UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Compression of fibrous peat MacLeod, Donald Graeme Gordon 1963

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1963_A7 M2 C6.pdf [ 11.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0050626.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0050626-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0050626-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0050626-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0050626-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0050626-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0050626-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0050626-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0050626.ris

Full Text

COMPRESSION OF FIBROUS PEAT BY DONALD GRAEME GORDON MACLEOO 8.S c .I UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN» SOUTH AFRICA. 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M ; . A . : S c . IN THE DEPARTMENT OF C I V I L ENGINEERI NG WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD THE,UNIVERS iTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1963 c In presenting th i s thesis in p a r t i a l fulf i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of J B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t free ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives . It i s understood that copying, or p u b l i -cat ion of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cit/'<- &M6-iut?isg-t The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. A B S T R A C T P E A T IS WELL KNOWN FOR T H E E N G I N E E R I N G PROBLEMS IT P O S E S E S P E C I A L L Y IN T H E F I E L D OF S E T T L E M E N T A N A L Y S I S . T H I S IS MAINLY B E C A U S E T H E P R O C E S S AND T H E R E F O R E T H E F A C T O R S A F F E C T I N G SECONDARY S E T T L E M E N T ARE AS Y E T L I T T L E UNDERSTOOD. A PREL IMINARY LABORATORY I N V E S T I G A T I O N WAS C A R R I E D OUT TO E X A M I N E T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P BETWEEN S E T T L E M E N T AND LOAD FOR F I B R O U S P E A T U S I N G D I F F E R E N T LOAD INCREMENT RAT I OS AND LOAD D U R A T I O N S . T H R E E LOAD INCREMENT R A T I O S WERE USED ( 3.0} 1.0; 0.33 ) AND TWO DURATIONS OF LOAD ( 15 M I N S AND 24 HOURS ) . THE T E S T S WERE PERFORMED IN A CONSOL IDAT ION A P P A R A T U S USING F I X E D R INGS 2 . 5 0 : I N S I N S I D E D IAMETER ANO 0.750 INS IN H E I G H T . U N D I S T U R B E D S P E C I M E N S WERE CUT FROM ONE HORIZONTAL L A Y E R OF A LUMP S A M P L E OF F I B R O U S P E A T HAVING A WATER CONTENT OF 1100$ WITHIN T H E L I M I T S OF T H I S P R E L I M I N A R Y I N V E S T I G A T I O N T H E MAIN CONCLUSIONS WERE I — (1) A L L LOAD INCREMENT R A T I O S AND LOAD DURATIONS GAVE VERY S I M I L A R S E T T L E M E N T - LOG P OR E - L O G P CURVES P R O V I D I N G S E T T L E M E N T WAS MEASURED AT T H E 100$ PRIMARY CONSOLIDAT ION P O I N T . (2) T H E RATE OF . SECONOARY S E T T L E M E N T WAS INDEPENDENT OF LOAD INCREMENT RAT IO AND LOAD DURATION E X C E P T FOR T H E T Y P E I I CURVE WHICH A P P E A R E D TO B E A F F E C T E D BY T H E DURATION OF T H E P R E V I O U S LOAD I N C R £ M £ N T • II (3) ONLY ONE TEST ( #2, L . I . R . O . J J , L . D . 24 HOURS) GAVE A T Y P E II SETTLEMENT-LOG T I M E CURVE. CURVE T Y P E APPEARED TO DEPENO ON BOTH LOAD INCREMENT RATIO ANO LOAD DURATION OR R A I E OF LOADING. THIS TEST ALSO TOOK ABOUT 10 TIMES AS LONG TO REACH THE 100$ PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION POINT. (4) THE HYPOTHESIS OF A UNIQUE SETTLEMENT-LOG P CURVE AT 100$ PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION FOR THE LOAD CYCLE REGARDLESS OF PREVIOUS LOADING HISTORY APPEARED TO OFFER A A P L A U S I B L E GENERAL INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF THE TEST S E R I E S . VI A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T T H E W R I T E R W I S H E S T O A C K N O W L E D G E T H E E N C O U R A G E M E N T R E C E I V E D F R O M M R . R . A . S P E N C E , C O N S U L T I N G E N G I N E E R , V A N C O U V E R , WHO H A S A L W A Y S B E E N R E A D Y T O P R O M O T E R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T I N S O I L M E C H A N I C S A N D A L L I E O S C I E N C E S . 111 C O N T E N T S 1.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N ' . • 1.1 G E N E R A L . P A G E 1 1.2 P U R P O S E 2 1.3 P R O G R A M ' • 2 1.4 D E F I N I T I O N S 3 2.0 E X P E R I M E N T A L WORK i 2.1 A P P A R A T U S 5 2.2 . : S A M P L E P R E P A R A T I O N • 6 2.3 • P R O C E D U R E 7 2.4 M A T E R I A L , D E S C R I P T I O N & C L A S S I F I C A T I O N T E S T S 9 2.5 . P R E C A U T I O N S 11 2.6 A C C U R A C Y 13 3.0 E X P E R I M E N T A L R E S U L T S 3.1 T E S T D A T A S U M M A R Y 17 3.2 R E S U L T S O F C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T S 17 3.3 P R E C O N S O L I D A T I ON P R E S S U R E A N D C O M P R E S S I O N I N D E X 16 3.4 OlSCUSSION 18 4.0 C O M P A R I S O N S 4.1 C O M P A R I S O N O F L . I . R . F O R 24 HR L O A D D U R A T I O N 21 4.2 C O M P A R I S O N O F L . I . R . F O R 15 M I N L O A D D U R A T I O N 22 .4 .3 C O M P A R I S O N O F 24 H O U R & 15 M I N T E S T S F O R O I F F E R E N T L . I . R . 24 I V 4.4 C O M P A R I S O N O F C U R V E S H A P E S & T I M E R E Q U I R E D T O R E A C H 26 4.5 C O M P A R I S O N O F R A T E S O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T 30 4.6 C O M P A R I S O N O F A M O U N T S O F P R I M A R Y & S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T 34 4.7 S U M M A R Y O F O B S E R V E O R E S U L T S 35 5.0 . A N A L Y S I S 5.1 I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F R E S U L T S B A S E D ON A U N I Q U E R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E & S E T T L E M E N T A T 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N 36 5.2 D I F F E R E N C E IN C U R V E T Y P E S B E T W E E N T E S T #2 & T E S T #4 ' 38 6.0 C O N C L U S I O N S -6.1 P R A C T I C A L 39 6.2 T H E O R E T I C A L 40 6.3 G E N E R A L 41 R E F E R E N C E S 42 I L L U S T R A T I O N S P L A T E 1 C R O S S S E C T I O N O F C O N S O L I D M O E T E R - F A C I N G P A G E 5 P L A T E 11 P H O T O G R A P H S O F E Q U I P M E N T 6 , G R A P H S • F I G . 3-1 T E S T D A T A S U M M A R Y 17 F I G . 3-25 F I N A L D I A L R E A O I N S V S L O G P • - : 1 8 F 1 G . 3 - 2 6 F l N A L E V S L O G P 19 F 1 G . 4 - 1 . S E T T L E M E N T A T 24 H O U R S V S L O G P 2 1 F I G . 4-2 S E T T L E M E N T A T 15 M I N U T E S VS L O G P 2 2 F 1 G . 4-3 S E T T L E M E N T A T 1 0 0 $ P R I M A R Y vs L O G P 24 Fl G . 4-4 E A T 1 0 0 $ P R I M A R Y V S L O G P 25 F I G . 4-5 R A T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S P . 3 0 F 1 G . 4-6 R A T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S L O G P 31 F I G . 4-7 . R A T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S P ( T E S T S # 2 & P 1 ) 32 Fl G . 4-8 S E T T L E M E N T A T 24 H O U R S A N D P R I M A R Y V S L O G P 34 F 1 G . 5-1 S E T T L E M E N T A T 1 0 0 $ P R I M A R Y VS L O G P 36 A P P E N D I X F I G . 2 - 1 C A L I B R A T I O N G R A P H F O R P L A S T I C C O N S O L I D O M E T E R S # 1 A N D jf2 F I G . 3-2 T O 3-7 ( I N C L ) D I A L R E A D I N G V S L O G T I M E G R A P H S T E S T S #2 & #4 F I G . 3-8 T O 3-14 ( • ' . ) • • • • • " " " » » » # 1 » # 5 & # 8 F 1 G . 3-15 T O 3 - 1 8 ( " ) " " " " " ' " " #3A & #3B F I G . 3-19 T O 3-24( « ) " " M « ' M M « & jjq . F 1 G S . A 1 - A5 ( I N C L . ) D I A L R E A D I N G V S L O G T I M E G R A P H S T E S T # P 1 1.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1.1 G E N E R A L P E A T I S W E L L KNOWN F O R T H E E N G I N E E R I N G P R O B L E M S I T P O S E S E S P E C I A L L Y IN T H E F I E L D O F S E T T L E M E N T A N A L Y S I S . W H I L E M U C H E M P I R I C A L I N F O R M A T I O N H A S B E E N A C C U M U L A T E D , T H E P R E D I C T I O N O F S E T T L E M E N T , P A R T I C U L A R L Y T H E R A T E O F S E T T L E M E N T , I S S T I L L U N C E R T A I N . T H I S I S M A I N L Y B E C A U S E T H E P R O C E S S O F SECONDARY S E T T L E M E N T , WHICH F R E Q U E N T L Y A C C O U N T S F O R A L A R G E P R O P O R T I O N O F T H E T O T A L S E T T L E M E N T , I S L I T T L E U N D E R S T O O D . A L T H O U G H P E A T C O N S I S T S L A R G E L Y OR W H O L L Y O F T H E P A R T L Y D E C O M P O S E D R E M A I N S O F P L A N T S A N D M O S S E S , N E V E R T H E L E S S I T D O E S A P P E A R T O B E S U S C E P T I B L E T O S E T T L E M E N T A N A L Y S I S B A S E D ON S T A N D A R D O N E D I M E N S I O N A L C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T S O F R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S A M P L E S . IN C L A Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N T H E C L A S S I C A L T E R Z A G H I H Y D R O D Y N A M I C T H E O R Y I G N O R E S T H E S E C O N D A R Y E F F E C T A N D IN P R A C T I C E I T M A Y O F T E N B E N E G L E C T E D W I T H O U T S E R I O U S E R R O R . H O W E V E R W I T H S O M E C L A Y S , M O S T H I G H L Y O R G A N I C S O I L S , A N D P E A T , T H E S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T C A N N O T B E I G N O R E D E I T H E R I N T H E O R E T I C A L I N T E R P R E T A T I O N OR I N P R A C T I C A L F I E L D P R O B L E M S . T H E C U R R E N T P O S I T I O N I S W E L L S U M M A R I Z E D IN " S T U D Y O F D E E P S O I L S T A B I L I Z A T I ON. B Y V E R T I C A L S A N O D R A I N S " B Y M O R A N , P R O C T O R . M U E S E R A N D R U T L E O G E (3). H O W E V E R , N O C O M P R E H E N S I V E I N V E S T I G A T I O N O F T H E P E A T C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T , ON T H E L I N E S O F T A Y L O R ' S " R E S E A R C H ON C O N S O L I D A T I O N O F C L A Y S " (2 ) , H A S B E E N R E P O R T E D IN T H E L I T E R A T U R E . O F M A J O R I M P O R T A N C E I N T H I S R E S P E C T I S T H E C O R R E L A T I O N B E T W E E N S E T T L E M E N T S A N D R A T E S O F S E T T L E M E N T O B T A I N E D IN T H E L A B O R A T O R Y U S I N G T H E S T A N D A R D L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O O F 1.0 A N O T H E N O R M A L L O A D D U R A T I O N O F 24 H O U R S W I T H T H O S E O B T A I N E D IN T H E F I E L D W I T H D I F F E R E N T L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S , L O A D D U R A T I O N S A N D T I M E S T O R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . T H I S I N V E S T I G A T I O N R E P R E S E N T S A L A B O R A T O R Y I N V E S T I G A T I O N I N T O S O M E A S P E C T S O F T H E S E T T L E M E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F P E A T . 1.2 P U R P O S E T H E P U R P O S E O F T H I S I N V E S T I G A T I O N WAS T O E X A M I N E T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N S E T T L E M E N T A N D L O A D F O R F I B R O U S P E A T I N A S T A N 0 A R 0 C O N S O L I D A T I O N A P P A R A T U S , U S I N G D I F F E R E N T L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S A N D L O A D D U R A T I O N S . IT WAS A L S O I N T E N D E D T O O B T A I N S O M E I N D I C A T I O N A S T O HOW T H E S E F A C T O R S A F F E C T E D S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T IN T H I S M A T E R I A L . 1.3 P R O G R A M T H E O R I G I N A L P R O G R A M WAS T O U S E T H R E E L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S I . E . 0.33; 3'0» A N O T 0 R ( J N T W 0 C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T S A T E A C H R A T I O -O N E U S I N G T H E S T A N D A R D 24 H O U R L O A D D U R A T I O N A N O O N E U S I N G A 15 M I N U T E L O A D D U R A T I O N . T H E I N T E N T IN T H E S E R A P I O T E S T S WAS T O R E L O A O A S S O O N A S P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T WAS C O M P L E T E D , W H I C H WAS KNOWN T O B E I N T H E O R D E R O F 15 M I N U T E S . T H I S P R O V E D U N S A T I S F A C T O R Y F O R T H E L;i.R. O F 3*0 A N D A F U R T H E R R A P I D T E S T WAS RUN W I T H A 25 M I N U T E L O A D D U R A T I O N . | T WAS A L S O F O U N D P O S S I B L E T O P E R F O R M A C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T ON T H I S M A T E R I A L W l T H O U T A C O N S O L I D A T I O N R I N G . T H I S WAS D O N E P R I M A R I L Y A S A C H E C K ON T H E P O S S I B L E E F F E C T S O F S I O E F R I C T I O N . A F I N A L S H O R T T E S T WAS RUN U S I N G V A R Y I N G L . I.R. A N D L O A D D U R A T I O N S D U R I N G T H E S A M E T E S T I N O R D E R T O I N V E S T I G A T E WHAT E F F E C T T H I S W O U L D H A V E . A T O T A L O F N I N E C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T S W E R E R U N . A L L S A M P L E S W E R E C U T F R O M A S I N G L E H O R I Z O N T A L L A Y E R IN A B L O C K O F U N D I S T U R B E D N A T U R A L F I B R O U S P E A T . AS F A R A S P O S S I B L E A L L O T H E R E X P E R I M E N T A L C O N D I T I O N S W E R E K E P T C O N S T A N T . T E S T N O . L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O L O A D D U R A T I O N ( N O M I N A L ) #2 0.33 24 HOURS v. #4 0.33 • 15 M I N U T E S #1 1.0 24 H O U R S #5 1.0 15 M I N U T E S #6 3.0 24 H O U R S #3A ' 3«0 15 M I N U T E S #3B 3.0 25 M I N U T E S #8 1.0 12 M I N U T E S #7 LO T O 3.0 20 M I N S . T O 24 H R S . •1.4 D E F I N I T I O N S C O M P R E S S I O N O F P E A T U N D E R AN A P P L I E D L O A O C A N B E D I V I D E D I N T O T H R E E P A R T S * D E F I N E D A S F O L L O W S T ' o I N I T I A L S E T T L E M E N T - S E T T L E M E N T D U E T O T H E C O M P R E S S I O N O F G A S B U B B L E S IN T H E M A T E R I A L ( T H I S W O U L D O C C U R A L M O S T I N S T A N T A N E O U S L Y ) P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T - H Y D R O O Y N A M I C S E T T L E M E N T O C C U R R I N G U N D E R C O N D I T I O N S O F S I G N I F I C A N T E X C E S S P O R E W A T E R P R E S S U R E ( T H I S I S T H E S E T T L E M E N T P R O C E S S A N A L Y S E D B Y T H E T E R Z A G H I C O N S O L I D A T I O N T H E O R Y ) 4 S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T - R E M A I N I N G S E T T L E M E N T O C C U R R I N G W I T H O U T S I G N I F I C A N T E X C E S S P O R E W A T E R P R E S S U R E ( T Y P I C A L L Y T H I S S E T T L E M E N T I S T H E S T R A I G H T L I N E P O R T I O N O F T H E S E T T L E M E N T - L O G T I M E G R A P H C O M I N G A F T E R C O M P L E T I O N O F T H E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T ) . T H E R A T E O F P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T I S G O V E R N E D B Y T H E R A T E A T W H I C H W A T E R I S E X P E L L E D U N D E R P R E S S U R E F R O M T H E V O I D S IN T H E M A T E R I A L A N D I S T H E O R E T I C A L L Y D E P E N D E N T ON T H E A V E R A G E P E R M E A B I L I T Y A N D C O M P R E S S I B I L I T Y O F T H E S O I L S T R U C T U R E A S W E L L A S T H E S Q U A R E O F T H E D R A I N A G E P A T H * ( 1 + fi) T I . E . C Y = AN0 C Y - H T H E R A T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T I S G O V E R N E D B Y T H E I N T R I N S I C R E S I S T A N C E O F T H E M A T E R I A L T O D E F O R M A T I O N . I T I S A P P A R E N T L Y I N D E P E N D E N T O F T H E C O E F F I C I E N T S O F P E R M E A B I L I T Y (k) A N O C O N S O L I D A T I O N ( C Y ) B U T T H E F A C T O R S A F F E C T I N G T H I S R A T E A R E S T I L L B E I N G I N V E S T I G A T E D . C S » C O E F F I C I E N T O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T ( N C R E M E N T O F S E T T L E M E N T P E R L O G C Y C L E O F T I M E Bl •! i. • I  rn in i, rv i • ~ - II I N I T I A L H E I G H T O F T H E S A M P L E S E E S E C T I O N 4 - 5 I N C R E M E N T O F L O A D L . I . R . •.» L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O = ; B A t P R E V I O U S T O T A L L O A D P o .. . . L . O . » L O A D D U R A T I O N I . E . P E R I O D F O R W H I C H L O A D I S K E P T U N C H A N G E D A T A G I V E N V A L U E O T H E R N O M E N C L A T U R E U S E D F O L L O W S S T A N D A R D P R A C T I C E I N R E C E N T S O I L M E C H A N I C S L I T E R A T U R E . 5 2.0 E X P E R I M E N T A L WORK 2.1 A P P A R A T U S S E E P L A T E I S E C T I O N O F C O N S O L I O O M E T E R P L A T E II P H O T O G R A P H S O F E Q U I P M E N T A L L T E S T S W E R E C A R R I E D O U T ON A S T A N D A R D T W O - S I D E D C O N S O L I D A T I O N F R A M E . L O A D WAS A P P L I E D B Y W E I G H T S A C T I N G T H R O U G H A L E V E R S Y S T E M ( L E V E R ARM R A T I O 7«5 T 0 1)* T H E S Y S T E M WAS B A L A N C E D W I T H C O U N T E R W E I G H T S AN 0 T H E L E V E R ARM C O U L D B E L E V E L L E D A N D A D J U S T E D BY M E A N S O F T U R N B U C K L E S . TWO I D E N T I C A L F I X E D R I N G C O N S O L I D O M E T E R S W E R E U S E D . E A C H O N E C O N S I S T E D O F A S T A I N L E S S S T E E L C O N S O L I D A T I O N R I N G B E T W E E N T O P A N D B O T T O M P O R O U S P L A S T I C P L A T E S A N D WAS C O N T A I N E D WL T H I N A L U C I T E D I S H A N D C O V E R . M O I S T U R E L O S S F R O M T H E S A M P L E WAS P R E V E N T E D B Y A W A T E R S E A L B E T W E E N T H E O I S H A N D T H E C O V E R . A S M A L L A D J U S T A B L E V E N T E N S U R E D NO A I R P R E S S U R E B U I L D - U P I N S I D E T H E C O V E R E S P E C I A L L Y D U R I N G R A P I D C O N S O L I D A T I O N . B O T H T O P A N D B O T T O M P O R O U S P L A S T I C P L A T E S W E R E M A D E O F L U C I T E H E A V I L Y D R I L L E D A N D G R O O V E O A N D F A C E D W I T H F I B R E G L A S S S C R E E N I N G . A T T A C H E D I N S I D E T H E T O P C O V E R WAS A N Y L O N S P A C E R B L O C K . T H E S T A I N L E S S S T E E L C O N S O L I D A T I O N R I N G S W E R E 2.50 I N S I . 0 . A N D 0.750 I N S H E I G H T ( R A T I O ' * ° * = 3.33 t A R E A « 31*60 S Q . C M s ) . T H E Y •H W E R E L I G H T L Y C O A T E D B E F O R E E A C H T E S T W I T H A R I N G L U B R I C A N T C O M P O S E D O F L U B R I P L A T E NO . 1 M I X E D W I T H M O L Y K O T E T Y P E Z ( C H I E F I N G R E D I E N T M O L Y B D E N U M D I S U L P H I D E - N O G R A P H I T E ) . C H A N G E S I N S A M P L E T H I C K N E S S W E R E M E A S U R E O W I T H AN A M E S D I A L G A G E E X T E N S O M E T E R ( 1" T R A V E L ) R E A D I N G T O 0.001 I N S . 6 D U R I N G T H E F I R S T H O U R OR SO R E A D I N G S W E R E T I M E D B Y S T O P W A T C H . F O R S U B S E Q U E N T R E A D I N G S T H E L A B O R A T O R Y C L O C K WAS U S E D . T H E T E S T S W E R E P E R F O R M E D I N A B A S E M E N T ROOM W I T H NO T E M P E R A T U R E C O N T R O L . H O W E V E R - T H E T E M P E R A T U R E V A R I A T I O N O V E R A 24 H O U R P E R I O D WAS F O U N D T O 8 E S M A L L . T H E A V E R A G E V A R I AT I ON WAS A B O U T 3° F A N D T H E L A R G E S T R E C O R D E D V A R I A T I O N 8°F. T E M P E R A T U R E S W E R E R E C O R D E D ON A M A X I M U M -M I N I M U M T H E R M O M E T E R G E N E R A L L Y R E S E T E V E R Y 24 H O U R S T H R O U G H O U T T H E T E S T S E R I E S . S T A N D A R D S O I L S L A B O R A T O R Y E Q U I P M E N T WAS U S E D F O R W E I G H I N G S , W A T E R C O N T E N T D E T E R M I N A T I O N S A N D C L A S S I F I C A T I O N T E S T S . i • . • . 2.2 S A M P L E P R E P A R A T I O N F O R T H I S T E S T S E R I E S A L L S A M P L E S W E R E C U T F R O M T H E T O P 2" O F AN U N D I S T U R B E D B L O C K O F P E A T M E A S U R I N G 12" X 10" x 4". To M I N I M I Z E M A T E R I A L C H A N G E D U E TO B A C T E R I A L A N D C H E M I C A L A C T I O N A N D L O S S O F W A T E R , T H E B L O C K WAS S P R I N K L E D W I T H A ^>Q°/o S O L U T I O N O F C A R B O L I C A C I D , C O V E R E D W I T H P L I O F I L M A N D K E P T S U B M E R G E D I N A P L A S T I C O I S H I N T H E H U M I D R O O M . A L L S A M P L E P R E P A R A T I O N W A S D O N E I N T H E HUM I 0 R O O M . T H E S A M P L E S W E R E C A R E F U L L Y C U T F R O M T H E B L O C K A N D T R I M M E D I N A C L A M P -T Y P E S O I L L A T H E . T R I M M I N G WAS D O N E W I T H A SCALPELi A N Y M I N O R R O O T S B E I N G C U T W I T H S C I S S O R S . R O O T S L A R G E R T H A N A B O U T 1/8" D I A M E T E R W E R E A V O I D E D . W A T E R C O N T E N T S W E R E D E T E R M I N E D ON T H E C U T T I N G S . IN O R D E R T O O B T A I N S I M I L A R M A T E R I A L , T H E S A M P L E S W E R E T A K E N A S N E A R L Y A S P O S S I B L E F R O M T H E S A M E H O R I Z O N T A L L A Y E R I N T H E P E A T . 7 S P E C I F I C G R A V I T Y A N O A S H C O N T E N T D E T E R M I N A T I O N S W E R E M A D E ON R E P R E S E N T A T I V E P I E C E S A N O C U T T I N G S A D J A C E N T TO T H E C O N S O L I D A T I O N S A M P L E S . TWO P R O C E D U R E S W E R E A D O P T E D TO R E O U C E S I D E F R I C T I O N I ( A ) T H E P E A T WAS C U T TO AN E A S Y S L I P F I T I N T H E R I N G ( B ) T H E I N S I D E O F T H E R I N G WAS L I G H T L Y C O A T E D W I T H R I N G L U B R I C A N T . A F T E R T H E S A M P L E H A D B E E N C U T A N D T R I M M E D I N T O T H E R I N G I T WAS B R I E F L Y R E M O V E D * T H E R I N G L I G H T L Y G R E A S E D A N D T H E S A M P L E T H E N R E P L A C E D F O R F I N A L T R I M M I N G . T H E C O N S O L I D O M E T E R D I S H WAS F I L L E D TO T H E B A S E O F T H E R I N G W I T H P E A T J U I C E , C A R E B E I N G T A K E N N O T TO T R A P H A I R B U B B L E S I N T H E B O T T O M P O R O U S P L A S T I C P L A T E . A D R O P O F C A R B O L I C WAS A D D E D TO I N H I B I T B A C T E R I A A N D F U N G U S G R O W T H D U R I N G T H E L O N G T E R M T E S T S . i 2.5 P R O C E D U R E ( 1 ) A S A M P L E WAS C U T F R O M T H E B L O C K , T R I M M E D I N T O A C O N S O L I D A T I O N R I N G AN 0 A S S E M B L E D I N T H E C O N S O L I D O M E T E R A S P R E V I O U S L Y D E S C R I B E D . O N E W A T E R C O N T E N T WAS T A K E N F R O M S A M P L E C U T T I N G S . (2) T H E A S S E M B L E D C O N S O L I D O M E T E R WAS P L A C E D I N T H E C O N S O L I D A T I O N F R A M E . T H E D I A L G A G E P L U N G E R WAS S E T ON T O P O F T H E L O A D B A R D I R E C T L Y O V E R T H E C E N T R E O F T H E CON S O L I D O M E T E R A N D T H E M A C H I N E C O U N T E R W E I G H T W A S A O J U S T E D TO B A L A N C E T H E F O R C E O F T H E S P R I N G L O A D E D P L U N G E R . T H E O N L Y I N I T I A L L O A D ON T H E S A M P L E A T T H I S P O I N T WAS T H E W E I G H T O F T H E P O R O U S P L A S T I C P L A T E A N D T H E P L A S T I C C O V E R ( A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 200 G M S ) . T H E L E V E R A R M ON T H E C O N S O L I D A T I O N F R A M E WAS A D J U S T E D A N D L E V E L L E D . P E R I O D I C A L L Y 8 DURING THE TEST, JUST BEFORE APPLYING A NEW LOAD INCREMENT, THE LEVER ARM WAS RE-LEVELLED. THE SAMPLE WAS THEN LOADED BY MEANS OF WEIGHTS ON THE END OF THE LEVER ARM ACCORDING TO THE PARTICULAR TEST SCHEDULE. FOR EACH LOADING DIAL GAGE READINGS WERE TAKEN, GENERALLY AT STANDARD TIME INTERVALS OF. 6 SECS, 15 SECS, JO SECS, 1 MIN, 2 MINS, 4 MINS, 8 MINS, 15 MINS, JO MINS, 1 HR, 2 HRS, ETC, BUT OFTEN SUPPLEMENTED BY ADDITIONAL READINGS ESPECIALLY DURING THE RAPID TESTS. A MAXIMUM-MINIMUM THERMOMETER WAS READ AND RESET GENERALLY EVERY 24 HOURS. ADDITIONAL READINGS WERE FREQUENTLY TAKEN AT CRITICAL PERIODS AND DURING THE ONE DAY RAPID TESTS. AFTER THE FINAL LOAD WAS REACHED THE SAMPLES WERE UNLOADED IN STAGES USING A PROCEDURE SIMILAR TO THE LOADING CYCLE NOTED ABOVE. AFTER A LOAD-OFF PERIOD OF APPROXIMATELY 1 HOUR, THE SAMPLE IN ITS CONSOLIDATION RING WAS REMOVED, THE FREE WATER DRIED OFF) AND WEIGHED. THE SAMPLE WAS THEN TAKEN FROM THE RING, MEASUREO, WEIGHED AND THEN CAREFULLY BROKEN IN TWO TO CHECK FOR ANY LARGE ROOTS, ETC, BEFORE BEING PLACED IN THE DRYING OVEN. THE SAMPLE WAS RE-WEIGHED AFTER OVEN ORYING FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS AT 105°C. FINAL MEASUREMENTS WERE TAKEN OF THE DRY SAMPLE AND THE AMOUNT OF WARPING AND SHRINKAGE WAS NOTED. DIAL REAOINGS WERE PLOTTED ON SETTLEMENT-LOG TIME AND SETTLEMENT-LOG APPLIED PRESSURE GRAPHS AS BASIC OATA FOR FURTHER:COMPUTATI ON. >9 2.4 MATERIAL DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION TESTS THE MATERIAL USED IN THIS SERIES OF TESTS WAS A FIBROUS PEAT OBTAINED AT 2 FT DEPTH FROM A TEST PIT ON LULU ISLAND, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA. SEASONAL GROUND WATER LEVEL VARIED FROM NEAR SURFACE TO ABOUT 4 FT BELOW GROUND LEVEL AT THE SITE. THE ONLY ENGINEERING INDEX TESTS COMMONLY USED FOR PEAT ARE WATER CONTENT AND ASH CONTENT ALTHOUGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND BULK DENSITY ARE SOMETIMES OBTAINED. WATER CONTENT VALUES TEND TO BE VARIABLE FOR FIBROUS PEAT. THE FOLLOWING SECTION GIVES THE RESULTS OF CLASSIFICATIONS, PHYSICAL TESTS AND CHEMICAL TESTS PERFORMED ON MATERIAL FROM THE ACTUAL PEAT LAYER USED IN THE TEST SERIES. 1. CLASSIFlCATION (A) DESCRIPTION: BROWN, FINE, FIBROUS PEAT, OCCASIONAL TWIGS OR ROOTS APPROXIMATELY OLAMETER, NOTICEABLE HORIZONTAL LAYERING OR LAMINATION ( NOT SEDIMENTARY ), FAINT ODOUR H2S, VERY COMPRESSIBLE, CONSIDERABLE TENSILE STRENGTH IN HORIZONTAL DIRECTION. (B) UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION: PT (c) RADFORTH CLASSIFICAT ION: (D) VAN DER POST CLASSIFICATION: 1 TO 2 ( SQUEEZE TEST) (E) BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION: 2. PHYSICAL TESTS (A) NATURAL WATER CONTENT: RANGE 1000$ TO 1260$ - AVERAGE 1110$ (B) SPECIFIC GRAVITY: USING PEAT OVEN DRIED BEFORE DETERMINATION - 1.51 (c) ASH CONTENT io1 BULK DE N S I T Y : CA L C U L A T E D GAS CO N T E N T : FROM CONSOLIDATION' T E S T S A V E R A G E Qfo BY VOLUME ( USING S.G. 1.5) CA L C U L A T E D VOID RA T I O » FROM CONSOLIDAT ION T E S T S RANGE 16.0 TO 18 . 6 A V E R A G E 17.3 ( U S I N G S.G. 1.5) CHEMICAL TE S T S p n : AVERAGE V A L U E FOR PORE WATER CO N D U C T I V I T Y : A V E R A G E V A L U E FOR P'ORE WATER CATION EXCHANGE CA P A C I T Y : NOTES ON TE S T S FOR A L L T E S T S WHERE IT WAS REQUIRED T H E WEIGHT OF DRY S O L I D S WAS DETERMINED A F T E R OVEN ORYING AT 100 - 105°C FOR AT L E A S T 24 HOURS. CHEMICAL T E S T S ( A ) AND ( B ) WERE C A R R I E D OUT US ING STANDARO EQUIPMENT IN T H E U.B.C. SO I L SC I E N C E LA B O R A T O R Y . 11 2.5 PRECAUTIONS SINCE THIS TEST SERIES WAS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL NATURE, PROCEDURES WERE DEVISED AND PRECAUTIONS TAKEN TO ELIMINATE OR REOUCE THE INFLUENCE OF AS MANY UNKNOWN FACTORS AS POSSIBLE. THUS SOME PRECAUTIONS MIGHT BE IN FACT UNNECESSARY AND OTHERS-WOULD NOT NORMALLY BE FOLLOWED IN ROUTINE CON SOL IDAT IQN TESTS. ' OF PRIMARY CONCERN WHEN RUNNING COMPARATIVE TESTS ON UNDISTURBED SOIL, WHETHER MINERAL OR ORGANIC IN COMPOSITION, IS THE SECURING OF IDENTICAL INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR EACH TEST. THE NATURE OF THE FIBROUS PEAT USED IN THIS SERIES WAS SUCH THAT ALTHOUGH NOT EASILY " DISTURBED11 OR REMOLDED, IT DID HAVE A PRONOUNCED LAYERING OR LAMINATION. OUE TO ITS HIGH WATER CONTENT ( APPROXIMATELY 1100$ ) AND HIGH ORGANIC CONTENT ( ONLY 5$ * s h ) IT WAS ALSO SUSCEPTIBLE TO LOSS OF MOISTURE ANO TO BACTERIAL DECOMPOSITI ON. THE BLOCK OF PEAT USED FOR THIS TEST SERIES WAS OBTAINED FROM A TEST PIT AT A DEPTH OF ABOUT 2 FT. IT WAS PLACED IN A PLASTIC DISH, SPRINKLED WITH CARBOLIC, COVERED WITH PLIOFILM AND KEPT IN THE HUMID ROOM, BEFORE AND DURING THE TEST SERIES. APPROXIMATELY ONE MONTH ELAPSED BETWEEN SAMPLING AND TESTING. PRECAUTIONS TAKEN DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION ARE NOTED IN SECTION 2 .2 . FOLLOWING THE PRACTICE RECOMMENDED BY OR. ROUSE, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, U.B.C., A 50$ SOLUTION OF PHENOL ( CARBOLIC ACID) WAS USED TO INHIBIT BACTERIAL ACTION IN THE PEAT. SINCE THE PEAT WAS VERY CORROSIVE ( P H APPROX. 4«0 ), THE ONLY METAL USED WAS THE STAINLESS STEEL CONSOLIDATION RING. ALL OTHER PARTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION APPARATUS WERE PLASTIC ( LUCITE, NYLON AND FIBREGLASS) TO AVOID BOTH CORROSION AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION. THE HIGH WATER CONTENT AND HIGH PERMEABILITY OF THE PEAT TOGETHER WITH THE HIGH LOAD INCREMENT RATIOS ( J.O ) OF SOME OF THE TESTS REQUIRED TOP AND BOTTOM POROUS STONES OR PLATES OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE PERMEABILITY CONSISTENT WITH THE RETENTION OF FINE MATERIAL IN THE SAMPLE. DRILLED PLASTIC PLATED WERE ADOPTED IN THIS CASE FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: (1) HIGH PERMEABILITY AND ABILITY TO HANDLE LARGE VOLUMES OF PORE WATER (2) MINIMUM CONTAMINATION PLUS EASY CLEANING (3) LIGHT WEIGHT COMBINED WITH ADEQUATE RIGIDITY. VERY OPEN POROUS STONES COULD HAVE BEEN USED ALTHOUGH ITEM (2) ABOVE FAVOURED POROUS PL AST IC PLATES. IN ANY CASE THE VERY FIBROUS NATURE OF THE PEAT TESTED SEEMED TO PREVENT ANY SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF MATERIAL INTO THE DRILLED PLASTIC PLATES DURING THIS TEST SERIES. A DRAWBACK TO THE USE OF PLASTIC MATERIALS FOR LOAD BEARING EQUIPMENT IS ITS DEFINITE CREEP CHARACTERISTICS. ALTHOUGH THE COMPLETE CON SOL IDOMETER ASSEMBLY WAS CALIBRATED OVER THE WHOLE LOADING RANGE, FURTHER CONSIDERATION HAD TO BE GIVEN TO CREEP CORRECTIONS FOR LONG TERM TESTS. SEE FIG. 2 - 1, CALIBRATION GRAPH FOR PLASTIC CONSOLIDOMETERS #1 AND #2. IT WAS DECIDED NOT TO. FLOOD THE DISH I.E. SUBMERGE THE CONSOLIDATION RING, DURING THIS SERIES IN ORDER TO AVOID THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF ANY VARIATION BETWEEN INTERNAL PORE WATER AND THE EXTERNAL DISH WATER, AS WELL AS TO GIVE MORE CHANCE FOR ESCAPE OF ANY GAS. DESSICATION WAS PREVENTED BY THE PLASTIC COVER AND WATER SEAL AS NOTED IN SECTION 2-1. ONLY ENOUGH PEAT JUICE WAS ADDED TO COVER THE BASE OF THE CONSOLIDATION 1 3 R I N G A T T H E B E G I N N I N G O F T H E T E S T T H U S C O N T A C T W I T H A L L B U T T W O P O S S I B L E C O N T A M I N E N T S W A S A V O I D E D . IN T H E C A S E O F T H E C A R B O L I C A N D T H E R I N G L U B R I C A N T I T W A S C O N S I D E R E D T H A T T H E A D V A N T A G E S O U T W E I G H E D T H E D I S A D V A N T A G E S . A T P R E S E N T T H E E F F E C T S I F A N Y O F C H E M I C A L O R B A C T E R I A L A C T I O N A R E U N K N O W N . 2.6 A C C U R A C Y B A S I C M E A S U R E M E N T S ( 1 ) S E T T L E M E N T D I A L G A G E R E A D I N G S . 0 0 1 " O C C A S I O N A L E X T E R N A L V I B R A T I O N , S A Y T E M P E R A T U R E V A R I A T I O N 68°-76°F M A X S E T T L E M E N T & C R E E P O F C O N S O L I D O M E T E R S E A T I N G E R R O R - E S T . M A X (2) A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E -W E I G H T S : A T L O A D B A R ( C A L I B R A T E D ^ ( F R I C T I O N O F K N I F E E D G E ) W E I G H T O F T O P P L A T E & C O V E R S P R I N G — L O A D E D D I A L G A G E ( + 150 G M ) S I D E F R I C T I O N L O A D A P P L I C A T I O N (3) I N I T I A L H E I G H T O F S A M P L E H E I G H T O F R I N G T R I M M E D H E I G H T O F S A M P L E ( E S T . ) ± + .750" -(4) F I N A L OV E N DR Y W E I G H T O F S A M P L E W E I G H I N G R E A D I N G T E M P E R A T U - R E V A R I A T I O N O F O V E N . , N O M I N A L M I N 24 H R S A T 105°C O I S S O L V E D M A T E R I A L I N C O N S O L I D A T I O N S A M P L E R E C O R D E D A S D R Y WT O F S O L I D S (5) S P E C I F I C G R A V I T Y O F S O L I O. M A T E R I A L M A X V A R I A T I O N I N T E S T P R O C E D U R E 0 1 S S O L V E D S O L I D S . 0 0 0 5 " . 0 0 2 " (ROUGH E S T I M A T E ) UNKNOWN JCON S I D E R E D SMALL C A L I B R A T E D , R E A D I N G S CORR. . 0 1 0 " E F F E C T SMALL 5 G M x 7 .5 » .001 K G / C M 2 31.6 100 G M x 1 « i .003 K G / C M 2 31.6 200 G M x - J P + . 0 0 6 K G / C M 2 31.6 B A L A N C E D A G A I N S T C O U N T E R -W E I G H T N E G L I G I B L E E X C E P T F O R S L I G H T E F F E C T A T H I G H E R L O A D S G E N T L Y B Y H A N O . 0 0 0 5 " ; 1.905 CM - .001 . 0 0 1 " i .002 0.1 G M - .05 U N K N O W N V A R I A T I O N E F F E C T i A P P A R E N T I N C R E A S E I N D R Y W E I G H T O F S O L I D S t 0.1 U N K N O W N V A R I A T I O N 14 CONSIDER VARIATIONS IN INITIAL VOID RATIO. I ASSUMING AS A WORST CASE THAT THE VARIATION IN COMPUTED VALUES OF VOID RATIO WERE DUE TO EACH OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ACTING ALONE* THEN THE MAXIMUM INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS BETWEEN SAMPLES SHOWN BELOW WOULD BE REQUIRED USING MEAN VALUES AS THE BASIS IN EACH CASE. (1) VARIATION IN DETERMINATION OF OVEN DRY WEIGHT OF SOL I OS - AVE.WG = 4 » 9 7 WG « ± O.JO GM ON 4*97 GM ( - 6$ VARIATION REQUIRED) (2) VARIATION IN ACTUAL AVE. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS - AVE. G S = 1.4 TO 1 G S = ( I .4O TO 1 .50) ± 0 .07 ( i 5$ VARIATION REQUIRED) (3) VARIATION IN INITIAL TRIMMED HEIGHT OF SAMPLE H-] = * 0 .055 INS ON 0.750 INS (HEIGHT OF RING) (^  7% VARIATION REQ. CONSIDER POSSIBLE ERROR-DUE TO VARIATION IN SEATING ANO ZERO SETTING OF DIAL GAGE. ESTIMATED MAXIMUM VARIATION A S = A ? ' A L — » - m t 0.25 HT.SOL IDS 0 . 0 4 1 " EXAMPLE FROM TEST #1 AT APPLIED PRESSURE « 0.119 KG/CM^ ( APPROXIMATE PRECONSOLIOATION LOAD) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL e AND C AT 0.119 KG/CM^ « 2 . 8 0 THUS Ae = 2.00 ± ERROR = 2 . 8 0 - 0 .25 ( SEE ABOVE ) + 0 . 2 5 + HENCE VARIATION = — X 100 = - 9% 2 . 8 0 ' IT CAN BE SEEN THAT THIS VARIATION BECOMES NEGLIGIBLE FAIRLY SOON -• 2 ' * E.G. AT APPLIED PRESSURE » 0.476 KG/CM e INITIAL - e AT 0.476 K G /CM 2 = 8 .85 THUS A £ » 8 . 8 5 : - 0 . 2 5 HENCE VARIATION - ± 0 , 2 5 x 100 - ± 3$ 8.85 15 SIDE FRICTION AGAINST CONSOLIDATION RING MANY INVESTIGATORS HAVE FOUNO SIDE FRICTION TO BE SIGNIFICANT IN LABORATORY CONSOLIDATION TESTS ON CLAY EVEN WHEN USING STANDARD HEIGHT TO DIAMETER RATIOS ( 2»5)« RECENT WORK HAS INDICATEO SIDE FRICTION VALUES AS HIGH AS 12$ OF THE APPLIED LOAD FOR FIBROUS-AMORPHOUS PEAT IN UNGREASED RINGS ( 6 ) . FOLLOWING RECOMMENDED CURRENT PRACTICE! ALL , D . TESTS IN THIS SERIES WERE RUN IN CONSOLIDATION RINGS ( ^  =" 3»33) LIGHTLY COATED INSIDE WITH A MOLYBDENUM OLSULPHIDE GREASE. HOWEVER DUE TO THE VERY FIBROUS NATURE OF THE PEAT BEING TESTED AND ITS RELATIVELY HIGH LATERAL TENSILE STRENGTH, IT WAS POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN DIRECT CHECK ON THE ACTUAL EFFECT OF SIDE FRICTION. IN TEST #8 THE PEAT WAS CUT, TRIMMED INTO THE RING AND WEIGHED. THEN THE SAMPLE WAS CAREFULLY PUSHED OUT AND THE CONSOLIDATION TEST PERFORMED WITHOUT THE RING - SEE F|G. 3 -25 ' NO SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCE WAS NOTED IN THE E-LOG P OR S-LOG P GRAPHS BETWEEN THIS TEST AND THE OTHER EIGHT, EXCEPT FOR THE FINAL LOADS OF TEST #2 ( L.I.R. 0 . 3 3 L.O. 24 HOURS) AFTER THIS LATTER TEST HAD BEEN RUNNING FOR ABOUT 4 WEEKS. THERE WAS A SLIGHT BULGING IN THE SAMPLE BEYOND THE PREC0NS0LI DAT I ON LOAD WHICH INCREASED I' AVERAGE DIAMETER FROM 2 .50 INS TO APPROXIMATELY 2 .6 INS AT THE HIGHEST LOAD, WITHOUT HOWEVER ANY APPARENT DISTRESS IN THE SAMPLE. HENCE IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT SIDE FRICTION WAS NOT A FACTOR DURING THE LOAD CYCLE OF THE TEST SERIES. THERE DID APPEAR TO BE SOME EFFECT ON THE UNLOAD CYCLE BUT IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE ANY QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES. 16 THE POSSIBILITY REMAINS THAT SIDE FRICTION MAY HAVE HAD SOME EFFECT ON THE RATE VS SETTLEMENT ESPECIALLY AS BETWEEN FAST ANO SLOW TESTS AND HIGH AND LOW L . I . R . IN VIEW OF THE NEGLIGIBLE EFFECT ON THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF SETTLEMENT, HOWEVER» IT APPEARED UNLIKELY THAT SIDE FRICTION WOULD HAVE HAD AN APPRECIABLE EFFECT ON RATES OF SETTLEMENT. 1 1 i 1 _ 1 1 If] i i tr \i i • i ft a ri s if EC N > IN S i F ^  m X S n -J *• F * 4 v. i f / 'i T i 1 \r r«jj it] » \> » s_ & •xi ri 1 V i u ul Q u r r i g rV <: t$ CL 4 M M nj s. |4 S f> * \ • i A t «J 2 ys Kl JJ *i 5 P •v. J T pi IT fr — r r u J D 4 ui P u \— j i n ,< l K *3 3 Q — ,— IS1, J 43 W *t tc K s s 3 *S M 1 J — J p> 3 0 XI „ r> #* 1 — \ v j mJ Q LL ! C — o a • z 1 =i a i <* j i < t , • B 1 < E f i * i 1 k fl I • i < r J > . : i u T i>i |fj r r ' 1 fi L o cv •1 -* i —' r* a fn MI i* nn — c C J a I'! i PC -< 4 a d • c i 7 V f i u i r k 1*1 s '— H u : :. J > 1 17 3.0 E X P E R I M E N T A L R E S U L T S 3.1 TEST DATA SUMMARY INFORMATION ON THE TYPE OF TEST» SAMPLE MEASUREMENTS ANO WEIGHTS ANO COMPUTED VALUES OF VOID RATIO, ETC, FOR ALL CONSOLIDATION SAMPLES IN THE TEST SERIES ARE SUMMARIZED ON FLG. 3 -1 TEST DATA SUMMARY. 3«2 RESULTS OF CONSOLIDATION TESTS ALL READINGS TAKEN WERE PLOTTED ON GRAPHS OF DIAL READINGS VS LOG TIME -AS NOTED BEL'OW. THE FINAL DIAL READING OF SETTLEMENT FOR EACH INCREMENT OF LOAD WAS ALSO PLOTTED ON A GRAPH OF DIAL READING VS LOG APPLIED PRESSURE FOR ALL TESTS IN THIS SERIES ON FLG. 3~25 - DIAL READING VS LOG P. UNCORRECTED SETTL EMENT 01AL READINGS. SUBSEQUENT GRAPHS HAD SETTLEMENTS CORRECTED BY REFERENCE TO THE CALIBRATION CHART ON FlG 2-1 . USING A COMMON VALUE OF S.G. = 1.5 FOR THE SOLIDS, VOID RATIOS WERE COMPUTED AND ALL TESTS WERE PLOTTED ON A S T A N D A R 0 GRAPH OF (CORRECTED) FINAL VOID RATIO FOR EACH INCREMENT OF LOAD AGAINST LOG APPLIED PRESSURE SEE FIG. 3-26 FINAL e vs LOG P. L . I . R . 0.33 L . I . R . 1.0 L . I . R . 3.0 L . I . R . 3.0 L . I . R . 1.0 & 3.0 ALL THE GRAPHS UP TO THIS POINT - FIGS. 3-2 TO 3-25 - USED f aci>-q p. \S> O 6 c =2" 0 -! Ci. a. < : 0 1 8 3»5 P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E A N D C O M P R E S S I O N I N D E X T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E A N D C O M P R E S S I O N I N D E X W E R E D E T E R M I N E D F R O M T H E F I N A L 6 - L O G P C U R V E S ( F I G . 3-26 ) . T H E P E A T SHOWS A S I M I L A R P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E F O R A L L T E S T S . U S I N G T H E C A S A G R A N D E C O N S T R U C T I O N T H E V A L U E O B T A I N E D F R O M S - L O G P A N D FI-LOG P C U R V E S R A N G E S F R O M 0.120 TO 0.130 K G / C M 2 ( 25O P . S . F . ) . S I N C E T H E P E A T S A M P L E C A M E F R O M A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 2 F T B E L O W T H E S U R F A C E I N AN A R E A W H E R E S E A S O N A L G R O U N D W A T E R L E V E L V A R I E S F R O M N E A R S U R F A C E TO A B O U T 4 F T B E L O W G R A D E I I T C O U L D O N L Y H A V E H A D AN O V E R B U R D E N P R E S S U R E O F A B O U T 2 X 65 P . C . F . = 130 P . S . F . T H E R E F O R E T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E R E F L E C T S A C E R T A I N A M O U N T O F D R Y I N G , A S S U M I N G T H E P E A T B E H A V E S S I M I L A R L Y TO C O L L O I D A L I N O R G A N I C S O I L . U S I N G T H E C R I T E R I O N OF P E A K R A T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T - S E E F I G . 4«5 - T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E W O U L D A P P E A R TO B E E V E N H I G H E R A R O U N D 0.20 TO 0.24 K G / C M 2 . T H E C O M P R E S S I O N I N D E X W A S T A K E N F R O M T H E S L O P E O F T H A T P A R T O F T H E C U R V E B E T W E E N 0.15 K G / C M 2 A N D 0.50 K G / C M 2 . A V E . C C = 9 » 8 - 0.6 - F O R A L L N I N E T E S T S 3.4 D I S C U S S I O N IT C A N B E S E E N T H A T A L L T H E & vs L O G P OR S V S ' L O G P C U R V E S H A V E A V E R Y S I M I L A R S H A P E A N D C O U L D P R O B A B L Y B E B R O U G H T I N T O F A I R L Y C L O S E A G R E E M E N T B Y V E R T I C A L A D J U S T M E N T . A L L T H E T E S T S W E R E A R R A N G E D TO H A V E TWO COMMON A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S D E S P I T E V A R Y I N G L . I . R . T H E S E W E R E AN I N I T I A L S E A T I N G L O A D = 0.024 K G / C M 2 A N D A L O A D C L O S E TO T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N L O A D - I N T H I S C A S E 0.119 K G / C M 2 . N O C O R R E L A T I O N WAS F O U N D B E T W E E N , H)_ 7_ Fnc rr i p. i q a' if. UJ D SlJ Ii EL O 6 19 S E T T L E M E N T S AN 0 V O I 0 R A T I O , D R Y W E I G H T S O L I D S , I N I T I A L WET D E N S I T Y OR S A T U R A T I O N A T E I T H E R O F T H E TWO COMMON A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S D E S C R I B E D A B O V E I . E . 0 .024 K G / C M 2 A N D 0.119 K G / C M 2 . T H R E E F A C T O R S A R E I N V O L V E D I N T H E V A R I A T I O N B E T W E E N T H E C U R V E S A S SHOWN ON E I T H E R F l G . 3-25 OR F l G . 3~26. (1) U N I N T E N D E D D I F F E R E N C E S I N T E S T C O N D I T I O N S I- A S I D E F R O M S M A L L T E M P E R A T U R E V A R I A T I O N S ( W H I C H W E R E M E A S U R E D ) , I T WAS C O N S I D E R E D T H A T I N F A C T A L L T E S T S W E R E P E R F O R M E D U N D E R I D E N T I C A L C I R C U M S T A N C E S . (2) V A R I A T I O N I N M A T E R I A L T E S T E D » - T H I S I S A L W A Y S A P R O B L E M WHEN U S I N G N A T U R A L U N D I S T U R B E O M A T E R I A L - M A G N I F I E D I N T H I S C A S E S I N C E T H E M A T E R I A L I S A F I B R O U S P E A T O F S U C H H I G H W A T E R C O N T E N T . I N A 0 D I T I 0 N T H E S M A L L S I Z E O F S A M P L E S ( - 5 G M S D R Y W E I G H T O F S O L I D S ) U S E D T E N D E D TO E X A G G E R A T E A N Y V A R I A T I O N I N M A T E R I A L C O M P O S I T I O N . I T WAS C O N S I D E R E D T H A T I N G E N E R A L T H E V A R I A T I O N B E T W E E N T H E C R I T I C A L T E S T S I N T H I S S E R I E S WAS N O T E N O U G H TO I N V A L I D A T E C O M P A R I S O N S O F T E S T S A L T H O U G H I N S O M E C A S E S I T D I D P R E V E N T M O R E T H A N G E N E R A L C O N C L U S I O N S B E I N G D R A W N . (3) C O N T R O L L E D D I F F E R E N C E S I N T E S T P R O G R A M : - T H E O B J E C T O F T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N W A S TO D E T E R M I N E WHAT D I F F E R E N C E S I F A N Y E X I S T E D B E T W E E N T E S T S , A N D , I F P O S S I B L E I TO D E D U C E W H I C H V A R I A B L E H A D C A U S E D T H E M . O B V I O U S L Y S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E S W O U L D O N L Y B E O B S E R V E D I F V A R I A T I O N S I N (1) A N D (2) A B O V E W E R E N E G L I G I B L E I N R E L A T I O N TO T H E C O N T R O L L E D V A R I A B L E S I N (3)» O R , I F N O T N E G L I G I B L E , AT L E A S T O F KNOWN E F F E C T . ON T H E O T H E R H A N D W H E R E I D E N T I T I E S W E R E B E I N G C O N S I D E R E D T H E P R O B L E M WAS TO A S S E S S W H E T H E R T H E V A R I A T I O N S I N (1) A N D (2) A B O V E W E R E S U F F I C I E N T TO M A S K A N A C T U A L S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E I N ( 3 ) . -20 IN O R D I N A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N T H E O R Y T H E P L O T T I N G O F R E S U L T S ON A N E - L O G P G R A P H I S E Q U I V A L E N T TO P L O T T I N G T H E M O N A $ S - L O G P OR S - L O G P G R A P H , I N T H E S E N S E T H A T TWO C U R V E S I N C L O S E A G R E E M E N T ON O N E P L O T M U S T G I V E C L O S E A G R E E M E N T ON T H E O T H E R . I N T H I S C A S E I T WAS C O N S I D E R E D T H A T L I T T L E W O U L D B E G A I N E D BY C O M P A R I N G R E S U L T S ON A V O I D R A T I O B A S I S S I N C E T H E V A R I A T I O N I N D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F I N I T I A L V O I D R A T I O W O U L D B E O F T H E S A M E O R D E R A S T H E A P P A R E N T V A R I A T I O N I N S A M P L E S . B E C A U S E T H I S T E S T S E R I E S W A S E S S E N T I A L L Y O N E O F C O M P A R I S O N B E T W E E N S A M P L E S A S N E A R L Y I D E N T I C A L A S P O S S I B L E . I T WAS D E C I D E D TO R E L Y ON M E A S U R E D S E T T L E M E N T S F O R C O M P A R A T I V E G R A P H S A N D C O M P U T A T I O N S . T H E P O S S I B I L I T Y R E M A I N S , H O W E V E R . T H A T TWO S A M P L E S O F I D E N T I C A L V O I O R A T I O C O U L D H A V E D I F F E R E N T S E T T L E M E N T - L O A D C U R V E S O U E TO D I F F E R E N T F I B R E S T R E N G T H S W I T H I N T H E P E A T . T H I S W O U L D I M P L Y A D I F F E R E N C E I N M A T E R I A L C O M P O S I T I O N OR S O I L S T R U C T U R E . 21 4.0 C O M P A R I S O N S . 4.1 C O M P A R I S O N O F L . I . R . F O R 24 H O U R L O A D D U R A T I O N C O N S I D E R F I G . 4-1 S H O W I N G S E T T L E M E N T A T 1440 M ' INS V S L O G P T E S T S #1 ( L . I . R . 1.0) A N D #6 ( L . I . R . J . O ) S H O W E D GOOD A G R E E M E N T B U T T E S T #2 ( L . I . R . 0.33 ) L A Y S O M E W H A T A B O V E T H E O T H E R T W O . T H E S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E S B E T W E E N T H E C U R V E S C A N B E S T B E S E E N B Y N O T I N G T H E D I F F E R E N C E S I N T H E I R S E T T L E M E N T A T V A R I O U S A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S . T H E S E D I F F E R E N C E S A R E T A B U L A T E D B E L O W . ; \> ( f o / c M J J •024- • i i q pwfcan. psestuee • 4 - 7 6 •7. ie> T I S S T N 2 » DIFF. IN S 0"S) •00) 005 •00 8 •033 •006 -0-3X •ool • ois / 100 Ave. S a / eyeis '004- • OIS •010 • 005 I T C A N B E C O N C L U D E D F R O M T H E S E F I G U R E S T H A T T E S T S #1 A N D #6 H A V E C O M P A R A B L E S E T T L E M E N T S F O R T H E S A M E A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S I N C E T H E Y , H A V E S M A L L A N D N E A R L Y C O N S T A N T D I F F E R E N C E S B E Y O N D T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I ON P R E S S U R E } B U T T H A T T E S T #2 I S O N L Y A P P R O X I M A T E L Y C O M P A R A B L E * I F A T A L L . IN A N T I C I P A T I O N O F L A T E R D I S C U S S I O N O F R A T E S O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T * T H E A V E R A G E A M O U N T S O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T P E R L O G C Y C L E E X H I B I T E D B Y T H E T H R E E T E S T S A R E I N C L U D E D I N T H E A B O V E T A B L E . 22 4.2 CO M P A R I S O N O F L.I.R. F O R 15 M I N LO A D DU R A T I O N C O N S I D E R F I G . 4-2 S H O W I N G S E T T L E M E N T AT 15 M I N S V S LO G P . F I V E T E S T S W E R E P L O T T E D ON T H I S G R A P H -T H R E E H A V I N G A L O A D O U R A T I O N . O F 15 M I N U T E S ( #4» #5 A N D #3A ) O N E » » " ' » " 2 5 " ( #3B ) O N E » " »• ' » 12 " ( #8 - N O R I N G ) S I N C E A L L W E R E I N T H E C A T E G O R Y O F R A P I D T E S T S . IT C A N B E S E E N T H A T T H E R E WAS C L O S E A G R E E M E N T T H R O U G H O U T B E T W E E N T E S T #4 ( L.I.R. O . 3 3 ) A N D $5 ( L.I.R. 1.0 ) W H I L E T E S T #8 (• L . I . R . 1.0 NO R I N G ) S H O W E D S O M E V A R I A T I O N B E T W E E N A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S O F 0.1 A N D 0.5 O N L Y . BOTH T E S T S #3A A N D #3B ( L.I.R. 3.0 ) P L O T C O N S I D E R A B L Y A B O V E T H E O T H E R CURVES. TH E S E T T L E M E N T - L O G T I M E GRAPHS O F T H E S E R A P I D T E S T S SHOW T H A T A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N H A D T A K E N P L A C E U N D E R T H E P R E V I O U S L O A D I N C R E M E N T B E F O R E T H E N E X T L O A D I N C R E M E N T WAS A P P L I E D I N T H E C A S E O F T E S T S #4, #5 A N D #8, E X C E P T F O R T H E L A S T F E W I N C R E M E N T S F O R #5 A N D #8. B U T N O T I N T H E C A S E O F T E S T S #3A A N D $B. ' H E N C E T H E R E A S O N F O R T H E V A R I A T I O N I N T H E L A T T E R T E S T S WAS T H A T T H E Y W E R E R E L O A D E D B E F O R E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T H A D B E E N C O M P L E T E O . T H I S E X P L A N A T I O N I S S U P P O R T E D I N T E S T #3A B Y T H E S E T T L E M E N T U N D E R T H E F I N A L A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E O F 7.58 KG / C M 2 W H I C H WAS A L L O W E D TO R E M A I N F O R 2 D A Y S , W E L L P A S T T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N P O I N T . T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y 1 S E T T L E M E N T P O I N T F O R T E S T #3A T H E N P L O T S I N G O O D A G R E E M E N T W I T H T E S T #5. T H E L A S T TWO L O A D I N C R E M E N T S F O R T E S T S #5 A N D #8 D I D N O T Q U I T E R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N E I T H E R , E X C E P T F O R T H E L A S T L O A D ON T E S T #8 W H I C H T H E N P L O T S I N C L O S E A G R E E M E N T W I T H T E S T #4. 23 C O M P A R I N G T H E C U R V E S F O R T E S T S #4, #5 A N O #8 \» fa/to') • 02.-4- . 4 - 7 6 7 . S3 T E S T N -D I F F . IN S M •001 -.005 •o\q •OOl 'OOT TO A T \0 'OOS To . . OOO o'/o PHir TO inter Ave. S ^ / ' f ««•* •003 £ • 0 1 0 x i j •01s ± i 005 T H I S T A B L E SHOWS T H E GOOD A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N T E S T S #4 A N O #5 A N D T H E G E N E R A L L Y GOOD A G R E E M E N T / O F T E S T . #8. A L T H O U G H T E S T S #3A A N D #3B ( L . I . R 3.0 ) A R E N O T V E R Y C O M P A R A B L E , T H E I N D I C A T I O N S A R E T H A T T H E Y W O U L D A L S O B E I N . G E N E R A L L Y GOOO A G R E E M E N T I F T H E I R L O A D O U R A T I ONS W E R E E X T E N D E D TO P E R M I T 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N TO B E C O M P L E T E D . H Q W E V E R I T S H O U L O B E N O T E D T H A T T H E C U R V E S F O R T E S T S #3A A N D #38 A G R E E F A I R L Y W E L L W I T H E A C H O T H E R ( E X C E P T F O R T H E L A S T L O A D ) D E S P I T E T H E D I F F E R E N T L O A D D U R A T I O N S O F 15 M I N U T E S A N D 25 M I N U T E S R E S P E C T I V E L Y . 24 4.3 CO M P A R I S O N O F 24 H O U R A N D 15 M I N T E S T S F O R D I F F E R E N T L . I . R . CO N S I D E R F I G . 4-3 S H O W I N G S E T T L E M E N T A T 100$ P R I M A R Y V S LO G P T H R E E T E S T S R U N W I T H N O M I N A L L O A D D U R A T I O N S O F 24 H O U R S H A V E B E E N P L O T T E D ( #2, #1 A N D #6 . W I T H ' R E S P E C T I V E L . I . R . O F O . 3 3 , 1.0 A N D 3.0 ) T O G E T H E R W I T H TWO T E S T S W I T H L O A D D U R A T I O N S O F 15 M I N U T E S ( #4 A N O #5 W I T H R E S P E C T I V E L . I . R . O F 0.33 A N D 1.0 ) . T E S Y S #3A A N D #3B W E R E O M I T T E D S I N C E T H E Y D I D N O T R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N - S E E D I S C U S S I O N I N S E C T J O N 4-2. TH E 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N P O I N T W A S D E T E R M I N E D F R O M ' T H E D I A L R E A O I N G - L O G T I M E G R A P H S A S F O L L O W S : ( I ) FOR C U R V E S C O N C A V E U P W A R D S I N T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N R E G I O N T H E S T A N D A R D T A N G E N T I N T E R C E P T M E T H O D W A S U S E O . ( A. C A S A G R A N D E C O N S T R U C T I O N , R E F . 1 , p.241) ( I I ) FOR C U R V E S C O N V E X U P W A R D S I N T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N R E G I O N T H E T A N G E N T P O I N T M E T H O D WAS U S E D . A C C O R D I N G TO L E O N A R D S & G I R A U L T (5) T H I S P O I N T I S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y T H E P O I N T W H E R E P O R E P R E S S U R E R E A D I N G S B E C A M E E S S E N T I A L L Y Z E R O . M E T H O D ( l l ) . W A S M A I N L Y A P P L I C A B L E TO T E S T #2 W I T H A L . I . R . O F 0.33 A N D A N O M I N A L L O A D 0URATI0N O F 24 H O U R S . T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y P O I N T S U S E D A R E M A R K E D ON T H E C U R V E S I N T H E D I A L R E A D I N G V S L O G T I M E G R A P H S . T H E TWO C U R V E S H A P E S I N V O L V E D A R E SHOWN I N S K E T C H E S I N S E C T I O N 4*4* AS I N T H E P R E V I O U S G R A P H S ON FlG. 4-2, T E S T S #4 A N D #5 C A N B E R E P R E S E N T E D Q U I T E C L O S E L Y B Y A S I N G L E L I N E E X C E P T F O R T H E L A S T F E W L O A D I N C R E M E N T S . H O W E V E R WHEN P L O T T E D T O G E T H E R T H E 15 M I N U T E T E S T S F A L L C O N S I S T E N T L Y B E L O W T H E 24 H O U R T E S T S - T H E D I F F E R E N C E I N S E T T L E M E N T 25 B E I N G A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 0.015 I N S TO .020 I N S . T H I S I S E X A C T L Y O P P O S I T E TO T H E T R E N D T H A T M I G H T B E E X P E C T E D I F T H E 15 M I N U T E T E S T S W E R E B E I N G R E L O A D E D B E F O R E R E A C H I N G 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . A S A C H E C K ON T H E R A P I D T E S T S #4 A N D #5, T H E . 100$ P R I M A R Y P O I N T WAS E S T I M A T E D F O R T H E S E TWO T E S T S U S I N G T H E P R E V I O U S TWO M E T H O D S ( l ) A N D ( l l ) A S S I S T E D W H E R E P O S S I B L E B Y T H E S Q U A R E R O O T F I T T I N G M E T H O D . A L T H O U G H T H E S E W E R E O N L Y A P P R O X I M A T E D E T E R M I N A T I O N S T H E Y D I D I N D I C A T E T H A T T E S T #5 ( L . I . R . 1.0 ) H A D C O M P L E T E D I T S P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T B Y 15 M I N U T E S W H E R E A S T E S T #4 ( L.I.R. 0.33 ) O N L Y C O M P L E T E D I T S P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T W I T H I N T H E 15 M I N U T E L O A D D U R A T I O N U P TO AN A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E O F A B O U T 0-5 K G / C M 2 . I N N E I T H E R C A S E D I D T H E S E C O N S I D E R A T I O N S M A K E A N Y S I G N I F I C A N T I M P R O V E M E N T I N A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N T E S T S #4 A N D #5 A N D T E S T S #1 » #2 A N D #6. T H E R A N G E O F T I M E S T A K E N TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N F O R T H E L A T T E R T E S T S 1 I S SHOWN I N S E C T I O N 4«4« A F U R T H E R C O M P A R I S O N WAS M A D E B Y P L O T T I N G T H E S A M E T E S T S ON A V O I D R A T I O B A S I S . FR O M T H E G R A P H O F e A T 100$ P R I M A R Y V S L O G P - F I G . 4-4 -I T C A N B E S E E N T H A T T H E R E W A S N O B E T T E R A G R E E M E N T T H A N P R E V I O U S L Y . TWO D I F F E R E N T C O N C L U S I O N S C O U L D B E DRAWN F R O M T H E S E R E S U L T S . ( A ) S I N C E T H E C U R V E S A R E V E R Y S I M I L A R W I T H A F A I R L Y C O N S I S T E N T S E T T L E M E N T D I F F E R E N C E B E T W E E N T H E 24 H O U R A N D 15 M I N U T E T E S T S , I T M A Y B E A S S U M E D T H A T T H E I R D I F F E R E N C E S A R E N O T D U E TO R A N D O M C A U S E S , T H U S I M P L Y I N G A V A R I A T I O N I N T H E S A M P L E S OR T H E T E S T S . ( B ) A S S U M I N G S I M I L A R M A T E R I A L , T H E N T H E R E A P P E A R E D T O B E A D E F I N I T E T R E N D TO I N C R E A S E D S E T T L E M E N T W H E R E T E S T S W E R E R U N W I T H S H O R T L O A D 26 D U R A T I O N S I . E . R E L O A D E D A T OR C L O S E TO T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N P O I N T - T H I S T R E N D S H O W E D F O R A T L E A S T TWO L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S - 0 .33 A N D 1.0. 4 . 4 C O M P A R I S O N O F C U R V E S H A P E S A N D T I M E R E Q U I R E D TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y  CON S O L i D A T I O N T H E S H A P E O F A C O M P R E S S I O N C U R V E WHEN P L O T T E D O N A G R A P H O F S E T T L E M E N T V S L O G T I M E G E N E R A L L Y F A L L S I N T O O N E O F TWO D I S T I N C T C A T E G O R I E S . T H E Y • • . i H A V E B E E N SO C L A S S I F I E D B Y S E V E R A L I N V E S T I G A T O R S ( 4, 5,7) I N T O T Y P E I A N D T Y P E E I C U R V E S A S SHOWN I N T H E S K E T C H B E L O W . IN S O M E C A S E S A T R A N S I T I O N C U R V E B E T W E E N T H E S E TWO T Y P E S H A S B E E N R E C O G N I S E D . t LOfi t T Y P E . I T Y P E . JL - S I N C E T H E S E C U R V E T Y P E S H A V E B E E N O B S E R V E D F O R B O T H L A B O R A T O R Y A N D FT E L D CON S O L I D A T I ON S E T T L E M E N T S I N ; P E A T , A S W E L L A S I N C L A Y , T H E Y A F F O R D A C O N V E N I E N T C L A S S I F L C A T I O N S Y S T E M . G E N E R A L L Y A S H A L L O W F O R M O F E I T H E R T Y P E I OR T Y P E Z T OR P O S S I B L Y A T R A N S I T I O N T Y P E C U R V E C O U L O B E C O N S I D E R E D TO P R E V A I L B E L O W T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E F O R A L L L . I . R J S ' A N D L O A D D U R A T I O N S U S E D I N T H I S T E S T S E R I E S . . 2 7 •DU E TO T H E H I G H I N I T I A L W A T E R C O N T E N T A N D R E L A T I V E L Y H I G H I N I T I A L P E R M E A B I L I T Y O F T H E P E A T , A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 50$ O F T H E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T H A D O C C U R R E D B Y T H E T I M E T H E F I R S T R E A D I N G C O U L D B E O B T A I N E D ( A T 6 S E C S ) , SO T H E F I R S T P A R T O F T H E T Y P E I C U R V E WAS N E V E R R E A L L Y O B S E R V E D . A G E N E R A L C O M P A R I S O N O F C U R V E T Y P E S A N D T I M E TO 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . ( D E T E R M I N E D A S D E S C R I B E D I N S E C T I O N 4.3 ) F O R A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S B E Y O N D T H E P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N L O A D I S SHOWN I N F O L L O W I N G T A B L E . T E S T # L . I . R . LO A D CU R V E RA N G E O F DU R A T I O N T Y P E T I M E S TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y ( M I N S ) 2 0.33 24 H R S . N O M I N A L n 150 - 300 -1 ' 1.0 I  I 3 - 3 5 6 3.0 I  I 5 - 4 0 4 0.33 15 M I N S I 5 - 20 + 5 1.0 I  I 2 - 2 0 .3A 3-0 I  I -3B 3.0 25 M I N S I 4 A N D 40 . 8 1.0 12 M I N S I 2 - 3 5 ( N O 7 1.0 3-0 15 M I N S 24 H R S I 2 - 4 10 S E V E R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S A R I S E F R O M T H E A B O V E C O M P A R I S O N A S W E L L A S F R O M T H E S E T T L E M E N T - L O G T I M E G R A P H S F L G S . 3~2 TO 3"-24« ( A ) A L L T H E T E S T S E X C E P T #2 H A D T H E S A M E C U R V E T Y P E A N D A P P R O X I M A T E L Y T H E S A M E R A N G E O F T I M E TO R E A C H '100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . IN O T H E R WORDS V A R Y I N G T H E L . I . R . AN 0 T H E L O A D D U R A T I O N D I D N O T M A K E A P R O N O U N C E D D I F F E R E N C E TO T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y T I M E P R O V I D E D T H E C U R V E T Y P E D I D N O T C H A N G E ( A S DI S C U S S E Q E A R L I E R T E S T S #3A .AND. '3B D I D N O T 28 P R O P E R L Y R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T ) . ( B ) IN T E S T #2 T H E T I M E S TO 100$ P R I M A R Y S H O W E D A D E F I N I T E T R E N D TO S H O R T E R V A L U E S A T H I G H E R A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S I . E . A T L O W E R V O I D R A T I O S , W H E R E A S A L L T H E O T H E R T E S T S S H O W E D A S L O W T R E N D TO L O N G E R T I M E S A T H I G H E R A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S . (c) VA R I A T I O N S O F T H E L . I.R. D U R I N G T E S T #2 C A U S E D S I G N I F I C A N T . V A R I A T I O N S I N T H E T I M E TO 100$ P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T A L T H O U G H A P P A R E N T L Y N O T I N O T H E R T E S T S W I T H T Y P E I C U R V E S . C O N S I O E R T H E F O L L O W I N G E X A M P L E S F R O M T E S T S #2 A N D #7*-T E S T # LO A D I N C R E M E N T CH A N G E I N CH A N G E I N T I M E TO ( K G . C M 2 ) L . I . R . 100$ P R I M A R Y ( M I N S ) 2 2.76 TO 3.19 D E C R E A S E O F R O M I N C R E A S E D F R O M 0.33 TO 0 . 1 6 90 TO 300 5.98 TO 8.58 I N C R E A S E D F R O M D E C R E A S E D F R O M 0.37 TO 0.44 150 TO 90 7 O.476 TO 1.90 I N C R E A S E D F R O M I N C R E A S E D F R O M 1.0 TO 3.0 4 TO 10 ( E X P E C T E O N O R M A L I N C R . ) ( D ) FOR T E S T S A T L . I . R . O F 1.0 A N D 3.0 T H E R E A P P E A R E D TO B E A S L I G H T T E N D E N C Y F O R T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y T I M E TO B E L O N G E R F O R T H E R A P I D 15 M I N U T E L . D.' T E S T S T H A N F O R T H E 24 H O U R T E S T S A T T H E S A M E L . I . R . E S P E C I A L L Y A T H I G H E R A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S ( I . E . L O W E R V O I D R A T I O S ) , T H E R E V E R S E W A S T H E C A S E F O R T E S T S A T T H E L . I . R . ' O F 0.33-( E ) TH E T I M E T A K E N TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T I N T E S T #2 ( L . I . R . O.33) WAS R O U G H L Y O N E L O G C Y C L E O F T I M E I N M I N U T E S L O N G E R ! T H A N I N T H E O T H E R T E S T S . IT WAS C O N C L U D E D T H A T T H E C U R V E T Y P E WAS D E P E N D E N T ON B O T H L O A D IN C R E M E N T RA T I O A N D LO A D DU R A T I O N OR R A T E O F L O A D I N G . 29 S U P P O R T F O R T H I S C O N C L U S I O N I S G I V E N B Y A V E R Y S I M I L A R C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T C A R R I E D O U T R E C E N T L Y B Y T H E W R I T E R I N T H E L A B O R A T O R Y O F R . A . S P E N C E L T D . , V A N C O U V E R . T H E T E S T WAS P E R F O R M E D U N D E R N E A R L Y I D E N T I C A L C O N D I T I O N S ON F I B R O U S P E A T A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 6 I N S D E E P E R F R O M AN A D J A C E N T T E S T P I T A T T H E S A M E S I T E . I N T H I S C A S E A L . I . R . O F O . J O A N D A V E R Y C O N S I S T E N T L O A D D U R A T I O N O F 24 H O U R S A L S O G A V E A T Y P E TL C U R V E . S E T T L E M E N T V S L O G T I M E G R A P H S ( F I G S . A-1 TO A -5 I N C L U S I V E ) F O R T H I S T E S T N O . P 1 A R E I N C L U D E D I N T H E A P P E N D I X . 30 4. 5 CO M P A R I S O N O F RA T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T CO N S I D E R F I G . 4-5 S H O W I N G RA T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E CO N S I D E R F I G . 4-6 " *• 4t " " vs LO G P P L O T T E D ON T H E A B O V E G R A P H S A R E T H E R A T E S O F S E C O N O A R Y S E T T L E M E N T A T E A C H L O A D F O R T H E 24 H O U R T E S T S #6, #1 A N D #2 P L U S S I N G L E D E T E R M I N A T I O N S F R O M T E S T S #8, #7 * N 0 #3A W H E R E T H E L O A D I N C R E M E N T R E M A I N E D ON F O R A T L E A S T 24 H O U R S . FO U R M E T H O D S O F C O M P U T I N G T H I S R A T E W E R E A T T E M P T E D S I N C E T H E R E A P P E A R S TO B E NO G E N E R A L A G R E E M E N T ON T H E M O S T S I G N I F I C A N T M A N N E R O F P R E S E N T A T I O N . (•) Cg " A D I A L R D G . P E R L O G C Y C L E O F T I M E H-) ( I N I T I A L H E I G H T O F S A M P L E ) ( l I) C * S * A DIAL RDG. .PER LOG CYCLE Hp ( H T . O F S A M P L E AT P R E C O N S O L I D A T I O N P R E S S U R E - 100$ P R I M A R Y P O I N T ) ( i l l ) D s = A D I A L R D G . P E R L O G C Y C L E  H F ( P R E V I O U S F I N A L H T . O F S A M P L E ) ( I V) D' s = A D I A L R D G . P E R L O G C Y C L E  H-JQO$ ( P R E V I O U S H T . O F S A M P L E A T 100$ P R I M A R Y P O I N T ) IN T H I S T E S T S E R I E S H-J • = 0 . 7 5 0 " A N O H p = O.63O" ± . 0 . 0 1 0 " . F O R A L L T E S T S , C O N S E Q U E N T L Y C ' s W A S N O T G R A P H E D S I N C E I T WAS S I M I L A R TO C s . B O T H D g A N O D' W E R E P L O T T E D SO A S TO I N D I C A T E A N Y P O S S I B L E T R E N D S B E T W E E N T H E V A R I O U S S L . I . R . ' " T H E C U R V E S O F CS S H O W E O T H E T Y P I C A L S H A P E O F P E A T S E C O N D A R Y R A T E S W I T H A P E A K V A L U E A T T H E P R E C O N S O L I 0AT I ON P R E S S U R E T H E N D E C R E A S I N G W I T H T I N C R E A S E D P R E S S U R E ( . E . G . P L A T E 41 I N R E F E R E N C E 3)« <r> - J oo t o c n m OO U3 O 0.01 A P P L I E D PRE.SSURL •KG./CM' 10.0 31 TESTS #1 AND #6 ( L.I.R. 1.0 AND 3 .0 ) GIVE REASONABLY SMOOTH AND CONSISTENT CURVES BUT TEST #2 ( L.I.R. 0 .33 CURVE TYPE EI ) IS VERY ERRATIC ESPECIALLY WHEN PLOTTED ON CURVES OF Dg AND D 1 S . OTHER WORK HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT TEMPERATURE DOES HAVE AN APPRECIABLE EFFECT ON THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT BUT IN THE CASE OF TEST #2. THERE DID NOT APPEAR TO BE ANY TEMPERATURE CORRELATION. THE SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN TEST #2 APP EARED TO BE THE DURATION OF THE PREVIOUS LOAD INCREMENT, SINCE THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT DECREASED APPRECIABLY AFTER A LONGER THAN USUAL PREVIOUS LOAD DURATION E.G. TWO OR . THREE DAY L . D . DURING A NOMINAL 24 HOUR L . D . TEST. IT MIGHT BE THOUGHT THAT THE DURATION OF THE PREVIOUS LOAD INCREMENT WOULD INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT BY ITS EFFECT ON THE VOID RATIO. INDEED THE DEFINITIONS OF D s AND D ' s ARE USED FOR THE VERY PURPOSE OF ELIMINATING THE VOID RATIO AT THE START OF A GIVEN LOAD INCREMENT AS A VARIABLE. IN THIS CASE HOWEVER, THE CURVES OF D s AND D ' s SERVE TO SHOW THAT THIS VARIATION WAS NOT RELATED TO DECREASED VOID RATIO. ON T«E OTHER HAND TEST #1 ( L.I.R. 1.0 - 24 HOUR L . D . ) ALSO HAD SEVERAL LONGER THAN USUAL LOAD DURATIONS BUT THESE HAD NO APPARENT EFFECT ON THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT - SEE F l G . 4-5 BETWEEN O.476 KG/CM2 AND 7 .58 KG/CM2. THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT FOR THE 1.90 KG/CM2 LOADING IN TEST #6 DID APPEAR TO BE A LOW VALUE, AGAIN POSSIBLY DUE TO THE THREE DAY LOAD DURATION UNDER THE PREVIOUS LOAD INCREMENT. HOWEVER THIS MAY HAVE BEEN A TEMPERATURE EFFECT SINCE AT THAT PARTICULAR LOAD INCREMENT TEST #6 WAS AT AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 72°F COMPARED A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E -Kc/c**-32 WITH TEST #1 WHICH WAS AT AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 74°F. A SUPERFICIAL COMPARISON OF THE PEAK VALUES OF Cg ANO C*g IN THE REGION OF THE PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE FOR TESTS #6, #1 AND #2 WOULD INDICATE THAT TEST #2 HAD MUCH HIGHER VALUES THAN #1 AND #6. MAX. C' S = .041 : MAX.C S '= .0-35 » TEST #2 ( L . I . R . 0.33 - 24 HR L.D.) MAX. C ' s = .032 : MAX.C S = .027 * TEST .#1 &#6 ( L . I . R . 1.0 & 3 . 0 -24 HR L.O.) BUT IF,. BEYOND THE MAXIMUM PAST PRESSURE, C S IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE APPLIED PRESSURE THEN POSSIBLY TESTS #1 AND #6 WOULD ALSO GIVE A MAXIMUM VALUE OF C s = .035 1 F THEIR LOAD INCREMENTS WERE ARRANGED TO LAND ON THE CRITICAL VALUE OF APPL I ED•PRESSURE. ALTERNAT I VELY THE VARIATION OF MAXIMUM Cg MAY BE SENSITIVE TO THE L . I . R . ( MAGNITUDE OF L O A D I N C R E M E N T ) , OR R A T E O F L O A D A P P L I C A T I O N , A N A L O G O U S T O T H E C O N D I T I O N • ) OF A SENSITIVE CLAY WHERE THE PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE IS DETERMINED BY THE USE OF SMALL LOAD INCREMENTS. OF PARTICULAR INTEREST WERE THE SINGLE DETERMINATIONS FROM TESTS #8 ( L . I . R . 1 . 0 - 12 MINS L.D. - N O RING ) , #3B ( L . I . R . 3«0 - 25 MIN L.D. ) AND #7 ( L . I . R . 1.0 TO 3.0 - 20 MIN LOAD DURATION). DESPITE THEIR VARIED LOADING HISTORY THEY PLOT IN CLOSE AGREEMENT WITH THE C s CURVE FOR TESTS #1, #2- AND #6. ' . . . IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE RATE OF SECONDARY SETTLEMENT FOR ALL TESTS IN THIS SERIES WAS INVERSELY RELATED TO THE APPLIED PRESSURE. THIS RATE WAS NOT A FUNCTION OF THE L . I .R. OR OF THE HEIGHT OF SAMPLE ( I.E. VOID RATIO ) AT THE TIME THE LOAD INCREMENT WAS APPLIED. THE DURATION OF THE PREVIOUS LOAD PERIOD APPEARED TO AFFECT ONLY TEST #2 WHICH WAS THE ONLY 33 T E S T W I T H A T Y P E H S E T T L E M E N T - T I M E C U R V E . IN C O M P A R I S O N S O F R A T E S O F S E T T L E M E N T P E R H A P S M O R E T H A N I N O T H E R C O M P A R I S O N S > I T I S F E L T T H A T D U P L I C A T E S A M P L E S A R E P A R T I C U L A R L Y N E C E S S A R Y I N O R D E R TO E S T I M A T E HOW M U C H S C A T T E R D U E T O E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O C E O U R E , T E M P E R A T U R E D I F F E R E N C E S , A N D S A M P L E V A R I A B I L I T Y C A N B E E X P E C T E D E S P E C I A L L Y W H E R E T Y P E EL C U R V E S A R E I N V O L V E D . T H E O N L Y M I T I G A T I N G F A C T O R A P P E A R S TO B E T H A T S M A L L V A R I A T I O N S I N I N I T I A L T R I M M E D S A M P L E H E I G H T ( OR P R E S U M A B L Y V O I 0 R A T I O ) S H O U L D H A V E N E G L I G I B L E E F F E C T ON T H E C O M P U T E D V A L U E S O F C s A N D D s . F O R G E N E R A L C O M P A R I S O N P U R P O S E S A G R A P H S H O W I N G R A T E . O F S E C O N O A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E F O R T E S T #2 A N D T E S T #P1 ( S E E S E C T I O N 4.4 A N D A P P E N D I X ) W A S P L O T T E D - F l G . 4 " 7 . I T C A N B E S E E N T H A T T H E R E W A S F A R L E S S S C A T T E R O F V A L U E S F O R W H A T W E R E I N F A C T N E A R L Y I D E N T I C A L T E S T S . THE O N L Y A P P A R E N T . R E A S O N F O R T H E D I F F E R E N C E W A S T H E M U C H M O R E C O N S I S T E N T A C T U A L L O A D D U R A T I O N S I N T H E C A S E O F T E S T #P1. ? •*»• CJ1 CT> -*J 00 C3 O.OI * l - O 10.c 34 4 . 6 CO M P A R I S O N O F AM O U N T S OF P R I M A R Y A N O S E C O N O A R Y S E T T L E M E N T CO N S I O E R F I G . 4-8 S H O W I N G TO T A L A N D 5. P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S LO G P T E S T S #6, #1 A N D #2 W E R E . P L O T T E D ON T H E A B O V E G R A P H ; F I R S T T H E T O T A L S E T T L E M E N T F O R 24 H O U R S T H E N T H E C O R R E S P O N D I N G C U M U L A T I V E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T I N T H E S A M E P E R I O D F O R E A C H T E S T . -T H E M A I N P U R P O S E O F T H I S G R A P H WAS TO I N V E S T I G A T E W H E T H E R P R I M A R Y A N O S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T A S D E F I N E D I N S E C T I O N 1.4 C O U L D B E R E G A R D E D A S S E P A R A T E P R O C E S S E S OR W H E T H E R A N Y R E L A T I O N S H I P C O U L D B E D I S C E R N E D . IT C A N B E S E E N Q U I T E C O N C L U S I V E L Y T H A T P R I M A R Y A N O S E C O N O A R Y S E T T L E M E N T A R E I N T E R - R E L A T E D A N D C A N N O T B E S E P A R A T E D . I N O T H E R W O R D S A L T H O U G H T H E F I N A L S E T T L E M E N T S A R E N E A R L Y I D E N T I C A L T H E P R O P O R T I O N S O F P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y A R E V E R Y D I F F E R E N T F O R D I F F E R E N T L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S . A F U R T H E R A S P E C T O F T H I S I N T E R - R E L A T I O N W A S SHOWN B Y T H E T O T A L S E T T L E M E N T U N D E R 0.119 K G / C M 2 I N T E S T #2 A N D U N D E R 0 .96 K G / C M 2 I N T E S T #1. IN B O T H C A S E S T H E L O A D D U R A T I O N WAS F I V E D A Y S I N S T E A D O F T H E N O M I N A L O N E D A Y SO T H A T T H E F I N A L S E T T L E M E N T P L O T T E O W E L L B E L O W T H E B E S T - F I T T I N G S E T T L E M E N T - L O G P C U R V E . M O R E I M P O R T A N T WAS T H E F A C T T H A T T H I S A D D I T I O N A L S E T T L E M E N T O I O N O T A P P E A R TO A F F E C T T H E 24 H O U R S E T T L E M E N T R E A D I N G O F T H E N E X T L O A D I N C R E M E N T . 4.7 SU M M A R Y O F O B S E R V E D R E S U L T S 4.1 S^44Q V S L O G P F O R 24 H O U R L .D . - F L G . 4 - 1 L . I.R. 1.0= L . I.R. 3.0 B U T L .I.R. 0.33 H I G H . 4.2 S ^ C j VS) L O G P F O R 15 M I N . L .D . - FlG. 4-2 ( l ) L.I.R. 1.0 = L.I.R. 0.33 B U T L.I.R. 3»0 H A D N O T R E A C H E D 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . (I I) T E S T #8 N O R I N G ( L . I.R. .1 .0) I N GOOD A G R E E M E N T . 4*3 S10Q$ V S L 0 G P F 0 R A L L L . I.R. A N D L .D. - F I G . 4 - 3 ( I ) 15 M I N L .D. T E S T S S E T T L E D M O R E T H A N 24 H O U R T E S T S . ( I I ) A L L L . I.R. A G R E E D U P TO L O A D O F 1.0 K G / C M 2 WHEN P L O T T E D 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . 4.4 CU R V E S H A P E S A N D T I M E TO 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N ( 1 ) A L L T E S T S E X C E P T #2 H A D T Y P E I C U R V E A N D A L O N G E R T I M E TO 100$ P R I M A R Y A S V O I D R A T I O D E C R E A S E D . 1 ( I I ) TE S T #2 ( L.I.R. 0.33» L .D. 24 H O U R S ) H A D T Y P E I I C U R V E A N D S H O R T E R T I M E S TO 100$ P R I M A R Y A S V O I D R A T I O D E C R E A S E D . ( I l l ) V A R I A T I O N S I N L .D . D U R I N G T E S T C A U S E D V A R I A T I O N S I N T I M E TO 100$ P R I M A R Y I N T E S T #2 O N L Y . ( IV) T E S T #2 ( T Y P E TJ C U R V E ) T O O K T E N T I M E S A S L O N G TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y A S O T H E R T E S T S . 4.5 RA T E O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T V S P F I G . 4-5,4-6, 4-7 ( I ) R A T E O F . S E C O N D A R Y I N D E P E N D E N T O F L . I.R. A N D L .D. E X C E P T T E S T #2. ( I I ) T E S T #2 T Y P E XT C U R V E WAS A F F E C T E O B Y D U R A T I O N O F P R E V I O U S L O A D . 4.6 TO T A L A N D C U M U L A T I V E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T F I G . 4-8 TO T A L S E T T L E M E N T N O T A F U N C T I O N O F L O A D I N G P R O C E D U R E B U T R A T I O O F P R I M A R Y TO S E C O N D A R Y W A S . a> -J co co o O.OI O - l •o.o 36 5 . 0 ANALYSIS 5.1 I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F R E S U L T S B A S E D ON A UN I Q U E R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N  A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E A N D S E T T L E M E N T AT 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N C O N S I D E R F I G . 5-1 S H O W I N G S E T T L E M E N T A T 100$ P R I M A R Y V S . LO G P . ' T H E " P R I M A R Y " L I N E ON T H E A B O V E G R A P H WAS P L O T T E D U S I N G T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T S 0 F T E S T S # 6 , #1 A N D #2 ( L . I . R . J .0» 1 . 0 , 0.33, L . D . 24 H O U R S ) , T H E 100$ P O I N T B E I N G D E T E R M I N E D F R O M T H E D I A L R E A D I N G -L O G T I M E G R A P H S B Y T H E M E T H O D S D I S C U S S E D I N S E C T I O N 4»3« T H E O N E D A Y , 100 D A Y , 10,000 D A Y L I N E S W E R E DRAWN B Y E X T R A P O L A T I N G F R O M T H E O B S E R V E D V A L U E S O F T H E A M O U N T OF. S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T P E R TWO L O G C Y C L E S O F T I M E F O R E A C H I N D I V I D U A L T E S T . T H U S S M A L L D I F F E R E N C E S I N V A L U E S O F C S W E R E MAGNIFIED F O R EACH SUCCESSIVE CURVE. T H I S G R A P H D E M O N S T R A T E S F I R S T O F A L L A R E M A R K A B L E A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N T H E T H R E E T E S T S F O R T H E P R I M A R Y C U R V E . R E F E R R I N G B A C K TO S E C T I O N 4 « 1 . I T WAS N O T E D T H E R E T H A T T E S T #2 WAS N O T I N GOOD A G R E E M E N T WHEN C O M P A R E D F O R 24 H O U R L O A D D U R A T I O N S . H E N C E I T W O U L D A P P E A R P R O B A B L E T H A T T H E T R U E B A S I S O F C O M P A R I S O N S H O U L D B E T H E 100$ P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T T I M E . S E C O N D L Y I T C A N B E S E E N T H A T E A C H S E T . . O F C U R V E S E S S E N T I A L L Y •'P AR A L L E L S ; T H E P R I M A R Y C U R V E I N T H E R A N G E 0.1 TO 2.0 K G / C M 2 B E F O R E S T A R T I N G TO B E C O M E E R R A T I C . T H E A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N E A C H S E T O F C U R V E S ( O N E D A Y , lOO D A Y , E T C ) I N D I C A T E S T H A T A L L T H R E E T E S T S H A D E S S E N T I A L L Y T H E S A M E R A T E S O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T AT T H E S A M E A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E , A S N O T E D I N S E C T I O N 4 .5 , O E S P I T E T H E I R V A R Y I N G L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S . T H E S C A T T E R O F V A L U E S B E Y O N D A B O U T 2.0 K G / C M 2 R E F L E C T S M A I N L Y T H E S C A T T E R I N T H E P R I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T C U R V E S , 37 S I N C E T H E V A L U E S O F Cg B E C O M E M O R E C O N S I S T E N T A T H I G H E R A P P L I E D L O A D S -S E E F l G . 4 - 5 . T H E H Y P O T H E S I S F O R T H I S I N T E R P R E T A T I O N M A Y B E S T A T E D A S F O L L O W S t-N O M A T T E R WHAT T H E P R E V I O U S L O A D I N G H I S T O R Y » T H E R E I S O N L Y O N E V A L U E O F S E T T L E M E N T ( OR V O I D R A T I O ) AT 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N C O R R E S P O N D I N G TO A P A R T I C U L A R A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E . T H U S I D E A L L Y T H E R E I S A U N I Q U E S - L O G P OR S—LO G P L A W R E L A T I N G T O T A L S E T T L E M E N T OR V O I D R A T I O TO A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E A T T H E M O M E N T WHEN T H E P O R E P R E S S U R E I S E F F E C T I V E L Y D I S S I P A T E D . T H I S H Y P O T H E S I S H A S B E E N D E V E L O P E D R E C E N T L Y F O R R E M O L D E D O R G A N I C S I L T B Y H . E . W A H L S (4) B U T I T WAS A L S O I M P L I E D I N T A Y L O R ' S WORK ON R E M O L D E O S I L T Y C L A Y ( 2 ) . P R O B A B L Y T H E R E W O U L D B E A G R A D U A L T R A N S I T I O N B E T W E E N P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y M E C H A N I S M S O F S E T T L E M E N T ! B U T T H I S D O E S N O T S E R I O U S L Y A F F E C T T H E C O N C E P T S I N C E T H E A M O U N T O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T O C C U R R I N G B E F O R E T H E E N D O F PR I M A R Y S E T T L E M E N T W O U L D B E S M A L L . TWO Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S W O U L D A P P E A R TO B E N E C E S S A R Y - T H E R E S H O U L D B E N O U N L O A D - R E L O A D C Y C L E I N V O L V E D A N O O N L Y A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E S G R E A T E R T H A N T H E P R E C O N S O L I O A T I ON P R E S S U R E S H O U L D B E C O N S I D E R E D . I N S P E C T I O N O F T H E G R A P H ON F L G . 5 - T I N D I C A T E S A N O T H E R Q U A L I F I C A T I O N T H A T : , W O U L D P R O B A B L Y B E R E Q U I R E D - A F T E R S E V E R A L C Y C L E S O F S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T ( S A Y TO R E A C H T H E 100 D A Y C U R V E ) T H E A D D I T I O N O F A S M A L L L O A D I N C R E M E N T W O U L D R E Q U I R E T H E S A M P L E TO S W E L L TO A R R I V E B A C K ON T H E U N I Q U E S - L O G P C U R V E . H O W E V E R T H I S S U G G E S T S T H A T A B E T T E R B A S I S M I G H T B E " F I N A L . S E T T L E M E N T " A T S A Y 3000 Y E A R S OR P R I M A R Y P L U S 8. L O G C Y C L E S O F T I M E . IN S U M M A R Y T H E H Y P O T H E S I S O F A U N I Q U E S E T T L E M E N T - L O G P C U R V E A T 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N A P P E A R S TO O F F E R A P L A U S I B L E G E N E R A L I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E R E S U L T S O F T H I S T E S T S E R I E S . H O W E V E R T H E P R O B L E M O F T H E M E C H A N I S M A N O F A C T O R S A F F E C T I N G S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T S T I L L R E M A I N S . 38 5.2 D I F F E R E N C E I N CU R V E T Y P E S B E T W E E N T E S T #2 A N D T E S T #4 CO N S I D E R F I G S . 3-2 TO 3-7 ( I N C L ) S H O W I N G D I A L R E A D I N G V S LO G T I M E F O R T E S T S #2 A N D #4 TH E R E A S O N F O R T H E D I F F E R E N C E I N C U R V E T Y P E A N D D I F F E R E N C E I N R A T E O F S E T T L E M E N T C A N N O T E A S I L Y B E S E E N F R O M T H E S E TWO T E S T S . P U T T I N G T H E P R O B L E M A N T H R O P O M O R P H O L O G I C A L L Y - HOW D I D S A M P L E #4 KNOW T H A T I T H A D O N L Y 15 M I N U T E S TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N W H I L E S A M P L E #2 C O U L D T A K E A T L E A S T 200 M I N U T E S ? A L L T E S T S C O N D I T I O N S W E R E E S S E N T I A L L Y T H E S A M E I N C L U D I N G T H E L . I .R. ( B O T H 0 . 3 3 ) > T H E O N L Y D I F F E R E N C E B E I N G T H E 1 L O A D D U R A T I O N : 1 5 M I N U T E S V S 24 H O U R S . H E N C E T H E D I F F E R E N T B E H A V I O U R : C O U L D O N L Y B E D U E TO T H E D U R A T I O N O F T H E P R E V I O U S L O A D , T H E D I F F E R E N C E I N S T R E S S C O N D I T I O N S OR T H E D I F F E R E N C E I N F L O W C O N D I T I O N S J U S T B E F O R E R E L O A D I N G . P O S S I B L Y S O M E S O R T O F " B O N D I N G " OR " T H I X O T R O P I C " A C T I O N T A K E S P L A C E D U R I N G T H E S E C O N D A R Y S E T T L E M E N T A N A L O G O U S TO T H E C O N C E P T O F A F L O C C U L A T E D C L A Y S O I L O V E R A P E R I O D O F T I M E D E V E L O P I N G M O R E I N T E R P A R T I C L E C O N T A C T S U N D E R A G I V E N E F F E C T I V E . S T R E S S (8). A L T E R N A T I V E L Y I T M A Y B E A Q U E S T I O N , O F R E D U C E D P E R M E A B I L I T Y OR I N C R E A S E D V I S C O S I T Y I N T H E M I C R O P O R E S O F T H E M A T E R I A L . C E R T A I N L Y I T S E E M S WORTH F U R T H E R I N V E S T I G A T I O N . 39 6 .0 CONCLUSIONS 6.1 P R A C T I C A L ' (1) T H E R E S U L T S O F S T A N D A R D L A B O R A T O R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T S ON F I B R O U S P E A T S H O U L D B E P L O T T E D ON A G R A P H O F S - L O G P OR 6 - L O G P W H E R E T H E S E T T L E M E N T U S E D I S T H A T O C C U R R I N G A T 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . (2) IN G E N E R A L T H E L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O C A N B E V A R I E D B E T W E E N 0 . 3 5 A N D 3 .0 A N D T H E L O A D D U R A T I O N , OR T I M E O F R E L O A O I N G , V A R I E D B E T W E E N T H E E N D O F T H E P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N A N D A B O U T F I V E O A Y S W I T H O U T S E R I O U S L Y A F F E C T I N G T H E " P R I M A R Y ° S100$ ~ L 0 G P 0 R &100$ ~ L 0 6 P C U R V E F O R F I B R O U S P E A T . T H U S A C C E L E R A T E D T E S T S O F O N E 0A Y ( OR M U C H L E S S I F H I G H E R L O A D I N C R E M E N T R A T I O S A R E U S E D ) W I L L G I V E A L L T H E I N F O R M A T I O N U S U A L L Y O B T A I N E D W I T H T H E S T A N D A R D L A B O R A T O R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N U S I N G L . I . R . O F 1.0 A N D 24 H O U R L O A D D U R A T I O N S . (3) S I D E F R I C T I O N WAS N E G L I G I B L E D U R I N G T H E L O A D C Y C L E I N T H I S T E S T S E R I E S F O R F I B R O U S P E A T O F H I G H W . W C R C O N T E N T E X C E P T P O S S I B L Y AT H I G H E R L O A D S F O R T E S T #2 ( L . I . R . 0 . 3 3 - L . D . 24 H O U R S ) A F T E R I T H A D B E E N A B O U T F O U R W E E K S I N T H E C O N S O L I O O M E T E R . S T A I N L E S S S T E E L , / 01 A M . 2.500 \ CON S O L I 6 AT I ON R I N G S ( "JTETGITT = ' 3 - 3 3 ) L I G H T L Y C O A T E D W I T H A M O L Y B D E N U M D I S U L P H I D E G R E A S E W E R E U S E D , T H E S A M P L E WAS T R I M M E D TO AN E A S Y F I T I N T H E R I N G A N D T H E T E S T S W E R E R U N I N F I X E D R I N G C O N S O L I D O M E T E R S W I T H T O P A N O B O T T O M O R A I N A G E * 4 0 6.2 T H E O R E T I C A L WITHIN T H E BOUNOS OF T H I S T E S T S E R I E S , T H E FOLLOWING R E L A T I O N S WERE E S T A B L I S H E D FOR T H E CONSOLIDAT ION OF P E A T J -( 1 ) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY S E T T L E M E N T ARE I N T E R - R E L A T E D AND CANNOT B E S E P A R A T E D AS TO AMOUNT. (2) CURVE, T Y P E DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON T H E LOAD INCREMENT RATIO BUT ALSO ON T H E LOAD DURATION OR RATE OF L O A O I N G . (3) D E C R E A S I N G T H E LOAD INCREMENT RATIO DURING A T E S T S I G N I F I C A N T L Y INCREASED T H E T I M E R E Q U I R E D TO REACH 1 0 0 $ PRIMARY CONSOLIDAT ION FOR T E S T #2 .WHICH HAD A T Y P E T J C U R V E . FURTHER CONCLUSIONS WERE MORE T E N T A T I V E S I N C E THEY DEPENDED IN VARYING D E G R E E UPON S I M I L A R I T Y OF S A M P L E S AND P R O C E D U R E . (4) T E S T S WITH 24' HOUR LOAD DURAT IONS AND RAPID T E S T S RELOADED AT ABOUT T H E 1 0 0 $ PRIMARY CONSOLIDAT ION POINT GAVE • REASONABLY GOOD AGREEMENT WHEN P L O T T E D ON A GRAPH OF S E T T L E M E N T AT 1 0 0 $ PRIMARY VS LOG A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E . (5) • T H E RATE OF SECONDARY S E T T L E M E N T ( C S = Sg ( LOG C Y C L E ) Hi ( 1 N I T I A L H T . ) WAS DEPENDENT ON T H E A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E OR E F F E C T I V E P R E S S U R E DURING T H E LOAD C Y C L E . IT DID NOT DEPEND ON T H E LOAD INCREMENT R A T I O , T H E P R E V I O U S H E I G H T OF SAMPLE I . E . MAGNITUDE OF LOAD I N C R E M E N T , OR T H E DURATION OF T H E P R E V I O U S LOAO P E R I O D UP TO AT L E A S T 5 D A Y S , E X C E P T FOR T E S T #2 WlTH . A T Y P E II C U R V E . (6) B A S E D ON T H E ABOVE C O N C L U S I O N S , THERE APPEARS TO B E A UNIQUE S - L O G P OR S - LOG P R E L A T I O N FOR T H E LOAD C Y C L E BASED ON T H E S E T T L E M E N T AT . 1 0 0 $ CONSOLIDAT ION R E G A R D L E S S OF P R E V I O U S LOADING H I S T O R Y . 41 • (7) T H E R E WAS A P O S S I B I L I T Y T H A T 24 H O U R T E S T S U N D E R W E N T S L I G H T L Y L E S S S E T T L E M E N T T H A N R A P I D 15 M I N U T E T E S T S A T A L L L . I . R . (8) F O R T E S T #2 - C U R V E T Y P E U - T H E R E A P P E A R E D TO B E A T R E N D TO S H O R T E R T I M E TO R E A C H 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N W I T H I N C R E A S I N G L O A D S } W H I C H WAS O P P O S I T E TO T H E U S U A L T R E N D SHOWN B Y T H E O T H E R T E S T S . S I N C E t = T H 2 : A S L O A D S I N C R E A S E K A N D SO C V G E T S S M A L L E R ( L O N G E R t) C V H G E T S S M A L L E R ( S H O R T E R t) H E N C E E I T H E R E F F E C T M A Y D O M I N A T E . 6.g G E N E R A L I T I S A P P R E C I A T E D T H A T M A N Y O F T H E C O N C L U S I O N S DRAWN F R O M A L I M I T E D T E S T P R O G R A M O F T H I S K I N D C A N O N L Y B E T E N T A T I V E S I N C E T H E Y A R E B A S E D ON S I N G L E L A B O R A T O R Y T E S T S ON A N A T U R A L U N D I S T U R B E D M A T E R I A L O F C O N S I D E R A B L E V A R I A B I L I T Y . H O W E V E R S O M E O F T H E C O N C L U S I O N S A R E IN ACCORDANCE W I T H P R E V I O U S E X P E R I E N C E , W I T H O T H E R WORK O N . P E A T . A N D . W L T H S I M I L A R I N V E S T I G A T I O N S I N T O C L A Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . T H I S I S P A R T I C U L A R L Y SO W I T H T H E C O N C L U S I O N I N S E C T I O N 5.1 T H A T T H E R E A P P E A R S TO B E A U N I Q U E S - L O G P OR E - L O G P R E L A T I O N S H I P F O R F I B R O U S P E A T B A S E D O N . T H E S E T T L E M E N T AT 100$ P R I M A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N . A S I M I L A R R E L A T I O N S H I P F O R C L A Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N H A S B E E N S U G G E S T E D B Y T A Y L O R (2) A N D O T H E R S (4) . B E I N G O F AN E X P L O R A T O R Y N A T U R E , T H E S E T E S T S H A V E R A I S E D S E V E R A L Q U E S T I O N S ON W H I C H F U R T H E R WORK C O U L O B E D O N E . A S I D E F R O M C O N F I R M I N G OR R E J E C T I N G S O M E O F T H E P R E V I O U S C O N C L U S I O N S , S P E C I F I C A T T E N T I O N C O U L D B E G I V E N TO T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N OF T H E U N L O A D C Y C L E A N D TO T H E F A C T O R S I N V O L V E D I N T Y P E T J C U R V E S ; 42 REFERENCES ( l ) D.W.TAYLOR - F U N D A M E N T A L S O F S O I L M E C H A N I C S W I L E Y - 1948 (2) D.W.TAYLOR - R E S E A R C H ON C O N S O L I D A T I O N O F C L A Y S , M.l.T. P U B L I C A T I O N #82 - 1942 (3) MO R A N , PR O C T O R , MU E S E R & R U T L E D G E ( C O N S U L T I N G E N G I N E E R S ) ST U D Y O F DE E P S O I L S T A B I L I Z A T I O N B Y V E R T I C A L SA N D D R A I N S U . S . D E P T . O F CO M M E R C E - O F F I C E O F T E C H N I C A L S E R V I C E S P U B L . - 1958 (5) G.A.LE O N A R D S & P . G I R A U L T A S T U D Y O F T H E ONE D I M E N S I O N A L C O N S O L I D A T I O N T E S T (4) H.E.WAHLS A N A L Y S I S O F P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y C O N S O L I D A T I O N A.S.C.E. VOL.88 S.M.6. PA R T 1 - 1962 5TH I.C.S.M. - 1961 (6) R.DO Y L E U N P U B L I S H E D T H E S I S U.8.C. - 1963 (7) K . Y . L o S E C O N D A R Y CO M P R E S S I O N O F C L A Y S A.S.C.E. VOL.87 S.M.4 PA R T 1 - 1961 (8) R.F.SC O T T P R I N C I P L E S O F S O I L M E C H A N I C S 1.962 3 C Y C L E S X 7 0 D I V I S I O N S o n cn o o c o o i i o I It N i * i a a. « IL 1 I I I C N ^ UN UN Us. UN 1^  I 7 UN UN 4 3 CN 4- cr " P E A " ro^.'hOl • \,.&-rt(..ti **p | R A . SPENCE LTD. - Consulting Engineers _ Vancouver I, B. C. CONSOLIDATION TEST hide: T . P . Sample: S i Job ; TJP.X.. Sheet: A1 Date: reai7.' ^2 Bv: £ " .4 P < ^ Dwg: Al R.A. SPEMCE LTD. _ Consulting Engineers _ Vancouver I, B.C. — — • ' | * * f | CONSOLiDATiON TEST Job: ? F i Sheet: A i + < ^ £ Date: By: Dwg: A 4 J 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0050626/manifest

Comment

Related Items