(CAR LI) ( T ( MYOR ( C D R  D D I )  (DEFUN MYPARSE FEXPR (L) (PROG (A : L E V E L :IAB ST) (SETU :LFvEL 0) (CUND ((NULL (CDR L D  (PERROR  SECOND  ARGUMENT  (I ( S E T Q ST ( C A D R L)))) ( S E T Q A ( WEKR SE I ( P A R S E I ( E V A L ( C A R L D D ) ( R E T U R N (COND ( ( A T O M A) N I L ) IT ( C O N D ( T E S T - O F F (PRINT '"THAT  TO P A R S E  SEEMS  IS  UNSPECIFIED)  STRANGE,  BUT  (RETURN  ANYWAY:")))  NIL))  _ (CAR  A D D ) )  i  ( DEFUN (PUI  MYPOr (L ) (CAR L ) 'GRAMMAR  M 'L (COR L t l )  ' ( D C - F U N M Y R E T U R N (WRD F L A G ) I (MYEVAL (CE( W « 0 FLAG M l  J  'i  •  j NE X r  |( D E F U N !;  THIS (PROG  (CLASS)  RETURNS  T  IF  THE N E X T  WORD  IN  THE. INPUT  STREAM  IS  OF T Y P E  CLASS.  NIL (COND  ((ATOM  LOOP (COND  CLASS)  (SETQ  CLASS  (LIST  ((NULL CLASSI NIL) ((GET LEX (CAR C L A S S ) ) ) (T ( S E T Q C L A S S (CDR C L A S S ) )  CLASS))))  I Gil  LOOP)))))  (DEFUN NOTNIL ( L l (COMD ( ( N U L L L ) M I L ) ( (NOT I MULL ( C A R L ) )) ) (T (NO T N I L (CDR L ) ) )) )  (DEFUN ;  NOUN-GET  THIS  ;  (PH)  ROUTINE  AND T H E N E X T  MRUCIURE. I CADR ( M O U N - L I S T - G E T  TWO R E T U R N  DIFFERENT  LEVELS  IN  THE NOUN-PHRASE  PHD)  (DEFUN N O U N - L I S T - G E T (PH) ' ( C O N O ( ( A T O M P H ) PH ) ( (MEMBER (T  ( C A R PH)  ' ( THAT-COMP T O - C U M P D  (NOUN-LIST-GET-FULL  (CADDR  PH))  PHD))  (DEFUN N O U N - L I S T - G E T - F U L L (PH) (CONO ( ( S T A R T - L I S T 'N PH)I ((START-L1ST •NPR PH))))  ( D E F U N N O U N - M E A N (NOUN) ; T H I S A L L O W S T H E U S E R TO P U T A FORM O.N T H E P R O P E R T Y L I S T OF A NOUN ; W H I C H W I L L B E E V A L E D AND R E T U R N E R AS T H E M E A N I N G OF T H E NOUN I N S T E A D OF THE NOUN I T S E L F . T H I S F E A T U R E I S NUT U S E D C U R R E N T L Y . (PROG (TEMP) (COND ((SETQ T E M P ( C E T NOUN ' N - M E A N D (EVAL TEMP)) (T  (DEFUN NOUN-PUT (ll) (PROG (Z) (CONO ( I E Q  • « <= => «  (CAR (SETQ  I  (GETRV  ll))))  I)  (LIST  NOUN D I D  (T. ( S O F T - N C U N - L I S T - G E T  (NP-OUILO  Z D ) ) ) )  (DEFUN NP-BUILD (NP) ; T H I S T A K E S A NOUN P H R A S E A N D B U I L D S T H E A P P R O P R I A T E S T R U C T U R E ; FOR I T . I T S MAIN C O N C E R N IS WITH T H E D E T E R M I N E R S T R U C T U R E . ( P R O G I D E T W WWP) ( S E T Q WWP ( S T A R T - L I S T 'MP N P D ( C O M D ( ( N U L L WWP) ( R E T U R N N P D (COND  (T ( S E T Q MP WWP ) ) ) ((NULL ( S E T Q D E T (CADR ( S T A R T - L I S T < DET- NP ) ) ) ) NP ) (I S T A R T - L I S T • " < - O E F I N I T E - " NP) NP) ( (S T A R T - L 1 S T • " < - I N D E F T N I T G - " NP) NPI ((START-LIST ' " < - P O S S - B Y - " MP) N P ) ((DEF(NITE-DET? DET) (SETO M (BUILDO ( " < - D E F I N I T E - " H) DET))) I ( M E M B E R D E T M A AN SOME A N Y ) ) ( S E T Q W ( B U I L D Q ( " <-IMDFF I NI T F ( (EO 'POSSPRO (CAR D E T ) )  (RETURN  (SETO  W (BUILDQ  I"<-POSS-BY-"  (COMD  ((MULL  NP)  ( D E F U N N T Y P E N E XP R (Z ) (EQ ( G E T NEW-WORD ' N )  (DEFUN ; ;  THIS  NUMAGREE CHECKS  (T  II) (NOUN-GET  (RPLACD  (END-LIST  (MP-BUILD  (CADDOR  NP) )  N-NPR  (LIST  W))  NUM)"  AGREEMENT BETWEEN A DETERMINER  AND A N O U N . (COND ( ( N U M A G R E E I D E T NOUN N - N P R M U M ) ) ((OR ( G E T NOUM ' N U M ) I E Q ' N O N E ( G E T NOUN  OR  PRONOUN  'N))))))  ( O E F U N N U M A G R E E I ( D E T NOUN N - N P R NUM) (COND ((EQ N-NPR ' N P R ) (MULL D E T ) ) ((EO  NUM ' S G I  (AND  (NOT  (IEQ  NUM ' P L )  (NOT  (MEMBER  ( T  T ) D  (NULL DEI  DET)) M A  I NOT THAT  (MEMBER THIS))))  DET ) ) )  ( PCSS-ANAPHOR  Z))  ( D E T NOUN NUMBER  W)  »)  D E T • ( TIIES I: T H O S E ) D  D  DET NP)  NP)D))  ))))))  //If  (OEFUN  NUMBER?  (FROG  (TEMPI  (CONO  I(SETU  OBJ-RED-REL-f.LAUSE  (DEFUN ;  (I  THIS  HANDLES  (PROG  OBJECTIVE  TEMP  (REL  (GEIF  NUMBER ! )  (LIST  '"<-NUM3ER-"  TEMP)))))  POS)  REDUCED  RELATIVE  CLAUSES:  "THE  BALL'JOHN  HOLDS."  (TEMP)  LOOP (COND  ((AND (SETO TEMP ( S T A R T - L I S T ' N P (ELMT ( S U B l POS) K E E P - S E N T ) ) ) (OBJ-REL-EVAL (CDDR R E L ) T E M P ) ) ) (T ( S E T Q POS ( S U B l P O S ) ) (GO L O O P ) ) ! ) ) (DEFUN O B J - R E L - C L A U S E ( R E L POS) ; T H I S H A N D L E S O B J E C T I V E R E L A T I V E C L A U S E S . : " T H E B A L L WHICH JOHN H O L D S . (PROG  L O  (TESTES PRO) ( S E T Q PRO (CADR °COND  (CADDR  REL)II  I(NULL (SETQ TESTEE (START-LIST ' N P (ELMT (SUBl POS) K E E P - S E N T ) ) 1 ) ((OR ( A N D (MEMBER P R O ' ( W H I C H T H A T ) ) (NOT ( M U S T - B E HUMAN))) (AND (MEMBER PRU '(WHOM WHOSE!) (MUST-BE HUMAN))) (OBJ-REL-EVAL (CDDDR R E L ) T E S T E E ) ) IT ( S E T Q POS ( S U B l P O S ) ) (CO L O O P ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN O B J - R E L - E V A L ( R E L O B J ) THIS TAKES A SURFACE O B J E C T I V E R E L A T I V E C L A U S E , BUILDS I T UP INTO A S T R U C T U R E WHICH L U U K S L I K E A S E N T E N C E , PUTS T H E O B J E C T  IN  PLACE, AND C A L L S ON I T . " T H E BALL WHICH JOHN H O L D S . " " T H E L A K E INTO WHICH I J U M P E D . " (PROG (TEMP) REL-LEVELI (SETO R E L - L E V E L (AUDI AG-ANAPHOR (GETR AG) (GETR PA) PA-ANAPHOR ( L I S T •• S ) TEMP (EVAL (APPEND I COND ( ( E Q 'PREP (CAAR R E D ) (LIST (APPEND (CDR R E L ) (LIST (CONS  (RETURN N I L ) )  IT CORRERT  'PP (CCNS  NIL (CONS  (CAOAR (LIST  IT  (LIST  (APPEND  REL (LIST  REL-LEVEL (SUBl REL-LEVEL) AG-ANAPHOR N I L PA-ANAPHOR N I L ) ((NOT (NULL TEMP)) .(SETQ FN M R P L A C D ( E N D - L I S T (CAR ( E N D • L I S T P L A C E ( S T A R T - L I S T • NP O B J ) ) (RETURN TEMP ) ) ) ) )  (COPY  PLACE)))  RELI (COP .' 1  OBJ  )))))))))  OBJ ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )  (LIST  STRCT))  (OEFUN OPT I TEST SUBST) (COND (TEST SUBST) (T 'OBL)))  (OEFUN  PASSIVE  (PROG  (  )  (TEMP) (COND ( ( E Q ' B E ( G E T R V ) ) (COND ( ( A N D (SETO (PKOGN  TEMP  (COND  (GETF  PART))  ( ( N O T (MEMBER  ( E Q TEMP  -PASTPART))  -PROGRESSIVE  (GETR  ASPECT)))  (LIFTR  HABITUAL  T)))))) ) •  (DEFUN THIS WITH THEM ( PROG  PASSIVE-AGENT ( L S T T E S T NUMS VNUM) I S P A S S E D A L I S T OF A L L O F T H E P R E P - P H R A S E S STARTING " B Y " BY A G E N T IF T H E . S E N T E N C E I S P A S S I V E . IT GOES THROUGH UNTIL I T F I N D S ONE T H A T P A S S E S TEST. I T R E T U R N S N I L ON F A I L U R E . (TESTEE L L SH-F) (SETQ S H - F S H U U L D - T E S T - O F F )  LOOPl (SETQ LOOP2 (COND  LL  (RE-ORDER  L S T NUMS  VNUM))  ((AND ( N U L L L L ) SHOUL D - T E S T - O F F ) (RETURN NIL) ) ((NULL L L ) ( S E T Q S H U U L D - T E S T - O F F T ) (GO L C O P l ) ) ((AND (SETQ TESTES (CADR ( C C D A R L L ) ) ) (OR ( T E S T - O F F ? ISETO S H U U L D - T E S T - O F F S H - F ) (FLAG-ON (CAR L L ) KEEP-SENT T) (T  (REIURN TESTEE)) (SETQ L L (CDR L D )  I GO  LOOP?)))))  'AGENT)  (EVAL  TEST) )I  T S)))  (DEFUN ;  PATH  THIS  IS  (PROG  (TESTEE  PREP)  THE PATH  CASE.  IT  IS  ONLY  APPLICABLE  TO VERBS  OK M O V E M E N T .  IPRNI .(RETURN  (CONO  ( ( N O T (EQUAL  'MOVE  (CADR  (START-LIST  I ( S E T Q PRN (PRO? TESTEE)) (PRO-ANAPHOR? '(PATIENT • (AND  ' " < - - »  TRAJECORY  STRUCT) I I ) N I L )  TOPIC)  (NOT (MC'ST-BE  HUMAN))  (SHOULQ-BE  CONVEYOR))  PRN TESTEE)) ((AND  ( N O T (MUS T - B E  (SET-UP-PN 'PATH (LIST '"<-PArn-" (DEFUN  PATIENT  THIS  IS  AFTER IN  THE VERB  CASE.  IN A C T I V E  IT  FINDS  SENTENCES,  LL  TESTES))))))))  THE FIRST  U N F L A G G E D NP  OR T H E F I R S T  IN  THE SENTENCE  TEMP P R N )  (SETQ  L L L)  (COMD  ((GETR  PASSIVE)  (COMD  ((ATOM  (CAR L L ) )  (SETQ  CONVEYOR))  (NP-BUILO  SENTENCES.  (TESTEE  LOOP1 . (COMD  (SHOULD-BE  (TEST)  THE P A T I E N T  PASSIVE  (PROG  NEXPR  ANIMATE))  PREP) PREP (NOUN-LIST-GET  (SETO  LL (REVERSE  ( ( A N D (CDR L L ) (NOT (ATOM L L (CDR  LL))))  (GO L C U P 2 ) J ) (CADR  LL))))  (SETQ  L L (CDR LL ) )  (GO  LOOP1M)  LL).)  L00P2 (COND  ( ( A N D ( NOT  (COMD  ( ( A M D ( E Q 'MP (CAAR ICOND  (NULL  ((NULL  (COR H i l l LL))  t SETQ  (CAOAR  LL))  (SETQ  (NOT (CADAR  LL)))  PRN ( S T A R T - L I S T  'PRO (SETQ  L L (CDR L L ) )  TESTEE  (COND  ( G O LOOP2 ) ) )  ((AND (GETR (EO (CAOR (T  (COMD  ((OR  (TEST-OFF?  (FLAG-ON (RETURN (T  'PATIENT)  TESTEE  (EVAL  KEEP-SENT  PASSIVE)  'NP  (CAAOR  L L ) ) )  I D )  (CAR  LL)))))))  TEST))  T)  TESTEE))  (SETO  FAIL-TEST T FAIL-TEST-LIST  (APPEND  (LIST  'PATIENT)  FA I L - T E S T - L I S T ) )  NIL ) ) ) IT  (COMD  ( ( N O T (MULL (FLAG-ON  (GET VERB  (FLAG-ON  (ANAPHORIC  KEEP-SENT  (SETQ  KEEP-SENT  (DEFUN  PHRAS E - N U M  ;  THIS  ;  OTHERWISE (PROG  RETURNS  0  IT  TESTEE  ( T O P - L E V E L - S T A R T - L I ST  T)  ANIMATE))  (A L ) IF  A DOES  RETURNS  NOT START  THE NUMBER  A LOP-LEVEL  OF T H E L I S T  LIST  THAT  A  IM L . STARTS.  (NUM) (SETQ  LOOP (COND  NUM 1 ) ((NULL D O ) ((EQ (CAAR L )  (T  (SETQ  (DEFUN.PHRASE-NUM2 ;  THIS  RETURNS  ;  OTHERWISE  IT  0  L  A ) NUM)  (CDR L )  MUM ( A U D I  N U M ! ) (GO  LOOP)))))  (A L ) IF  A  RETURNS  IS  NOT A T O P - L E V E L  T H E NUMBER  IN  E L E M E N T OF L ,  THE L I S T  THAT  A  IS.  (PKOG (NUM) (SETQ  NUM I )  LOOP (COMD  I(NULL D O ) ((EQUAL A ( C A R D ) MUM) (T ( S E T O NUM 1 A D D 1 N U M ) L  TEST  ANAPHOR-DEPTH  PRN))))  TEMP)  TESTES)))) (DEFUN PERSONAL-PRN (PRN TESTEE) ICOND ( ( G E T PRN ' P E R S O N A L ) IMUST-RE (T ( M O T ( M U S T - B E ANIMATE)))))  'PATIENT  TEMP 1 1 ) 1 1 )  'THAT-COMP)  TESTEE  TEMP  TESTEE  (RETURN ((AND  ISETC  (CDR L ) )  I GO  LOOP)))))  'THAT-COMP  KEEP-SENT) ) )  (DEFUN POSS-ANAPHOR (PRN NP) . T H R O U ; THIS ROUTINE S Y S T E M A T I C A L L Y G I J E S ; RESOLVE A POSSESIVE PRONOUN R E F E R E N C E . (PRUG ( T E S T E E R E G NN MUMP) ( S E T O R E G M A G PA R E C S O U B E N ) ) LOUP1 (CUND  LOOP2 (SETO (C UNO .  A  G H  SENTENCE  ((NULL REG) (GO L O O P 2 I ) ((AMD ( S E TO I E S T E E I C C T R V ( C A R REG))) ( R E TURN T E S T E E ) ) (T ( S E T O REG (CDR R E G ) ) (GO LCOPl))) NN  (PHRASE-NUM2  (IZEROP  NN)  NP  (SETQ  KEEP-SENT)  NUMP  (CONO  ((AND (T  POSSESSION. TO S A Y T H A T  PRN  IESTEE)  KK  IN BEETHOVEN  OWNS  '  (MUST-BE  COMPOSER)  (SETQ  TESTEE  PA)  (MUST-BE  MUSIC))  ((NULL SNT) LST) ((AND (EQ ' P P (CAAR (SETQ  LST  (GO LOOP)) ( S E T Q SNT  (DEFUN'PREP-LIST-GET (PROG (TEMP) LOOP (COMD  'COMPOSE)  TEST.  KASE)  ((OR (MULL K A S E ) (NULL P R E P ) ) ((CLAUSE (CAR PREP) TEST (CAR if (SETQ KASE (CDR KASE) PREP  (T  I A N A P H O R - C A S E - L C O K KK T E S T ) ) KASEII) (CDR P R E P ) ) (GO LOOP)))))  (PREP  (APPEND (CDR  SNT)) LST  SNT))  IN  (MEMBER (LIST (GO  (CAR  A  SENTENCE  (CAOOAR SNT)))  BEGINNING  SNT) PREPS)) SNT (COR SNT))  LOOP)))))  L)  ((NULL L) NIL) ((OR I AMD ( A T O M (T ( S E T Q L (CDR  (SETQ L) )  TEMP  (GO  (CAAU  L)))  (EQ  TEMP  PREP))  (MEMBER  PREP  IDEFUN P R E P - R E L - E V A L (REL (PROG (TEMP)  (COMD  PREP  TEMP))  (CAR  L))  L O O P ) )) ) I  [ D E F U N P R E P - R E L - C L A U S E ( R E L P R E P PRO POS) ; T H I S H A N D L E S " T H E MAN I N WHOSE H O U S E . . ." (PROG (TESTEE) LOOP SENT)))) (COND ((NULL (SETQ TESTEE ( S T A R T - L I S T 'NP (CLMT (SUB1 POS) KEEP(IOR (AMD ( E O ' W H I C H P R O ) (NOT (MUST-BE HUMAN))) (AND ( M E M B E R PRO M W i i U M W H O S E ) ) (MUST-BE HUMAN))) ( P R E P - R E L - E V A L REL PREP TESTEE)) (T ( S E T Q POS ( S U B l POS)) (GO LOOP)))))  (SETO  TESTEE))  'OWN))))  (DEFUN P R E P - C L A U S E (PREPS SNT) PHRASES ; T H I S R E T U R N S A L I S T OF A L L OF T H E PREP. ; W I T H ANY OF T H E L I S T O F P R E P S IN (PROG (LST) LOOP (CONO  PRN  KEEP-SENT))))  (DEFUN P R E P - C A S E - L O O K (KASE PREP T E S T ) T H I S R O U T I N E T A K E S A L I S T OF C A S E S , A L I S T O F PR E P O S I T ON S', AND A IT L O O K S T H R O U G H T H E C U R R E N T S E N T E N C E F O R A P R E P - P H R A S E S T A R T I N G W I T H ONE OF T H E P R E P O S I T I O N S WHICH P A S S E S THE T E S T . . IF N O N E I S F O U N D , IT LOOKS BACK INTO THE PREVIOUS S E N T E N C E . (PROG (KK) (SETQ LOOP (COND  (AMAPHUR-QUERY  0)  (DEF. P - P H R A S E - N U M  P R O B L E M OF D O N ' T WANT WROTE IT.  lib  TO  (PR N - M A TC H ?  NP LOOP 3 (SETQ . ( C O N O NUMP ( A D D 1 M U M P ) ) ((NOT (LESSP NUMP N N ) ) (CC LOOP*)) ( (AND (SETO TESTEE. (EI.MT NUMP K E E P - S E N T ) ) ( P P N - M A T C H ? PRN T E S T E E ) ( A N A P H C R - Q U E ' R Y PRM T C ST E E ) ) ( R E TURN T E S T E E ) ) (T (GO L00P3))) LOOP'. (RETURN (ANAPHORIC NIL T ANAPHOR-DEPTH P R N ) ) ) )  (DEFUN POSSESSION I AG P A ) ; THIS I S A S T A R T ON T H E ; " B E E T H O V E N ' S M U S I C " WE ; THE M U S I C , BUT THAT HE (PROG (TESTEE) ( S E T Q T E S T E E AG 1  NN  TRYING  (RETURN  NIL))  OBJ I  REL-LEVEL (ADD! REL-LEVEL) TEMP ( E V A L ( A P P E N D (LIST 'SI REL-LEVEL ISUBl REL-LEVEL)) ((NOI (MULL TEMP)) ( S E T Q EN M R P L A C D ( R E T U R N T E M P I )) ) )  (END-LIST  (LIST  (CAR  (APPEND  REL  (END-LIST  (LIST  PLACE)))  (CONS  (LIST  •PP  (CONS  STRCT))  PREP  PLACE  (COPY  OBJ )  OBJ))))))))  1EFUN P R E P - S T A R T (PART) ( C O N U ( I A T UM P A R T ) fJI L ) ((LO (CAR PART) M'P))))  1 E F U M P K E P - V C R B - A S S O - C O M P L X - R C T U K N ( P i l l PH2. PH3) T H I S C O N V E R T S " M E POX W I T H T H E P E N S I N I T " INTO "THE BOX, I HE BOX C O N T A I N S T H E P E N S . " (LI SI "•<==>" INU'JN-LIST-GET (NP-UUILO PHI)) .'PRESENT (LIST "•<--» ( S E L C C T O (C A 0 0 R P H D C O N 'SUPPORT) (MN INOUN-LIST-GET (MP-BUILD PH2 ) ) )) )  'CONTAIN)  'RELATION)  IDEFUN P R O ? (TESTEE) (START-LIST 'PRO TESTEE))  O E F U N P R O - A N A P H O R ? ( C S S T E S T PRN T E S T E E ) T H I S F L A G S A P R O N O U N AS B E ( N G H A N D L E D ( F A N A P H O R I C C A N R E S O L V E I T . (PROG (TEMP) (RETURN (COND ((NOT (NULL (SETO TEMP (ANAPHORIC CSS T E S T A N A P H O R - U E P T H I F L A G - O N TESTEE K E E P - S E N T TEMP) TEMP)))))  OEFUN P R O P - L I S T (L F L G ) T H I S R E T U R N S A L I S T O F WHAT IS U N D E R L I S T S OF A L L OF THE E L E M E N T S IN L . (PROG (TEMP) LOOP (CONO  ( ( N U L L L) TEMP) (T ( S E T U TEMP I APPEND  TEMP  F L G ON  (GET  THE  (CAR  PRN))))  PROPERTY  L)  FLG))  L  (COR  LI)  (GO  LOOP)))))  IDEFUN PRN-GEN IPRN) '; THIS ROUTINE RETURNS A PRONOUN'S GENDER. ( C O 10 ( ( M E M B E R P R N ' ( H E H I M H I S ) ) 'MASCULINE) ((MEMBER PRN ' ( S H E H E R ) ) 'FEMININE) I ( M E M B E R P R N M Y C U R I T H E Y T H E M WE M Y ) ) 'OUTH) ( (ME MD ER PP.N M I T THAT THOSE)) 'NEITHER) IT ( P R N - G E N - O U E R Y PRN))))  '  (DEFUN P R N - G E N - Q U E R Y (PRN) ( F A P R O N O U N G E N D E R IS NOT K N O W N , T H E U S E R I S A S K E D FOR I T , ANO THE R O U T I N E P R N - G E N IS C H A N G E D . (PROG (TEMPI I PR I NI MS) (PRIN1 PRN) ( P R I N 1 ' " M A S C U L I N E UR FEMININE?") (TERPRI) LOOP ( P R I N T ' " E N T E R M A S C U L I N E , F E M I N I N E , B O T H , OR N E I T H E R " ) ( P R I N T ' " E N T E R # TO A B O R T " ! (CO*ID ( ( N O T ( M E M B E R ( S E T Q TEMP ( R E A D ! ) '(MASCULINE FEMININE ( ( E Q TEMP ' » ) (RETURN N I L ) ) ) I P R N - R P L A C D • P R N - G E N PRN I S E L E C T Q TEMP (RETURN TEMP)))  (MASCUL(NE  1)  "  BOTH N E I T H E R  (FEMININE  ( O E F U N P R N - M A T C H ? {PRN T E S T E E ) ; T H I S R O U T I N E C H E C K S T O S E E IF T H E P K C N C U N PRN M A T C H E S T E S T E E . ' (ANO ( P R N - N U M C G E N ? (PRN-NJM ICAOR P R N ) ) (PRN-GEN (CADR P R N ) ) TESTEE)  (OEFUN PRN-NUM (PRN) ; THIS ROUTINE RETURNS A PRONOUN'S NUMBER. (CONO ( ( M E M B E R PRN M I T HE SHE I HIM HER T H A T HIS ( ( M E M B E R PRN • I T H E V THEM THOSE « l i ) ) ' PL ) ((MEMBER PRN M Y O U ) ) M SGPL M A S S ) ) (T I P R N - N U M - Q U E R Y PRN))))  (DEFUN (AND  NY 1 I  MSG  PRN-NUMI.GEN? (NUM G E N T E S T E E ) ( S O F T - M E M NUM ( C A U R ( S T A R T - L I S T • "<-NUMF. E P - " T E S T E E ) ) ) ( S O F T - M E M GE.I (CADR (START-LISI '"<-CLNDER-" TESTEE) ) ) I OR ( A N D I EC GEN ' M A S C U L I N E ) (MUSI-BE MALE) ) (AND- ( E D GEN ' F E M I N I N E ! ("UST-BE FEMALE)) (NUT (MEMBER GEN ' ( M A S C U L I N E FEMININE))))))  MASS I } '  .  2)  (BOTH  HI)) 3)  (GO  LOOP))  (NEITHER  (PERSONAL-PRN  ICAOR  A)))  PRN)  TESTEE)  be FUN  PRiiNUUN'S N U M B E R I TEMPI (PRIM M S I  IE A I PROC  II'KM.I IPKINI •" (HxPRl)  11%  (f'-'n  PK.-NUM-QUEKY  I i  NOT KNOWN,  OR  SINGULAR  THIS ROUTINE  ASKS  THE USER  l CR I T . :  PLURAL")  LOUP ( P R I N T ' " E ' U C R S C . P L . S G P L ') ( P R I N T " " E N T E R </ T O A B O R T " ) M S G P L S G P L M A S S C D ) 1 GC .ico.NU ( I N I I T ( M E M B E R I S E T Q T E M P I U E A O I I ( ( E Q IE. .P ' H) I RE T U R N M I L D ) ISG L) (PL 2 ) (SGPL 3 1 ) 1 ( P R - I - P . P L A C O ' P R N - N U M P R N I S E L E C TG T E M P (RETURN TEMP)))  LCUPD  V  D  E T  H , S  P  R O U T M E  INTO  ACIUALLY INSETS  C  I S E L E C T O NUM ( 1 (2 (3 (4  IDEFUM  AOUEO  R  I NFORMA TION  ABOUT  NUMBER  ANO  GENDER  TCN  (RPLACO (RPLACO (RPLACO IRPLACO  P R T Y - P R I N T  ICOUO  (CCAADR I C A U D 3 (COAACR (CADDC:l (CCAADR (CADDR (CDAADR ICAODR  (GET FCN ' E X P R D ) ) ) (LIST PRND) (GET FCN •EXPR) ) ) ) ) ( L I S T PRND) IfCDP. (GFT FCN • E X P R ) ) ) ) D (LIST PRND) ICDDOR ( G E T F C N ' E X ? R) D D ) ( L I S T PRND.D)  ( L S T )  I(ATOM LST) ((NOT (NULL (T  (CAD'.OR (CAO'.UR (CAU ADR (CADAOR  (ENO-LIST ( ETJ-LIST I E N D - L I ST I END-LIST  (PRINT  (PRINT LST , ) LST)) IPRINTPARSC  '"THAT  O I ONOT  LST  0))  PARSE")))  LST)  (CEFUM PURPOSE (SENT PREP) THIS I S THE PURPOSE C A S E . "I R A N HOME T O G E T MY B O C K . " ( S E L E C T Q PREP (•TO (PROG  (TEMP) (RETURN  (COND  ( ( S E T Q AG-ANAPHOR IGETR A G ) ) ISFTQ PA-ANAPHOR (GETR P A D (CUMO ( ( N O T (ATOM ( S E T Q TEMP  (EVAL  ICONS  'S (LIST  (APPEND  ( L I S T (COPY AG-ANAPHOR IREL-MOOS-JQIN SENT  NN D ) ) )  (SET-UP-FN 'PURPOSE PREP) ( S E T Q A G - A N A PHOR N I L P A - A N A P F . C R N I L ) ( L I S T (MAKE-ARROW "PURPOSE) T E M P D D D D  NIL))  (DEFUN ;  PUT-IN-LIST  THIS (PROG  ADDS  WHAT  I AT  I N D WHAT)  T O THE  LIST  ON T H E  PROPERTY  LIST  C F A T UNCER I N O .  (TEMP) (CUNO  ((NULL IT  (SETO  IPUT  TEMP  (GET  A T IND (APPEND  AT IND) D (LIST  (PUT  WHAT)  A T IND ( L I S T  i  '  ! ( D E F U N P U T O N (W l > [PUT W ' O I C I « T ) (PUT W (CONO I I ATOM (CADR L D (CAOR L l ) j 1T ( C A D R (CADK L ) ) ) ) !' (COND ( ( E Q U A L (CAOUR (COR L D • # ) . ' * ) | (T (APPEND ( L I S T NEW-WORD) ICGOUR  (DEFUN :  WHAT)))  TEMP))))))  ;  THIS (CONO  P U T THEM IS USED  IW L ) IN READING  ((NULL L ) (PUT (T ( P U T W I C A R  (CUND  IN THE  DICTIONARY.  W 'DICT T ) > L ) (CAOR L D ( P U T THEM  (DEFUN QUANTITY (TESTEE ; T H I S IS THE QUANTITY (PROG ( P R N ) (RETURN  O D D )  PREP) CASE:  "WHAT  COMES  I T PUTS  PAIRS  ON THE P R O P E R T Y  LIST.  W ICOOR D D I )  BY T H E  ( ( S E T Q PRN IPRU7 TESTEE)) I P R O G ( TEMP ) (COMD I ( S E T Q T E M P  QUART?"  ( P R O - A M APIIDR?  •(QUANTITY) •(MUSI-BE  QUANTITY)  PRN TESTEE)I ( SE T-'.IP - F .••! (RETURN ((MUST-BE  (LIST  PRE P )  •"<-QUAN 1 I T Y - "  PREP  TEMP))))))  QUAN1ITY)  (SET-UP-FN (LIST  • QUA N T I T Y  'i.'UiWT I TY . P R E P )  • "<-UUAN I I I Y - «  PREP  ( NUUN'-L ( S T - G E T  (MP-I'UII.C  TESTEE))))))))  OUCKY IW R O U T I N E T H A I Q U E R I E S THE U S E R ABOUT A THIS IS THE NOT KNO^. ?••>. 00I D I P !U NI " • I DO NOT KNOW W H A T " ! I PR I!Ml W0R0 1 (PKIMl • M E A N S ) ( T ER PR 1 ) (PRINT ' " P L E A S E E N T E R A D I C T I O N A R Y E N T R Y F O R ( PKINT •"OR ANOTHER WORD") (PRINT I SET U L • " E N T E R a T O A H O R T T H I S S E N T E N C E . " ) I CONO 1 I R C A O ) )  IOEFUN  : ;; :  :  I  'ai  (  (EQ  (  (ATOM L) (MORPH L ) T (PuTTHEM (CAR L)  L  (PRINT  ( D E F U N R A T E ( A S) ) ; T H I S C A S E H A S NOT  BEEN  ( D E F U N R E A D I N ; T H I S READS  D I C T I O N A R Y  IPROG  () IN  THE  •"SENTENCE L) (CDR  ABORTED")  L))  (MORPH  WORD  THAT  IT  DOES  IT'S  ROOT  WORD")  NIL)  WORO)))))  IMPLEMENTED Y E T .  FROM  ' B R O C : D I C T  .  I D (OPEN  ( B U F  255  B R C C : U I C T ) I  LOOP  SCONS « ( N O T | N S L L ' L . » A  ( P U T T H E M  (CAR  L)  (COR  (OEFUN RECIPIENT (TESTEE FREP) ; THIS IS THE R E C I P I E N T C A S E . I PROG (PRN) PRN ( P R O ? TESTED) (RETURN ICOND ( ( S E T Q (PROG (TEMP) (COND ( ( S E T Q TEMP  L ) .  (GO  L O O P ) . ) . )  (I'RO-ANAPHCR?  BENEFICIARY CC-AGEN T RECIPIENT TOPIC PATIENT) •(MUST-BE AN(MATE) PRN  • (AGENT  TESTEE)) 'RECIPIENT PREP) ( S E T - U P -FN (RETURN (LIST « " < - R E C I P I E M T - " T E M P I ) ) ! ) ) ((MUST-BE AN(MATE) (StT-UP-FN "RECIPIENT PREP) • GET 1NP-BUIL0 TESTEE)))))))) (LIST • • ^ - R E C I P I E N T - " (NOUN-LIST-  (0=FUN ;  RED-REL-CLAUSE  THIS  ROUTINE  (PROG  I TEMP  SETS  Tl  LOOP (CONO  (KEL UP  T2)  """° '(Saw/ICOND R  J  A  0  (KLTUKI  REL-EVAL  FOR  REDUCED  RELATIVE  •NP ( E L M T (SU8I (SETO TEMP ( S T A R T - L I S T (SETQ T l (CADR TEMP)))) ( COND ( ( N U L L T E M P K E E P-SENT)I) IT (FLAG-OFF ( C D D R R E L ) TEMP)) (SETQ T 2 (REL-EVAL Tl)) ( F L A G - O N TEMP K E E P - S E N T ( COND I T 1 KEEP-SENT)I> (T ( F L A G - O F F TEMP  ((LESSP  D E  TO  CALL  CLAUSES.  T2)  I (AND  ! TMS S^TS UUT  POS)  THE  )  1  (SETQ  PUS)  POS  IGO  LOOP)))))  (CAR (SETQ RLLPRO ICAOOR R E D ! )  CUNU • ™ ^ _ M  L  POS!)  KEEP-SENT))I  FROM PREPOS.TCNAL RELAT IVE CLAUSES.  R L L A n v T c L A U S C S ((FD  (SUBl  POS)  C  L  M  I  S  I  ,_  H  m  )  7  ' ' U U P - R ^ L - C L ^  ,cniii;R RED  ICADR REIPRO) POSD  REL, (CADR RELPRO)  (CACR (C A DOOR R E D .  POS),M.»  f Xo  (REL PRO POS ) (DC-FUN R E L - S L A U E - H I J D ? ; T H I S S E T S U l ' T H E C A L L TO R E L - E V A L F O R R E L A T I V E C L A U S E S . (PROG (TESTEE i 12) LOOP (START-LIST 'NP (ELMT ( S U B l POS) KEEP-SENT))) (CUMD ( ( A N D ( S E TO T E S T E E (SETO II (CADR TESTEE)'))) (CUND ( ( N U L L (T ' ( F L A G - O F F TESTEE KEEP-SENT))) (SETO 1 2 ( C O N D ( ( UP. ( A N D ( E C ' WHO P R O ) (MJIST-BE HUMAN)) (AMD (EO 'WHICH PRO) (MOT (MUST-BE HUMAN)))) (I'.EL-EVAL REL TESTEE ) ) ) ) (COND ( T l (FLAG-ON IESTEE KEEP-SENT T i l l (T (FLAG-OFF IESTEE KEEP-SEND))  r  T2  ((LESSP  ) I 1  POS)  (SETO  POS  (SUBl  SUBJ) (DEFUN R E L - E V A L (REL SENTENCE PARSE ; T H I S ROUT INE B U I L D S UP i (PROG (TEMP) (SETU SOPER SENT K E E P - S E N T REL-LEVEL (ADD1 REL-LEVEL) AG-ANAPHOR (GETR AG) PA-ANAPHOR (GETR PA) TEMP I E V A L ( A P P E N D (LIST 'S) REL-LEVEL (SUBl REL-LEVEL) AG-ANAPHOR NIL PA-ANAPHOR NIL SUPER-SENT NIL) (CO-JO ( ( N U T (NULL TEMP))  POSD  OUT  ( S E TO  FN - M R P L A C D (ENO-LIST PLACE (START-LIST 'NP ( R E TURN T E M P ) ))))  OF  (LIST  (GO  THE  LOOP)))))  RELATIVE  ( APPEND  (LIST  (CAR (END - L I S T SUBJ))  CLAUSE,  (COPY  PLACE)D  AND  EVALS  IT.  (START-LIST  'NP  (LIST  SUBJ)))  R E D D )  STRCT))  (DEFUN R E L - M ODS-.J 0 I N ( PART NN) T H I S R O U T I N E T A K E S A S E N T E N C E P A R T AND I T S E L E M E N T N U M B E R , AND A P P E N D S T O I T A L L OF T H E F O L L O W I N G P A R T S W H I C H . A R E NP, PP, ETC. IN THE P A R T I A L P A R S E R E T U R N E D BY T H E A T N , A R E L A T I V E C L A U S E IS OFTEN BROKEN INTO S E V E R A L P A R T S . T H I S PUTS I P BACK TOGETHER AGAIN. LATER, IF TOO M U C H I S A D D E D ON I N T H I S R O U T I N E , THE END ONES ARE DROPPED ONE AT A T I M E . (PROG (TEMP) LOOP (CUND ((AND (SETQ TEMP (ELMT ( A U D I NN) KEEP-SENT)) (MEMBER (CAR TEMP) '(PP NP REL RED-REL OBJ-REL OBJ-RED-REL THAT-COMP TO-COMP SO-COMP BY-COMP THAN-PH "<-ADV-" "<-ADJ-")> (NOT (CADR TEMP))) ( S E T Q P A R T ( A P P E N D P ART ( L I S T TEMP) ) .NN (ADD I NN)) (GO LOOP)I (T (RETURN PART)))))  (OEFUN RE-ORDER (LST (CONO ( ( N U L L NUMS) ((LESSP (CAR (T L S T ) D  NUMS V N U M S ) LST) NUMS 1 V N U M S )  (RE-ORDER  ( APPEND  (COR  LST)  (LIST  (CAR  LST)))  (CDR  NUMS)  VNUMSD  (DEFUN. S NEXPR (SENTENCE) THIS ROUTINE I S THE V E R Y F I R S T F U N C T I O N C A L L E D A F T E R THE A T N R E T U R N S . I T T A K E S A N A T N P A R S E A N D I N V O K E S T H E C A S E A N A L Y S I S ON IT. IT S E T S U P A FEW G L O B A L V A R I A B L E S , AND B U I L D S A L I S T L OF THE N O U N P H R A S E S AMD THE V E R B . Till 7, I S U S E D B Y T H E A G E N T A N D P A T I E N T ROUTINES. (PROG (N L SENT V E R B K E E P - S E N T STRUCT VP) (SETU  LEVEL  (SE T R  PASSIVE (CONO ((EQ  (AOOl  LEVEL)  N  0  SENT  SENTENCE  KEEP-SENT  SENTENCE)  • VP KEEP-SENT)))))))) 'PASSIVE (CADR (START-LIST 'VOICE (SETQ VP (TOP-LEVEL-START-LIST ( SETQ VERB (CADR (START-LIST 'V 'VP))) ( SE T R TNS ( C A D R (START-LIST 'TNS VP))) (COND ( T N S - F I X V (TENSE-FIX (GETR TNS)))) LOOP ( COND ( ( N U L L SENT) N VERB) ) (SETO TMP ( W H I C H - M E A N I N G L SENTENCE (APPEND (LIST (ALL-FLAG-OFF KEEP-SENT)) SENT-HIST)))) (CUND ((EQ L E V E L I) (SETQ SENT-HIST (SETQ LEVEL (SUBl LEVEL)) TMP ) ((ED (CAAR SENT) 'NPI (CAR S E N T ) ) ) SENT (COR SENT ) N (ADD 1 N D I S E TO L ( A P P E N D L (LIST (GO LOOP)I ((EO (CAAR SENT) 'VP) (START-LIST 'V (CAR S E N T ) ) ) ) ) ) SENT (CDR SENT)J (SETO L (APPEND L (LIST ISETU VERB (CADR (GO LUMP)) LOOP))))) (T ( S E T Q SENT (CDR S E N T ) ) (GO  ( D E F U N S E C U M D - C I I A N C E ( K A S E P R N H - S HI S I ) I F A N A P H O R I C F A I L S TO R E S O L V E A L l i C A U V E ;  I S C A L L E D W H I C H I R I E S E V E R Y P H R A S E IN (SELECTQ KASE (LOCATION (ANAPHORIC NIL  (DEFUN S E T - U P () ; S E T - U P S E T S UP ; ; ;  C AS E - T A B L E  ANTI-CASE-TABLE NOT T A K E . (PROGN (SETQ  THREE  ASSOCIATES IS  A  TABLES. WITH LIST  MORP H - T A B L E  OF  REFERENCE,  IS  PREPOSITION  VERBS  WITH  IS) (MAPCAR  THIS  A  THE  SET  SET  OF  U S E ) (MAPCAR  ((S  MORPHOLOGY  IT  CASES  ANAPHOR-DEPTH  MIGHT  WHICH  I: V) (MAPCAR  "•") (MAPCAR  PRN))  NIL))  RULES.  FLAG.  THEY  WILL  'TRY • ( ( N I L N ( N T Y P E S) (NUMBER PL)) (NIL V (OR (VB TYPE S - E D ) (VUTYPE ITNS PRESENT)  E I ) (MAPCAR  (IS  OF  THE C A S E S  (PNCODE  (IS  ROUTINE  I HE S E N T E N C E . ( M U S T - H E LOCATION)  MORPH-T A B L E  EACH  M l  1  S-Dl)  " 3 S G " ) ) ) ) )  'TRY •l((Y) N (NTYPE ES) (NUMBER PL)) ((Y) V ( V B TY P E E S - E D ) (TNS PRESENT)  (PNCODE  "3SG")))))  'TRY • ( ( N I L N (NTYPE ES) (NUMBER PL)) (NIL V (VB T Y P E E S - E O ) (TNS PRESENT)  (PNCODE  "3SG")))))  'TRY •U(E F) N (NTYPE IRR) (NUMBER PL)) ((F) N ( N T Y P E IRR) I NUMBER P L ) ) ) 'TRY • ( ( N I L N T (PCSSESIVE T) (NIL NPR,T (POSSESIVE  ))  (NUMBER SG)) T) (NUMBER SG)))))  ( (" ' " S ) (MAPCAR  'TRY ' ( ( N I L N T (PCSSESIVE T) (NUMBER PL)) (NIL NPR T ( P O S S E S I V E T ) (NUMBER PL))))) ((Y L) (MAPCAR ' T R Y " ( ( N I L (ADJ ADV) 'T E R - E S T ) (IE L) (AOJ ((Y L I) (TRY ( ( Y ) IADJ AOV) 'T *))) 1(Y L G N I) (TRY f(E) (V A D V ) (VBTYPE S-C) *))) ( (G N I ) (MAPCAR 'EVAL •((TRY (NIL V ' T (PART PRESPART))) (TRY (IE) V (VBTYPE S-O) (PART PRESPART))) (COND ( ( E Q (CAR L E T S ) (CADR LETS)) (DROPCGO ( L I S T (LIST (CAR LETS)) •(TRY  (NIL  V  'T  (PART  ADV)  'T  PRESPART))))  LETS) ) ) ) ) ) ((0)  (TRY  (IDE) (MAPCAR  (NIL  V  'EVAL •((TRY  (VBTYPE  ((D)  E  I) (TRY  ( I R E ) (MAPCAR  (TRY (NIL  (PART.PASTPART)  (TNS  PAST))))  (NIL  ' ICOND  (ID  S-D)  ((Y) V  'EVAL •((TRY  V (OR (VBTYPE ES-ED) (VBTYPE S-ED)) (PART PASTPART) ITNS PAST))) (IEQ (CAR L E T S ) (CADR LETS)) (DROPCGO ( L I S T (LIST (CAR LETS)) •(TRY (NIL V (OR (VBTYPE ES-EO) IVBTYPE S-ED)) (PART PASTPART) ( TNS P A S T ) ) ) ) LETS) ) ) ) ) )  V  (VBTYPE  (VBTYPE  (NIL  AOJ  S-D)  ES-ED) (TNS  (AD.JTYPE  ITNS PAST)  PAST)  (PART  (PART  PASTPART))))  ER-EST)  (COMP-SUP  *))  PASTPART))))  COMPARATIVE)))  II'(IV KILL. ADV (ACVTYPE ER-EST) (COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE I ) I (CONO ((EO (CAR LET:;) ICADR LETSII • -I (DROPCGO (LIST (LI ST (CAR LETS)) •(TRY (MIL AOJ (ADJTYPE ER-EST) 1COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE)))) LETS)!)))) ((R E I) (TRY (IY) ADJ (ADJTYPE ER-EST) (COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE)))) MR) (TRY ( N I L AD.) (ADJTYPE R-STI (COMP-SUP COMPARATIVE)))) (IT S E 1) (IRV ((Y) ADJ (ADJTYPE ER-EST) (COMP-SUP SUPERLATIVE)))) l(T S) (TRY (NIL ADJ (ADJTYPE R-ST) (COMP-SUP SUPERLATIVE)))) (IT S EI (MAPCAR 'EVAL •((TRY (MIL AOJ (ADJTYPE ER-EST) (COMP-SUP SUPERLATIVE))) (TRY (MIL ADV ( A D V TYPE ER-EST) iCOMP-SUP SUPERLATIVE))) (COND (IEO (CAR LETS) (CADR LETS)) (DROPCCO ( L I S T (LIST ( C A R LETS)) •(TRY (NIL ADJ •T (COMP-SUP SUPERLATIVE)))) LETS)))))))) I SETQ CASE-TABLE '((IN LOCATION TIME DESC OUR AT I ON MANNER DESTINATION CONTEXT CHARACTERISTIC WITH-RESP-TO) (WITH CO-ACENT INSTRUMENT WITH MANNER DESC DESTINATION EXCHANGE IND-SUBJ PREREQUISITE-USED) (TOR DURATION BENEFICIARY EXCHANGE IND-SUBJ) (ON LOCATION DESC CHARACTERISTIC DESTINATION IND-SUBJ) (TO RECIPIENT DESTINATION TOPIC PURPOSE IND-SUBJ) (AT LUCATION DESC TIME RATE DESTINATION) . IOF DESC TOPIC SEC-OBJECT WITH-RESP-TO) (BY LOCATION DESC TIME PATH METHOD QUANTITY! (ABOUT TIME TOPIC PATH! (INTO OESTINATION) (ONTO DESTINATION) I TOWARD DESTINATION) (TOWARDS DESTINATION) (NEAR LOCATION DESC TIME) (BESIDE LOCATION DESC) (DURING TIME) (BEFORE TIME LOCATION DESC) (AFTER TIME DESC) (ALONG PATH) (UP PATH OESC) (FROM SOURCE DESC) (DOWN PATH DESC) (AROUND PATH DESC) IALRUSS  (SO  PA1H  UtSCI  EX PECfEO-EEFCC T C A U S E I  (UNDER LOCATION CONTEXT DESC) (LIKE LIKE) (DESPITE DESPITE) . (WHEN TIME) (WHILE  (SETQ ANTI-CASE-TABLE '((GO (GRAMMAR-IN) (READIN)))  TIME)))  (LOCATION!) (COME (LOCATION))))  (SET-UP) (DEFUN SET-UP-FN (CS PRN) ; WHEN A CASE HAS BEEN DETERMINED FOR A PREPOSIONAL PHRASE, IF THE CASE I IS OF THE STANDARD TYPE, SET-UP-FN IS INVOKED TO BUILD THE USUAL ; FUNCTION FN TO PUT THE STRUCTURE STRCT INTO STRUCT CO-ORDINATE WITH ; THE VERB. (PROG (TEMPI (SETQ PRE PF.CASE (LIST PRN CS) FN (CUND ((AND (SETQ TEMP (START-LIST (MAKE-ARROW (CASE-ATOM-ASSOC CS)) STRUCT)) I MEMBER (CADR TEMP) '(SOMEONE SUMPLACE HERE))) (PROGN (SETO PLACE TEMP) MRPLACD PLACE (LIST (CDR STRCT))))) ( T MRPLACD (END-LIST (FIND-LIST STRUCT •"<= = >")) (LIST STRCT)))) NUM IPHRASE-NUM 'VP KEEP-SENT I I)1  12* ?arsK-Tfsr-f.F ^!Nr R  , 0  F  ( D E F U N  S I Z E  ( C O N D  (DEFUN T H I S W I T H I  C O N O  (  C O N D  TES FEE )) M >  . N O U N - G E T  ( N O U N - G E T  N P )  " O B J - S I Z E ) I  0) ) )  T  SOFT-DELETE (ATS TEST L) R O U T I N E R E M O V E S A L L E L E M E N T S O F A T S I N 1. IOR E L E M E N T S W H I C H ATS) W I T H O U T S C R E W I N G U P THE L I S T T H E WAV D E L E T E DOES. ((AND (ATOM A T S ) (NOT ( NULL A T S ) ) ) (.SETO A T S ( L I S T ATS))))  ^  i  (T  ( D E F U N ( O R  .NOUN-MEAN  A  ( N P )  ( ( G E T  (  cr  S E  e  B  (APPEND  S O F T - E Q ( E Q A  ( A  B )  P O S S I P L E  •!  I F  C H E C K S  S O , ' I T  ITONn  A )  ( ( A N D  I T  ( D E F U N  T P  ( ( A T O M  T H A T  ( P R O G  I O R  T  A  D  F U N C T I O N O F  R E T U R N S  )  N S U B R )  ( O R  ( S O F T - E Q  ( M E M B E R  A  S O F T - N O U N - P U T  ( E Q  ( E V A L  W H E R E  C O R R E C T .  L S T ) )  ( L E N G T H  ( C A D R  , ( N U L L  B ) ) ) ) )  L S T ) ) )  F N ) )  ( S U B L  ( E Q  ' F L A M B O A  I C A R  F N ) ) ) )  ( L E N G T H  B)l  ( N U L L A )  ( A )  ( N P - B U I L D  ( P R N  ( G E T R  T E S T E E  P R E P  Z  Z  D  M I L D  V E R B  K A S E )  T E M P )  A N ) ( ( S E T Q  T E M P  I I S E T Q  I P R Q - A N A P H O R ? ' D E S T I N A T I O N  ( L I S T  T E M P  • ( A G E N T  S O U R C E  ( T E S T E E  ( S O U R C E - O E S T  T E S T E E  S O U R C E - D E S T I S  T  H  E  ( P R O - A N A P H O R ?  K . A S E I  N I L  AMD  ( L I S T  M M U S T - B E  K A S E )  P R E P )  B E N E F I C I A R Y )  ' L O C A T I O N  P L A C E  '  O  ( C O N D  F  T  L O C A T I O N  P R N  H U . '  E  M  P  D  D  BU1LING)  P R N  T E S T E E ) )  T E M P ) ) ) ) ) )  ' S O U R C E ) )  P R E P  K A S E )  DESTINATION  C A S E .  ( P R N ) ( R E T U R N  • ( M U S T - B E  •  P R E P  ( T E S T E E  S O U R C E  C O - A G E N T  P R E P )  ( M A K E - A R R O W  ( S E T - U P - F N K A S E P R E P ) ( R E T U R N ( L I S T ( M A K E - A R R O W  ( P R O G  A N D I S  A ) )  ( R E T U R N  T H I S  N A M E ,  A R G U M E N T S I T .  ( Z Z )  S O U - O E S T ' - P R O ? I  A  B)  ( S E T - U P - F N  ( D E F U N  :ts.*u«>- -»»  ^  L ) ) ) ) l )  )  ( C O N O  ( D E F U N  (CDR  A )  ( B B)  ( S O F T - N O U N - L I S T - G E T  ( D E F U N  A  N U M B E R  J U S T  F S U B R  ' E X P R )  W I T H  T H E  I T  M S U B R  T P  ( ( N O U N - L I S T - G E T (  . ( D E F U N  S  B ) ) )  E L S E  S O F T - N O U N - L I S T - G E T  ( C O N D  ^  ATS TEST  L S T ) ) )  ( T  ( D E F U N  ^  L S T ) )  S O F T - M E M  ( C O N D  S E E  I T ,  ( E O  ( E V A L  ( N U L L  L I S / S T A R T I N G  T O  E V A L S  ( ( M E M B E R  ^  ( C A R L>> ( S O F T - D E L E T E  B )  ( N U L L  I ^ S O F T - E C I L ' T A K E S ' A '  i  (LIST  START  ( ( S E T Q  P R N  ( ( M U S T - B E  T E S T E E M  L O C A T I O N  ( S E T - U P - F N  ( L I S T  ( P R O ?  K A S E  ( M A K E - A R R O W  P L A C E  ( S O U - C E S T - P R O ? B U I L D I N G  P R N  P R E P )  K A S E )  T E S T E E  P R E P  V E R B  K A S E D  C O N T A I N E R )  1 N O O N - L I S T - G E T  ( N P  -BUILC  T E S T E E )  ) ) ) ) ) ) )  T E S T E E ) )  (OEFUN SPEAKER (PRN) IF A F I R S T P F R S O N A L ;  FOR  IMS  (CONO  MANE.  ((MULL  IF  SINGULAR  HE  IS  NO I  ASKED l-UR HIS  I S U S E D , T H E S P E A K E R ,15 rutS Y S T E M , H E IS ASKED  PRONOUN KNOWN  TO  SEX.  SPEAKER)  (PROG  (NAME  N-PROP  SEX  SUPER  RE  P )  LOOP 1 (PRINT ' " W H A T I S YOUR N A M E ? (SEIO m i n ' ( A T U M ' N A M E ) ) ( P R I N T • "DON T BE CUMB") (GO L O C P 1 ) ) ) (COND LOOP2 ' S U P E R S E T ) ) ' ( M A N WOMAN) ) ) (MEMBER ( C A R ( G E T NAME ( COND ( ( M O T (PRINT ' " A R E Y O U M A L E OR F E M A L E ? " ) ( S E T O SEX ( READ) ) ( GO NO M M F M B F R S F X ' ( M A L E M A S C U L I N E M MAN BOY G l:N T L c rt AN ) ) (SETO N-PROP '(HUMAN MALE) SUPERSET '(MAN))) ((MEMBER SFX • ( F E M A L E F F E M I N I N E WOMAN G I R L CHICK)) (SETO N-PROP '(HUMAN FEMALE) SUPERSET '(WOMAN))) ((MEMBER S E X ' ( B O T H N E I T H E R BI BISEXUAL)) (PRINT '"IN THA I C A S E (STOP)) 'WOULD Y O U G I V E ME A S T R A I G H T A N S W E R " ) (GO (T (PRINT  ")  ( P U T NAME • N - P R O P M-PROP) (PUT NAME ' S U P E R S E T SUPER) I PUT NAME ' O B J - S I Z E : '"3") ( P U T NAME ' D I C E T ) (PUT NAME ' N P R •*) (RETURN ( S E T U S P E A K E R ( L I S T ' NP N I L ( L I S T NIL (LIST (T (RETURN I S E TO S P E A K E R ILI.ST 'NP (T  IOEFUN THI S (COND  (DEFUN S T A R T - R E L (L) ( S E T O L (CODR L)) (COND ((EQ (CAAR L) (COND ( (EQ ( C A A R I.) L )  •RELPRO) (SETQ •PREP ) (SETO L  OF  L  BEGINNING  S U P E R - N P - B U I L O (NP) B U T I F ROUTINE C A L L S N P - B U l L D i (TEMP) ( ( S E T Q TEMP ( P R O ? NP) ) (COND (SETQ AG-ANAPHOR (GETR (SETQ  TEMP  (SETQ  AG-ANAPHOR  (RETURN (T  (ANAPHORIC NIL  (NP-BUILD  (NP-BUILD  NP  IS  AG) NIL  ZZ.  OF  ELEMENTS  •SUPERSET))  A  PA T  THE  PRONOUN  ANAPHOR  IT  X.  (CDR  RESOLVES  (GETR  ANAPHOR-DEPTH  PA-ANAPHOR  X  OF  X))  (GO  LOOP)))))  THE  REFERENCE  PA))  TEMP) )  NIL)  TEMP)))  NP) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN S U P E R - S T A R T - L I S T (ZZ L TEST) ; THIS I S T H E SAME A S S T A R T - L I S T , . BUT ;  WITH  L (COR L ) ) ) ) (CDR L ) ) ) )  (DEFUN SUPERSET (X) THE S U P E R S E T S ; THIS RETURNS A L I S T C F A L L O F (PROG (L) (SETQ L NIL) LOOP I (NULL X) L) (COND ( ( A T O M X) (SUPERSET (LIST X))) (T (SETQ L (APPEND L (GET (CAR  THIS ( PROG  NPR N A M E ) ) ) ) ) •NPR NAME))))))))  1  SPEAKER)))  START-LIST U ! LI ROUTINE RETURNS THE F I R S T SUB-LIST ((MULL L) NIL) I (EO (CAR L 1 Z Z ) L) 1 ( ATOM L ) N IL ) ((START-LIST ZZ ( C A R L))) (T ( S T A R T - L 1ST Z Z ( C D R L ) ) ) ) )  (DEFUN  L0OP2)))  A P A R T OF L • (COND ((NULL L) NIL) ZZ) ((AND (EO (CAR L) ( (ATOM L ) MIL) ( (SUPER-START-LIST ZZ ((SUPER-START-LIST ZZ  (EVAL (CAR (CDR  TEST  TEST)) L) L)  MUST  L)  TEST ) ) T E S T ) I) )  BE  TRUE  FOR  IT  TO  SUCCEEO  ON  FIRST.  IO0FUN T A I L - C M S I ) TAIL-ENDS IS THE R O U T I N E W H I C H I S FOUND THE CORP. E C I C A S E F R A M E FOR PARSE FOR E L f M E N I S W H I C H H A V E MOT FUR  I N V O K E D WHEN IF THINKS IT DUW.T THE V E R M . II LOOKS CASES? B E E N H A N D L E D YET.  HAS THE PARTIAL IS IMVOKEO  T H E M .  <S';R NN ) S L T Q NR K E LOOP (COND ( ( N U L L  (PROG  1  E P - S E N T  N N  1)  SNRll (C AD AR S M R )  (EO  'VP  (CAAR  ( SC TO N N . t A D O l  MN)  SMR  (CCR  ((OR (CO KEO ( T  (CASES?  SMKI)  SMR)  NN))  LOUP)) 0  REL-LEVEL)  (ALL-HIST-OFF  SCNT-HIST )  MIL)  T ) ) ) )  (OEFUN T E N S E - F I X (TNS) (PROG I TEMP) LOOP LIST 'TNS ( C U J O I (MULL I S E T O TEMP ( S U P E R - S T A R T L C C P ) ) ) )) IT I R P L A C A (CDR TEMP) TNS) (GO  (DEFUN (AND  (CAR  SMI'.))  TEST-OFF? IK) T E S I - U F F (NOT  (GETR  THAT-COMP))  (MEMBER  (DEFUN T H E R E - I S () ! T H I S I S A C A S E O F " T O B E " : " T H E R E I S A MAN ICONO (I A N 0 (EQ ' " < - A O V - " (CAAR K E E P - S E N T ) ) (FLAG-ON  (CAR  KEEP-SENT)  KEEP-SENT  K  KEEP-SENT  •I NULL  (CADR  L)))))  (RETURN  NIL))  FAIL-TEST-LIST)))  IH T H E H O U S E . " IEQ • T H E R E ( C A O O A R  KEEP-SENT)))  T)  T) ) )  ( O E F U N T H I R D - C H A N C E ( K A S E PRN H I S T ) ; IF A L O C A T I V E R E F E R E N C E CANNOT B E  ;  3ACK  OV£R ( LCCK-CO*,'!  (OEFUN  TIME  THIS (COND  IS  RESOLVED,  HIST, THE P R E V I O U S PARSES. HIST PRN (COMD I ( M E M B E R K A S E  (NP THE  ((AND  THIRD  • (SOURCE  CHANCE  LOCKS  DESTINATION  LOCATION))  MMUST-BE  LOCATION)))))  PREP) TIME  (EQ  ((MEMBER  CASE.  PREP PREP  W-W-TIME  •IN)  IS  (DURATION?  •(BEFORE  AFTER  CALLED NP)I  FGR  WHEN W H I L E ) )  I ( I S - I T - NP 'TIME) (SETO FN ' ( R P L A C O ( E N D - L I S T (Fl.NO-LIST ( S t TO P R E P C C A S E ( L I S T PREP 'TIME)) ( S E T Q MUD ( P l i R A S E - N U M ' V P K E E P - S E N T ) ) I T I M E - B U I L D NP PREP)))) ( D E F U N T I M E - B U I L D (NP PREP) ( B U I L O Q ( " < - T I M E - " * «l P R E P  (CAOR  ThE  POSSIBLY  MIL)  (START-LIST  (W-W-TIME STRUCT  •N  MP  COMPLEX  CONSTRUCTS.  PREP1)  " ' < = = >•'))  (LIST  STRCT)))  NP))))  I DEFUN TO-COV.P (SUBJ) ; T H I S R O U T I N E T A X E S A T O - C O M P L E M E N T , A D D S S U B J B E F O R E I T , AND A N Y ; P O S S I B L E P H R A S E S O N T H E E N D OF I T , THUS B U I L D I N G UP A S E N T E N C E P A R S E , ; AND I N V O K E S S ON IT. (PROG ( K - S T E M P MN) (CCMD ( ( N U L L S U B J ) (RETURN N I L ) ) ) ( S E T Q K - S K E E P - S E N T NN I) LOOP ' ICOND ( ( N U L L K - S ) (RETURN NIL)) ((AND (EO • T O - C O M P (CAAR K-S)) ( S E T Q TEMP ( E V A L ( A P P E N D (LIST 'S) (LIST (APPEND ( L I S T SUBJ) (REL-MODS-JOIN  IT  ( F L A G - O N (CAR K - S ) K E E P - S E N T T) TEMP ) ) IS ET Q N I ( A U D I NN T K - S (CI)R K - S ) ) I GC  (DEFUN TOPIC I T E S T E E ; THIS IS THE T O P I C (PROG  IPRN) I R LI URN  (COM)  •  (CDDAR  K-S)  NN))))))  LOOP)))))  PREP) CASE.  t SE  THERE  IS  MO  TEST  ON  THIS  CASE.  TO P R N ( P R C ? T E S T E E ) ) , , , , . „ „,--.,r, T D I M J T C C T F F ) ) (PRU-AiiAPHUR? ' ( P A T I E N T AGENT TOPIC B E N E F I C I A R Y C C - A G c N T T PR ICS T C E ) ) (T ( S E T - U P - F N ' T O P I C P R E P ) (LIST " • < - T O P I C - ' ' ( N O U N - L I S T-Gfc T ( N P - B U I L D TESTEE)))))))) (  r  u  (DEFUN ;  TOPIC-LOOK  THIS  ROUTIME  (PROC  NLXPR  LOOKS  ITEHP  TESTEE  (SETU  CLSS  I TEST)  FOR  THE  CLSS  IF  IT  I S A  (CASE-PREPS  VI  C  TOPIC  CASi  NOUN-PHRASE.  PRN)  (PREP-CLAUSE  •TOPIC)  KECP-SENTI1  LOOP ((NULL  (CONO  CLSS)  I (NULL (COND  PRN  ((OR IT  (T  (RETURN  (SETO  (CUND  NILI)  (START-LIST  1 T F S T - O F F ? (SETU  ((NUT  CLSS  (UELQ  ( O E F U N ;  T O P - L E V E L - S T A R T - L I S T  T H I S  I S T H E S A M E  T O P - L E V E L  C F  A S  CLSS  TESTEE  TEST) )  CLSS)  )  LOOP))))  TEMP  (ANAPHORIC  TESTES  (RETURN  (SETO  (SETO  ( EVAL  (SETQ  IFLAG-ON (T  (CDR  (NULL  PRO  1  •TOPIC)  (CO  KEEP-SENT  (CAR  CLSS)))))  (RETURN  (DBLC  , _ „ . „ , , , .  (MI'-0U(LO  TESTEE)))) „ „ „ „  '(TOPIC  PATICHTI  TEST  AMAPHOR-OEPTH  „ „ . , . . , , PRN))))  TEMP)  TEMP)))  (CDR  CLSS))  (GO  LOOP)))))))  ( A TL ) BUT  S T A R T - L I S T ,  IT  L O O K S  O N L Y  F O R AT  ( G O  L O O P ) )  I N  THE  L .  I P R O G N I L L O O P ( C O N D  ( ( N U L L  L )  ( ( A T O M  ( C A R  ( ( E Q U A L I T  N I L ) L ))  ( C A A R  ( S E T Q  L  ( S E T O  L >  ( C D R  ( G O  ( D E F U N T R Y N E X P R ; T H I S I S P A R T  ( L ) O F T H E M O R P H O L O G Y  ;  A N D C H E C K S  A  R O O T  ( P R O G  V 3 T Y P E ( G E T  N E X P R  L ) )  A D O S A L I S T I T WORD. I S A K N C ! N  R O U T I N E S .  S E E I F I T  ' ( A P P E N D ( C A R L ) ( M Y G E T N E W - W C R D  ( M A P O B  ( D E F U N  L E T T E R S  . . - - c u t L E T S ) ) ) ) ( C A D R L ) )  O N T O  ( E V A L  ( C A D D R  L  D  ) 1 P U T O N  "V)  Z  D  ( )  ' ( L A M B D A  ( X ) ( R E M  V E R B - P R E P 7  ( P R O G  O F  ( Z )  S E W - W O R D  V ERb - C L E A N  ( O E F U N  X  ' C A S E - H I S I ) ) ) )  PREP)  ( V E R B  ( T E M P ) ( S E T Q  T E M P  LOOP  ( C O V U  ( O E F U N  (GET  ( ( N U L L  I(EQ I T  :  T O  ( C D RL )) L C O P ) ) ) ) )  ( N E W - W O R O ) ( S E T Q MPW-WCRD ( ( M P L O O E IR E V E R S E ( C O N D ( ( A N D ( G E T N E W - W O R D ' O I C T )  ( D E F U N ( E U  W O R D .  L  A T ) ( C A R L ) )  R O U T I N E  U S E D  T E M P )  P R E P  ( V E R B A  P R E V I O U S L Y  W I T H  T H E D E S C  C A S E .  T O U C H I P R O G  ( S E T C  T E M P  I G E T  ( ( N U L L ( ( A N D  ( P R O G  I C D R  P R E P  T E M P ) )  I GO  L O O P ) ) ) ) )  LST)  L I S T  O F  V E R B  A N O F L A G G E D  C A S E S ,  VEkB  ' C A S E - H I S T D  T E M P ) ( R E T U R N ( E Q P R E P ( C A A R  ( R E T U R N  T H I S  TEMP)))  A N D F O R E G R O U N D S BY  P R E P .  IT  T H O S E D O E S  C A S E S NOT  ( T E M P I  L O O P ( C O N O  ( D E F U N  N I L )  T E M P  T A K E S  P R E P - C A S E ) )  1  ( C A A R  ( S E T Q  V - F O R E - G R N D  T H I S  V E R B  W E V A L  ( A P P E N D  ( T ( S E T O T E M P ( S U I N G ! S T A T E  I S P A R T  O F  ( L I S T  ( N O T IE O  ( C A C A R  ' O E S C R I P D V E  T E M P ) )  ( S O F T - D E L E T E  A T N P A R S E R ,  *L E X ) S T A T E ( S T A T E D  :  I  M A D E  S T R I N G  A  S M A L L  *  ( C O N D  ( ( N U L L  S T R I N C 1 1  I (SEIO  MOKPHItMP  I COND  I S T R I N G D )  (CAR  STR(NGl)l)  LEX If'ifii) .tl«  IMCKPH  MHRPHTEMP  T)  t(EO  fURi'lirt'MP  "')  (RPLACA  IEKROR  (CAR  STRINGD)  ( R E I UR N N I L ) I MUKl'M T EMP ) ) ) )  S I R I N G 1  (HICIERK))))  * )  1 ('M)T  (CrT  'GRAMMAR))  S T A T E 1  flODY-S  I GE I  (ClAG  ( ( N U L L  BOOY-SI  (CON!)  I I '.LIU  I  N I L )  ((EQ IT  I)  SIAILl  ( ERROR  IE R R O R S ) > ))  'GRAMMAR))  TAG (I ( T  (SLID A  (SETO  T E M P ) ) ) )  ( C A O A R  C H A N G E  =  (PIRtGS) I S L I Q  ( C A C A R  T E M P )  ( C D RT E M P I ) ( G C L O U P ) ) ) ) ) 1 STACKL" R E G S L H C L D L P A T H 1 )  R A Y R E I I E R ' S  ( A E U D Y - S A R C T Y P E ( P T R A C E E N T E R I N G  .  L S T I ) T E M P ) )  (BLOCKED)  AkCIYPL I EVAL l<00Y-S  (CAAR  I C A R (CUR  (I'CIUKN  M L ) )  B O l i r - S D ! )  I'.UOY-S)))  ( IIF  PMDY-S))  (Co  [URN A ) ) I AC-•)')))  T OI  T  .  T  L S T ) ) ) )  W O R D . O D D  (DEFUN ;  WHERE-IS  (WHO)  ROUTINE  TRIES  THIS (PROG  (HIS I •( S E T Q  LOOP (COMD  TO F I N D  OUT WHERE WHO I S .  TEMP) HIST  HI S T O R Y )  ((NULL HIST) (RETURN S O M E P L A C E 1) AGENT ) ) ((OR ( E Q U A L WHO ( C A S E - F I N D (CAR H I S T ) CO-AGENT I ) BENEFICIARY ) ) ) ( E Q U A L WHO ( C A S E - F I N O (CAR H I S T ) HIST ) ) ) ( E Q U A L WHO ( C A S E - I - I N U (CAR H I S T ) 'QUOTE ( C O N O ( ( S E T O TEMP ( W H E R E - I S - 1 WHO I C A R ( R E T U R N ( C O M D ( ( E O ( L E N G T H T E M P ) 1) (LIST (T ISETO HIST (CUR H I S T ) ) (GO L C O P ) ) ) ) IT ISETQ HIST (CDR H I S T ) ) (GO L O O P ) ) ) ) ) 1  (DEFUN WHERE*IS-1 (WHO S E N T ) (OR ( C A S E - F I M D SENT, -DESTINATION) (CASE-FIND SENT 'LOCATION) (AND 1EO ' I N H A B I T (CADR (START-LIST  SENT)))  (CASE-FINO  SENT  (OEFUN WHICH-MEA.MING ( L SENT N VERB) THIS FUNCTION CONTROLS THE T O P - L E V E L B A C K - U P . THE F I R S T L I N E INVOKES T H E D E F I N I T I O N OF THE V E R B . T H E N E X T P A R T C H A N G E S A N A P H O R — O E P TH TO A L L O W A N A P H O R I C T O L O O K DEEPER I N T O T H E H I S T O R Y O F T H E C C N V E R S T A T I ON TO R E S O L V E REFERENCES. I T C A N N O T G O B A C K F U R T H E R T H A N 2. THE N E X T THING I T T R I E S IS TO SHUT O F F T H E S H O U L D - B E T E S T S . AS A L A S T A T T E M P T I T S H U T S O F F T H E M U S T - B E T E S T S . (COND ( ( E V A L ( G E T VERB 'V-MEAN))) ((EQ 0 REL-LEVEL) (COND ( ( G R E A T E R P ( M I N 2 ( L E N G T H H I S T O R Y ) ) A N A P H O R - D E P T H 0) (SETQ ANAPHOR-DEPTH (AUDI ANAPHUR-OEPTH)) (ALL-FLAG-OFF KEEP-SENT) ( K H I C M - M E A N ING L SENT N V E R B ) ) ((NOT SHOULD-TEST-OFF) (SETO S H U U L O - T E S T - O F F T) (ALL-FLAG-OFF KEEP-SENT) (SETQ ANAPHOR-DEPTH ( C O N D ( ( G R E A T E R P A N A P H O R - D E P T H 0) ( M U C H - M E A N I N G L SENT N V E R B ) ) ((NOT TEST-OFF)  TEMP))  IT  (DBLQ  TEMP)))))  'PATIENT))))  1)))  ( SETQ T E S T - O F F T) (ALL-FLAG-OFF KEEP-SENT) (CONO  ((GREATERP  ( W H I C H - M E A N ING (T  '"I  ANAPHOR-DEPTH 0)  L SENT  N  (SETQ  ANAPHOR-DEPTH  1)))  VERB))  DON T G E T I T " ) ) 1 I I  (DEFUN WITH ( T E S T E E PREP) ; THIS IS T H E WITH C A S E . (PROG (PRN) PRN ( P R O ? TESTEE)) (RETURN (COND ( ( S E T Q (PROG (TEMP) (COMD ( ( S E T Q TEMP  (PRO-ANAPHOR?  '(WITH '(NOT  PATIENT (MUST-BE  TOPIC  AGENT)  ABSTRACT  PRN TESTEE) ) (SFT-UP-FN (RETURN ((NOT  (MUST-CE  (DEFUN ;  WITII-RESP-TO  THIS  CASE  IS  (A  (LIST  ABSTRACT  (SET-UP-FM 'WITH (LIST '"<-WITH-"  'WITH  PREP)  "<-WITH-"  TEMP))))))  HUMAN))  PREPI (NOUN-LIST-GET  (NP-BUILD  TESTEE))))))))  S)  NUT I M P L E M E N T E D Y E T .  NIL)  ( DEFUN WRITE? (A ) (COND MISFIT A 'MUSIC) ( T 'WRITE.)))  (OFFUN  WRI T E - I M O - O B J  "THIS IF  FINDS  MUSIC  IS  -COMPOSE)  (IND PA)  THE CASE WRITTEN,  OF A N I N D I R E C T THE INDIRECT  OBJECT OBJECT  FOR T H E V E R B IS  "TO WRITE".  THE B E N E F I C I A R Y  CASE,  ELSE  IT  IS T H E  RECIPIENT. (COMD  ((NULL IND) N I L ) ( U S - I T PA - M U S I C ) (LIST IT ( L I S T '"<-RECIP(EMT-"  „ minn "<-l'ENEFIC!ARY-" (NOUN-LIST-GET (NP-BUILD INOUN-LIST-GEI (MP-UUILD PA)))))) r  T  PA I I 1 I PA))))  .  HUMAN))  I 2 (OEFUN THIS  W-W-TIME HANDLES  "BEFORE "WHILE (PROG  JOHN I  ( NP  COMPLEX  TIME  CAME.  . "  WALKED  (PAXr ( SL T0 ICONO  PREP) .  HOME.  .  CASES.  "  RET I P A R T ( R E L - M O U S - J O I M MP ( P H R A S E - N U M 2 (COMS PREP (CONS M I L N P I ) I(PROCN ISETg AG-AMAPHOR (GETR AG) PA-ANAPHOR (GETR P A ) ) (SETO RET ( E V A L (CONS 'S (LIST PART)))) ( S E T O AG-ANAPIIIIR N I L P.'.-ANAPHOR N I L ) (NOT  (ATOM  RET)))  (SET-UP-FN ' T I ME P R E P ) (RETURN (COMS • • • < r i M E "  ICUNS  PREP  (LIST  RET))))))))  KEEP-SENT)))  THIS  IS  I HE  AIM  . F U N G R A M M A R - IN MARC ' M Y P U T MIS (CAT  \1A ( ) P A R T I CL G ' (AND (NUT ( G E T R P A R T I C L E ) I (GET R VP I ( S E T Q VV (CUR (MEMBER * (GUI (CAR 1ADDR S E N T ( B U I L D O I CAR I I C L E T * ) ) ) " * ) ) •" ( R P I . A C A VV ( MKATUM ( C A R VV> ( S E T R P A R T I C L E T) (TO S ) )  (START-LIST  'V  (GETR  VIM))))  'PARTICLES)))  THAN-PH)) I WRO T H A N T ( T O I WRD SO T 1 TO S U - C O M P ) ) * ) (TO WHEN-WHILE)) ( MEM ( W H E N W H I L E A F T E R B E F O R E ) T I S E T R WH-WH IN-IN)) (WRD IN T ( T O ( WRD i)Y T I T U B Y - C O M P ) ) (TO T H A T - C O M P ) ) (GETR S E N T ) ) (GETR V P ) ) ( WRD THAT ( O R ( N U T (TO T O - C O M P ) ) (GETR VP)) (NOT IGF.Tfi S E N D ) (WRD TO (OR * ) I TO S ) ) (NEXT ' P R E P ) (ADDR S E N T ( P U S H PP I P U S H VP (NOT (GETR VP)) l-SENDR V ( G E T R V ) ) (SENUR TENSE (GETR TENSE)) ( S E T R VP *) (ADDR S E N T *) (TO S) I R E L T ( A OD R S E N T * ) ( T O S) ) ADJP (OR ( N E X T ' A D J ) (NEXT 'AOV) (NEXT 'V)) (PROG (TEMP) ( S E T Q TEMP *) LOOP (COND ( ( N U L L TEHP)) (CAR T E M P ) ) ( S E T Q TEMP (CDR T E M P ) ) (GO L O O P ) ) ) ) ( T (ADDR SENT (TO S)) (ADDR SENT *) I TO SI) ( P U S H ADV ( N E X T ' A D V ) (TO S)) ( P U S H NP T ( S E N D R NP T ) I A D D R S E N T *) 'V)) ( JUMP S - Y E S N O ( N E X T T ) ) ) ( B U I L D Q (S "+"> S E N T ) I P R O G N I S E T Q H A B I T U A L (GETR H A B I T U A L ) ) (POP ( T O W-W- •NP ) ) ) ( W H E N - W H I L E ( P U S H NP T ( S E T R W-W ( L I S T ( G E T R WH-WH) N I"L * ) \' ( W - W - N P ( P U S H PP ( N E X T ' P R E P ) ( A D D R W-W *) (TO W-W-NP)) ( PUSH (PUSH  (PUSH  VP  (PUSH  REL  (THAN-PH  (PUSH  ( SO-COMP  (WRD  (NEXT  NP THAT  (PUSH  'V)  (AODR  T (ADDR  W-W  T  SENT  (ADDR T  (SETR  *)  W-W  *)  (TO  W-W-NP) ) )  (BUILDQ  MODAL-FIND  (ADDR  SENT  (THAN-PH T)  I TO  (GETR  NIL  W-W)) (TO  *)))  (TO  S))  S)))  SO-COMP)I  S T ISENDR SO-COMP T) (CUND ( ( A N D (GETR NODAL-FIND) (NOT (GETR V O C A L ) ) ) NIL) ( ( G E T R M O D A L ) IACDR S E N T ( B U I L D Q ISO-COMP NIL " • " ((AND  (NOT  (ADDR  (GETR  SENT  (BUILDQ  (SO-COMP  I TO S ) ) ) (PUSH S T (SENOR T H A T - C G M P T) (SENDR TENSE (GETR TENSE)) ICOND ( ( N O T (NULL *)) (PROG ( T H A T - C O M P ) (SETR THAT-COMP  (THAT-COMP  (AODR (SETQ (TO ( TO-COMP  MODAL-FIND))  SENT  fHAT-CMP  (NOT NIL  (GETR  (THAT-COMP  NIL  I)  IEVAL  T)))  S)))  (PUSH  ITO-COMP-VP  VP (NEXT 'V) (SENDR TENSE (GETR TENSE)) (SENDR T O - C O M P T) ISETR TO-VP *) ( TCI T O - C O M P - V P ) ) ) (PUSH PP (NEXT 'PREP) (SETR.TO-CCMP T) (ADDR SENT (BUILDQ (TO-COMP ( T O S) ) (PUSH NP T (SETR T O - C O M P T) I ADDR (TO  SENT  I BEI 11. DO  NIL  I TO-COMP NIL  "+"  " +"  (SETR (SETR  #)  *)  TO-VP))  TO-VP))  S ) )  I JUMP S T (AODR S E N T ( B U I L D Q I T O - C O M P N I L ( IN-1N (WRD O R D E R I I TO I N - I I M H E R ) ) ) (IN-ORDER (WRD TO T (TO TO-COMP))) (BY-COMP (CAT V PART)) (EQ ' P R E S P A R T ( G E T F (GETR V)) ( SETR S-V ( ( G E T R V I ) (COND (T ( S k l Q T N S - F I X ? T))) ( S E TR T E N S E ( G E I R T E N S E I I ( S E T R V *) BY-V (BUILD-VP)) V (GETR S-V))  MODAL)))  *)))))  T)  IBUILDQ  *)  MODAL)))  " + ")  TC-VPDI)  *))))  (TO a v - c o n i ' - v ) ) I ( P U S H 'NP ' T (CONO ( ( N O T (NULL  ( BY-COMP-V  *>)  ( AODR  SENT  (BUILOO  (BY-COMP  NIL  *)  BY-V))))  IIO S H I (S-PPU-PUP (POP (BUILO-PPU) Tl) (S-PP ( J U M P S - Y f c S N I J ( A N D ( G E IR W H - P H R A S E ) (AUXV L E X ) ) ) (JUMP S T)) (S-OCL ( P U S H NP I I S E T R S U B J * ) (SCIR S-SUIIJ (CEIR HEAONCUNI) (TO S-MP ) ) ) (S-IMP (CAT V (GET E U M T E N S E D ) (SE(k SUUJ MNP ( D E T N I L ) (PRO YOU) (NU SC-PL))) (SETR V * I (SEIR TENSE MUNTENSEO)) (SEIR S-SUBJ M O U M M Y YOU N I L ) ) (SEIR S-VER3 ( B U I L C U (3 (V *) (*)) FEATURES)) (TO V-AUX))) (S-NPU ( P U S H NP T ( S E T R S U B J * ) (TO S-NPU-POP))) (S-YESNO (CAT V 1AUX*) ( S E T R V ( B U I L O O (V * ) ) ) (SETR TYPE 'YES-NO) (SETR TENSE (LIST (CETF T N S ) ) ) ( S E T R YESNO I) (TU S-YE SNO-NEG))1 I S - Y E S N O - N E C . (WRU NOT T ( S E I R N E C ' ( N E G A T I V E ) ) ( T O S)> (JUMP (S-WH ( C A T OAOV ICONU ( ( N U L L (CDR S T R I N G ) > MIL) I(AUXV (CADR STRING)))) (ADOR A D V E R B S ( B U I L D Q (QADV *))) (SETR TYPE '(QADV)) (TO S-YESNO)) ( P U S H QP (AMD ( G E T L E X - Q P R O ) (MOT ( A S S Q 'SUBJ (COND (((NULL S T R I N G ) (ABORT)) ((NOT (AUXV L E X ) ) (ABORT))) (HOLD (APPEND * (GETR PREPPHRASES))) (SETR TYPE '(UPRO)) (SETR QOBJ (GETR HEADQPRO)) (SETR S-DO (GETR QOBJ)) (SETR PREPPHRASES NILI (TO S-YESMO)) OP  (PUSH •  (CDR  (AND ( G E T L E X ' Q P R O ) (NOT ( A S S Q ' O B J (CDR (COND ( ( N U L L S T R I N G ) (ABORT)) ((NOT (GET LEX ' V ) l (ABORT))) (SETR SUBJ (APPEND * (GETR PREPPHRASES))) (SETR S-SUBJ (GETR HEADQPRO)) (SETR TYPE '(QPRO)) (SEIR PREPPHRASES NIL) (TO S-NP))  (GET  (GET  S  LEX  LEX  Tl)  'UPRO)))))  'QPRO)))))  (CAT QDET T ( S E T R UDET *) (TO S-QOET))) (S-QDET (PUSH N P - D E T T ( SENDR DET (GETR. Q D E T ) )  (S-WII-NP  (SENOR SEM-OET (BUILDQ (QDET ( S E T R W H - N P ( A P P E N D * (GETR" ( S E T R TYPE ' (ODE T ) ) ISETR PREPPHRASES NIL) (TO S-WH-NP))) (JUMP S-YESNO  "+") QDET)) PREPPHRASES)))  (AUXV L E X ) ( S E T R S - D O ( G E T R HE A O N O U N ) ) (HOLD (GETR WH-NP)) (SETR QOBJ (GETR HEAONOUN))) (JUMP S-MP (GET LEX -V) (SETR SUBJ (GETR WH-NP)) (SETR S-SUBJ IGETR HEAONOUN)))) (REL ( M E M ( W H I C H WHO WHOM T H A T W H O S E ) T ( S E T R R E L P R O ( B U I L D Q (RELPRO *))) (TO R E L - P R O ) ) (CAT PREP ( S E T R PREP (BUILDQ !PREP * ) ) ) (TO R E L - P R E P I ) (JUMP R E D - R E L ( N E X T M N NPR D E T PRO V)))) (REL-PREP (MEM ( W H I C H WHOM W H O S E ) (SETR RELPRO (BUILDQ (RELPRO *))) (TO REL-PRO))) (RED-REL (CAT V (EQ ' P R E S P A R T ( S E T R V *)  (CAT  1GETF  PARTI)  (SETR TENSE '(PRESENT)) ( S E TR VP ( B O I L O - V P ) ) ( S E T R R E D U C E D T) (TO R E L - V P ) ) V (EU 'PASTPART ( SE TR V *)  IGETF  PART))  (SETR VOICE ' ( V O I C E PASSIVE)) (SETR TENSE ' ( P A S T ) ) ( S E T R VP ( B U I L D - V P ) ) (SETR REDUCED I ) ( IU REL-VP))) (REL-PRO  (PUSH ( PUSH  NP T ( S E T R O B J - R E L Tl VP (AND (NOI (GETR P R E P ) ) I S E T R VP » ) (TO R E L - V P ) ) )  (SETR  '  Nl'l  (MEMBER  «)  (TO  (CADR  REL-NPI))  (CEIR  RELPRO))  '(WHICH  WHO  THAT)))  (REL-NP1  (PUSH  I'I'  (NEXT  (I'USH  VP  1  I PUSH  P.EL  (RFL-NPl-VP  (POP  'I'HEPI  (SETU I  VP  (SEIR  OiUILDU  «)  ( .Tl U  .  MUU-NPI  (HI  V  (C.UNL)  T  •.  (TO  !) ("'") ((AND  ( T (GETR (GETR  (LIST  I HI  REL-NP11)  KEL-NPl))) V  ("+"))  (GETR  ((GETR I(GETR (LIST  * >  KLL-NPl-VP)) *)  :l ( N I L )  < .-  V  (AI)DR  MUD-NIM  REDUCED)  REDUCED) OBJ-REL)  (GEIK  OBJ-RELM  -OB J - P . h D - R E L )  ' R E D - R E I-) 'DBJ-REL)  •REL ) ) ) RELPRO)) PREP))  IIP 1 ( L I S r - I T  ICETR  MOD-NPl))  VP ) T) I (REL-VP  (PUSH  AOJP (AND (OR (NEXT (MAPC '(LAMBDA  "AOJ) (NEXT 'ADV)) (EO (X) (ADOR AOJ X)) *) .  ( I0 REL-VP-NP2)I ( JUMP REL-VP-NP2 T)) IREL-VP-NP2  (PUP  (BUILDQ  (0  !l  (LIST  (MIL) (CONO  1) U ((AND ((GETR  (GETR  •BE  REDUCED)  REDUCED)  ( IGETR O B J - R E L ) (T ' R E D ) ) (LI  ST-IT  (LI  ST-IT  ILIST-IT VP AOJ ILIST-IT  (CADR  (GETR (GETR  RELPRO)) PREP))  (GETR  MP1) )  (GETR  NP2)))  (START-LIST  (GETR  OBJ-REL))  'V  IGETR  V P ) ) ) ) )  •OBJ-RED-REL)  'RED- R E D " OBJ-REL)  T) ) (VP  (JUMP  V-AUX  ( G E T R V) )  V (GETF TNS) (AND (GETR TDFLAG) ( G E TE UN T E N S E D ) ) ) (OR (GETR TENSE)) (SETR TENSE (LIST (GETF TNS))))) ( CON 0 ( ( N O T ((AND (NOT (GETR TO-C.CMP ) ) (COND (NOT (GETR THAT-COMP)) INOT (GETR B Y - C O M P ) ). (NOT (GETR SO-COMP))) (LIFTR TENSE (GETR TENSE) S ) ) ) ( B U I L D I ) 13 ( V *) ( S I ) FEATURES)) ( SETR s VERB  (CAT  (SETR  (CAT  *)  V (TO V - A U X ) ) MODAL T (SETR  MODAL  *)  (LIFTR MODAL * SO- C U M P ) (CUND ((MEMBER * ' (WOULD W ( L L S H A L L ) ) I TO V P ) I •(JUMP VP-VP (GETR V I I ) (S-NPU-POP (POP I B U I L D - M P U ) T) ) (VFEATURE ( G E T R V) 'AUX) (SETR (V-AUX ( WRD N O T  (SETR  NEG  TENSE  '(FUTURE))))  '(NEGATIVE))  (TO  V-AUX))  ( CAT V (PERFECT) ( SETR V *) (SETR ASPECT (SETR S-VERB (TO V-AUX)) ( CA T V  •(PERFECT)) (BUILDQ  (3  (V  (3  (V  (CAT  (PROGRESSIVE) (SETR V *) (SETR ASPECT (APPEND (SETR S-VERB (BUILOQ (TO V-AUX)I V  ( V  (CAT  (FUTURE) (SETR V *) (SETR TENSE ' (FIJ TURE ) ) (; (SETR S-VERB I BUILDQ I TO V - A U X ) ) V  *)  ( GETR A S P E C T ) *  )  * )  (PASSIVE) (SEIR V *) (SETR S-VERB (BUILDQ ( 3 ( V *) (SETR VOICE '(VOICE PASSIVE)) (TO V P - V P ) I V (DO-AUX) (SETR V *) (SETR S - V C R U ( B U I L D Q 13 (CUND ( ( A N D (NUT (GETR (TO V P - V P ) I V  •(PROGRESSIVE)))  )  FEATURES) )  (.11)  FEATURES ) )  (,'/))  FEATURES))  (it)  I V * ) ( S ) )F E A T U R E S I ) Y E S N O ) ) ( NOT ( G E I R N E G ) ) )  (MODAL) (SEIR MODAL (BUILDQ (MODAL (SETR V *) (SETR S-VERB (BUILDQ ( a (V (TO V-AUX)) PREP (MEMBER (SETR V  I/))) F E A T U R E S ) )  •IV)) «)  IK))  FEATURES))  * (GET ( G E T R V). ' P A R T I C L E S ) ) (MKATUM ( G E T R .V) ' " - " * ) )  (SETR  MODAL  '(MODAL  DO))))  ( TO VP"-VP ) ) (JUMP V P - V P T)) (VP-VP (POP (CIUILO-VP) I) ) (S-V (V!R NP T ( C O N O ((NOT ( P U S H NP ,  (V-OO-AGREEMENT))  (ABORT)))  (SETR  OR J  *)  (TO  S-V-TOCOMP) )  TRAMS) (VFEATURE (GEIR V) •COPULA)) (OR ( V F E A T U R E ( G E TR V ) (SENOR MOT I U N E L A G T) (SETR S-DO (GEIR HEAONOUN)) (CDNU ((NUT ( V - O O - A G K E E ME N T) ) (ABORT))) (SETR OBJ *) (TO S-V-TOCOMP)I ADJP (GET LEX "ADV) (GET LEX (AND (VFEATURE (GETR V) ' C U P U L A ) (OR 1  (PUSH  (SEEK (COND  V *) ((NOT  (SETR  S-VERB  ( P P . E O A D J - S E M A N T ICS  (GETR  (LIST  UEAUAOJ))  (GETR  'AOJ)))  S-SUBJ)))  IABORT)))  *)  (TL) S - P R E D A D J ) ) PREP (GET (GETR V) (MEMBER * (AND I NOT 1 G E T R PARTICLE)) ( S E T R V (MKATOM (GETP. V) • • - " *) ) ) V ! ) (SETR 5 - V E R B (BUILOO IV "* (SETR PARTICLE I) (TO S-V)) ( WRD T H A T ( V F E A T U R E ( G E T R V ) ' ' T H A T ) ( T O S - V - W R O = T H A T I I S-V-WRO=rO)) ( WRD TO T ( T O ( A D D R A D V E R B S *) (TO S-V)) ( P U S H ADV ( G E T L E X ' A D V ) S V W R D = THAT ( JUMP  (CAI  'PARTICLES)))  1  (AND  ( V F E A T U R E ( G E T R V) THAT) (NOT (MEMO L E X • I TO THAT))) (NOT (GETR PASSIVEFLAG)I)I T)) ( JUMP S - V - P P (WRU T H A N ( C O M P V E R B ( G E T R V I ) (TO (S-PREOADJ I P U S H NP I ( S E T R O B J *) (TC (S-PREDADJ-COMP (S-V-NP  (VIR  1  NP (AND ( ADDR ( SETR (SETR (COND  S-PREOAOJ COMP)) S-MAINCLAUSE)))  (JUMP  S-MAINCLAUSE  •INODBJ) (MEMO ( C A R (GETR T Y P E ) ) ( V F E A T U R E ( G E T R V) PREPPHRASES ( B U I L C G (PP (PREP TO) " + ") OBJ)) S-INDO (GETR S-UO)) S-DO (GETR QOBJ))  1  (QPRO  T)).  QDET)))  ((OR  (NOT ( V - O O - S E K A N T I C S (GETR S-VERB) (GETR S-OO))) (MOT ( V — I N D O - S E MAN T I C S (GETR S-VERB) (GETR S-INDO)))) IABORT))) (SETR OBJ *) (TO S-V-PP)) ( P U S H NP (VFEATURE (GETR V) ' INDOBJ) (SENUR AGFLAG (GETR A G F L A G ) ) (COND ((OR (AND ( G E T R WHUKJ) (NOT (GETR PASSIVEFLAG))) (SETR S-INDO (GETR HEAONOUN)) (ADDR PREPPHRASES (BUILDQ (PP (PREP TO I *)))) (BUILDQ (PP (PREP T C ) "+") ( T (ADDR P R E P P H R A S E S S-INDO  I SETR ( SFTR (COND  (GETR  (GETR  ((OR  (NOT  (V-DO-SEMANTICS  (NUT  (V-INDO-SEMANTICS  (TO  S-V-PP) )  (PUSH  ADV  (GET  I JUMP  S-V-PP  (S-V-PREP=BY  (PUSH  OBJ  OBJ))  HEADNOUN)) S-00))I S - V E R B ) (GETR (GETR S-INOO)))) S VERB)  (GETR  (GETR  •  *)))  'ADV)  LEX  QOBJ))  S-DO))  S-DO  (ABORT))) (SETR  (GETR  (ADDR  ADVERBS  *)  (GETR  AGFLAG))  (TO  S-V-NP))  T))  NP T (SENOR  AGFLAG  ISENDR  MOTIONFLAG  (COND  ((NOT  (S-V-SEMANTICS  (ADDR ,'T (TO (S-V-PP  (WRD  BY  (PUSH  T) (GETR  PREPPHRASES  (SETR  SUBJ  *)  HEADNOUN)  (BUILDQ  (SETR  IPP  S-SUBJ  (GETR  (PREP  (GETR  BY)  S-VERB))) *))))  HEADNOUN))  (SETR  AGFLAG  S-V-PP)))  IGETR  AGFLAG)  (TO  S-V-PKEP=BY))  PP (GET  LEX  'PREP)  (SENUR  MOT I U N F L A G  (SENOR  AGFLAG  (ADDR  PREPPHRASES  ( PUSH  (TO ADV  (JUMP  S-MAINCLAUSE  ( S - V - W K D - T HAT  S-V-PP ) ) (GET LEX  (PUSH  S-DCL  (COND  (GETR  ((NOT  (ASSQ  'MOTION  (CDR  (GET  LEX  'PREP)))))))  AGFLAG))  *)  •ADV)  (ADDR  ADVERBS  *)  (TO  S-V-PP))  T) )  T TYPE ' ( O C L ) ) (COMPL ( C T Y P E THAT) ( ADDR C O M P L ( B U I L D Q -DO (AND ( V F E A T U R E (GETR. V) 'TRANS). (SETR  (SENDR  (TO (S-V-TUCUMP  (CAT  (NUT  (GETR  ( SEIR  V  (SETR  S-VERB  ( SETR  PARTICLE  ( TO (WHO  TO  PARTICLE))  IMK ATOM  (GEIR  (BUI.LDQ T)  S - V - TUI'.OMP) ) T  (CAR  (GETR  COMPL))))  S-MA[NCLAUSEI)I  PREP (AND  (JUMP  *) ) )  (10  S-V-NP  S-V-WRD=TO)) I))  V) (V  (MEMBER '"-"  " + ")  *)) V))  *  (GET  I GETR  V)  'PARTICLES)))  NIL)))  (S-V-WRU=TO  (PUSH  S-NP I D (SENDR TOFL G ( SENDR T Y P E • ( UCI.).) ((GETR O B J ) ) ( [GETR SUBJ ) ) ) ) (SENDR S U B J (CONO TENSE.)) I S E N D R T E N S E (. G E. T R ((GETR SUIU) (GETR • I SENOK S - S U B J ( C O N O ( ( G E T R P ( U ) 1 GE Tl< S-DO)) ( A O D R C O H P L (IIIJILIJC- ( C O M P ( C T Y P E . 101 * ) ) I ( G E fR C O M P L ) ) ) ) (AND (VEEAJUHE (GEIR V) CHANS, (SEIR S-UO (CAR (10 S-MAIMCLAUSE),, (JUMP S-S T)) ( C A T CUNJ T (SEI'K CONJ * , (TO S-CONJ),  S-SUBJIM)  1  ( S-MAI NCLAUSE (S-COMJ  (CAT  V I AND  (NOT I NE XT V)) (MOT ( G E T R P AS S I V E E L A G ) ) (NOT (EUUAL (GETR TYPE ) '(IMP,,, (NOT (GETR. YESNO) ) ) *) ( SETR COMJ-V (TO S- C O N J - V - A C T I V E ) )  (CAT  V  (NOT (NEXT V)) (OR (GETR P A S 5 I V E F L A G ) (GETR YESNO), (NOT (EQUAL IGETR T Y P E ) '(IMP)))) (AMU (COR S T R I N G ) ( GE TH O B J ) ( H O L D IGETR OBJ))) (SETR CONJ-V *) (TO S - C O N J - V - P A S S I V E ) ) ( P U S H S I ( S E T R S - C O N J *) (TO S-S))) I S - C O N J - V - A C T I V E ( P U S H S - V - S EM ANT I C S (NUT (NULL STRING) ) ( S E N D R SUE J ( G E T R SUBJ)) (GETR S-SUBJ)) (SENDR S - S U B J T Y P E ( G E T R TYPE)) (SENDR NEG)) ( S E N D R MEG ( G E T R TENSE)) (SENDR T E N S E (GETR ASPECT)) (SENDR ASPECT (GETR V ( G E T R C O N J -V)) (SENDR S-VERB (BUILDQ (V (SENDR S - V E R B ( B U I L D Q ( V "+") CONJ-V)) S-COMJ *) (SETR (TO S-S)) ( JUMP 5 - C O N J - B U I L D (NULL- STRING)) ) ( S-CONJ-V-PASSIVE (PUSH S-V-SEMAN TICS (NOT ( N U L L STRING)) (SENDR SUUJ (GETR SUBJ)) (SENDR S - S U B J (GETR S-SUBJ)) (SENDR T Y P E (GETR TYPE)) (SENDR NEG ( G E T R M E G ) I (SENDR V O I C E (GETR VOICE)) (SEMCR T E N S E (GETR TENSE)) (SENDR A S P E C T (GETR ASPECT)) (SENOP. V ( G E T R C O N J - V ) ) (SENDR S - V E R H ( B U I L D O (V "+'•) CONJ-V)) (SENDR P A S S I V E F L A G ( G E T R P A S S I V E F L A G ) ) (SENDR A C F L A G (GETR PASSIVEFLAG)) (SENDR S-DO (GETR S-DO)) (SENDR YESNO (GETR YESNO)) (SENDR ADVERBS (COND ( ( E Q U A L (GETR T Y P E ) (SETR S-CONJ *) (TO S-S)) ( AND  ( JUMP (S-CONJ-EUILD  (S-S 1NP  (JUMP  S-CONJ-BUILD  S-S (S-SEMANTICS (SETR S-CONJ (S-SEMANTICS  (NULL  STRING)  ICAT  (CAT  CONJ-PASSIVE " + ')  (GETR S - S U B J ) (BUILDO (V (BUILD-S-COMJ)))) (GETR S - S U B J ) (GETR S-VERB)  (POP ( B U I I U - S) (CAT GEMPRO T ( S E T R PROPER (BUILOQ (GEMPRO *))) ( S E T R NU 'SG) (SETR S E M - . N D U N I BU I L DO l O E N P P . O * ( ( NUMBER ( L I F T R HEADNOUN (GETR SEM-NGUN)) I TO N P - G E N P R U ) ) ( C A T DET  ICAT  (SETR  SG)))))  (MOT ( G E T F POSSPRO)) ( SE TR D E T *) (SETR SEM-DET (LIST 'DET w FEATURES)) ( S E T R O F I . A C ( G E T F GUAMT ) ) (TO MP-UET)) DET ( GETF POSSPRO) (SETR SEM-DET (BUILDQ IPOSS *))) ( S E T R DET (BUILOQ (POSSPRO *))) (TO N P - O E I ) ) NPR (GETF POSSESSIVE) ( SE TR P I I S S F L A G T) (SETR SEM-DET (BUILDQ (PflSS *))) ( ADDR MUDS ( B U I L D O ( P O S S (NPR *)))) ( T O M P -- D E T ) ) PRO (NOT (GETF POSSPRO)) (SETR PROPER (BUILDO (3 I PRO * ) H) FEATURES)) (SETQ ANAPHOR-DEPTH I)  ' (QADV) )  ADVERBS))))  TI))  CONJ-V) (GETR  (GETR  S-DO)  (GETR  S-DO)  (GETR  NIL)  S-INDO))))  (CAT  ( S E T R S E M - N O U N ( B U I L D Q (3 ( P R O *) I L 1 F T R H E A D N O U N ( G E T R SEM-i-IUUfl) ) ( S E T R NU ( G E T F N U M B E R ) ) ( S E T R PRO T ) ( TO N P - N ) I NPR  ( » ) )  FEATURES ) )  (CAT  INOT ( C E T F P O S S E S S I V E I I (SETR PROPER (BUILDO ( ii ( N P R *) » ) FEATURES I I (SETR SEM-NOUN (BUILDO (SI (NPR *) (HI) FEATURES ) ) ( L I F T R HEADNOUN (GETR SEM-NUUMI I ( S E T R NU 'SGI I TO N P - N ) ) QDET.  (CAT  (NOT (EO * 'WHO)) (SETR DET *) ( S E T R S E M - D E T (BUILDO (QDET *))) ( L I F T R W T t - P H R A S E T S) (MAPC ' ( L A M B D A (XI (APPLY • L I F T R ( L I S T 'TYPE "(QDET) MS S-DCL S-V S - V - N P S-PREUAOJ-CDMP S-V-PREP=BY (SETR QFLAG (GETF QUANT)) (TO N P - U R O ) ) PRO  X) ) ) S-V-PP) )  ( GETF POSSPRO) (PUSS *)>> ( SETR S E M - D E T (BUILDQ *))) ( SETR DET (BUILDQ IPOSSPRO 'ONES) ( SETR N -SG-PL) I S E T R NU N I D I ( SETR SEM-NOUN MOUMMY ONES H E A DNOUN (GETR SEM-NCUN)) ILIFTR I TO N P - M A 1 N P H R A S E ) ) (JUMP N P - D E T T)) (NP-GENPRO (PUSH AOJP (GET LEX ' V D (OR ( G E T L E X ' A D J ) ( G E T L E X - A D V ) I A D D R MODS *) (TO N P - N ) ) T)) ( JUMP N P - N (SETR (BUILDQ ( ( " < - O R D - " NIL * ) ) ) ) ( C A T O R D I N A L T ( A D D R MODS INP-DET ADJ (GETF SUPERLATIVE) *) ( A D O R MOOS I B U I L D Q IORD ( 3 ( " < - A D J ( S E T R ORD T ) (TO NP-ORD)) (JUMP NP-ORD T)) (PUSH QUAN1P T ( S E T R QUANT T) ( A D D R MODS * ) (JUMP N H - Q U A N T T ) (JUMP N P - M A I N P H R A S E IGETR (OR (AND ( G E T R O R D ! ( G E T R D E T ) )  ORD  T)  (TO  NP-ORD))  (CAT  (NP-ORD  (NP-QUANT  FEATURES))  (SETR  SEM-DET  OF L A G )  (GETR  NIL)  (TO  NP-QUANT))  POSSFLAG))  (SETR N 'ONES) ( S E T R NU 'SG-PL) (SETR SEM-NOUN '(DUMMY ONES NIL)) ( L I F T R HEADNOUN (GETR SEM-NOUN)) ( S E T R NU - S G - P L ) ) ) (WRD O F (UR (AND ( G E T R URD) (GETR D E T ) ) ( G E T R Q F L A G ) IGETR Q U A N T ) ) ( TU N P - O U A ' J T - P R E P = O F ) ) (JUMP NP-CUANT-PREP=OF (AND (NOT ( G E T R ORD)) (NOT ( G E T R Q U A N T ) ) (GETR QFLAG) (ME MO ( G E T R D E T ) - ( A L L B O T H ) ) ) ) ( J U M P N P - P A R T (NOT ( E Q * 'OF))) (JUMP N P - M A I N P H R A S E ( G E T R Q F L A G ) ( G E T R P O S S F L A G ) (AND (GETR ORD) (OR (GETR QUANT) (SETR N 'ONES) ( S E T R NU -SG-PL) (SETR  SEM-NOUN  (LIFTR (SETR (NP-QUANT-PREP=UF  (CAT  NU  (PUSH  N (GETF ( ADDR  '(DUMMY  HEADNOUN  (GETR  ONES  NIL))  SEM-NOUN))  'SG-PL))) NP  r  I AODR (SETR (SETR (SETR (LIFTR  PP ( B U I L D Q N 'ONES) NU 'SG-PL)  (SETR  NU  ITU (NP-PART  #))  SEM-NOUN  (PP  (PREP  ' (DUMMY  HEADNOUN  (GETR  ONES  OF)  *)))  NIL) )  SEM-NOUN))  'SG-PL)  NP-MA INPHRASE)  ))  POSSESS IVE) SMUOS  ( " < - P O S S - H Y - " ( 3 <*l (») »)) FEATURES ICUNU ( I G E T R C L A S S ) . 1 L I S T - 1 T - 1 (GETR M O O S ) ) ) ) ) (CUND (IGETR CLASS) ( S E T R MODS N I L ) (SETR CLASS N I L ) ) ) I S E T R MODS ( G E T R S M O D S ) ) ( ADDR MOOS ( B U I L D O la ( P O S S ( N *) «)) FEATURES ) ) ( S E T R OF L A G NIL) ( S E T R ORD N I L ) ( SETR POSSFLAG T1  (GETR  DET)))  OUAfll NIL) SEM-UET NIL) SEM-ADJS N I L I  (SETR (SETR (SfclU  i r u NP-DEr i ) (CAT N ' "'(AMD (NOr (GETF POSSESSIVE)) (SETR N *) (SETK NFEAT EEAIUKES) I S E T K NU ( G E I F NUMBER)) ( S E T K SEM-NOUN i n U I L D O (3 (N  (fO N  (CAT  (NUMAGREE  )  NP-M))  CLASS  (SETR (ADDR  MODS MODS  (SETR  M  (AAAA )  (AAAA)  (BUILDQ (GETR (GETR  ("<-CLASS-"  'N  (GETF  NUMOERI))  CLASS)  (NP-BUILD  ))  (NOUN-LIST-GET  (BU I L D - N P ) ) ) ) I  SMODS)) CLASS))  NIL)  ( NOT ( GE I F P O S S E S S I V E ) ). ( A D D R MODS ( B U I L D Q ( A D J I at (SETR NFEA T F E A T U R E S ) ( S E T R NPR *) ( S E T R NU •SG) (SETR  SEM-NOUN  ( T O NP-M)) (PUSH  (BUILDQ  ADJP (OR ( C E T L E X - A D J ) ( S E N O R NP T ) • ( A D D R MODS *) (ADDR S E M - A D J S (TO N P - P A R T ) ) )  (CAT  *  (I 0 NP-PART)I NPR  (CAT  (NP-AOJ  0)  DET)  FEATURES))  ( NOT (GETR  (AND (NOT ( G E T F P O S S E S S I V E ) ) (SETR N *) ( S E T R N E E AT F E A T U R E S ) ( S E T R NU (GETI-' N U M B E R ) ) ( S E T R SMODS ( G E T R M O D S ) ) ( S E T R MOOS M I L ) (SETR  (»))  (GETR  "+")  ( 3 (NPR  (GET  [GETR  (N  LEX  " + "))  *)  (*))  'ADV)  N  N E E AT)  )  FEATURES))  (GET  LEX  '  V) )  HEADADJ))  N  (GETF ( ADDR ( ADDR  POSSESS IVEl MODS ( B U I L D Q ( A D J (a (N "+") "+")> N NFEAT)) SMODS ( <-POSS-3Y(a (*) (H) »)) FEATURES (COND ( ( G E T R CLASS) ( L I S T - I T - 1 (GETR M O D S ) ) ) ) ) ( ( GETR C L A S S ) ( S E T R MODS M I L ) (SETR CLASS NIL))) MODS ( G E T R S H O O S ) ) : ,  (CAT  (CUND ( SETR ( ADDR MODS ( B U I L D Q ( P O S S (SETR QFLAG NIL I ( S E T R ORO N I L ) ( S E T R P O S S F L A G T) (SETR QUANT NIL) ( SETR SEM-DET NIL) ( SETR SEM-ADJS NIL) ( T O NP D E T ) ) N  ( 3 (N  *)  H))  FEATURES))  (AND (NOT ( G E T F P O S S E S S I V E ) ) (MUMAGREE ( G E T R D E T ) * ' N ( G E T F ( ADDR MODS ( B U I L D Q ( A D J (a (N " + ") "+")) N NFEA T ) ) ( SETR N *) (SETR NFEAT FEATURES) NUMBER)) ( S E T R NU ( G E T F ( SETR SEM-MOUN (BUILDQ ( 3 ( N *) (»)) FEATURES)) ( T O NP A D J ) ) (CAT N (AND (NOT ( G E T F P O S S E S S I V E ) ) (NOT I G E T R CLASS))) ( S E T R N *) . (SETR NFEAT F E A T U R E S ) ( S E T R NU ( G E T F NUMBER)) ( S E I R SMODS ( G E T R MODS) ) (SETR C L A S S (B!.-!LDQ ("<-CLASSH) (BUILD-NP)l) ( S E T R MODS ( G E T R SMODS)I ( ADDR MODS ( G E T R CLASS)) ( S E T K N N 11. ) ( TO NP P A R T I ) ( C A T NPR (NOT ( G E T F P O S S E S S I V E ) ) (ADDR MODS ( B U I L D Q (ADJ O (N ' + " ) ) N NFEAT) ) ( SE TR N F E A T F E A T U R E S ) *) ( S E T R NPR ( S E T R NU 'SGI ( S E T R SEM-MOUN ( B U I L D Q (3 ( N P R *) (!))) FEATURES)) ( Tl) N P - A O J ) ) (JUMP N P - N T)) I N P - N I PUP [ B U I L D - N P ) T) ) ( N P - M A I N P H K A S C ( C A T CUMJ T ( S E T R C O N J *) (TO N P - C O N J ) ) (JUMP NP-NP T)> ( N P - C O N J ' ( P U S H NP  r  ( S E N D R C U M J F L AG T ) I S E T R N P - C O N J •*) (CUND ((AIOM (CADR  (GETR  HEADNOUN)))  NUMBER)))  LIFT!!  HEAONOUN ( BUI Ll.ii;  . (r  I LIFTR  0))) ( N 1 " + " " »' ) ((NUMBER SEM-NOUN HEADNOUN ( C U N U ( I C Q ( G E T R CON.JI ' AND) ( • S G - •PL ) ) ) ) )  'PL)  HEAONOUN. (LIST (CAR (GETR HEAONOUN)) (APPEND! (CADR (GEIR HEADNOUN)) (CADDR ( G E T R HE A O N U U N ) ) ) ) ) )  ( TO N P - N P I ) ) (GETR SEM-ADJS) ( N P - N P ( P O P ( BU I L D - N P ) IMP-SEMANTICS (GETR S E M - O E T I (COMP-SUPER ) )) (TO ( A O J (MEM (MURE MOST) T (SETR FEAT (BUILOO ( ( « ) ) (CAT V (AND ( P A R T I C I P L E ) ( G E T R NP ) ) (SETR A D J (DUH.DO Ul *) ( P A R T IC I I ' L E ) ) ) (PARTIC IPLE) ) N P-PART) ( L I F T R HE AO AD.I ( B U I L U U ( I) S-V) ( L I F T R HE A D A D J ( B U I L D Q I » * I ) (PARTICIPLE)) (TO ADJ-ADJ)) (JUMP A D J - F EAT T ) ) (ADJ-FEAT (CAT A D J  (GETR  SEM-NOUN))  ( G E TR S E M - N C U N ) ) ) ) ADJ-FEAT ))  *))  r  *)  (SETR ADJ (OR (GETR F E A T ) ISETR FEAT FEATURES) ) ( L I F T R HE A C A D J ( B U I L O O ( A D J * (" + " ) ) F E A T ) N P - P A R T ) I L I F T R I IE AD AD J ( B U I L D Q ( A D J * ( " + " ) ) FEAT) S-V) (TO ADJ-ADJ))) (ADJ-ADJ (POP (BUILDO IS ( " < - A U J - " N I L *'*"> "+") A D J F E A T ) T ) ) (ADV (MEM (MURE MOST) T ( S E T R FEAT (BUILDQ ( ( # ) ) ( C O M P - S U P E R ) ) ) (TO  ADV-FEAT))  I JUMP A D V - F E A T T ) ) (ADV-FEAT (CAT ADV T ( S E T R ADV #) IOR ( G E I R F E A T ) (SETR FEAT FEATURES)) (COND ((MEMBER * ' ( T H E R E H E R E ) ) (SETQ ANAPHOR-DEPTH 1 ) ) ) (TO ADV-AOV))) N I L ••<•") "+") A D V F E A T ) T ) ) (ADV-ADV (POP (BUILDO (a ("<-ADV(ADJP (PUSH ADJ (OR (NEXT ' ( A D J ADV V ) ) ) ( S E N O R NP ( G E T R N P I ) (COND ( ( N U L L (GETR AOV)) (ADDR A D J IT-2 (GETR A D V ) ) ) ) ) (SETR (T (ADDR A O J ( A P P E N D * ( L I S T (LIST(TO ADJP)) (PUSH ADV (OR (NEXT 'AOV) (NEXT ' V I ) (COND ((NULL (GETR ADV)) ( S E T R A D V *)) (GETR ADV))))))) (T ( S E T R AOV ( A P P E N D * ( L I S T ( L I S T - I T - 2 (TO ADJP ) ) (JUMP A D J P - A D J P T ) ) (AOJP-ADJP (POP (GETR A D J ) (NOT (NULL (GETR AOJ))))) ( PP ( C A T P R E P ( S E T R P R E P *) (TC PP-PREP)))  *))  (PP-PREP  (MEM ( T H E R E H E R E ) ( S E T R NP ( B U I L D Q ( P U S H NP T ( S E T R NP *) ( T O P P - P P ) ) (PUSH UP  ("<-ADV-"  (GET LEX 'UPRO) I S E T R NP * ) ( L I F T R TYPE 'QPRO S) ( L I F T R WH-PHRASE T S) (TO P P - P P ) ) ) (PP-PP (POP (BUILDQ ( P P M I L " + " "+") P R E P N P ) (UP ( C A T Q P R O T ( S E T R QPRO *) (TC CP-CPRO).))  NIL *)))  (TO P P - P P ) )  T) )  (QP-QPRO (PUSH PP (GET L E X ' P R E ? ) ( S E T R PP *) ( T O Q P - O P 1 ) (JUMP QP-QP' (QP-OP (POP ( B U I L D - U P ) T)> (QUANTP ( C A T NUMBER T ( S E T R Q ( O U l l . D C ( I N T E G E R * ) ) ) (TO QUANTP-Q) ) ( C A T QUANT T ( S E T R Q *) (TO CUANTP-Q1) (JUMP Q U A N T P - Q T ) ) I Q U A N T P - Q (WRD A T T ( T O Q U A N T P - P R E P - A T ) )  T )•)  ( C A T C O M P T ( S E T R COMP ( B U I L D O (ADV * ) ) ) I TO Q U A N T P - C O M P ) ) (JUMP QUANTP-UUANTP I G E T R . O ) ( S E T R QWORD T ) ) I • (QUANTP-PREP=AT ( C A T SUPER T ( S E T R SUPER ( B U I L D Q . ( A D V *))) I TO Q U A N T P - M O D S ) ) ) ( Q U A N T P - C O M P (WRD THAN T I TO Q U A N T P - M O O S ) ) (JUMP QUAN F P - Q U A N TP ( CUND  ( (AND  (GET!: COMP) (EU (CADR (GETR COMP)) 'MORE) ( G E T LEX ' A D J ) ( EQ ( G E T L E X ' A D J ) • * ) )  NIL! ( T ) ) ( S E T R QWORD ( M O T I AND ( G E T R C O M P ) (GETR 0)))))l (QUANTP-MODS (CAT DET (NOT (GETR DET)) ( S E T R D E T « I ( T O QU AN T P - M O D S ( P U S H Q U A N T P T ( S E T R C U A M T * ) ( T O Q U A N T P - Q U AN C P ) ) ( J U M P U U A N T P - Q U A N TP ( A N D ( G E T R Q) ( N O T ( G E T R C O M P ) ) ) ) ) (QUANTP-OUANTP (POP (BUILD-QUANIP) I)))))  ))  ADV  NIL)))  T H E S E A HE Sll--!r A U X I L I A R Y KI11ITI i,:t iin i m i u . - v . ' i i tsi-.ru IVPE ( i ' - u i i D C (i< i»iiiuuI " •  I  ( I C C H i VI) I C D ) ' i t VNICL ' ( V O I C E AC r I VI I L IF ( C.E lit T Y P E ) ) (LIFTR V O I C E ( GET It V O I C D ) (SETR A U X ( B U I L D O ( T.'IS ( iJ " » ' ( S r T K V ( H U H . IK) ( V " » " ) V ) ) (CUND ( C U L L (GETR A D V E R l l S ) ) ) (T I A O U L A U V E R V S " < - A U V - " ) ) ) I B U I L O O ia (VP) ( N I L ) ( " » " ) ( " • " ) If.N.iO  (T I -j! IR TYPE  N E G TYPE I I  I))  )  1  TENSE  ASPECT  VOICE))  »")• AUX v ADVERBS))  I DEFUN  B U 1 LD - N P .( )  ISETR.OET (COND ( ( N U L L t f . i . T R O E f) ) N I L ) ( T ( B U I L D C ( ( D E T '••'•) ) D E T ) ) ) ) ( S E T R PUSS (CONO ( (GETR POSS) (BUILDO ( ( P O S S "+"))' POSS)) )) (SETR NFEAT (BUILOQ t & It * \ ( 1. I S T - 1 T ( G E T R f l F L A D ) (LIST-IT-! ( G E TR M O D S ) I ) I ( S E TR N ( I G E T R N ) ( U U I L O O 1S IN " • " ) "••") M N F E A T ) ) ( ( G E TR N P R ) ( B U I L D O 14 ( N P R " f " ) " » • ' ) N P R N F E A T ) ) ( ICErft PROPER ) ) ) ) NP ( B U I L D O (3 ( M P ) ( N I L ) " • " " * " ("+")) OCT PCSS N ) ) (IGETR COMJ) (flUILDU IMP ( " * " " • " " • " ) > C U N J NP N P - C O N J ) ) IT I G E T R N P ) ) ) ) ( COMD  ISETR (COND  (OEFUN  BUILO-QP  (SETR  (BUILDO  IDEFUN  I)  PP (COND 13  (IGETR  (NP)  BU1LD-QUANTP  (COND  ttANO  PP)  (LIST  ( (DET N I L ) )  (GETR  (IOPRU  PP)))))  "•"))  I I NU S G - P L ) ) • » • " )  OPRO P P ) )  I)  (CETR  OWORO)  (GETR  0)1  (BUILOQ  t C U ANT  "•")  QI)  ((AND ( G E T R QWORO) IGETR COUP)) IBUILUQ (QUANT "•") COMP)) ( T ( S E T R Q 1 C 0 N D ( I G E T R Q ) ( B U I L D Q 1 I QUANT ' • * " ) ) Q ) ) ) ) ( S E T R COMP ( C O N O ( ( G E T R C U P ) (BUILDQ ((COMP "»-">l COMP)))) (SETR SUPER (CONO ( ( G E T R S U P E R ) I R U I L C Q ( ( S U P E R " + ••)) SUPER)))) ( S E T R D c T ( C O N O ( ( G E T R U E T ) I B U I L D C I I D E T "<•">) DET)))) ( S E T R QUANT (COND ( ( G E T R Q U A N T ) (LIST (GETR QUANT))))) (BUILDQ (3 (QUANIP) " + " " » '• ' • • • • " * " ) Q C CMP S U P E R D E T Q U A N T ) ) ) ) W  (OEFUN B U I L D - A D J P IGETR A D J ) )  tCEF'J.N (AND  (OEFUN (AND  (DEFUN I AND  (OEFUN (COND  ( lie FUN  PERFECT  I )  I)  (EQ I P A R T I C I P L E )  PROGRESSIVE  (GETF  (EQ (GETR  V)  'PRESPART)  (EQ (GETR  V)  'UE))1  (I UNTENSEO)  OARTICIPLE  (MEMO  (GETR  V)  '(WILL  SHALL))))  ( )  ((cW  'PRESPART  (GETF  PART))  ItfcO  'PASTPART  (GETF  PART))  'PASTPART)))  '((MURE  COMPARATIVE)  COM?-SUPC-R  (MAKE-ARRUW  'HAVE)))  (I  (EO (PARTICIPLE)  FUTURE  •PASTPART)  "PRESPART)  (I  (CADPv  (ASSQ  *  (MCST  SUPERLATIVE))))))  (OEFPROP SEIR EXPR IFLANgOA IXI  -  ISETQ DECS ICONS ICONS ICAR XI I EVIL ICACR XIII  RECSID)  (OEFPROP CEIR EXPR IFLAMBDA CLST) ICONO I (NULL ICOR LST>] ICETRV IOR 1ST)))  IINUH9ERP ICACR LSI II  ICONO (WEROP ICAOR LSTI) ICETRV ICAR LSTIII IT ICOR IASSC ICAR LST) ICAOAR INTH STICK ICAOR LST))))] ICOR (ASSQ ICAR LSTI ICAOR (ASSQ ICAOR LSI I STACK))))))))  II  IDEFPROP GETRV EXPR ILAPQCA IRECI IPROG 15) IRE TURN ICONO IIEO REC IOU01E •)) •) IISETO B IASSO REG RECSII ICOR 61)1)1)1 IOEFPROP BUILDQ EXPK IFLAHBDA ILI • IBUILD ICAR I)  ICDR L l l l l  IOEFPROP BUILD EXPR ILAHBCA IFRAC REG*) IPROG (REGLSTI ISETO REGLST REG*) • RETURN (BUILOl FRAG)ID)  ''  (OEFPROP BUILOl EXPR ILAPBOA IFRAG) IPROG (Al (RETURN ICONO I(NULL FRAG) NIL) IIEC FRAG ICUOTE » ) ) ICETRV (CAR RECISIIII IIEQ FRAG ICUOTE <I1 IF.VAL (CAR RECLST ) U IIEO FRAG ICUOIe • ) ! •) • ' IIATON FRAG) FRAG) (IES ICAR FRAG) ICUOTE » ) ) ISETQ A IUNCCNS RECLST I0UOI6 REGLST)I) ICONS ICETRV A) ISUILOl ICOR'FRAGIII1 (IEO ICAR FRAG) ICUCTE III ISETQ A IUNCCNS RECLST IOUOTE REGLST))) ICCNS (EVAL A) (SUILCt (CCP. FRAG)))) IIEO ICAR FRAG) ICUOTE 0)1 (CCNS » (BUILDI (CDR FRAG)1)1 (IEO ICAR FRAG) (QUOTE 311 IGLUE IBUILOI ICCH FAA«))1) IT ICONS (BUILOl ICAR-FRACII (BUILDI (CDR FRAG1 > I}I)I )I (OEFPROP PARSEI EXPR ILAPBCA I SENTENCE I IPROG I A PORPHTENP)  J  '.".'"•"*  '  :  .  '  "  UNIT-TRACE) - * (SEIO REGS S I D (CONO I ISETQ A INSVAL SENTENCE ST NIL NIL NIL IOUOTE IN1L » Q U I ) UNO SPRINIPARSE (PROG* IPRINl (QUOTE PARSES II ITfRPftU (PK1N7PARSE A 0))) (RETURN A ) ) ) ) ) ) ; .  IOEFPROP WEVAL EXPR ILAPBDA (STRING! STATEI STACK! REGSl HOLOI PATHl) IPROG IA 800Y-S ARCTYPE * LEX) IPTXACE ENTERING STATE ISIATEU S STRING.* ISIAIHCm IPTREGSI ISEIO • • (CONO 11 NULL STR1NG1) NIL) (ISETQ »CRPHIE»P IPCRPN (CA* STRING1DT ICONO IIEO POR»HTFPP Tl ICAR STRTNGI11 IT IRPLACA SIRINGl MCRPHTEHPIII) IT (ERROR ID1CIERR))))  •)  lex  .  ..  ICONO KNOT .GET STATEI ICUCTE GRAMMAR) 11 (ERROR (ERRDR2IHI ISEIO 800Y-S (CET S I ' T C l ICUOTE CRAPKARlll TAG ICONO IINULL BOOT-SI IBLCCXEO) (RETURN NIL)) II ISETQ ARCTYPE ICAAR B0CY-SI1II (CONO IISEIQ A IEVAL ICAR BOOY-S))) (RETURN A l l IT ISETQ 800Y-S ICOR B031-SI) (CO T A C ) ) ) I » IDEFPROP .PUSH EXPR IFLAKBOA ILK IPROC ISIRING STATE STACK RECS MCIO PUSHRECSI UNITIALIZE) IRETUP.N ICCNO 11N'JLL STRINGI NILI I(NOT (EVAL (CAOR LIT) NILI II IPRINTPUSH) IMEVAL STRING ICAR L) XCIO  -  '  •{•  (CONS STATE (SU31  102' 103 IO* 105 IC6 10T 109 109 HO 111 . 112 113  IOEFPROP NAC EXPR IFLAMBOA I D - IPROG ISTRING STATE STACK REGS HOLD* lINlTIAlUEl (RETURN ICONO I(NULL STRING! NIL) HAND (EQ » ICAR III I EVAL (CADR (.1)1 IPRINTARC ARCTYPEI «APPLY (QUOTE PROCNXI ICOCR 1 ) 1 1 , 1 ) 1 )  »»* 115 116 XI? 118 ll' 120 121 122 123 ' 12V 123 126 IZT 128 129 130 131 132 133 13* 13* 136 1IT 13S 139 1*0 1*1 1*2 1*3  (LEVEL!>>>II>11  •  IOEFPROP PRCGNX EXPR IFLAMBOA ( L l (CONO I(NULL L) (ERROR (ERRORIIII ' llr/ULL ICOR D I  .  '  .  •  *  .  • -  •  •  ICOND KNOT (EQ (CAAR I) ICUOTE T o l l ) (ERROR (ERRORIIII IT ( E v i l (CAR l l l l l l IT (EVAL (CAR III (APPLY (CUOTE PROSNXI (CCR 1 ) 1 ) 1 ) 1 - . IOEFPROP HEM EXPR (HANBO* (L) IPROG (STRING STATE STACK REGS HOLD) UNITIALIZE) (RETURN (COND ((NULL STRING) NIL) I4AN0 (HEMS • (CAR L l l I EVAL I CADR L I U IPRINTARC ARCTYPEI (APPLY IOUOIE PAOCMO ICODR L ) ) ) ) ) ) l l . IOEFPROP POP EXPR IFLAMBOA ( L l IPROC (STRING STATE STACK REGS NOLO P S LEVI ' UNITIALIZE) ICONO 11 NULL ICOR L l l IERRCR IERRDK3I), KNOT (EVAL (CAOR L l l l (RETURN NIL) I IT  IRETURN ICONO  1*4 1*3 1*6 1*T l*a 1*9 150 151 152 I131 S*  •  (IANO (NULL STRING) (NULL STACK) (NULL HOLD)! IPTRACE ABOUT TO POP I SUCCESS) (EVAL (CAR L D ) I(NULL STACK) NILI KNOT (HOLOLEVEL)I NIL) I T (SETO PS (CAR STACKII (PCPSTKI ISEIQ o (EVAL (CAR l l , RECS (CAOR PSI LEV ILEVEL) (PRINTPOPI (APPLY (QUOTE PUSHPROSNI (CAOOft P S ) I | 1 1 ) ) I ) >  1SS  1S6  1ST  138 . 1 61*9 0 161 162 163 16* 165 16* 16T 168 169 170 171 172 173 1?+ 173 176 177 178 179 ISO 181 1)2 183 IB* 183 186 18? 1(6 189 190 191 192 193 19* 195 196 197 198 199 2C0  IOEFPROP OOSENORS EXPR IIA»B0A HI  <  ICONO I (OR I NULL L l (NOT (EO I CAAR L) (QUOTE SENORIDI NIL) I T I EVAL ICAR L l l IDOSENURS ICOR L l l PUSHREGSI))) . ICEFPROP SENDR EXPR IFLAMBOA IL) . (CONO ((NOT (CQ ARCTYPC (QUOTE PUSH!!) (ERROR (ERRCR61II1 (SETO PUSHRECS ICONS (CONS (CAR L l (EVAL ICASR D I ) . IOEFPROP FINOACTIGNS EXPR HAHBOA ( L l ICOND IINULL l l NIL) ((NOT (EQ ICAAR l l (QUOTE SENDR))> L ) I T IFINOACIIONS ICOR L l l l l l l  PUSHRECS)I)t  *  -  IOEFPROP PUSHSTR EXPR ILAMQCA ISI ICONS S STACK))I IOEFPROP POPStK EXPR l l * » B S A NIL (SETQ STACK ICDR STACK)I)) »  -  IOEFPROP TO EXPR IFLAMBOA ISI ICONO 11 NULL STRING) NIL) II  '  IWEVAL ICOR STRING) ICAR S) STACK REGS HCIO ICONS STATE :IEV6L))II),  JUMP  (DEFPROP E<PR IFLA»BOA 111 IPROG I STRING STATE STACK RECS HCIO)  "  I  '  :  201 202 203 20* 205 2C6 207 208 2C9 210 '211 212 211 21* 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 22* 225 224 22T  228 ' 229 230 2)1 232 213 23* 235 236 237 238 239 2*0 2*1 2*2 2*3 *** 2** 2*6 2*7 2*8 2*9 250 251 232 253 25* 255 lit 258 259 240 261 262 263 26* 265 266  267  268 269 270 2)1 272 273 27* 275 276 277 278 279 280 2(1  »*  283 28* 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 29* 295 296 297 249 299  IIMTULIIEI (RETURN ICONO KNOT (EViL ICAOR L I M NILI IT IH4PC ICUOTE EV»L) ICODR LII (PIRACE J ' J " ' TO l(C»R t i l l tw£»»L SUING IC»R U STACK REGS BOLD ICONS STATE :LEVEL M l I > II ) 1  .-  IDEFPROP CAT EXPR 1FLAH8DA (LI JPROC ISTRINC STATE STAC* AECS HOLD FE-TURES1 UNITIALIZE) (RETURN ICONO I (NULL STRING) NILI I UND ICATEC3RY ICAR LII (EVAL (CADR t i l l IPR1HTMC iRCTYPEI (APPLY IOUOTE PROCNXI ICDCX L I I M I I M  . IDEFPROP PUSHPROGN EXPR IFL6MB0A (LI (COND 11.NULL LI (ERROR lERRORlill I(NULL (COR III ICONO I(HOT IEO ICAAR LI ICUOTE TOIIl IERROR (ERR0RI1II IT IWEVAL STRING IO0AR II STACK REGS HOLO ICCNS STATE LEVI I 111 IT I EVAL ICAR LII (APPLY 16U0IE PUSHPROCiil (COR Ll>l)>> IDEFPROP TR&CEPARSE EXPR (LAN8CA NIL ISETO :TRACE T i l l  .  IDEFPAOP UNTRACEPAR5E EXPR ILAPBCA NIL ISETO 1TRACE N1LIII  .  IDEFPROP INIT—TRACE EXPR (LAP8CA NIL ICONO IsTRACE ISETO »TA3 01 IPRINT (OunTE SENTENCE:II IPRINT SENTENCE! ITERPRIMII)  .  •  '  .  ,  '  •  -  .  I0EFPROP PRINTARC EXPR (LAPBCA URCTYPEI IPTRACE TAKING tARCTYPE IC«R LII ARGII)  "  (OEFPROP PRINTPUSH EXPR ILAMBCA NIL ISETO 1LEVEL (Aupi : L t v c L I » UNO CPTRACE ABOUT TO PUSHI fSETQ tTAB (ADO STAB 2)11)1 ' IDEFPROP PR1NTP0P EXPR ILAPBCA NIL CSETQ :lEVcL ISUS1 :LEVELI1 UNO (PTRACE ABOUT TO POP • - ! • ) ) ISETC JTAB I SUB 1T»B 21)111  .  ;  *  .  IOEPPROP PARSE EXPR  IFLW80A U l  IPROC U 'LEVEL ITAB STI ISETQ ILEVEL 0) ICCNO IINULL (COR LII (PERROR SECOND ARGUMENT TO PARSS IS UNSPECIFIED) (RETURN NILII IT ISETO ST ICAOR L M M ISETQ A IERRSET (PARSE! ICAR l l l l i IRETURN ICONO ((..TOM A l NILI (T I CAR A I I I D M  IDEFPROP ERR0R1 EXPR ILAPBOA NIL I PERROR NO TERMINATING NEXT STATE ACT ICS CN CURRENT ARCH)  ...  .  IDEFPROP ERR0R2 EXPR ILA'BO* NIL » (PERROR STATE ISTATElt UXOEPIKEO)It IDEFPROP HOLCLEVEL EXPR ILAPBOA NIL (CONO CINULL HOLD I T l IIEO (CAAR HOLD) :LEVELI NILI 1111)1  * _1  .  -  (DEFP30P VIR EXPR (Fl»HBOA (I) IPROC ISIRINO STATE STICK RECS HCLO LEV) (INITIALIZE!  »  SCO 301 3C2 3C3 30<k 305 3C6 307 309 309 310 311 3IZ 313 31* 11* 116 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 32* 123 126 327 128 329 UO 331 332 1J3. 13* 115 136 117 318 339 1*0 1*1 3*2 1*1 1*4 1*5 1*6 1*7 3*8 1*9 150 151 1*2 151 13* 153 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 161 J«» 165 166 367 36* 169 370 »7I 172 17] 174 )T3 376 377 378 179 180 181 182 163 18* 153 186 3«7 J-3  SS9 390 391 192 39J }•)* 395 3-»6 jgT 3«6 319 •CO  (RETURN (CONO IINUll NOLO) l l l l l (UNO (SETO • (C04R HOLD)) (VIRCATEGORY (CAR l l ) IEVAI (CAOR 11)1 IPRINTARC ARCTYPEI (POPMOLOI ( SETQ LEV SIEVED (APPLY (QUOTE PU5NPR0GN) (CCDR  • Llllllllt  IOEFPROP POPhOLO EXPR ILAVBCA NIL ISETQ HOLD ICOR NOLO)) IPTXACE POPPING MGLD L 1ST • » . (•) CURRENT HOLO IS IICONO IHOLO ICOAR HOLD}}III!I  '  IOEFPROP ERR0R3 EXPR (LAMBDA NIL IPERROR NO TEST ON POP ARC OF STATE (STATED)}  '  IOEFPROP eiGCXEO EXPR (LAF.BOA NIL IPTRACE BLOCKED) ISETQ 3LEVEL ICOR PATH1I STAB IA0O ILEVSl SIEVEIII ICONO ((CAR PATHll (PIRACE BACKEO UP TO STATE ((CAR PATHlt1)11)1 (OEFPROP HOLD EXPR IFLAMBOA ILI (PROG IA) ISETO A IEVAI ICAR III} IPTRACE HOIOING IAII (-SETQ HOLO ICONS ICONS H E V E l Al IOEFPROP CATEGORY EXPR (LAMBDA (CAT) (COND ((GET LEX CATI (SETO FEATURES (GETCATFEATUaESt. • Till)  KCLOIIIIt  ».  •  .  (CETROGTII  ICEFPROP GETCATFEATURES EXPR (LAK8CA NIL i * IPROG IPROP! (SETQ PROP I GET LEX CATI) ICONO ; 11 ATOM PROPI IRETURN ISEIECT CAT IIOUOTE NI ICONO IIEO PROP I0UOTE MASSI1 (QUOTE ((NUMBER H A S S t t i l IT (QUOTE I (NUMBER SGI I M l I (ICUOTE VI (LIST (OUOTE ITNS PRESENT)) (QUOTE IPMCCCE X3SC)) (QUOTE IUNTENSEOI))) NILDI) ISETO PROP ICOR PROP)) (RETURN ICONO 11AND IEQ CAT IQUOTE V l l IASSQ IQUOTE TNSI PROP) INOT IASSQ IQUOTE PNCCOE) P R O ? ) ) ) (CONS IQUOTE IPNCODE ANT)) PROP)) (IANO IEO CAT ICUOTE PROD INOT IASSQ IQUOTE SUBJ) PROP)) INOT (ASSO (QUOTE OBJI PRCPI1) ICONS ICUOTE (SUBJ)) PROPI) . . . . IT PROPI i mi A. IOEFPROP GETROOT EXPR . . IIA»B0A NIL . IPROG IPROPI ISETO PROP ICET LEX CAT)) IRETURN ICONO I(NOT IATCM PROP)) ICAR PROP)I IT L E X ) ) ) ) ) )  .  .^ -  .  IOEFPROP CETF EXPR IFLAMeDA IFEATUREI IPROG ITEMP1 (CCKO IINCT IE5 ARC TYPE (QUOTE CITIII (ERROR (ERR0R5IM) ISETO TEMP USSS ICAR FEATURE) FEATURES)) ICCNO I TEMP IRETUSN ICCNO I (NULL ICD* IE»f>») TI IT (C«OR TEMP))))))})) IOEFPROP VIHCATEGORY EXPR  401 4C2  «c>  40* 4C5 406 • 07 ACS 409 410 411  (LAPSE). (CAT) IEQ CAT I CIS  •llll  IOEFPMOP PRINTPUSE EXPR (LAPBCA (PARSE 115) ICCND IINliLl PARSED I I H C C (CAR PARSE 11 I SKIP TAB) IPR1 PARSE! I CI (PP.INTPARSE (CAR PARSEI TAB! (PRINTPARSE ICOR PARSEI TAB 111)1  AIZ 413 41* 415 414 417 41B 419 420 421 422 423 424 423 426 427 425 429 4J0 431 432 433 434 435 436 417 43B 439 460 441 4*2 4*3 4*4 4*5 446 4*7 4*8 4*9 430 451 452 453 45* 455 456 437 458 459 460 46) 462 463 464 463 466 467 46* 469 470  :» 473 474 473 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 48* 483 486 487 *8B 489 49S *9l 492 493 *9* *9i *9i •97 »9» *91 SCO  IDEEPRCP PR1 EXPR ILAPBCA (PARSE) ICC.NO ((NULL PARSEI ITERPRIII (UIOM (CA* PARSE)) IPR1N1 (CAR PARSED CPR1 ICOR PARSED) IT ITERPR11 IPR1MPARSE (CAR PARSEI IAOO TAB 4 D (PRINTPARSE ICOR PARSE) IAOO TAB 411)1)1 IDEFPROP OISPLAY EXPR (PLAH80A ILI CSETQ :REC5 ICAR LI (STATES ICONO ((HULL (COR L I I H i l l IT ICAOR L I D ) ID (OEFPROP UN01SPLAT EXPR ILAPBO* NIL (SETQ IRECS NIL (STATES M I L D ) IDEFPROP PAINRECS EXPR ILAPBOA (REGLST) IPAPC IOUOTE (LAMBDA 1X1 (PRINI XI CPRIN1 ICUOTE >D IPRINl ICETRV X D ITERPRIDI REGLSTD) IDEFPROP ERROR* EXPR ILAPBOA-NIL IPRINl IQUOTE °»>MARNING—ATTEMPT TO AOOl OR AOCR TO ATOMIC VALUES REGISTER*)) IPRINl (CAR L D IS«1P *> IPRINl IC«A L D IMIN1 lOtOTE - D IPRINl A l . ' IPRINl IOUOTE • STATE • • I I ' » •. IPRINl STATEI I1ERPR1ID IDEFPROP ACCL EXPR If LAMBDA I D (PROG ( A ! ISETO A ICEIRV ICAR I I ) REGS  •  ICONO  iss iss iruj J S E I ^ ^ W ™ * * *  IDEFPROP A00R EXPR . IFLAMBOA ILI IPROG IA) ISETQ A ICETRV (CAR L D REGS ICONS ICONS ICAR L) IAPPENO A (LIST (EVAL ICAOR 1)11)1 REGS!I • -• • ICCND ((ANO (A (ON A) INOT (NULL A I D (ERROR*! T D D ) IOEFPROP GETREGS EXPR UAPBCA NIL . IPROG IA) IMAPC IOUOTE ILAPBOA IX) ICGNO l l « N O ICAR XI A D II ISETQ A ICCNS (CAR X) 1)111!) REGS) IRE TURN A I D ) . IDEFPROP PTPEGi E»PR UA»BC» NIL ICCND ISREGS  ICONO  SCI so*  IIOR IHULL s s T J i e s i iHg>*3 STATEI >STA;ESU  SC3 505 3C6 507 5C8 309 510 311 512 5313 i* 515 516 517 5IS 519 5Z3 321 522 523 52* 323 526 • 527 523 329 530 531 532 533 33* 535 536 537 538 539 5*0 5*1 3*2 5*3 ?3** i? 3*6 5*5 5*7 3*8 3*9 330 351 352 353 35* 553 5S» 357 358 559 360 561 362 563 56* 563 566 567 369 568 370 371 572 III 573  11NULL imicei  IPAINI icuors "STATE » * l l IPAINI STATEll •«I»«GS :» S (CUOTE ALL,, I T E R P R( l lClC l NO  IOEFPXOP OICTERR EXPR (LA*8CA Nil. (PERROR ((CAR STR1NC1II CANNOT BE M0RPMED1II IOEFPROP INITIALIZE EXPR (LAMBCA NIL ISETO STRINC STRIMC1 STATE STATE! STACK STACK1 REGS RECS1 HOLO H0L01II) IDSFPROP TST EXPR IFLAMBOA ( L l IPROG (STRING STATE STACK REGS HOLD} UNITIALIZE! IRETURN . • (COND 11 NULL STRING) N i l ) IIEVAL ICAR L l l (PRINTARC ARCTYPEI (APPLY (OUOTE PROCNX) ICOR 11)111)11 -  IOEFPROP ERR0R3 EXPR ILAPBOA NIL (PERROR ATTEMPT EVALUATE TO CETF ON NON CAT AHC J CURRENT STATE • I STATE) » CURRENT ' jARC . (ARCTYPEDII  ICEFPROP ERRCR6 EXPR ILAMSCA NIL (PERROR ATTEMPT TO • SENOR ON "NON PUSH ARC t CURRENT » " «  l]y  I STATE! * CURRENT ARC  7  >'» 59»  „  £C  578 J , 58S 581 582 583 58* 585 5B6 587 588 5B9 590 591 392 59J 39* 395 S9o j,J  j  ICCNO  ss*  •  IARCTYPEIIII ICEFPROP GLUE EXPR ILAMBCA IX) ICCNO IINULL X) NIL) IT IAPPESO ICAR XI ICLUE ICOR X ) ) ) ) ) ) ) IOEFPROP PERROR EXPR IFLAMBOA I S L U ITERPR!) 1PRIN1 (SUOTE " » » ERROR—"II (MAPC (CUOTE (LAMBDA IJXK ,  C  0  " °  L  , T Q * X I , < : U O ' E 'II HATCM » „ , ( P R | „ ,  ITERPRII , „ J , "  •T. (MAPC (CUOTE u . M . o » „ „ ,  I( f . B. T '  1  „ „ „  2  ,  1  ,  • e  m  t  n  i  t  t  i  *K*IIIII  • CO 6Ct 402 603 60V 60S 6C6 6C7 6CB  SLSI ITERPRIIII . IOEFPROP PTRACS EXPR IFIAMBDA (SLtl ICONO |:TRACE (TERPAI1 ISXtP STA9I  629  610 611 612 613 614 615 616 61T 618 619 620 621 622 624 625 626 62T 626 629 430 631 632 633 614 635 636 637 633. 631 6*0 6*1 4*2 6*3 6*4 6*5 6*6 6*7 6*8 6*9 650 651 6»2 653 65* 635 6S6 637 658 659 669 661 442 481 664 «... 463 666 • 661 669 670 671 672 671 67* 675 676 677 678 679 680 6>l 6B2 683 6t*  (HAPG  ICUOTE (LAMBOA (8X«I ICCND IIEO »X1 IQUOTE t l ) ITERPRII ISXIP :TAS») IIATC-I SXt) IPRINl S X H ) IT INAPC IQUOTE (LAMBDA ISYU IPRINl IEVAI. S T l l l l ) SXS Sill ITERPRII • • • Till! IOEFPROP PPARSE7 EXPR UA'SOA NIL ISETQ SPRINTPARSE INOT :PRINTPARSEII)I IOEFPROP ERRSET EXPR IFLAMBOA ISEXP1I ILIST IEVAL ICAR l E X P t l l l l l IOEFPROP ERROR EXPR |FIA».3DA ItVALl) IUNEVAL IQUOTE EARSET) ICAR SVALSIIM ICEFPROP ABCRT EXPR ILAMBCA NIL IPTRACE ABORTED) ISETQ BOOY-S (CDR BOOT-SI) ICO TAGIII ICEFPROP SREPLACE EXPR IH.-8CA (LST EL N> IAPPEN0 ISUT-NTH LST N) ICONS EL ICOR INTH LST N I ) ) ) ) ) IOEFPRCP BUT-NTH EXPR (LAMBDA l l HI ICOND IIEQ N l l NIL) IT (CCNS ICAR L l I BUI-NTH ICCR L l (SU31 N i l ) ) ) ) ) ICcFPRCP FINDHEIGHT EXPR ILAMBDA IX) ICONO I (NUM3ERP X) ICONO IILESSP (LENGTH STACK) X ) O) I X I I l IT IFINCPOS STACK X ) ) D )  •  IOEFPROP FINDPOS EXPR (LAMBDA IL ST) IPROG ICNT PTRI ISEIO CNT 0 PTR L) • TAG ICCNO I(NULL PTR) (RETURN 01) IIEO (CAAR PTR) ST) IRETURN IAD01 CNTD) IT (SETQ PIR ICOR PTR) CNT IAC01 CNT!) ( £ 0 TA6lt)l}> IOEFPROP LIFTR EXPR IFLAMBOA IL) IPRCC (HEIGHT TEMP) ICONO IIMJLl ICOOR 1)1 • IRETURN (APPLY ICUOTE LIFTR) IAPPENO L ILIST 1111111 ISETC HEIGHT IFINDM6IGHT ICADOR l l ) ) (RETURN ICOND I WERGP HEIGHT))  (7  .. .  (SETQ STACK •-• UREPLACE STACK (SREPLACE ISETO TEMP (CAR (NTH STACK HEIGHT! I) (CONS ICONS ICAR L l IEVAL ICJM3A 11)) ICADR TEMPII — 21 HEIGHT)))))!))  6»7  ISETQ JPR INT PARSE 1 :RECS NIL)  450  I UN TRACE PARSE)  

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