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Experiences of metanoia : the relationship between second language acquisition and metanoia Ranson, Samantha Kelly 2016

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Experiences of Metanoia: The Relationship Between Second Language Acquisition and Metanoia  by  Samantha Kelly Ranson  B.A., The University of Northern British Columbia, 2009 B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 2010  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE COLLEGE OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Education)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Okanagan)  July 2016  © Samantha Kelly Ranson, 2016     		 ii	      The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommend to the College of Graduate Studies for acceptance, a thesis entitled:    Experiences of Metanoia:  The Relationship Between Second Language Acquisition and Metanoia  Submitted by   Samantha Kelly Ranson   in partial fulfillment of the requirements of   The degree of    Master of Arts    .  Scott Roy Douglas Supervisor, Professor (please print name and faculty/school above the line)  Karen Ragoonaden, Education, UBC Okanagan Supervisory Committee Member, Professor (please print name and faculty/school in the line above)  Robert Campbell, Education, UBC Okanagan Supervisory Committee Member, Professor (please print name and faculty/school in the line above)  Nina Langton, Faculty of Creative and Critical Studies, UBC Okanagan University Examiner, Professor (please print name and faculty/school in the line above)  July 7, 2016 (Date submitted to Grad Studies)   	  		 iii	Abstract This qualitative study explores the connection between Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and metanoia in a post-secondary level English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program. Taken from Ancient Greek philosophy, metanoia refers to a fundamental shift in habits of the mind. Until now, the connection between metanoia and second language learning has not been fully examined, particularly in higher education contexts.  The objective of this study is to examine the progression of metanoia in the SLA of International students enrolled in an EAP program. Specifically, the research question for this study was: How do EAP students experience metanoia, and what is the relationship with their second language acquisition?  Qualitative methods were used throughout this study. The study combined both an online survey and follow-up interview to collect data, which was triangulated to analyze the data. A socio-cognitive theoretical framework supported the conception of the study and the analysis of the data.  The data indicated that the best way for EAP students to acquire academic English language skills is to be taught as a “whole” learner (paying attention to the social, emotional, cultural, and academic needs of the student).  From the interviews and surveys, six prominent themes were found throughout: growth, learning process, communication, emotions, relationship, and resources. Participants expressed that their academic and social success was related to these themes.  It is possible that these experiences were the catalysts to their personal experiences of metanoia.  This study provides insight into the lives of English language learners and how to improve or change the EAP environment.  The results could assist EAP instructors in seeing differences between local and international education systems and the learning patterns of different students, thus aiding students in reaching moments of metanoia with the information and assistance of their EAP instructors.     		 iv	Preface This thesis is an original intellectual product of the author, Samantha Kelly Ranson.  The research reported in Chapters 3 to 5 was conducted through the protocols of The University of British Columbia’s Okanagan Campus Behavioural Research Ethics Board (BREB) under the project title: Experiences of Metanoia: The Relationship Between Education, Language Acquisition, and Identity: H14-02421.  As per UBC’s BREB guidelines, the data collection was conducted by Samantha Kelly Ranson under the guidance of the Principal Investigator and the thesis committee. The committee for this project included:   § Dr. Scott Roy Douglas  Graduate Supervisor and Principal Investigator   Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, UBC’s Okanagan Campus  § Dr. Robert Campbell   Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, UBC’s Okanagan Campus  § Dr. Karen Ragoonaden  Senior Instructor (Professor of Teaching Stream), Faculty of Education, UBC’s Okanagan Campus    		 v	Table of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... iii Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. viii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... ix List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... x Glossary of Key Terms ................................................................................................................ xi Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................... xii Dedication ................................................................................................................................... xiii Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1 1.1  Overview of Chapter 1 ......................................................................................................... 1 1.2  Summary of Relevant Literature .......................................................................................... 3 1.3  Purpose of the Study ............................................................................................................ 5 1.4  Research Question ............................................................................................................... 6 1.5  Significance of the Study ..................................................................................................... 6 1.6  Overview of Research Methods ........................................................................................... 6 1.7  Limitations and Delimitations .............................................................................................. 6 1.8  Definitions of Key Terms .................................................................................................... 6 1.9  Organization of the Thesis ................................................................................................... 7 Chapter 2:  Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 8 2.1  Overview of Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................... 8 2.2  What is EAP? ....................................................................................................................... 9 2.2  What is Metanoia ............................................................................................................... 10 2.3  A Socio-cognitive Framework ........................................................................................... 12 2.4  Second Language Acquisition ........................................................................................... 12 2.4.1  Comprehensible Input ................................................................................................. 13 2.4.2  Interaction Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 15 2.4.3  Restructuring, Usage, and Automaticity ..................................................................... 16 2.4.4  Motivation and Strategy Learning .............................................................................. 18 2.5  The Good Language Learner ............................................................................................. 20 2.6  Identity ............................................................................................................................... 22 2.7  Summary of Chapter 2 ....................................................................................................... 24 Chapter 3: Research Methods ................................................................................................... 25 3.1  Introduction to Chapter 3 ................................................................................................... 25 3.2  Rationale for the Study ...................................................................................................... 25 3.3  Research and Philosophical Perspective ............................................................................ 26 3.4  Research Design ................................................................................................................. 27 3.5  Objectives and Outcomes .................................................................................................. 29 3.5.1  Researcher’s Intent ...................................................................................................... 29 3.5.2  Guiding Hypothesis .................................................................................................... 29 		 vi	3.5.3  Research Question ...................................................................................................... 29 3.6  Participants and Research Setting ...................................................................................... 30 3.6.1  Participants .................................................................................................................. 30 3.7  Research Instruments: Online Survey and Interview Questions ........................................ 30 3.7.1  Online Survey Questions ............................................................................................ 31 3.7.2  Interview Questions .................................................................................................... 32 3.8  Data Collection Procedures ................................................................................................ 32 3.8.1  Recruitment ................................................................................................................. 32 3.8.1.1  Recruitment for the Study: Online Survey ............................................................... 32 3.8.1.2  Recruitment for the Study: Interviews ..................................................................... 33 3.9  Data Collection and Statistical Analysis ............................................................................ 33 3.9.1  Data Collection: Online Survey .................................................................................. 33 3.9.2  Data Collection: Interview .......................................................................................... 34 3.9.3  Data Analysis .............................................................................................................. 35 3.10  Limitations and Assumptions .......................................................................................... 35 3.11  Validity ............................................................................................................................ 36 3.12  Trustworthiness ................................................................................................................ 37 3.13  Reliability ......................................................................................................................... 37 3.14  Summary and Concluding Remarks for Chapter 3 .......................................................... 37 Chapter 4: Results Chapter ....................................................................................................... 38 4.1  Overview of Chapter 4 ...................................................................................................... 38e 4.2  Summary of Research Methods ......................................................................................... 38 4.3  Participants ......................................................................................................................... 38 4.4  Results ................................................................................................................................ 39 4.4.1  Online Survey Results ................................................................................................. 39 4.4.2  Interview Results ........................................................................................................ 41 4.4.2.1  Theme 1 Growth: Major subthemes ........................................................................ 43 4.4.2.2  Theme 1 Growth: Minor subthemes ........................................................................ 51 4.4.2.3  Theme 2 Learning Process: Major subthemes ......................................................... 52 4.4.2.4  Theme 2 Learning Process: Minor subthemes ......................................................... 58 4.4.2.5  Theme 3 Communication: Major subthemes ........................................................... 58 4.4.2.6  Theme 3 Communication: Minor subthemes ........................................................... 62 4.4.2.7  Theme 4 Emotions: Negative experiences, major subthemes ................................. 63 4.4.2.8  Theme 4 Emotions: Negative experiences, minor subthemes ................................. 66 4.4.2.9  Theme 4 Emotions: Positive experiences, major subthemes ................................... 67 4.4.2.10  Theme 4 Emotions: Positive experiences, minor subthemes ................................. 68 4.4.2.11  Theme 5 Relationships: Major subthemes ............................................................. 69 4.4.2.12  Theme 5 Relationships: Minor subthemes ............................................................. 73 4.4.2.13  Theme 6: Resources ............................................................................................... 73 4.5  Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 75 Chapter 5:  Discussion ................................................................................................................ 77 5.1  Overview of the Study ....................................................................................................... 77 5.2  Summary of Results ........................................................................................................... 78 5.3  Discussion of Results ......................................................................................................... 78 5.3.1  The relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition ........................ 78 5.3.2  Personal and Academic Development and Growth Based on Metanoia .................... 81 		 vii	5.3.3  The Development of Moments of Metanoia; The Conscious and Subconscious ....... 83 5.3.4  The relationship between Identity and Learning an Additional Language ................. 85 5.3.4.1  Automaticity ............................................................................................................ 87 5.3.4.2  EAP Environment .................................................................................................... 88 5.4  Summary Statement ........................................................................................................... 89 5.5  Applications of Research ................................................................................................... 89 5.6  Implications for Practice and Recommendations .............................................................. 90 5.7  Limitations ......................................................................................................................... 91 5.8  Recommendations for Future Studies ................................................................................ 92 5.9  Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 92 References .................................................................................................................................... 93 Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 99 Appendix A: Information on Informed Consent for the Online Questionnaire ........................ 99 Appendix B:  Online Questionnaire ........................................................................................ 102 Appendix C: Semi-Structured Interview Questions ............................................................... 104 Appendix D ............................................................................................................................. 105            		 viii	List of Tables Table 3.1  Interview Participant Information ................................................................................ 30     		 ix	List of Figures  Figure 2.1  The relationship between metanoia, language acquisition, and identity ...................... 8 Figure 2.2  The composition of the good language learner .......................................................... 22 Figure 2.3  Venn diagram of a language learner’s identity and possible contributing factors ..... 23 Figure 4.1  Emergent major themes in the inter view data ........................................................... 43 Figure 4.2  Theme 1: Growth major subthemes and minor subthemes ........................................ 44 Figure 4.3  Theme 2: Learning process major subthemes and minor subthemes ......................... 53 Figure 4.4  Communication themes and subthemes ..................................................................... 59 Figure 4.5  Emotions and related major and minor subthemes ..................................................... 64 Figure 4.6  Theme 5: Relationships major subthemes and minor subthemes ............................... 69 Figure 4.7  Theme 6: Resources and subthemes ........................................................................... 74 Figure 5.1  Second language acquisition and metanoia ................................................................ 79 Figure 5.2  Process of acknowledging metanoia .......................................................................... 81 Figure 5.3  Formula for personal and academic growth ............................................................... 82 Figure 5.4  The thought process of metanoia ................................................................................ 83 Figure 5.5  The steps to enlightenment of higher language learning ............................................ 85 Figure 5.6  Metanoia, langauge acquisition, and identity ............................................................. 86 Figure 5.7  Formula for automaticity ............................................................................................ 88 Figure 5.8  Identity ........................................................................................................................ 88   		 x	List of Abbreviations  BICS:  Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BREB:  Behavioral Research Ethics Board CALP:  Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency COO:  Country of Origin EAL:  English as an Additional Language EAP:  English for Academic Purposes EFP:  English Foundations Program ELL:  English Language Learner ESL:  English as a Second Language LOO:  Language of Origin LSC:  Length of Stay in Canada MS:  Microsoft PIU:  Pacific Interior University SLA:  Second Language Acquisition UBC:  University of British Columbia UBCO: University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus UNBC: University of Northern British Columbia YSE:  Years Studying English      		 xi	Glossary of Key Terms  Identity:   What an individual defines themselves as, this takes on many      aspects such as social, cultural, academic, and emotional       definitions.  Language Acquisition: The process of gaining or acquiring a language or language skills.  Metanoia:   An epiphany or reaching a new and heightened form of awareness      at one exact moment in time.   		 xii	Acknowledgments  First and foremost I would like to thank Dr. Scott Douglas for his dedication and hard work.  Dr. Douglas taught me so much over the last three years and I am glad to call him a mentor and friend. He has supported me and guided me, thank you for being an amazing mentor and guide into the world of professional development, education, and academia.    Additionally I would like to thank the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus for accepting me into their community.  I had the privilege of working and learning with great minds in this faculty, an opportunity and gift I will not soon forget!  Thank you to Dr. Robert Campbell and Dr. Karen Ragoonaden for being on my committee and always offering a smile, word of encouragement, constructive criticism, and upbeat attitude.   		 xiii	Dedication  To my parents, Peter and Cindy, who continue to inspire and motivate me to dream and love with all my heart every single day.  You have taught me to appreciate everything in life, to live with passion and never give up.  I am so proud to call you my parents!		 1	Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1  Overview of Chapter 1  Specific moments of learning achievement occur within second language acquisition, and these are called metanoia.  These moments of metanoia are imperative as they assist in the cultural, social, emotional, and academic transition into Canadian life for the English as an Additional Language international student or immigrant.  There is currently an influx of  International students learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) in Canada (Douglas, 2014).  “Since the beginning of the 2000s, Canada's population growth has been driven mainly by migratory increase” (Statistics Canada, 2012a).  It is projected that “starting in 2031, migratory increase could account for more than 80% of Canada's population growth, compared to about 67% currently” (Statistics Canada, 2012b).  This significant projected increase proves it is crucial to gain a stronger understanding of immigrant identity, learning, and language acquisition.  The Government of Canada (2013) published a report that stated that in 2012 it “was the first time in Canadian history that Canada has welcomed over 100,000 international students, an increase of 60% since 2004”.  In addition, the Canadian government recently made initiatives to “double the number of international students choosing Canada by the year 2022 without displacing Canadian students” (Government of Canada, 2014).  Thus, steady immigration to Canada along with increasing numbers of international students had led to growing numbers of students from non-English speaking backgrounds seeking entry to higher education.    This study focuses on EAL learners in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program on a smaller campus of a research-intensive university in western Canada.  To protect the identity of the participants, for the purposes of this study, the campus will be referred to as Pacific Interior University (PIU).  PIU is the pseudonym used for the actual university at which the participants studied.  In programs such as the EAP program in this study, students have come from other countries to Canada to gain a university education, acclimate to a new culture, and learn an additional language.  The current study examines the role of metanoia (a transformation) in the language learning experiences of EAP students.  EAP is a program offered at PIU.  EAP programs typically aim to provide “an integrated skills program for upper-intermediate to advanced English students who want to develop their academic reading, writing, speaking and listening 		 2	skills” (University of British Columbia, n.d.).  EAP programs often have the stated goal of teaching students about academics and the North American culture, gaining confidence and improving their overall learning identity (University of British Columbia, n.d.).  EAP programs or similar English language programs occur throughout Canada at multiple universities, colleges, and other institutions; they are a popular option to increase English skills.  Metanoia can refer to a change of mind and identity that leads to a new vision or perspective that maximizes learner capabilities (English, 2016).  It is proposed within this study that metanoia occurs within EAP learning experiences and environments, and that a learning environment that facilitates and encourages cultural and academic growth (both inside and outside of the classroom), would create the most ideal situation for metanoia to occur.  It is possible that when EAP students attend post-secondary institutions, they may have the desire to attain and surpass certain personal and academic goals.  For example, Fox (2005) has maintained that the profile of the student in the current study often has a strong desire to do well in post-secondary studies leading to professional careers.  Supporting this profile, Roessingh and Douglas (2012) found that for some students from non-English speaking backgrounds, they may be “determined and resilient, and they … expect high achievement in the educational, economic, and political institutions that provide access to the opportunity structures of Canadian society” (p. 82).  Because of this determination, this profile of student may be on the road to experiencing changes in both mind and identity, similar to participants in the Fox (2005) and Roessingh and Douglas (2012) findings.  These changes may result because of the hard work needed to obtain a degree within Canada, specifically when wanting to stay as a citizen or resident in North America, Europe or Australia or New Zealand.  As Statistics Canada (Statistics Canada, 2011) has indicated, an education in Canada versus a country of origin typically allows the student higher pay.  An immigrant typically makes significantly less than their Canadian counterpart (with an equivalent education) with an average difference of 62% in wages when having been educated in another country (outside of those mentioned above) (Statistics Canada, 2011). However immigrants significantly had a higher wage when they had “completed their highest level of postsecondary education in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom” with -32%, -30% and -25% differences, respectively (Statistics Canada, 2011).  Based on these understandings, it is proposed  that a good portion of EAP students are likely motivated to succeed in their post-secondary educations.  		 3	 By examining how the EAP educational experience can foster change in students and impact on their cultural identity, the findings of this investigation can inform EAP programming, planning, and curriculum development.  The identity of Canada and its citizens is constantly changing and growing.  Within Canada, culture (especially for immigrants and EAP students) “is an extremely complex term and the capacity to comprehend cultural diversity depends on understanding the concept of culture itself" (Ragoonaden, 2010, p. 18).  Each individual (especially immigrants) defines his or herself via multiple identities or numerous ways of expressing who he or she is (Ragoonaden, 2010).  When teaching in any diverse Canadian classroom (specifically that of EAP), teachers must know their students, being aware of their always-changing identities, and teachers must be able to acquire “a mindset that consciously seeks out and promotes diversity in the learning experience” (Ragoonaden, 2010, p. 15).  For this study, it is hypothesized that as an EAL student consciously and subconsciously transforms through learning and growth, it is possible to experience metanoia; an epiphany or a higher moment of thinking.  It is further hypothesized that metanoia and identity are intertwined when addressing the EAP environment; students are growing and changing based on their cultural and academic exposure.  Identity is defined by the investigator for the purposes of this study as a means to describe who an individual is socially, culturally, emotionally, and academically.  There are many aspects to one’s identity and each individual learns based on their personal story, past and present (Norton & Toohey, 2011). 1.2  Summary of Relevant Literature  Within a socio-cognitive framework, the literature review examines definitions of EAP and metanoia before outlining theories of second language acquisition and identity as it relates to the relationship between metanoia and additional language learning.  For the purposes of this research study, EAP is conceptualized as the study of academic English to support successful participation in post-secondary education (Hyland and Hamp-Lyons, 2002).  Metanoia was defined by the Ancient Greeks as an “after thought, change of mind” (Cuddon, 2013, p. 432).  Senge (1990a) further defined it as a “fundamental shift or change, or more literally transcendence…of mind” (p. 12).  Throughout this study metanoia is thought of as an “aha” moment or an epiphany.  Further, it is seen as a conscious realization that learning or an action is being completed subconsciously; an awareness of the learning process.  This should bring forth a change in identity.  Metanoia allows an individual to delve into a deep reflective state, working 		 4	on one’s self both socially and academically.  Metanoia motivates.  It is exploratory as it is the process of “understanding seeking…this sort of learning that results in seeing everything in a different light” (Glass, 2014).  In education, people can experience more motivation and gain a broader perspective when learning from metanoia.  Learning and metanoia coincide, as learning is a process of re-inventing and re-creating the self; metanoia is the process of discovery of the self (Senge, 1990b).  Therefore metanoia allows an individual to transform, redefining their mind and thinking processes.  For a person to possibly experience a moment of metanoia, they should be using deeply embedded critical thinking skills, allowing them to take ownership of their own learning and in turn providing a much healthier and happier environment for themselves.  In exploring the relationship between metanoia and additional language learning, Krashen’s (1982b) second language acquisition theory, in particular the input hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis, was important central in developing a conceptual framework for this study.  Krashen’s work points to the mechanism by which additional languages are acquired and makes intuitive sense for promoting additional language learning.  Second language acquisition takes place when learners are exposed to language at a level just above their current level of understanding (+1) In other words, they are receiving comprehensible input (i) , conceptualized as i+1.  EAP students are ideal participants for this study as they are at a specific level of English learning.  Therefore, “i + 1” in the context of  a low affective filter, should facilitate student learning.  Since, Krashen hypothesizes that  “… affective variables relate to the process of second language acquisition” (Krashen, 1982b, p. 9),  external factors can affect an individual’s learning; this is tied to the concept of metanoia.  Closely related to Krashen’s concept of comprehensible input, is Long’s (1996) ideas that extend comprehensible input to include interaction and output.  As language learning takes place through comprehensible input and interaction, the concept of restructuring can also be related to a change of mind, or metanoia.  McLaughlin’s (1990) theory of restructuring is conceived as sudden moments or bursts of progress, a moment in which learning seems to “come together”, even though individuals have not received any new content, instruction, or important information that would assist in exposing them to the language.  Restructuring can be described as the stage at which a learner’s additional language undergoes qualitative changes towards fluency resulting in a realization that learning ability or language acquisition has increased, or an individual has reached a higher level of understanding.  		 5	 Identity also plays an important role in the theoretical framework of this study.  When describing the learning context it “needs to be complemented with a focus on the identity and human agency of the language learner…note that the conditions under which language learners speak are often highly challenging, engaging their identities in complex and often contradictory ways” (Norton & Toohey, 2001, p. 312).  Identity is influenced by a multitude of factors throughout life including a change in environment and culture.  The linguistic landscapes in which learners find themselves influence how these learners construct their identities in relation to this landscape (Norton & Toohey, 2011).  Culture further plays an important role in students’ identity, with individuals having multiple identities that are fluid depending on the time and context (Ragoonaden, 2010).  By better understanding connections between identity and language use, language learning students may gain a stronger understanding of English by observing and participating more, providing them with a richer learning experience (Kinginger, 2015). The current study explores the extent to which EAP students are in a conducive learning environment to experience moments of metanoia, as related perhaps to changing identities as young adults, university students, language learners, immigrants to Canada, and the role metanoia plays in second language acquisition.  Participants can offer important opinions and viewpoints on the change in identity in light of how metanoia relates with language learning.  Ligtbown & Spada (2013) have offered an explanation for identity as “the social dynamic or power relationship between languages.  For example, members of a minority group learning the language of a majority group may have different attitudes and motivation from those of majority group members learning a minority language” (p. 89).  1.3  Purpose of the Study  The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the relationship between metanoia and second language learning within the post-secondary education system.  To achieve this purpose, data were gathered on the lived experiences, perceived language growth, and opinions from the point of view of the participants.  Specifically, the current study explored how metanoia occurs via the language learning processes and experiences of EAP students, and how metanoia, in turn, supports language acquisition.  The findings of this study will assist educators in EAP settings in making pedagogical decisions that support building positive relationships with their learners while fostering language acquisition and academic success.     		 6	 1.4  Research Question   The primary research question explored in this study is: How do English for Academic Purposes students experience metanoia and what is the relationship with their language acquisition?   1.5  Significance of the Study  This investigation could contribute to the development of instructional practices within EAP programs that address the concept of metanoia and strengthen second language acquisition.  The research findings can be used to explore ways of assisting students in transitioning to a new culture, environment, and cultural identity and may also contribute to developing stronger relationships between peers, students, and instructors.  1.6  Overview of Research Methods  This study employed qualitative methods..  The participants were all students who had previously or were currently part of the EAP program during the time of the investigation.  All participants were between the ages of 18-22 and originated from non-English speaking countries.  The data was triangulated using both an online survey and a voluntary follow-up interview.  The study was approved by the UBC Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (BREB), and the vocabulary and sentence structure of the research instruments were chosen carefully to not be above a grade 12 reading level. 1.7  Limitations and Delimitations  This study is limited because data were only collected from consenting participants who were enrolled as students in the EAP program at PIU.  There was a slight risk that obtaining a small sample due to unwilling participants would make data unavailable and rendered useless to the researcher.  This study was further delimited by the researcher to include only participants who were EAP students at PIU.  1.8  Definitions of Key Terms   As described earlier in this chapter, metanoia is an experience of gaining a new awareness; an epiphany, or reaching a higher level of comprehension all within one moment (e.g. Senge, 1990a).  It means to “change one’s mind” (Australian Oxford Dictionary, 2004) and comes from the Greek word “metanoein” (Australian Oxford Dictionary, 2004).   EAP is a course offered for upper-intermediate to advanced language learners at PIU.  In general, EAP courses focus on the language skills students need in order to fully take part in the 		 7	cultural and academic contexts of higher education.  As such, EAP programs focus on the social, academic, and linguistic demands of post-secondary studies in English and prepares students for the specific needs they will have in order to be successful at university (Hyland & Hamp-Lyons, 2002).    Second language acquisition is the process of literally acquiring or gaining language abilities and language skills.  For the purpose of this thesis, second language acquisition is also sometimes referred to as additional language acquisition to reflect the fact that English may be participants’ third or fourth language acquired.  Second and additional are used synonymously in this thesis.  This practice of referring to additional language acquisition also reflects changes in terminology conventions current in the researcher’s home province of British Columbia in which the teaching organization representing English as a second or additional language teachers is entitled “The Association of B.C. Teachers of English as an Additional Language” (BC TEAL, 2016).  Krashen (1982a) described the method of acquiring an additional language as “understanding what we hear (or read), by understanding the message, what is said (rather than how it is said).  We are aided a great deal in comprehension by the context, by our knowledge of the world, as well as our knowledge of the language” (p.97). 1.9  Organization of the Thesis  Chapter 1 has framed the concepts and has created an overall outline of the thesis.  Chapter 2 is the literature review, discussing in detail the scholarship that relates to the research, EAP, and English language learning.  Chapter 3 describes the qualitative research methods that have been used throughout the investigation.  Chapter 4 discusses the observations and findings of the online survey and voluntary follow-up interview.  Lastly, Chapter 5 discusses the results and offers recommendations for further areas of practice and study.  		 8	Chapter 2:  Literature Review  2.1  Overview of Chapter 2 In this thesis project,  the main goal was to explore how participants from an EAP program experience metanoia and the relationship between metanoia and additional language learning. Three factors (metanoia, second language acquisition, and identity) appeared to be in a constant relationship, interweaving and working with one another within the participant’s “self” (mind, body, soul).  Hence, gears (see Figure 2.1) were used as a metaphor of “gears turning within the brain”, and as a visual of the constant working and fluid change within the “self” due to these three factors.  Within a socio-cognitive framework for second language acquisition, these ideas are extrapolated upon in further detail in the following subthemes of the chapter.  This chapter begins by defining EAP and Metanoia.  Next, within a socio-cognitive framework, theories of second language acquisition are explored along with an examination of identity and additional language learning.      Figure 2. The relationship between metanoia, language acquisition, and identity. Identity	Language	Acquisition	Metanoia			 9	2.2  What is EAP?  A simple definition of EAP focuses on the goal of teaching English to support academic study and research in that language (Flowerdew & Peacock, 2001; Jordan, 1997).  For Hyland and Hamp-Lyons (2002), English for academic purposes can be defined as: . . . language research and instruction that focuses on the specific communicative needs and practices of particular groups in academic contexts. It means grounding instruction in an understanding of the cognitive, social and linguistic demands of specific academic disciplines. This takes practitioners beyond preparing learners for study in English to developing new kinds of literacy . . . (p. 2).  The EAP program from which participants were recruited for the current study was designed for international students from non-English speaking backgrounds who were academically admissible for studies at PIU, but who did not have the English language proficiency evidence otherwise required.  The EAP program was designed to allow entry into university to students who met the entrance requirements of their field of study at the university but did not meet the English language proficiency requirements of PIU.  A typical EAP program might combine content courses with intensive English language studies, while also promoting academic, collaborative, experiential, and intercultural teaching and learning (University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, 2014).  EAP programs generally focus on the social, cultural, and academic aspects of studying and living in an English speaking country.  The program site for the current study combined English language courses as well as involved students in the wider PIU community.  It focused on academic study involving collaborative, experiential, and cross-cultural learning.   EAP programs are distinguished by the focus on academic language as opposed to conversational language.  Cummins (2000) refers to conversational language skills as Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and academic language skills as Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).  Daily conversational language is associated with BICS and the language associated with school and academic success would be considered CALP.  As a result, CALP is usually the language focus in EAP programs.  BICS is typically language that is not overly cognitively challenging, while CALP becomes increasingly cognitively challenging and decontextualized.  When learning a first language as a child or an additional language as an adult, generally learning BICS does not take a long period of time.  It 		 10	has been estimated that it takes about two years for learners to acquire conversational language proficiency (Cummins, 1981).  Whereas, CALP can take several years depending on multiple factors including the ability of the individual, the difficulty of the language, the exposure to willing interlocutors, and the environment.  In fact, it has been estimated that the acquisition of CALP could take from five (Cummins, 1981) to seven (Hakuta, Goto Butler, & Witt, 2000) to eight or ten years (Collier, 1987; Thomas & Collier, 1997).  Unfortunately learners from non-English speaking backgrounds may be improperly considered as being unmotivated to learn or labeled as having some form of a learning disability due to their delay in comprehension and learning development in the language.  Additionally the pace of a learner’s progress could be deceiving as they may be progressing faster in certain aspects of language proficiency quicker than others; for example, they may not speak the language to the same degree of their understanding, or they cannot express themselves adequately, and interlocutors could assume it is because of a delay of some sort (Bilash, 2011).   2.2  What is Metanoia?  Before examining theories related to additional language learning, it is useful to define the concept of Metanoia.  In a literary context, metanoia is a Greek term defined as “after thought, change of mind” (Cuddon, 2013, p. 432).  Within the context of Educational Leadership in organizations,  it was further defined by Senge (1990a) as a process of shifting one’s learning and though process to reach deeper moments of realization.  Therefore, when metanoia was defined for the purpose of this study, it was conceptualized as a mind shift, a moment of realization or an epiphany of a second language learner.  In other words, metanoia was defined as an “aha” moment, a moment in which a learner becomes aware of the evolution of new knowledge in an educational environment.  One more way to think about metanoia is as a progression in the learning process.  An individual could experience metanoia once, or multiple times throughout his or her life; in addition, metanoia occurs in a variety of different situations, scenarios, and learning environments, like an EAP class or any organizational structure.  For the purpose of this study, the focus was on the emergent new experiences of language learning with a secondary focus on identity.  It was hypothesized that all of this could occur with metanoia, those moments of sudden self-awareness.  Metanoia could be considered anything from a life-changing event to a small success that caused a participant to feel achievement and empowerment.  Moments of metanoia may cause an individual to gain a stronger awareness and 		 11	understanding of themselves (identity), their limitations, and their abilities.  From an educational leadership point of view, for English (2016), metanoia engenders a new vision or a new perspective for individuals that maximizes their abilities.  Essentially when metanoia has occurred, an individual becomes more enlightened, having seen the world through a different lens, and having learned from his or her experience; this in turn allows an individual to become more educated.  Metanoia fosters “a new or different perspective on things” (English, 2016, p. 79), and it can help to resolve problems or tensions that could not be solved without the shift that occurs with metanoia (English, 2016).  Also within an educational leadership context, Senge (1990a) further explained the relationship between metanoia and learning when stating, “to grasp the meaning of ‘metanoia’ is to grasp the deeper meaning of ‘learning,’ for learning also involves a fundamental shift or movement of mind” (p. 13).  To paraphrase, Senge then equated learning to be the cause of redefinition of the human identity, to see reality through different lenses.  In turn an individual would become aware and see things that they never thought were possible; he or she would recreate their identity and gain more awareness of reality and the world.  This was another layer added to the definition of metanoia in the context of second language acquisition.   It is important to note, however, that Senge (1990a) conceived of the concept of metanoia within the context of a learning organization.  Within this context, the concept of metanoia was related to transformative learning.  For Senge (1990a), a learning organization provides the ability to constantly create new learning.  Both Senge (1990a) and English’s (2016) work is associated with Educational Leadership and transformative learning in organizations because of metanoia.  However, neither scholar made the specific connection between additional language learning and metanoia.  In considering a language learning context, such as EAP, metanoia can be conceived as a learning process that occurs quickly and suddenly.  This notion is a powerful concept as it is transformative and changes not only one’s learning abilities and processes but assists in growth and identity change while acting as a catalyst for additional language learning.  This concept can further be described as a conscious realization of the changes occurring subconsciously.  When an individual becomes aware of the learning process and the changes in their identity, it can be a process of discovery and exploration that facilitates second language acquisition.  		 12	2.3  A Socio-cognitive Framework  In examining how participants experience metanoia and the nature of the relationship between metanoia and additional language learning for academic purposes, a socio-cognitive perspective was used.  A socio-cognitive perspective maintains that humans learn via a combination of both social and cognitive factors.  For Atkinson (2011), a socio-cognitive approach to additional language acquisition integrates the mind, the body, and the wider world.  Additional languages are learned through social action and are embedded in the surrounding environment in which learners find themselves.  The social side of this perspective understands language learning to take place through interaction between people who desire to communicate with each other.  It involves collaborating with others and negotiating meaning  There are two specific aspects to the socio-cognitive framework used for this study: the social and the cognitive.  The social is based on the way individuals interact with each other, with languages being learned in a social context (based on Vygotsky’s (1978) ideas mentioned below).  The second part of this framework is cognitive, meaning second language acquisition is an innate process through which learning occurs, and this process is based in Krashen’s (1982) ideas related to comprehensible input or i + 1.  There is frequent and purposeful use of the target language for collaborative knowledge creation and cooperative learning (Douglas, 2014b).  This use of the target language can take place in what Vygotsky (1978) has called the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).  Vygotsky (1978) defined the ZPD as the metaphorical space between what an individual can learn independently and what an individual can learn in collaboration with willing and more advanced interlocutors.  It is through interaction and collaboration that learning takes place.  The cognitive side of this perspective considers the subconscious mechanisms through which additional languages are learned and takes into account learners’ innate capacity for language acquisition as a result of natural language inputs, as evidenced by the predictable order in which language structures are learned (Douglas, 2014b).   2.4  Second Language Acquisition A variety of second language acquisition theories support an analysis of how students experience metanoia and its role in additional language learning.  Within this study second language acquisition/learning (English is the second language) and additional language acquisition/learning (English is the second, third, fourth, or more language) are used interchangeably.  Although one is more specific, they both address acquiring or gaining the use 		 13	of another language outside of one’s first language.  Individuals may express themselves as English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at times even if English is not their second language; they may not be fluent in other languages and may feel more proficient in English, thus justifying it as their second language.  Both terms are used interchangeably to offer freedom of identification for the participants who took part in this study. However all of the participants can be categorized under the umbrella term of ELL or English Language Learner, meaning those who are learning English. (Gunderson, 2013).   The purpose of these second language acquisition theories (although the viewpoint differs from theorist to theorist) is to gain a better understanding of how and why languages are learned in an additional language learning environment. Additionally, this information was important to the study presented here as it gave theoretical insight and background as to what may be the most important factors in second language learning and how to create the most conducive and effective environment for language learning to occur. For the purposes of this study, the second language acquisition theorist that had the strongest impact was Krashen (e.g. 1982b).  In providing an overview of second language acquisition theory, the following were considered:  comprehensible input and the affective filter, interaction, restructuring, usage, automaticity, motivation, strategy learning, good language learners, and identity.    2.4.1  Comprehensible Input  An examination of comprehensible input and its role in language acquisition supports the analysis of the data gathered in the current study.  Modified input occurs when proficient language speakers change or adapt their speech and language to communicate with less proficient speakers.  In other words modified input is what willing interlocutors change in their speech to help language learners comprehend and communicate more effectively.  Whereas comprehensible input is the content or language that is received into the brain (input) to try to understand.  Modified input is achieved through work with willing interlocutors while comprehensible input is the work of the cognitive or the innate language learning ability a learner has to decode, comprehend, and analyze language allowing them to input the information.  Some examples of modified input are repetition, paraphrasing, and speaking louder (Maleki & Pazhakh, 2012).  Modified input is a useful tool for language learners in the majority of situations.  Unfortunately, the one defining factor is the natural ability of the teacher or fluent target language speaker; some people communicate with additional language learners naturally, 		 14	adjusting their speed, pronunciation, and such to fit the needs of the learner.  Whereas highly fluent target language speakers, such as highly proficient speakers, might speak too slowly or continue getting loud and frustrated to the point where what they say is incomprehensible (Lightbown & Spada, 2013).  Second language learners benefit from the efforts of highly proficient speakers and fluent bilinguals to modify their speech to help them understand.  The language used in modified interaction may contain a variety of linguistic structures, some “simple” and some “complex.”  However, it also includes a range of adjustments that enable second language learners to engage in interactions with more advanced speakers of the second language more easily—more repetition, slower rate of delivery, paraphrasing, etc. (Krashen, 1981).  Krashen’s ideas about second language acquisition are summarized by the following: “we acquire [an additional language]…by focusing on meaning.  We do not acquire by first learning the rules and then trying to use them,” (Krashen, 1982a, p. 97).  Krashen has outlined multiple steps in his theory, with two of the main engines of language acquisition including; comprehensible input (i+1) and a low affective filter.  Comprehensible input was theorized to be the most effective form of language acquisition.  Comprehensible input consists of “i” (the level a learner’s language is at in the present moment) plus “1” (one level above their current stage). Further, i + 1 is defined as the “i” representing “the level of language already acquired, and the ‘+ 1’ is a metaphor for language…that is just a step beyond that level” (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 106).  Therefore, in theory the learner will subconsciously learn the language in a context slightly above his/her current level of understanding.  Krashen theorized that the majority of learning takes place from input such as listening, reading, or communicating with other individuals in the target additional language (as the learner is listening to the interlocutors) (Krashen, 1982a).  Krashen described comprehensible input as:  … understanding what we hear (or read), by understanding the message, what is said (rather than how it is said).  We are aided a great deal in comprehension by the context, by our knowledge of the world, as well as our knowledge of the language (Krashen, 1982a, p. 97). He does acknowledge also that some learning does take place from endeavors such as grammar study, and language lessons; however, the majority of grammatical comprehension would be developed over time as the learner would gain a stronger understanding of the language 		 15	(Krashen, 1982).  “If the input is understood, and if there is enough of it and if it is somewhat varied, it will contain all the grammatical structures necessary, and expose the language acquirer to everything he [or she] needs” (Krashen, 1982, p. 98). Krashen coined the term the “affective filter” to describe how students need to proceed in a calm emotional state to learn.  He defined this as “a hypothesis as to how affective variables relate to the process of second language acquisition” (Krashen, 1982b, p. 9).  Certain variables such as a person’s background/identity could affect their learning.  The affective filter can act as metaphorical block to the model of comprehensible input (i + 1).  Here Krashen theorized that by feeling “affected” the learner was experiencing negative emotions such as anxiety, stress, boredom, or other negative attitudes that would inhibit their ability to learn the comprehensible input effectively.  Possibly this would cause poor learning outcomes.  Therefore, no matter the amount or degree of comprehensible input that occurred, if there was an affective filter the input could be “filtered” out and thus made it unavailable to succeed in language acquisition effectively (Lightbown & Spada, 2013).  Modified input, comprehensible input, and the affective filter all relate; they deal with how humans communicate and how to communicate effectively.  All three notions clearly express the most effective state of mind to be in while learning an additional language, or conversely how to instruct an individual who needs assistance in additional language learning.  2.4.2  Interaction Hypothesis  In addition to learners acquiring an additional language through comprehensible input in low anxiety environments, the interaction hypothesis (Long, 1996) can be described as the way language learners interact with interlocutors to improve their language acquisition abilities.  The interaction hypothesis maintains that learning takes place by a combination of instinctual or innate abilities and moments in which the learner engages in conversation. The interlocutors who participated in conversing with said language learners would use modified input to improve the interaction experience by adapting or modifying their language level (vocabulary, speed, and pronunciation for example) to meet the needs of the learner.  The innate abilities of the learners have not been constricted, and these abilities are augmented by multiple subjects or aspects of learning.  Long (1983a) supported Krashen’s view of comprehensible input; however, he questioned the method of how to create a comprehensible and communicative version of input.  		 16	Long (1996) felt that modified interaction was an important component for making language understandable.  People learning an additional language have to have the chance to converse with other users of the language and cooperate with each other to create mutual understanding.  This cooperation involves two parties negotiating meaning with each other.  Long emphasizes this conception of the language learning process in the following statement:  It is widely assumed, and probably rightly, that samples of a SL [Second Language] heard but not understood by a would-be acquirer of that language serve no useful purpose in the SLA [Second Language Acquisition] process.  Only comprehensible input will do.  The question is, how does that input become comprehensible to the learner?  Modifications of the input itself almost certainly help (Long, 1983b, p. 138). Long (1996) felt comprehensible input was not effective by itself, specifically with adult learners who worked towards a goal of native-like proficiency.  Long (1996) felt that “… negotiation for meaning, and especially negotiation that triggers interactional adjustments by the NS [native speaker] or more competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisition because it connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways” (p. 451).    The interaction hypothesis is closely related to Swain’s (1985) conception of comprehensible output.  When an individual does not have opportunities to develop their additional language learning skills and has very few chances to use a language, their proficiency declines (Swain, 1985).  Swain (1985) held that learners need to produce language in an environment where they will be pushed to work harder, improving their language acquisition, comprehensible input, and comprehensible output; solely experiencing input is not enough.  2.4.3  Restructuring, Usage, and Automaticity  An examination of restructuring theory, usage based theories, and automaticity in additional language learning can further inform an understanding of how learners experience metanoia, and the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition. It can be described as the feeling of learning something new; however, the learner would have already had the information and in theory now would only be piecing together the information. McLaughlin (1990) mentioned restructuring is the focus of “mechanisms of transition that are called into play as the learner modifies internalized, cognitive representations” (p. 118).  It is important to note that restructuring could possibly cause regression in learners.  Mclaughlin (1990) has described how language ability may appear to decline as more complex 		 17	language structures are acquired.  Once language learners have discovered a pattern or rule in an additional language, the individual may regress by applying the pattern or rule to every situation, hence incorrectly communicating in the said language.  This theory appears to address some of the progression and sudden regression that may be expressed in people learning an additional language.  However, as the new more complex structures are mastered, language learner’s skills once again appear to improve.  Mclaughlin (1990) described this process of initial language skills, decreased ability, and eventual language mastery as a U-shaped curve.    Usage based learning takes place when individuals have learned through the process of practice and using language.   When using language, learners are exposing themselves to practice of the said language.  This allows the mind to learn and work within the ZPD and for comprehensible input to occur creating the process of metanoia.  Ellis (2005) stated that “we learn language when using language” (p. 306).  Further Ellis (2005) argued that the way individuals learn and process language was through using and practicing it.  It was about building connections, not gaining information.  Ellis agreed with Krashen’s view of learning when he stated “Krashen (1985) was correct to the extent that, as he termed it, acquisition and learning are different things” (Ellis, 2005, p. 307).  Both theorists, Krashen and Ellis, expressed the importance of language learning and its connection to communication.  Usage-based learning is not about finding and memorizing or gaining as much information as possible; instead it is about connecting and correlating data and information in another language to apply it and process it.  Ellis described the theory as follows:  Usage-based theories of language acquisition hold that we learn constructions while using language, of engaging in communication, and that an individual’s linguistic competence emerges from the memories of the utterances in their history of language use and the abstraction of regularities within them (2003, p. 306). Ellis (2003, 2005) claimed usage-based learning would usually occur via chunking and phrases and not individual word processing (as cited in Lightbown & Spada, 2013); the research may refer to chunking and learning/process.  This could be a case of usage-based learning.    Lightbown and Spada (2013) defined automaticity as a process in which new information becomes easier to understand and learn through practice and experience. Automaticity allows the learner to access language components more conveniently, quickly and automatically.  As a result the brain can be free to process more information and allows the learner to automatically 		 18	learn faster (Gass, 2013).  It appears that by having these automatic learning moments, language learners are able to access linguistic information easier and experience more moments of metanoia or sudden bursts of progress as their minds now have the ability to fixate on one facet of the language acquisition process.  One way that language may be automatized is through noticing and practice.  The noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990; 2010) theorizes that once an aspect of a language is noticed, it is consciously used as a reminder for language learning.  When something in a language is noticed as input, it can begin to be learned, and by paying attention to the language, learners can effectively start to learn the aspect/element of the language (Schmidt, 1990; 2010).  Language that is noticed can also be practiced.  Meaningful practice assists in automatizing language.  To facilitate practice and language acquisition, practice must be interactive, meaningful, and focused on needed forms (Ortega, 2007).  To carry out meaningful practice when learning an additional language, a learner must have a specific set of learning skills to facilitate language acquisition.  Initially, learners learn rules and are aware of their knowledge and limitations.  However, once practicing and becoming more familiar with the target language, language structures become automatized and specific rules and knowledge perhaps no longer consciously remembered (Dekeyser, 2007).  2.4.4  Motivation and Strategy Learning  Related to second language acquisition and an exploration of metanoia in language learning, motivation can be conceptualized as the drive behind becoming a good language learner.  Lightbown & Spada (2013) discussed what motivation was in second language acquisition and how it would be achieved for a good language learner:  Motivation in second language learning is a complex phenomenon.  It has been defined in terms of two factors: on the one hand, learners’ communicative needs, and on the other, their attitudes towards the second language community.  If learners need to speak the second language in a wide range of social situations or to fulfill professional ambitions, they will perceive the communicative value of the second language and are therefore likely to be motivated to acquire proficiency in it.  Similarly, if learners have favorable attitudes towards the speakers of the language, they will desire more contact with them. (p. 87).   Further, Gardner & Lambert (1972) created two terms to describe motivation.  First, instrumental motivation which was defined as learning a language for a quick or immediate 		 19	need.  Second, integrative motivation which was learning a language to build a community and relationships for the self, developing one’s identity through communication.  Both types of motivation can be used separately or together in the learning process.  Essentially the learner would be an individual, each person learns individually and is motivated by different factors (such as school/work—practicality, or personal use—identity growth).    Learning strategies also play a role in second language acquisition.  “Indeed, no course could ever teach all we need to know about a language and the teacher must find the means to help the student help himself, when the teacher is not around” (Rubin, 1975, p. 45).  Rubin (1975) mentioned how strategies might not be noticed directly by the teacher nor the learner; however, by having specific strategies in place, the teacher is able to potentially teach to these strategies for the class/students.  The learners could study and interact with these strategies in mind.  Rubin (1975) postulated that by recording a classroom (preferably by video) an individual could go back and review the session looking for moments where specific strategies were or could be implemented, allowing them to be put into future use.  Rubin came up with seven strong strategies/characteristics.  Rubin’s seven characteristics of good language learners (1975) are important as they create not only a more stable working environment for the teacher and learner, but also encourage the language learner to become a good language learner by assisting them in improving their abilities: 1. The good language learner is a willing and accurate guesser. 2. The good language learner has a strong drive to communicate or to learn from a communication. 3. The good language learner is often not inhibited. 4. In addition to focusing on communication, the good language learner is prepared to attend to form. 5. The good language learner practices. 6. The good language learner monitors his own and the speech of others. 7. The good language learner attends to meaning. (Rubin, 1975, pp. 45-47)  Rubin’s first strategy discussed how a good language learner should guess.  People guess in both their first and additional languages.  They pay attention to body language, the environment, listening, watching, and speaking.  As a result individuals have been known to 		 20	improve their language such as speaking, grammar, and listening skills (Rubin, 1975) by drawing inferences.  Additionally any person who has learnt a language has developed this skill.  It would be an important one to use as a learning strategy.  Strategy two discussed the need to communicate.  The language learner will be motivated to communicate in any form possible whether by body language or speech; they work hard to get their message across to interlocutors (Rubin, 1975).  Strategy three discussed how the learner is not worried about making mistakes or looking ridiculous.  He or she would be aware that mistakes are made in the learning process and would be willing to make them during communication (Rubin, 1975).  During strategy four, while the language learner was working on communication, they were constantly to be looking for patterns in language “constantly analyzing, categorizing, synthesizing” (Rubin, 1975, p. 46).  Learning more additional languages would theoretically become easier because the learner had figured out a way to dissect languages (Rubin, 1975).  Strategy five explained how a good language learner would take advantage of every possible moment to learn the language, whether watching, listening, reading, writing, or speaking (Rubin, 1975).  Strategy six discussed how the learner realized he or she can learn from the mistakes he or she makes.  The learner would continue to be constantly aware of his or her current level or standard of language, and how it compares to the level of others, changing or improving it as needed throughout the discussion (Rubin, 1975).  Lastly, strategy seven stated that the good language learner constantly would work towards understanding and comprehending the meaning of both the structure and the composition of the language (topics, themes, comprehension) (Rubin, 1975).  These strategies were used throughout this study as seven important strategies for the good language learner.  2.5  The Good Language Learner  The good language learner appears to be defined by the strategies, techniques, and motivations that assist him or her throughout the learning process.  The relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition is also enlightened by an exploration of the concept of being a good language learner.  A good language learner may be defined as someone who has succeeded in obtaining a higher comprehension and ability to use the language (than their original level) and has integrated the new/additional language into his or her lifestyle.  The concept of the good language learner was initially developed within the mid 1970’s (Norton & 		 21	Toohey, 2001).  However, Norton & Toohey (2001) “argue for approaches to good language learning that focus not only on learners’ internal characteristics, learning strategies, or linguistic outputs but also on the reception of their actions in particular sociocultural communities” (p. 308).  When specifically examining a group of adult students in a study on good language learners it was noted that:  adult good language learners appeared to use five different strategies: (a) taking an active approach to the task of language learning, (b) recognizing and exploiting the systematic nature of language, (c) using the language they were learning for communication and interaction, (d) managing their own affective difficulties with language learning, and (e) monitoring their language learning performance (Norton & Toohey, 2001, p. 309). Even though there were two aspects in the Norton and Toohey study—one with children and one with adults—the section on adults specifically pertained to this investigation as the participants in the study conducted here were all young adults gaining second language acquisition, all of them were wanting to become the good language learner.   Lightbown and Spada (2013) mentioned specific characteristics that would affect the good language learner and second language acquisition.  The factors mentioned were: intelligence, language learning aptitude, learning styles, personality, attitudes and motivation, motivation in the classroom, identity and ethnic group affiliation, learner beliefs, and age (Lightbown & Spada, 2013).  Rubin (1975) thought there were fewer variables to create a good language learner, mentioning these as “aptitude, motivation, and opportunity” (p. 42).  Lightbown & Spada (2013) acknowledge that each language learner was an individual, meaning they all react to specific situations, environments, cultures, relationships, times, and learning in different ways.  As a result, “researchers are beginning to explore the nature of these complex interactions, but it remains difficult to predict how a particular individual’s characteristics will influence his or her success as a language learner” (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 99).    When reviewing the good language learner there are multiple characteristics and factors that go into the development of the self.  Figure 2.2 below showcases the creation of or composition of the good language learner.  As seen in Figure 2.2., the good language learner uses meaningful strategies and techniques to gain growth in second language acquisition and identity as he or she is aware that this will cause positive results and subconsciously cause moments of metanoia throughout the learning process.  		 22	 Figure 2.2.  The composition of the good language learner.   2.6  Identity  Finally, the context of the language learning environment is important to remember when working with additional language learners, and the concept of identity can inform an understanding of metanoia and its relationship with second language acquisition.  To have a developed and healthy learning context, it “needs to be complemented with a focus on the identity and human agency of the language learner…note that the conditions under which language learners speak are often highly challenging, engaging their identities in complex and often, contradictory ways” (Norton & Toohey, 2001, p. 312).  Individuals usually would change due to factors such as experiences and a change in environment, culture, relationships, gender, and age.  In addition Norton & Toohey, (2011) mention that race and ethnic background, gender, and sexual orientation impact both a learner’s identity and experiences.  A language learner creates an identity based on the influences in his or her current environment and linguistic landscape (Norton & Toohey, 2011).  Lightbown & Spada (2013) expressed the dichotomy between backgrounds and the changing views of an individual’s identity as “the social dynamic or power relationship between languages.  For example, members of a minority group learning the language of a majority group may have different attitudes and motivation from those of majority group members learning a minority language” (p. 89). Second	Language	Acquisition	Identity	The	Good	Language	Learner			 23	Therefore, the “fact that languages exist in social contexts cannot be overlooked when we seek to understand the variables that affect success in learning” (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 89).  Figure 2.3 below explores through a Venn diagram showing some of the potential factors that go into creating a language learner/individual’s identity.  Figure 2.3.  Venn diagram of a language learner’s identity and possible contributing factors.  Figure 2.3 displays the concept of the language learner’s identity and how so many contributing factors could be imperative to the learning process.  Additionally, being in a Venn diagram explains how these factors could be interwoven and one or more could all be affecting each other, the identity of the individual/participant, and their learning process.    Identity is a fluid concept that is often culturally bound.  “Personal identity is shaped by historical and societal realities” (Ragoonaden, 2010, p. 18); this creates culture and explains why cultural identity is so important to the current study. Culture is a contributing factor examined in the current study.  All of the participants come from a different culture, as immigrants or international students, to Canada.  As culture is a complicated concept, an individual must understand cultural diversity to understand the differences and dichotomies between cultures, identity, and individuals (Ragoonaden, 2010).  Culture shapes who we are and what we are (Ragoonaden, 2010).  It “it is in us and around us….” (p. 18).  It can be increasingly difficult for a new member of Canadian society to understand their place and identity as they deal with the conflict in belonging to their previous and current culture.  This occurs while living in a country Language	Learner	Identity	Environment	 Personality	Cultural	Background	Motivations	Age	Gender	Relationships	Race	and	Ethnic	Background	Sexual	Orientation			 24	(such as Canada) that offers a complex, ever growing and transforming racial and ethnic demographic (Ungerleider, 2009); this could constantly cause an individual to feel confused or overwhelmed within their cultural identity.  Therefore, there are many aspects to cultural identity alone and how it could impact academic and social identity of an individual, specifically when considering the concept of metanoia and the relationship between metanoia and additional language learning.  To conclude, it is important to remember that each individual has a fluid identity, each person is constantly changing, learning, and growing based on his or her current and past perspectives in life.  Norton & Toohey (2011) argued:   …that language learners’ identities are always multiple and in process and that learners often have different investments in the language practices of their classrooms and communities.  There are widespread representations of complex and embodied language learners living in socially stratified worlds that constrain as well as enable the exercise of human agency….  As language learners in every region of the world claim the right to speak and to be heard, their identities and investments will continue to generate exciting and innovative research (p. 437). Essentially, Norton and Toohey’s quote reminds individuals that everyone has constant changing and multiple identities which can cause different motivations, learning styles, and abilities within an environment such as EAP.  Research such as the current study is inspired by the differing voices and viewpoints of the identities of individuals and language learners. 2.7  Summary of Chapter 2 Within this chapter the definition of EAP was discussed and the foundations of metanoia.  A socio-cognitive framework was used in this study to identify that identity and language acquisition are the basis of metanoia.  Identity was examined as a fluid process with many facets, and how it affects the way an additional language learner thinks, behaves and learns.  Being a good language learner was also addressed and how this enhances the opportunities to experience richer moments of metanoia and second language acquisition. Second language acquisition describes the process of learning an additional language through comprehensible input and the affective filter, interaction, restructuring, usage, automaticity, motivation, strategy learning, good language learners, and identity.  The topics that were explored throughout the literature review chapter will be addressed once again in further detail in the discussion section of Chapter 5. 		 25	Chapter 3: Research Methods 3.1  Introduction to Chapter 3  The focus of this chapter is on the methods used to create and conduct this research study.  Initially, a rationale for the research study is provided, followed by the philosophical perspectives.  The chapter further explains what the research study entailed via the research design the research questions and hypothesis; a description of participants; research variables; research instruments; data collection procedures; data collection and statistical analysis; bias and error; validity; trustworthiness; and reliability.  To conclude, a summary is provided to encapsulate the main points of chapter three and what types of methods were used throughout the study. 3.2  Rationale for the Study  Canada has become a strong competitor in recruiting international students and immigrants.  The number of immigrants has increased in recent years (Government of Canada, 2013) and Canada is becoming a popular choice for international studies, specifically for courses and programs such as EAP programs.  In this research study, it has been hypothesized that a change of mind and identity is an integral component of the learning process for students (specifically within an EAP program) where culture and academics are combined to teach the student.  The research study conducted here examined the change and growth of EAP students both within a personal context (identity) and within an academic context.  Therefore, the information that was gathered can be used to guide future development of EAP programs and assist higher education (instructors, professors, students, administration, etc.) in further comprehending who international students are in all aspects of their lives and how they may change, grow, and struggle based on their EAP and university experiences.  The Greek term metanoia meaning “after thought, change of mind” (Cuddon, 2013, p. 432) was used throughout the research study as a universal term to define the changes the participants went through.  The overarching research question in this study was concerned with how EAP students at PIU experience metanoia and the relationship of metanoia with additional language acquisition.    Collins and O’Brien (2011) define qualitative research as “a form of social inquiry that takes reality as socially constructed rather than given and where the data are primarily textual rather than numerical” (p. 383).  Again this research was centered on EAP students and metanoia.  In addition, qualitative practices reminded the researcher to accept the concept that 		 26	some research is unpredictable, specifically when working with individuals.  Hence, qualitative research was the best choice for this study as it conforms to the participant’s needs; they were answering the data as individuals, expressing their own past and present experiences within the EAP program.  The participants could interpret questions to have different meanings based on their relationship with English language learning and personal backgrounds.  In addition all of their opinions were of equal value, yet were most likely different.  A qualitative research method provided the fluidity and freedom needed for proper participation expression in this study. 3.3  Research and Philosophical Perspective  The philosophical stance taken within this research study was influenced by the phenomenological tradition.  Phenomenology is “a qualitative approach in which the researcher focuses on capturing the experience of an activity or concept from participants’ perspectives” (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012, p. 629).  When using phenomenology the researcher asks, “What is the experience of an activity or concept from these particular participants’ perspectives?” (Patton, 1990, n.p.).  As a result, this study involved exploring what various experiences mean for the research participants from their points of view so that a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, in this case metanoia, could be obtained (Creswell, 1998).    A phenomenological approach inspired the collection of the data and its analysis throughout the study.  The objective of the study was to comprehend the learning experiences and identity growth of current and former EAP students at PIU through the process of experiencing metanoia in an additional language learning environment.  By doing so, a better understanding can be grasped of how additional language learners acquire language and what motivates them, as well as how to communicate and instruct with more accuracy and efficiency.  The data instruments to explore this objective were an online qualitative survey and one-on-one semi-structured interviews with the researcher.  The researcher constantly strove to obtain and interpret data in a process as unbiased as possible so that she could attempt to remain objective, a process called bracketing (Creswell, 1998).  Therefore, the researcher tried find out about the experiences of the participants without basing the importance of the answers on her own opinions and viewpoints.  Being that a qualitative approach influenced by phenomenology is about the process of the experience (Creswell, 1998), the emotions and reactions of the students were extremely important in understanding how they felt.   		 27	 In implementing a qualitative research approach influenced by the phenomenological tradition, the researcher searched for units of meaning in the data gathered through the online questionnaire and the semi-structured interviews.  These pieces of data were then gathered together into emerging themes that described the phenomenon under investigation, namely metanoia and the EAP student experience (Creswell, 1998).  This process was carried out using the tools available in MS Word.  Thematic coding of the units of meaning using different coloured highlighting and commenting techniques throughout the surveys and interviews was used to uncover emerging patterns to create themes related to specific emotions and actions.   3.4  Research Design  This was a qualitative study that connected metanoia and additional language learning at the post-secondary level.  The purpose of this research study was to explore the relationship between metanoia and language learning within the context and time period of participants participating in a EAP program.  It also addressed the language learning experiences of EAP students in relationship to metanoia.  The study was low risk and any identifying information such as e-mail addresses for further interviews, was kept completely confidential. The data were secured and stored safely on Canadian servers when used online. All of the information used for this study is kept completely confidential.  Hard copies of data are stored in a locked filing cabinet and data will be stored for five years and then destroyed via shredding or other means.  Additionally the data for the surveys were stored and backed up in Canada on the Canadian server Fluid Surveys, now run by Survey Monkey (which complies with the British Columbia Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act). Anything electronic will be removed from the computers of the investigator (participant’s personal information, e-mails, etc.) at the completion of this study and all other electronic information will be stored in a safe location on a hard drive.  Again, this electronic information will be stored for five years and then erased off of the hard drive appropriately at the end of the said five year period.    The researcher created an online questionnaire consisting of both closed (for qualification purposes) and open ended questions.  This survey was confidential and was preceded by participant recruitment consisting of multiple class presentations, flyers, e-mails, and consent forms (including information on the study). 		 28	 Once the online questionnaire and interview questions were created (also the consent form, PowerPoint and information sheets to be given/displayed to the EAP classes, and website for further research information and the survey) the researcher gained ethics approval from the UBC Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board. The researcher decided on advertising via a three-pronged approach:  Classroom visits, multiple e-mails to students, and flyers around campus.  Any students who had previously or were currently taking an EAP course at PIU were eligible to participate.    Participants were recruited from the EAP program (this was the only qualifying factor in allowing students to participate).  The researcher attended an EAP lecture to explain, present, and answer any questions about the study; in addition, information sheets were handed out that offered links to the consent form.  For participants who completed the online survey and agreed to proceed to the interview stage of the data collection, Starbucks cards worth $15 were given as a thank you gift.   Once potential participants had read through the information on informed consent and agreed to take part in the study, they could click a link online (automatically indicating that they were consenting to the survey portion of the study) proceeding the online questionnaire.  In this online questionnaire, they answered questions about their experiences and personal growth through their university experiences and more specifically their EAP program experiences.  At the end of the online questionnaire the participants could volunteer their email addresses and information to be randomly chosen and contacted at a future date to take part in the follow-up semi-structured interview.  In the follow-up interview, there were open-ended questions asked and recorded.  Many of the questions used in the follow-up interview were created ahead of time by the investigator.  During the interview, the researcher probed deeper with impromptu open-ended questions if needed.   The information gathered from the follow-up interviews was then transcribed using MS Word.  The language usage in the transcriptions was maintained as spoken by participants in order to avoid appropriating participants’ intended meanings.  As a result, the authenticity of the data is maintained and representative quotes may include non-standard English usage (Douglas, 2015).  Pseudonyms were given to the participants who took part in the follow-up interviews.  Once the data had been transcribed, the researcher coded the information gathered from the follow-up interviews into specific themes and looked for specific emerging patterns, making sure 		 29	to keep the participant’s information confidential and anonymous especially during the coding to eliminate as much bias as possible (Gay, Mills, and Airasian, 2012).   3.5  Objectives and Outcomes  3.5.1  Researcher’s Intent  The aim of this research was to gather data on the opinions, lived experiences, and language growth that had taken place within the lives of EAP students (participants) at PIU.  As a result an exploration took place to gain a better understanding of the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition.  This goal was to be reached through both an online questionnaire and follow-up interviews.  The overarching theme was discovering the growth and changes of EAP students culturally, academically, and socially in relation to their additional language acquisition.  In the future, this research has the possibility of assisting instructors, administrators, and program planners in building and gaining stronger relationships with their EAP students.  3.5.2  Guiding Hypothesis   The guiding hypothesis explored how participants progress and reach moments of metanoia.  Metanoia is a process through which people gain a stronger understanding of a topic by having an epiphany or instantaneous moment.  Hypothetically, this can occur both consciously or subconsciously in learners and can change their outlook on both their learning process and their identity. The guiding hypothesis includes the idea that participants experience metanoia in the language learning process, particularly when they are in a new environment and they are engaging in a new culture.  These moments of metanoia in turn assist them in acquiring increasing levels of English language skills.  3.5.3  Research Question  After creating a guiding research hypothesis, the next goal was to develop research questions.  As mentioned by Merriam (1997) and Yin (2003), research questions are “similar to a hypothesis; however, a hypothesis is exact and indicates the measurement and analyses needed to address the hypothesis” (as cited in Calabrese, 2006, p. 42).  Further Creswell (2012) mentions research questions can include many topics yet usually focusing on the understanding of social life and meanings in a specific context, giving focus when collecting data.  The overarching research question for this study is as follows: How do EAP students experience metanoia and what is the relationship with their language acquisition?  		 30	3.6  Participants and Research Setting  3.6.1  Participants All of the participants in this study had attended the EAP program at PIU.  There were nine participants who took part in the online portion of the study and five who participated in the interview section, Table 3.1 provides demographic information related to these participants.  The participants were between the ages of 18-22 years of age and were either immigrants or international students from non-English speaking backgrounds.  The participants were students at PIU and have specifically come from non-English speaking countries.  The participants had not achieved the English language proficiency requirements when they gained admission to PIU.  However, the participants did have the academic requirements for their specific programs of study and general admission to PIU.  To further meet the English language proficiency requirements, the participants choose to complete the EAP program at PIU.  Completion of the EAP program fulfilled the English language proficiency requirements.   Table 3.1 Interview Participant Information Name Age Gender LOO COO YSE LSC Ann 20 Female Chinese China More than 5 years 4 years Betty 23 Female Mandarin China More than 5 years 3 years Meg 18 Female Spanish Peru More than 5 years Less than 1 year Pat 19 Female Spanish Mexico 5 years 1 year Tim 21 Male Mandarin China More than 5 years 3 years  3.7  Research Instruments: Online Survey and Interview Questions  The research instruments used for this research study were employed in two phases: first an online survey questionnaire for all EAP students both past and presently enrolled, and secondly a follow-up in person interview with a select few voluntary participants from the EAP program.  		 31	 Both phases of the study (questionnaire and interviews) were approved by the research ethics board and were reviewed by the researcher and her supervisor.  The vocabulary and word content was carefully reviewed by the researcher using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level readability tools in Microsoft Word to ensure the level of comprehension was at or below that of a Canadian grade 12 level.  This level of comprehension was acceptable because, although these students were originally from non-English speaking backgrounds, they were attending EAP and PIU; thus, it was a fair assumption to make that at the end of their EAP experience they could read and comprehend at a grade 12 level if they were currently enrolled in EAP it is assumed that they were close to a grade 12 level of English ability.  3.7.1  Online Survey Questions  The online questionnaire was created on the Fluid Surveys “a do-it-yourself survey tool that allows individuals and organizations from around the world to create their own surveys, collect data from respondents, and analyze results in real-time” (Fluid Surveys, 2015).  Fluid Surveys is now owned and operated by Survey Monkey.  However it is still considered a Canadian company and secures the data in accordance with privacy laws in the province of British Columbia.  At the time of the study, the survey could be found at http://fluidsurveys.com/surveys/sranson/experiences-of-metanoia.  A copy of the online questionnaire is included in Appendix B.    Initially the researcher attended the EAP classes introducing the study and providing a link to a Weebly website.  The Weebly website was created to obtain consent from the participants and offer information on the study.  By clicking on the link to the questionnaire at the bottom of the Weebly page the participants offered their consent to take part in the survey, hence a separate consent form was not required.  The link to the Weebly site was http://experiencesofmetanoia.weebly.com (see Appendix A).  The survey included six demographic questions on English language acquisition, age, gender, country of origin, first language identification, and length of residence/stay thus far in Canada. The second section of the survey was deemed “short answer questions” and included eight questions developed around metanoia, experiences as a language learner (at university, in EAP, and both inside and outside of Canada), and possible moments of identity change.  Although the survey did not specifically ask students about metanoia, the questions were developed in light of the definition of metanoia used in this research project.  Lastly, the students 		 32	were invited to provide their e-mail addresses if they would like to be contacted further for volunteer participation in the follow-up interview portion of the study.  3.7.2  Interview Questions  The follow-up to the survey was a voluntary open-ended semi-structured interview session.  The questions were created specifically in mind to elicit in further detail the opinions, thoughts, emotions, initial reactions, and experiences that create moments of metanoia and how language learning occurs.  Again, while the interview questions did not specifically refer to the concept of metanoia, they were developed based on the definition of metanoia used for this study with the goal of uncovering the relationship between metanoia and additional language acquisition.  The overarching research question was thought of and addressed during the interviews (see appendix C). 3.8  Data Collection Procedures  3.8.1  Recruitment   3.8.1.1  Recruitment for the Study: Online Survey  There were nine participants who completed the online survey.  The researcher obtained a sample of convenience from the participant pool of former and current EAP students (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012).  The study was limited to these students as it allowed the researcher the ability to address the research questions as specifically as possible; identifying themes related to metanoia and additional language learning from the perspective of participants involved in learning English in an academic setting.  Initially the researcher attended the classes of EAP and presented the information and recruitment information for the study.  It was made clear that the research conducted was confidential and voluntary; additionally, this study would not change their grades or standing within the EAP course.  The researcher handed out an information sheet, including information on the study and a link to the Weebly website for additional information, automatic consent, and a link to the online survey.  In addition to classroom visits, the researcher posted flyers with information and links to the survey, contact information of the investigator, and the Weebly information on bulletin boards on the PIU campus.  These flyers also had pull-off tabs so the participants could easily take the information with them.  Additionally, the researcher attended the EAP class a final time and two e-mail invitations were sent out through the manager of the EAP program in regards to this survey and interview.  Via Twitter and Facebook, the investigator created a recruitment 		 33	message to post on the above mentioned social media platforms.  The results were positive and nine students volunteered to take part in the survey, and five of those students agreed to take part in a follow-up interview.  Using both online and hard copy recruitment methods made it more likely for the desired results because there was accessible information available both online and throughout the campus.   3.8.1.2  Recruitment for the Study: Interviews  Of the nine participants who completed the online survey, five participants also took part in the semi-structured interviews.  The interviews were conducted with five participants who also took part in the initial online questionnaire.  These participants had been asked at the end of the survey questionnaire if they would provide their e-mail address for a follow up interview.  Again, these interviews were completely voluntary and optional; they would not affect the standing or grades of the participants as students within the EAP program.    The researcher offered a thank you gift of a $15 Starbucks gift card to those five students who participated in the follow-up interview.  Snowball sampling was also used as the participants were reminded both in person and via e-mail with a thank you and to please recommend the interview to other previous or current EAP students.  This snowball sampling was successful and one of the five participants was gained through this process. 3.9  Data Collection and Statistical Analysis  3.9.1  Data Collection: Online Survey  The first half of this study occurred online on the Fluid Surveys website.  Having this part of the study completed online instead of in person was convenient to both the investigator and participants.  All of the information provided to the survey was also online on a Weebly website; therefore, everything for the initial part of the study was easily accessible and self-explanatory and contact information for further questions/comments/concerns was provided as needed.  The online survey was accessible for a time period of 90 days.  Originally it was to be available for only one month but due to the lack of participants at the end of the thirty days, changes and a post approval activity via the research ethics board were created to extend the online questionnaire period.  To qualify for the online survey, participants had to be currently or in the past enrolled in an EAP course at the PIU campus.  There was no limit on the amount of students that could take part in this portion of the study. 		 34	 The multiple choice/close ended demographic questions were categorized and a number/percentage was given to profile the students into groups of region, first language, gender, etc., thus emerging patterns and themes could be generated when correlating responses with these demographic questions.  The open-ended questions about experiences were reviewed and analyzed to find themes and patterns of qualitative data.  The data was coded into specific themes and then categorized by most common to uncommon, thus giving a priority order of the specific themes expressed by the participants (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012).  3.9.2  Data Collection: Interview  From the participants who offered to volunteer, five transcriptions were completed.  The participants were e-mailed by the investigator about the follow-up opportunity and gift, and in the end five of them successfully replied and took part in the study.  The students and investigator exchanged information via e-mail and in some cases text message (some students provided their phone number information as they found it easier to communicate than with e-mail, this information was kept confidential and destroyed after the transcriptions were completed).  Appointments were made with each participant to meet in a private office setting to keep the study confidential, each appointment would last approximately 45 minutes; 15 minutes for the introduction and consenting/qualification process and 30 minutes for the interview. Before the interview started, the investigator gave a brief introduction to the follow-up portion of the study and discussed the interview consent form with the participants; they then were required to sign this to agree and continue participating in the interview.  The investigator was sure to answer any initial questions the students may have before starting the interviews.   The questions used for the interviews were predetermined and approved by the Research Ethics Board on PIU’s campus.  Because of the semi-structured nature of the interviews, some questions were also developed during the course of the conversations to probe the reactions and answers of the participants further.    The five students were interviewed, the information was audio recorded and then transcribed into Microsoft Word in a script format.  The investigator checked over this information to be sure all of the correct sounds, punctuation, and wording were transcribed.  To keep the participant’s identity confidential, pseudonyms were used during the transcriptions.  At 		 35	this point the data analysis began.  The investigator read through the transcription, developing emerging themes and patterns by coding through the qualitative process.  3.9.3  Data Analysis  Data analysis began after data were gathered using the online survey and the semi-structured interviews.  The online survey explored participant perceptions of their language learning experiences, with particular emphasis on moments of change, clarity, and progress in their second language acquisition.  The interviews elaborated on these areas.  Change clarity, and progress in second language acquisition were the focus of these data gathering instruments because of how these elements of the language learning experience relate to the concept of metanoia.  Once the data were gathered, all of the coding was completed manually in MS Word, using available highlight and commenting tools, and coding software was not used.  The interviewer went through each set of responses from the online questionnaire and the interviews and reviewed them, looking for recurring themes and highlighting said themes with different coloured online highlighting techniques to categorize them.   The comments tool in Microsoft Word was used to label these highlighted themes into groups/categories.  The coded information was also transferred into Microsoft Excel to compare interviews and analyze them in further detail, allowing the researcher to develop overarching patterns and themes seen throughout in accordance with the main thesis question and refined questions.  Related to each of the emergent themes, the researcher created narratives of each individual participant’s experiences while bracketing her own interpretation until the discussion stage of the analysis.   3.10  Limitations and Assumptions  The study was delimited to include consenting past and current EAP students at PIU.  They study was limited to students who had attended and were enrolled in the EAP program at PIU within the past three years.  There was a risk at the start of recruitment that the data would be unavailable to the researcher due to the small sample size and chances of unwilling participants.  The investigator acknowledged that there will always be limitations and assumptions made within a study and there will always be uncontrollable factors. The first issue with the assumption that classroom visits alone would suffice in recruitment; the study unfortunately had a lack of initial participants.  Initially, the investigator did not receive enough surveys and interviews to gain any findings.  Thus, they had to go back through ethics and provide a post-		 36	approval activity.  At this point enough participants were found; however, it was a small group and they all attended PIU.  Therefore, the study cannot be generalized and the perceptions are limited to what has occurred with a small group in the same location and around the same age.  In the future it would be interesting to gain insight on the opinions and experiences of students at other post-secondary institutions.  The investigator had to make the assumption that each participant had taken or was currently enrolled in EAP.  In addition it was assumed that the individuals enrolled in the study did not exaggerate or omit any information.  It was assumed they were completely honest in their answers and reactions.  As the investigator is a positive supporter of English as an additional language instruction and both EAP and EFP, it is quite possible the study (questions, findings, methods, results) were influenced by a personal bias.  However it is important to note the researcher attempted to be as objective and unbiased as possible in their actions.  The investigator is a qualified teacher with years of experience.  This may also have altered her viewpoints when conducting the study.  Certain aspects of the study may have influenced participants to get involved such as the thank you gift card, or the specific topic/title of the study, or qualifying factors (such as being an EAP student).  Due to the small amount of participants it is unknown what the opinion was of all students in EAP as only a very few willing students took part.  All conclusions were found based solely on the findings of the information given from the participants. 3.11  Validity  Validity was supported in this study through triangulation.  Both an online questionnaire and follow-up interview were used as a means of triangulation in this study.  The researcher’s supervisor also reviewed the thematic coding completed which contributed to the reliability of the research findings.  Some examples of codes used to analyze the data include:  trust, confidence, language acquisition, growth, learning process, communication, emotions, relationships, and resources.  The results were then analyzed after the conducting of the literature review.  In particular, codes that related to new knowledge, moments of change, and mind shifts were noted because of the relationship with the concept of metanoia and the impact on language learning.  The researcher reviewed and discussed the websites, research questions, survey, and interview with her supervisor multiple times to create the most accessible and appropriate 		 37	information and study as possible.  The information from both the surveys and transcribed interviews were then compiled, coded, and compared as the findings emerged within the study.    In order to improve validity, further research conducted at other campuses, a wider range of participants, and other universities would provide stronger validity and findings for this study. 3.12  Trustworthiness  Triangulation was further used to create trustworthiness in this study of qualitative data.  The questions and consent forms were approved and scripted ahead of time so that the information provided by the participants would be as consistent as possible.  The investigator provided the participants with the most unbiased and equal opportunity questions to the best of her knowledge.  Secondly, transcribing occurred to record the reactions, wording, and emotions of each participant who took part in the survey.  Lastly, notes were taken afterwards when reviewing the transcriptions.  All surveys and interviews were coded appropriately.   3.13  Reliability  The process to carry out this study is described above in the data gathering portion of this chapter.  Additionally bias and error was mentioned above, the possible issues that could be had with replicating this study.  With the detailed information provided, this study should be able to be replicated, although results may differ depending on the makeup of the participants.  Although certain features cannot be controlled (how many students will partake, the findings/reactions of the students, etc.), further studies could help create a compare and contrast with this study if working with other outlying factors (more participants, a different campus, different ages, or a slightly different English program). 3.14  Summary and Concluding Remarks for Chapter 3  This study was designed to begin to understand how EAP students experience metanoia and how it impacts their second language acquisition.  There were multiple methods of recruitment used and both an online survey and follow-up interview were completed.  This was a low risk, confidential, and voluntary study from which the participants could pull out at any time.    The following chapter (Chapter 4) will discuss the findings and results of the research study.  		 38	Chapter 4: Results Chapter 4.1  Overview of Chapter 4  Chapter four discusses the results of the research conducted by the investigator.  This chapter reports the results from both the surveys and interviews used in the study.  At the time of the study, all of the participants were current or former students of the EAP program at PIU, discussing their experiences as English language learners.  This chapter will report the results of the study by summarizing the research methods, describing the participants, dissecting the themes (into subthemes), and reporting the results via the overarching research question. 4.2  Summary of Research Methods  The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of metanoia on second language acquisition in EAP settings.  The researcher was influenced by the qualitative research tradition, allowing individuals to describe their lives via story and experience (Gay & Mills, 2016).  Due to this being a qualitative study that honoured participant perspectives in relation to the topic under investigation, it is important to note that the researcher gathered and interpreted data in as unbiased a manner as possible.  Gaining the opinions, observations, and emotions from the point of view of the participants themselves was extremely important to this study.  The usage of non-standard English was not changed as this may create a bias, and interpretations of the material could be altered; therefore, exact wording was used from the participants’ interviews.  The research instruments used in this study were an online survey and a voluntary face-to-face interview.  The data were triangulated via comparing the interview and survey results, and the combining of the two to find resulting patterns. Aspects of both the phenomenological tradition and narrative approach assisted in qualitative compiling and triangulating of the data. 4.3  Participants  The participants, nine for the online survey and five for the interview phase of the study,  were individuals who had previously taken or were taking EAP courses at the time of the study, which were part of the EAP program at PIU.  They were all international students or immigrants that were approximately between 18-22 years old.  One participant was male and four were female.  Three mentioned their first languages as Chinese (or Mandarin, a dialect of Chinese) and the other two spoke Spanish.  Three participants mentioned their country of origin was 		 39	China, one was from Peru, and one was from Mexico.  Four participants stated they had been speaking English for “more than five years” and one participant stated she had been learning English for “five years”.  The length of stay in Canada varied per participant: One had been in Canada for less than one year, one participant had been in Canada for one year, two participants had been in Canada for three years, and one had been in Canada for four years.  These individuals all came from non-English speaking backgrounds.  Each participant had gained general admission to the university, yet had not achieved university standards for English language proficiency, and hence had the option to enter the EAP program to fulfill their English language proficiency requirements.  Once completing the EAP program, the participants had met the English language proficiency requirements of the university and could enter the university as full time students.   4.4  Results   The overarching research question presented in the study was “How do English for Academic Purposes students experience metanoia and what is the relationship with their language acquisition?”  The research instruments used throughout this study were an online survey and a follow-up face-to-face interview.  Participants could leave their e-mail at the end of the online survey to later be contacted to participate further in the interview portion of the study.  4.4.1  Online Survey Results  There were ten initial participants in the study; however, one participant’s information was not included in the study due to the fact that he had not taken part in an EAP course at PIU.  His survey was not included in the research data.  Of the nine surveys completed, five participants chose to complete the follow-up interview.  The initial online survey (See Appendix B) was created on a website called FluidSurveys (FluidSurveys, 2015).  It included six demographic questions related to English language acquisition, age, gender, country of origin, first language identification, and length of residence/stay in Canada.  Of the nine qualifying participants, three were male, one classified as “no answer”, and five were female.  All participants were between the ages of 18 and 23.  They had all been studying English for at least five years and living in Canada from less than one year and up to four years.  When mentioning their home countries and first languages: six were Chinese (four mandarin speakers and two labeled themselves as Chinese speakers), one was from 		 40	Iran (Persian-Farsi speaker), and two were Spanish speakers (one from Mexico and one from Peru).  The second part of the survey was titled “short answer questions”, including eight questions developed around the concept of metanoia as defined for this research project, experiences as a language learner, and moments of possible identity change or shift.  The first two questions of the survey asked how EAP had improved academic English skills (question 1) and how EAP had changed how they studied English: All nine qualifying participants in the survey said yes EAP had helped them, a common pattern throughout was with improving techniques such as writing.  The participants were gaining new knowledge related to language learning because of their EAP experiences.  One participant mentioned here:    It has trained me equipped with English learning skills and made me learn more about English culture. It has provided me with a great English-learning environment in which I practiced English as a native speakers in and out of class…Yes. The application of words and grammar in research and practical situations I learned from EAP prepared me better to adapt to further study in the second and third years.  The third question asked participants about a time they were successful at using English on campus.  The theme growth was prevalent throughout all of the nine participants’ results.  One participant mentioned “… as a Jumpstart team leader, showing freshmen around campus and connecting with my team is a big success at using English to me. However, there is still a lot of room for improvement”.  Further, the fourth question asked participants to recount their most memorable moment (positive or negative) when using English.  The prevalent theme was communication and seven of the nine participants gave clear examples of communication in Canada (some positive and some negative).  Of those seven participants, each provided a fairly clear example of communicating in a Canadian cultural milieu.  For one participant the most memorable moment was being recognized as a native speaker and not an immigrant; for another, it was ordering food successfully in English at McDonalds.  Question number five in the online survey asked if there was any sudden progress made in EAP.  Seven of the participants mentioned their sudden progress, and two felt it was a slower progression.  The themes prevalent throughout question five were resources, communication, and learning processes.  Additionally seven of the nine participants agreed that they had experienced moments in Canada where English suddenly made sense (survey question number six).  For example one participant 		 41	described a powerful and recent moment in which “Just like last week during my Theater class, I was asked to preform joy, and I feel enjoy. Suddenly, i feel I understand the word ‘en joy’.”  Another mentioned “Yes, at the time I handed in my first English essay to my high school English teacher, I felt so good and know the reasons why I decided to come to Canada and study English.”  Interestingly, all nine participants agreed with question number seven, admitting they had all surprised themselves with their English abilities; a lot of these examples had to do with growth, the learning process, and communication.  One participant stated “Yes.  The time that I wanted to convey the information about a very complex situation to an academic advisor on campus”.  Or “Talking to my family i realized i actually already start thinking in English when the word that i want to use on a sentence comes to my mind first come in English.”  Another powerful example was given by one participant:  I was surprised last semester …I did not need to think or prepare before I start to speak English. Whenever I want to speak English, I just open my mouth and say it without any pre-consideration. I felt that I made progress in English and my fluency was so much closer to native speakers, which made me very happy. The multiple scenarios mentioned above show that participants are clearly having sudden bursts of knowledge and surprising themselves, all in different contexts and with different people such as family members, classmates, and instructors.  Question number eight in the online survey was optional and allowed participants to add anything they felt was necessary to the survey and study.  Three participants mentioned their experiences in EAP and two participants wanted to give advice to future international students.  Participants mentioned how EAP could include more challenging activities; however, it was quite helpful in language learning.  One participant said Canadians are friendly and motivated her to continue learning English.  Lastly, another participant provided an uplifting message for all international students, mentioned below:  Learning English is not just for future jobs and careers, but it lets you enter a whole new world and learn a lot about life when you start exploring in this new world. Please treasure every moment you spend in Canada, because these moments would be the greatest wealth of your life.  4.4.2  Interview Results  This section discusses the interview results initially.  The survey information will be discussed briefly to clarify how the data was triangulated (a combination of the surveys and 		 42	interviews) to gain more accurate results.  Clearly the survey detailed both the demographics of the students and foreshadowed the results from the interviews.  The main themes noted throughout the surveys related to:  • communication • growth • learning processes • resources • emotions •  relationships These themes were prevalent in the interviews, thus contributing to the validity of the findings during the interview stage of this study.   Relying on a qualitative approach to analyzing the data, the results next reported were found through the coding and categorizing of meaningful data units in the participant interview responses.   Relying on a qualitative approach to analyzing the data, participant responses were examined for units of meaning, made up of phrases or sentences that could informatively stand on their own.  Each unit of meaning was coded and then categorized.  As these categories converged, salient themes emerged from the data (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012).  The key themes (and subthemes) are reported from highest to lowest incidence based on the interview data.  In order from greatest to least the themes were growth, learning process, communication and emotions (two separate themes with the same amount of instances), relationships, and resources.  Without implying that greater instances equal greater significance in the data, below is a pie graph chart (Figure 4.1) graphically representing the instances between each coded theme in the results.  The emergent themes present in the data that were related to metanoia and second language acquisition are reported within this section without extensive analysis so as to capture the authentic perceptions of the participants.  The discussion chapter will continue to analyze and elaborate on the results to explore the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition.   		 43	 Figure 4.1  Emergent major themes in the interview data.   4.4.2.1  Theme 1 Growth: Major subthemes  The most predominant and prevalent theme related to metanoia and its relationship with second language acquisition throughout the results was growth.  There were 54 recorded instances of this category in the interviews.  The major subthemes noticed throughout the overall category of Growth were confidence, language acquisition, younger life, and academic skills.  In addition there were some minor subthemes (mentioned once or twice throughout the interviews), which included organization, tolerance, community, and awareness.  Within this study the overarching theme of growth represents the development or lack thereof mentioned by the students (whether consciously or subconsciously) about both their personal and academic lives.  The majority of the results deal with their university life or their period of life as young adults however some of this information is developed around their goals in the future or their experiences in subthemes such as “younger life”.  Figure 4.2 below is a diagram describing Theme 1: Growth	Learning	Process	Communication	Emotions	Relationships	Resources			 44	 Figure 4.2.  Theme 1: Growth major subthemes and minor subthemes.  Confidence, as it relates to metanoia and second language acquisition was the most prevalent subtheme in the growth category.  Out of the 54 incidences recorded in growth, there were 24 cases of confidence.  This subtheme dealt with growth in confidence or lack of confidence with identity; school work; mental, emotional, and physical abilities.  Clearly, the results (as mentioned below) discuss the importance of confidence to the participants in both an academic/learning environment and in a personal environment.  Confidence was most prevalent in Ann’s answers.  Ann mentioned the jump between EAP and first year university English.  First year university English lowered her confidence as the teachers had higher expectations, and she was now immersed in a complete university class environment (whereas EAP functions in a much smaller community setting).  She mentioned how “when I was in EAP … the instructor gave me a lot of confident…she encouraged me like to be a better person just learning English”.  However she gained confidence in her abilities in first year English classes when she stayed focused, organized, and was able to present and obtain a high mark within her course, these achievements boosted her confidence and provided consistency in what she should expect of both herself and future university courses.  Ann used to think that she “never really thought of myself as a good student”, constantly comparing herself to her peers and native Canadian English speakers and their level of proficiency.  She used to Growth	Major	Subthemes	ConQidence	Language	Acquisition	Younger	Life	Academic	Skills	Minor	Subthemes	Organization	Tolerance	Community	Awareness			 45	describe herself as “really shy and I was quiet…I wasn’t the person like be the leader”.  She mentioned how a high school concert and conference not only raised her confidence but helped her gain awareness of her potential.  She realized she could be a leader, her abilities were higher than she realized and this caused a shift in her personality; gaining confidence and a stronger sense of identity.  She mentioned how she had a high language proficiency level (giving her confidence) as she could use English without translating from her native language and could comprehend and take part in advanced language activities (for example reading Shakespeare). Overall, “I was always really quiet, like always shy.  So um I think now I became a little bit a little bit more like outgoing, like I can just open my mind a little bit just in order to mmm improve my English”.  The subtheme of confidence also came up in Pat’s transcription, with five instances recorded.  To her, studying and academics were an extremely large part of her confidence.  It was clear in the results that being intelligent or “smart” were related to her confidence.  As she began developing skills such as studying strategies and more time management skills, she felt she was gaining confidence in her English abilities, including speaking skills. It was clear in the results that she had become much more confident of who she was: “I felt…proud”.  She mentioned how studying and being prepared for tests is one of the best ways to gain confidence and achieve goals; equating grades to success and confidence.  Transitioning into a different culture was difficult for her, however now with her newfound confidence Pat was able to communicate without hesitation and would engage in conversations in places such as restaurants, “I feel more confident and ya I don’t feel that panic”.  She even laughed as she spoke this last quote showing her confidence in her identity and abilities.   In Tim’s results there were four instances of confidence.  EAP and the community made a large impact on his confidence.  Tim felt a “personality like a little bit shift from a little bit shy … is a big change from from where I where I started till now…that’s like a personality shift from a little bit shy to like a really outgoing and be confident and talk to people with like no fear”; he said this shift took place due to his experiences in EAP.  He mentioned how he experienced a gain in confidence, simultaneously at multiple times:  I feel like it’s like…suddenly everything make makes sense now…It’s more like a small thing that makes sense to me now, and then another thing is that makes sense to me now, 		 46	and then like…at the end of the day like a lot of things all make sense to me and then like…it just makes sense. A lot of this occurred due to his motivations, wanting to learn and asking instructors or using appropriate resources to gain a better understanding of the language.  Tim also mentioned how hard work pays off; an individual gains confidence and joyfulness by getting compliments and realizing the progress they have made in their language learning abilities throughout the year. Lastly, a powerful moment of metanoia as it relates to English language learning was revealed when Tim was unable to fully describe his emotions when he experienced a moment in the community saying he didn’t:  even know like how to talk to…the cashier or how…to say things but uh I just observe and stuff.  And then I realized one day when I just like go to the restaurant I just…like I’m in China so it’s like nothing really really uh surprising or nothing really odd happened and then so it just like it just ya…like the the feeling um so I don’t know.  When coding Meg’s results, confidence was also an important theme in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition.  Meg emphasized the importance of growth and communication in gaining confidence.  When successfully communicating with a staff member at the university she felt “like I improved my English ya”.  Meg mentioned how she felt “in my exams I always like did really good like almost one hundred percent so I think it was like uh ya like a sign I was good student…like the level of my peers was lower”.  She adds to this by mentioning “writing like I I usually do good in writing”.  In Meg’s opinion, not only are academics important but also competitiveness or getting higher grades than an individual’s peers showcasing an indication of abilities.  The theme of confidence also recurred in Betty’s results, showing the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition within the learning process.  She put an emphasis on the relationship between academics and a personal interest.  For example she felt confident when receiving the challenge of editing other students’ work as it was not only a great learning opportunity but it showed her motivation, her confidence in her abilities, and her interests in editing/writing.  Additionally when living in Canada and learning English, she gained so much confidence that she wanted to immigrate saying “Learning English here actually change my some of my personalities…It makes me more open, more talkative to people um, and more more brave to speak publicly…Ya when I when a person is not good at English uh he or she will 		 47	be very shy to speak out”.  She expressed how she holds both the English language and Canada in a high regard “I was um quite proud of myself entering such a English university um because this university is higher rank”.  Lastly the results show she had confidence in her intelligence and abilities stating “when I was in China I was always the top students, highest mark…And when I came here ya I I still get a very high mark in EAP course but I I’m not satisfied how it’s a give us the experience because I think it wa it was too simple…Ya too easy for me”.  There were a number of instances in the data related to how second language acquisition relates to metanoia which is present throughout the theme of growth.  This subtheme addressed issues of gains or lack thereof in language learning and language acquisition.  The growth in language acquisition promoted development in both the academic abilities and emotional/lifestyle progression of the participants.  It is clear from the results that the growth in language acquisition allowed participants to transition into an independent lifestyle in a new culture (Canada) more efficiently and effectively.   Pat indicated the highest number of results for language acquisition growth as related to metanoia out of all of the participants.  At times she tied language acquisition to confidence.  By gaining confidence she realized she had naturally gained a stronger comprehension of the English language and had developed a stronger ability to time manage.  As a result of this, she could comprehend the language at a higher level and felt both more efficient and intelligent as mentioned in her interview.  Pat gave an example and expressed how she felt.  In this instance she refers to “her”, a friend from an unknown location who has spent three years in Canada and three in the United States who Pat asks for advice, this is expressed in the quote below:   But then I was doing like a a homework for the EAP course and then I ask her about um a sentence, the meaning of the sentence because I couldn’t understand it and then she said I don’t understand these word.  But then I I ask her for another another word that I didn’t understand and then I actually realized that I knew something that she doesn’t, so that’s when I that’s how I felt successful [laughs] because I’m actually learning so ya….Um so I feel like I am learning fastly, so um ya maybe in two years I will be able to to speak like a native speaker. Not only did she mention that her goal is to be at the fluency level of a native English speaker (whatever this entails), but she is also able to recognize what she wants to aspire to, how she wants to measure her growth, and how she has changed due to such instances as expressed 		 48	above.  Additionally, in the results she briefly mentioned that attending EAP courses assisted in the development of her language acquisition abilities.  She also discussed how her learning process in language acquisition allowed her to grow in a social environment and communicate more effectively in Canadian culture.  Secondly, Meg also referred to language acquisition in a way that illustrated the concept of metanoia.  She felt that EAP had “improved my English skills for sure and then I also could like appreciate other like cultures in my classes”.  Here she clearly states that language acquisition created a newfound appreciation in her life of other individuals and cultures, therefore assisting in both her academic and social life.  In the data, she also mentioned moments where she suddenly realized she had a better comprehension of the English language, explaining it as “I don’t know I was just uh speaking at that time”.  Additionally there were specific time periods when cultural activities assisted her in comprehending language; for example when out with her sister in Vancouver there was a “moment like like I realized oh I’m in Canada [laughs], like um um everyone speaks English and this is different ya…I was just like a a new change in my life that I should be ready for”.  She was laughing during this part of the interview, and thus indicating language acquisition has been a type of growth in this participant’s life.  Therefore Meg’s responses further reiterate that language acquisition relies on both academic and social environments.   Further, Tim and Betty mentioned ideas connected to the theme of language acquisition.  It is important to recount Tim’s experiences as he explained how others noticed his growth in language acquisition.  Tim expressed how his growth in language acquisition occurred with an example in which he attended the orientation program, called Jumpstart, for new students at PIU.  A year later friends noticed his English language progress and it amazed them.  Therefore, others noticed a dramatic change but Tim felt “the moment…was contributed by uh by slowly learning…I don’t really see it as uh a um like…sudden changes.”  This is a prime example of how metanoia usually occurs suddenly however can still occur slowly or in small installments within the learning process.  Tim went on to explain how other individual’s opinions of his learning acted as a measure of language acquisition and achievement for him.  It appears that each of these participants mentioned in their responses how both academic and social factors tended to impact their language learning and language acquisition process and abilities. 		 49	 Also related to the theme of growth and how it connects to metanoia and second language acquisition, “younger life” here is defined as a way to grow based on previous experiences in life.  Three participants (Ann, Betty, and Tim) discussed their younger lives and how they had grown since this previous time period.  It was clear in the transcriptions that the participants were strongly impacted in their growth by their own personal stories and history.  Additionally, it was apparent that the participants used their younger lives as a method of comparison to their contemporary lives.  Ann in particular referred to her younger life.  Her results were quite interesting surrounding metanoia and second language acquisition as she had attended a Canadian high school as an international student and described how it impacted her social environment.  She described how the lack of multiculturalism in Canadian high school caused her to gain a stronger understanding and appreciation for different cultures when attending EAP and university stating, “’cause um in my high school there wasn’t like that many international students so I met lots of friend here that were from like different countries.” Further, she mentions how she felt more comfortable staying within her comfort zone in high school, “I kind of prefer like to talking to people having I think my spoken English was okay.  But I didn’t really focus on written English which is definitely like more important than speaking English”.  She mentioned how she mainly focused on one type of language learning (speaking) in high school and now at the university level is open to growth and learning new aspects of language (such as writing and challenging her English abilities).  Later in her interview, Ann discussed how her experiences in high school (such as attending a special event in Vancouver) allowed her to change as an individual.  Also in Ann’s results, she reflects on her childhood and life in China, allowing her to measure her growth, seen here:  Ya um I would say I started learning English like when I was really little like probably um um grade one or even before so but still since our country’s not like the official language is not English…So even though we can’t like started in English when I was really little but still it’s quite different from um China to Canada.  So I think um when I was in my home country I didn’t really know um how to learn English properly.  Um it was okay for me to speak to write but it’s different not enough for me to um write a nice essay, um be a like like nice university student.   		 50	Ann made it very clear that there are large differences between western and eastern cultures and learning processes within different countries.  She was making a clear comparison between the two cultures as she was reflecting on her younger life. The subtheme of younger life as it relates to metanoia and second language acquisition also arose in Betty’s results.  She described how her perspective changed based on the cultural shift between Canadian culture and Chinese culture.  She described a concept she dubbed the “international citizen concept” she learned this from EAP, which taught her to care about the world in a global context; whereas in China she would “make contribution to my own country”.  Secondly she also makes a comparison between the learning process in Canada and China, having learned English with the assistance of English speakers helped in her growth stating “English by English is still the way it change my learning style because in the past I learn English by Chinese logistics and translation”.  Further she identifies as a foreigner as she says she is “not whitewashed because I grew I born I was born and then grew up in China and at that time English was not very popular there”.  In Betty’s results there appears to be a tie between viewpoints/mind shifts (seeing in a global context, etc.), being a foreigner, and learning processes. Tim briefly described the subtheme “younger life” in his results in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition when he mentioned he felt “numb” when learning in China, again describing a comparison between his growth and the learning processes of learning English in Canada and in his younger life/home country.  Being “numb” could be interpreted as feeling displaced or uninterested in the learning process, not experiencing metanoia, and not learning language acquisition effectively.  Another example of a subtheme related to growth occurred when both Pat and Meg expressed ideas related to the subtheme “academic skills” in their interviews in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition, with Pat mentioning these ideas slightly more than Meg.  The participants both put an emphasis on “academic skills” which is the importance of academics and success in academic growth.  Pat described the feeling as “I change be even even be from the first week until now that was from the beginning and now I think I am improving a lot of academic skills just like writing I I feel like I write better”.  Pat explained she felt she had changed, grown, and accomplished something throughout the year.  She further explained that her comprehension had improved and gave an example: 		 51	 when I was in my in my theatre course they ask me to to do some improvisation [laughs] so um I can because I start thinking in English um more faster.  So sometimes I just…come up with a situation and and I think about it quickly so I I don’t have to think I don’t have to think that much on the words or or whatever I just um do it quickly, how can I say I improvise it…Mmm I am more uh like it’s like if a part of me was more aware of the language, but I mmm ya, like I don’t know what I am doing but I do it and then I realize that I did it It is evident she felt a sense of accomplishment by growing in an academic sense but also could communicate in a cultural context more naturally as a result.  Meg briefly described how improving her academic skills helped her in different aspects of language learning such as writing and listening.  The results described in “academic skills” show academics impact both one’s social environment and their learning environment.   4.4.2.2  Theme 1 Growth: Minor subthemes  Each of of these minor subthemes (organization, tolerance, community, and awareness) connected to the major theme of growth and how it relates to metanoia and second language acquisition arose only one or two times during the coding throughout the five interviews.  However, they are important to include as they provide significant insights into the results and interpretations for this investigation and thesis.  Organization here is expressed as growth in learning to develop a routine causing metanoia and second language acquisition.  Tim expressed an experience in which organization was important to his language learning and growth.  He mentioned how, when in a restaurant he “just like I just read the menu and then like I talk like feel like there’s no problem nothings strange like just like uh just like a routine”.  Clearly expressing how a routine is important in growth as it provides a standard of measurement in change and development.  To Tim, this experience had become a norm, it was an important moment as he came to a realization that everyday life in a Canadian and English-speaking culture had become an organized routine.  Tolerance is the ability to accept others and their opinions even if they are different from a personal view.  This concept of tolerance is something individuals must learn, specifically when in a new culture or setting. Pat and Meg each experienced moments that related to the subtheme of tolerance. Both Pat and Meg expressed how their tolerance of other people 		 52	increased due to the multicultural setting of EAP and Canada.  By experiencing a more multicultural environment within Canada, they were both exposed to different cultures and viewpoints and as a result they experienced new learning moments (metanoia) and had opportunities to develop their second language skills.  The subtheme of community in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition was present in both Meg and Betty’s answers.  When classifying the concept of community in the theme growth, it is represented as the growth of individuals within a community.  To Betty, this meant becoming a global citizen, developing her identity as a member of the global community and gaining a better understanding of this concept via her EAP class.  To Meg, the community setting within EAP assisted her in improving her “English skills for sure and then I also could like appreciate other like cultures in my classes”, creating both emotional and academic growth.  Awareness is developed to understand one’s surroundings; assisting in growth and learning in moments of metanoia and second language acquisition.  This subtheme also arose in both Meg and Ann’s answers.  Meg developed a stronger awareness of her surroundings due to her use of the English language.  For Ann, she developed an awareness of her downfalls, for example realizing that her weakness in academics was group work.  Therefore, awareness can cause both positive and negative growth and reflection.   4.4.2.3  Theme 2 Learning Process: Major subthemes  “Learning process” was the second most prevalent theme related to metanoia and second language acquisition throughout the results of this study; there were 41 instances coded.  The major subthemes were culture immersion, writing skills, motivation, speaking skills, organization, and strategies (practice/repetition, study skills, time management, goal setting, note taking skills, and critical thinking).  The minor subtheme was assignments (presentations, research, and citing sources).  The categories (occurring only once or twice) in strategies and assignments were compiled into the two subthemes as they each had displayed only one or two instances and had an emerging pattern to create the minor subthemes.  The theme “learning process” described how language acquisition increased or decreased for the participants.  Some of the information conveyed by the participants was illustrated through examples.  There was a clear connection made by participants between language acquisition and becoming a successful student and individual; this will be clearly shown throughout the following results.  The major subthemes were important concepts that were 		 53	prevalent throughout multiple participants’ interviews, whereas the minor categories were all small instances and were grouped into one of two subthemes (strategies or assignments).  Although the major subthemes may be similar to the minor subthemes, the major subthemes stood out and needed elaboration hence they were labeled “major” not “minor”.  Below in Figure 4.3 are the major and minor subthemes related to the learning process organized into a diagram:  Figure 4.3.  Theme 2: Learning process major subthemes and minor subthemes.  The largest major subtheme to emerge from the data related to the learning process was that of culture immersion and its relationship with metanoia and second language acquisition.  Culture immersion describes the process of the participant gaining language learning abilities or lack thereof due to their immersion in an additional language speaking culture.  In the case of Learning	Process	Major	Subthemes	Culture	Immersion	Writing	Skills	Motivation	Speaking	Skills	Organization	Strategies	Practice/Repetition	Study	Skills	Time	Management	Goal	Setting	Note	Taking	Skills	Critical	Thinking	Minor	Subthemes	 Assignments	Presentations	Research	Citing	Sources			 54	this study, culture immersion occurred with the English language in Canada.  Although all five interview participants expressed moments of culture immersion, Betty and Ann had the most to share in relation to this theme.    Betty described a number of episodes of culture immersion where she experienced metanoia in relation to her second language acquisition.  She mentioned multiple examples from EAP and expressed her feelings about the learning process in the EAP class, stating it would “have a a natural um oral English environment to let us behave as a native English speaker naturally because because environment is quite important.”  She also compared it to school and the learning environment for language acquisition in her home country, expressing achievement and satisfaction with the EAP learning environment.  She described how oral (speaking) and practicing English is valued in Canadian culture and she viewed this as an important part of language acquisition. “I learn English quicker in Canada than in China because I need to use it every all the time…I need to use it…it’s quite a necessity for me to learn English well if I want to survive here [laughs].”  Further she explained that she wanted to immigrate because she not only enjoys the country but feels comfortable in her learning environment in Canada.  Ann also described examples of culture immersion, metanoia, and second language acquisition occurring in EAP.  She discussed it as a way to balance her language acquisition, putting an equal amount of emphasis on each part of language learning (reading, writing, and speaking).  Culture immersion also helped her to improve her quality of work as it taught her to gain more appreciation for academic language; in turn she transitioned into university life much more efficiently.  Being immersed in a new culture not only assisted with Ann’s language acquisition but also helped her create a stable and conducive environment for living and working in Canada; within the first week she already noticed the positive improvements in her life and emotions due to the culture immersion and EAP.  Writing skills in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition was the second most common subtheme throughout the theme learning process.  Again writing skills was a subtheme found throughout all five interview participants’ transcriptions.  However this subtheme was most significant in Ann and Meg’s responses.  Writing skills have to do with the learning process of writing and how it has influenced the participants’ language learning.  Ann mentioned how her experiences in EAP prepared her for university life and how to write academically.  It is important to note that Ann went to high school in Canada and also 		 55	described a feeling of being unprepared until she reached EAP; only in this class at university did she really begin to understand academic writing.  EAP “help me um know how to um write a academic essay like to get better grades and also how to present better um so it helped me to like improve my academic writing skills.”  The subtheme “writing skills” also emerged in Meg’s work.  She also found the essay writing opportunities in EAP important to her writing abilities and language learning.  These writing skills she learned in EAP transferred to other courses and assignments, such as the journal entries she had to make in her theatre course mentioned here, “I always like when I submit them I feel they are really good, I feel like they’ll make sense together with my thoughts and uh information”.  Clearly she feels confident and proud in her writing skills due to her experiences at university and EAP.  An emergent pattern throughout both Meg’s and Ann’s results shows that writing skills are essential to the language learning process and create a better transition to university life and to different courses, making life less stressful and more welcoming in a foreign country.    The subtheme of motivation, in connection to the learning process and the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition, was also prevalent throughout the interviews.  Pat, Meg, Ann, and Betty each described instances of motivation.    Motivation is the drive or ability to learn (Lightbown & Spada, 2013).  For some participants and students this is a process that does not occur naturally and must be learned, yet is crucial to the learning process.  In particular, integrative, or internal, motivation can be an important aspect of the learning process (Gardner & Lambert, 1972).  In the data, the participants made it clear that without motivation they would not learn or they would have a much more difficult time learning and would not achieve their goals to the same extent or with the same efficiency.  Meg mentioned that EAP had motivated her to continue to learn English (not stating why, simply that it did).  Betty described how the popularity of the English language in a global sense motivated her to improve her language abilities.  Ann acknowledged that sometimes she would get discouraged; however, she knew she had to create her own motivation and keep going.  Interestingly Pat spoke from a more existential viewpoint on this subject, “I think that if international students they really try to focus themselves on learning a language then they they can do it faster than the people who just are being forced by learning the language”.  She goes on to explain that an individual who is thriving in their environment, not just surviving, will (in her 		 56	opinion) have a higher success rate and succeed at a great speed.  It is clear throughout the information provided in the results that the participants valued motivation and find it important to the learning process.  Related to the learning process, and the connection between metanoia and second language acquisition.  Ann, Betty, and Meg also brought up their speaking skills in the interviews.  Speaking skills is the learning process in which an individual improves their language abilities by speaking and using speech in the chosen language.  Ann mentioned that EAP instilled in her an importance of speaking skills and practicing speech when improving language skills.  Betty simply mentioned that speaking activities occurred in EAP, yet shared no opinions or feelings on the matter, it was a simple observation.  Meg somewhat agreed and disagreed with Ann’s viewpoint, as displayed in a quote from Meg below:  Um like for me I think um like the first proof like when you when your in good like English um like a speaker it’s like uh um speaking, I find out like sometimes I still struggle with that and ya.  Like well I I always thought that that’s like that’s the most important skill someone should have and so I would say like uh I hope I I would…have expected that in EAP we would like improve more our speaking.  That like um it’s just like the the level of my other students it wasn’t like some, it it wasn’t like that great so I couldn’t really learn from them.  But like our discussions and sometimes we would have a debate and ii it was between all of us right, so I mean like ya I I I couldn’t see a a change along the term of the level of speaking. As seen above Meg expressed a strong opinion about speaking, that it is a valuable and extremely important aspect of the language acquisition process.  She agreed that EAP introduced her to some new concepts and exposed her to different scenarios to improve her speaking.  However, she felt she could have used more exposure, communicating more frequently with more opportunities to discuss with willing interlocutors.  She is honest about her difficulties with speaking and directly expresses her view on the importance of speaking.    The results show that each participant who mentioned the subtheme “speaking skills” puts an emphasis on the importance of this aspect of language learning.  Clearly speaking skills have become an important part of the learning process for these participants.  Based on the data, “organization”, another subtheme related to the learning process, metanoia, and second language acquisition appears to describe the process of breaking down 		 57	activities in a specific fashion as to not become overwhelmed and to focus specifically on certain factors of the material..   Throughout the results, the subtheme of organization was found in the responses of Tim and Ann.  Both participants described organization as a means to learn more effectively and to stay calm and collected.  Tim found that staying organized allowed him to slowly and steadily improve his knowledge of the English language, one technique he would use was “ to divide English as as really small pieces so I so I can work on every single piece like uh in really short time”.  He would dissect his work, and if he did not understand certain material he would then feel confident taking it to an instructor to ask about it. Ann described how important it was to “organize my thoughts before speaking up, like just in order to make sure I don’t make any big like funny mistakes my sentence or something like that”.  Clearly, Ann felt that organization assisted her in keeping composure and expressing herself more effectively.  It is clear that both Tim and Ann felt confident in their work because they were organized and prepared to communicate.  Therefore, for them, organization is an important part of the learning process; creating a much more manageable learning environment.   “Strategies” was an important subtheme arising in the data associated with the learning process and the relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition.  Strategies are the important skills and techniques the participants used to create their personal best learning environment, helping them to achieve their goals.  There were six kinds of strategies mentioned by the participants: practice/repetition, study skills, time management, goal setting, note taking skills, and using critical thinking skills.    Learning strategies were important for the participants in the learning process.  For example, practice and repetition were mentioned by Tim.  He found that practising and repeating words and activities allowed him to improve his English skills; to him this is a useful technique in learning language.   Study skills are the methods used to improve studying, allowing the individual to comprehend more material, and these are important for Pat.  She describes how a conducive learning environment (for her it is at home), being prepared, and memorization are study skills that are important to her learning process and success.  She also mentions how repetition can help in studying (this was counted as a study skill as she was not specifically mentioning practice but instead discussing it as a technique within studying), consistency (staying with the study skills that work best for the individual), and improving vocabulary.  Both time management and goal setting also arose in Pat’s work in relation to learning strategies.  She 		 58	discusses how it is important to manage time during studying and assignments, when she learns something, conveys her information, and completes a task on time she feels “really good”.  To gain experience Pat sets goals (an important part of the learning process), it allows her to “challenge myself more”.  To improve listening skills Meg recommended note taking, she emphasizes the importance of this as she has experienced professors using it as an assessment tool in class; therefore it is both a study and assessment tool.  Lastly, Tim mentioned critical thinking as it will assist in writing  “a research paper then you need the critical thinking the the connecting of the the topic.”  Employing strategies to think critically is an important tool for Tim.     4.4.2.4  Theme 2 Learning Process: Minor subthemes  “Assignments” was the minor subtheme connected to metanoia and second language acquisition in relation to the theme of “learning process”.  The three categories within this subtheme are presentations, research, and citing sources.  Here participants discussed the main learning processes and things needed (in their opinion) to complete assignments successfully.  Both Meg and Ann discussed presentations.  Meg explained how presentations allowed her to find new interest in her schoolwork, reminded her to be prepared, and to be knowledgeable of vocabulary and terminology.  Ann said that her presentations taught her to develop both writing and communication skills.  In her interview, Meg mentioned both research and citing sources.  She felt that learning to do research appropriately and citing sources are imperative to obtaining high grades and being successful in academics.   4.4.2.5  Theme 3 Communication: Major subthemes  The theme of “communication” was also quite prominent in the results of this study.  Communication dealt with two concepts:  “methods” and “interlocutors”.  However, the major subthemes individually emerged due to their higher incidence throughout the results.  The minor subthemes were broken down into “methods” and “interlocutors”.  The concept of methods consists of types of communication that occurred or was mentioned throughout the interviews.  The theme of interlocutors had to do with specific relationships that caused a specific type of communication.  The Figure 4.4 below shows this hierarchy within this theme: 		 59	 Figure 4.4.  Communication themes and subthemes.  The idea of peers was an important subtheme related to metanoia and second language acquisition in connection to communication.  Here, the subtheme deals with the communication, such as the speaking and listening, that occurs between two or more conversational partners.  In the context of the theme of communication, peers can be viewed as friends, classmates, siblings, or other interlocutors at a similar age, learning level, or similar lifestyle.  Ann related experiences connected to the subtheme peers in her interview.  She put an emphasis on communication with peers throughout her interview, mentioning how peers cannot only assist with building relationships but with assessment, assignments, and improving language acquisition.  Reflecting on her time in Canadian high school, Ann had a personality Communication	Methods	Major	subthemes	Quick	response	Listening	Skills	Comprehension	Minor	Subthemes	Copying/mimicking	Observation	Language	combining	Interlocutors	Major	Subthemes	 Peers	Minor	Subthemes	 Coworkers	Instructors			 60	shift when communicating with others during activities.  The open communication with her peers prompted her to change from a quiet and disorganized student to attempting to be a leader, confident, more outspoken, and organized.  As she transferred to university life in Canada she continued to find willing peer interlocutors, be friendly, and communicate with peers.  For example when talking with peers she felt she could “share my uh experience with them and they told me their like good moments throughout university life…like I can change my mind and my voice to learn English just in a more academic way”.  The concept of peers in relation to communication was also important in Pat’s interview.  Pat mentioned a strong personality and identity shift due to the growth and ability to communicate with willing interlocutors, specifically peers.  She observed a large difference between her ability to communicate during Jumpstart (the beginning of the year) to the time of the interview (the end of the academic school year).  Pat could understand her peers quite well because they were patient and compassionate when she had difficulty, here she says, “my partners they speak slow and then I I’m clear so then I can understand them”.  Lastly, she described how peers can be a fantastic learning resource, if an individual finds a peer that speaks the same language “it’s good because when I don’t know how to saw a word she can just translate it for me and then I I learn new words like that”.   The theme peers also arose in Meg, Betty, and Tim’s work.  Meg pointed out that conversing with peers is dependent upon the relationship and the context (environment), these two factors can highly impact the quality or type of communication occurring.  Additionally she discusses how the accents of peers (or other examples such as assuming the culture, home country, or first language) can correlate to the level or quality of communication.  Both Tim and Betty reinforced the value of communicating with peers and how it can improve the language learning process while making an individual more outgoing.  Data related to a quick response, a subtheme connected to communication, as it relates to metanoia and second language acquisition recurred throughout the interviews with Betty, Pat, and Tim.  Quick response is coded when the participants mentioned their ability to communicate without hesitation and where there were moments of fluidity (or lack thereof).  Essentially it is when a participant mentions their response time when communicating with an interlocutor.  Betty described oral English as a weakness of both hers and other international students.  However, over time she gained confidence in her language abilities and offered impromptu and 		 61	quick responses in English.  Betty also noticed the largest difference once she reached third year university with “less hesitation more uh fluency.”  Tim observed how people in English speaking cultures expect instantaneous results and answers from a conversation and from speaking partners (whether first or additional language interlocutors).  Tim expressed this when he said “I feel like…they like in instantaneous respond not…and I was try to try to keep in mind and then try to um try to change the way I I talk and I feel”.  Pat described how preparation is key in communicating with others during assessments (such as speaking assessments) or out in public (this could mean things such as knowing options or types of food ahead of time when ordering at a restaurant).  Listening skills, as related to the theme of communication, metanoia, and language acquisition, means how participants listen and depending on how they listen, what is their ability to communicate with interlocutors.  The listener must gain comprehensible input via listening to then create output through the interaction to experience metanoia and second language acquisition.  This process is showcased below throughout the following examples.  In particular, this subtheme appeared to be significant for Betty, Ann, Meg, and Tim.  Betty said that both she and others (such as her mother) noticed a significant improvement by third year (of university) with her listening skills.  Tim gave advice and an example of how and why listening is so important to students (here it can be assumed he means immigrants and international students) below:  But I I mean if there’s uh if there’s advice that uh that I can give to um other students um it will be um just speak and like speak out and then talk and also, um just just to listen to what other people say and like observe learning which is like uh it’s really I feel like learning English is is really important to observe to to like to learn from other people…And then cause that’s normally sometimes when I was on the on the on the bus and stuff I was listening to music and I heard some people talking and I like I very likely pause my music I listen how they talk, how they form their sentences, how they um how they like respond each other to to make the…communication interactive… This quote from Tim’s work expresses his emotions and describes the usefulness of listening to improving language acquisition.  There are many ways an individual must use “listening skills” for example Meg successfully talked on the phone and Ann needed to do different assignments 		 62	in class.  Therefore, listening skills are key to building relationships, improving language abilities, and communicating with others.  Comprehension was also an important subtheme connected to metanoia and second language acquisition as it relates to communication, in the data, appearing in Ann’s, Betty’s, and Pat’s results.  Comprehension consists of understanding.  This understanding is expressed from two viewpoints in the results: that of the participant and that of their interlocutors.  Ann described a time when communicating with her host family in Canada during high school, saying her English was not very good and thus her host family could not communicate effectively with her or comprehend what she wanted/needed.  Betty furthered this by explaining times in university courses where she would delay moments of answering instructors due to her reacting “very slowly and uh my accent was very strong that the professor can hardly understand”.  Pat experienced a moment where she did not comprehend, when entering the school cafeteria; however, at the time of our interview she knew how to order and communicate effectively.  Clearly Pat felt successful and confident at communicating at the time of the interview.  To each of these participants comprehension played a major role in communicating with others and acted as a measurement of their successes and growth within the English language.   4.4.2.6  Theme 3 Communication: Minor subthemes     The minor “methods” subtheme, related to communication, contains the categories copying/mimicking, observation, and language combining.  As explained above, methods are the processes of communication used.  Copying/mimicking in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition arose in both Betty’s and Tim’s results.  This category is a form of imitation to assist in language acquisition and communication.  Both participants found copying and mimicking to be helpful in their language learning experiences.  Tim mentioned how watching and observing others (much like copying/mimicking and listening) are imperative to the language learning experience.  He mentioned that observing makes a “conversation like interactive” and more fun to interpret.  Additionally he emphasized that it is important “to observe a lot and then don’t don’t close yourself and just speak out”.  Pat described “language combining” meaning to combine multiple languages to communicate, gaining metanoia and second language acquisition.  As she spoke French, English, 		 63	and Spanish Pat communicated with individuals in all three separate languages.  However she has experienced moments of fluidity between the languages when communicating with interlocutors that are bilingual and trilingual in those languages.  She described moments that (without realizing) she completely switches to English and possibly attributes this to some of her success communicating in an additional language.  The minor “interlocutors” subtheme, related to communication, metanoia, and second language acquisition contains the categories coworkers and instructors.  Reiterated from up above, these are the types of instances or situations in which communication occurs and with certain groups of people.  Tim described two instances of communication with coworkers.  Tim had a job in which he had to communicate with his coworkers.  From his results it is clear that an individual must be confident, prepared, and concise in their workplace and when communicating with coworkers.  He expressed this when stating “you have to throw your opinion on the table and then let…other people discuss it…you have to support your…discuss by like your experience…it’s like a really intense experience of using English.”  They must also have a quick reaction time and be professional during this type of communication.  The idea of “instructors” also arose in Tim’s interview.  Tim explained that instructors are great resources and interlocutors as they are willing to assist in language learning, are approachable, and can explain the learning content.   4.4.2.7  Theme 4 Emotions: Negative experiences, major subthemes  The theme emotions also occurred prominently throughout the results, with negative emotional experiences outweighing the positive emotional experiences.  Emotions deals with both positive and negative emotions; the reactions and feelings of participants throughout the interview.  This theme has been dissected into positive and negative experiences, and within these concepts there are both major subthemes and minor subthemes (as presented in Figure 4.5 below).  Please note, the emotions mentioned here are clearly stated by the participants throughout their interviews.  Below in Figure 4.5 is a diagram dissecting Theme 4: Emotions. 		 64	 Figure 4.5.  Emotions and related major and minor subthemes.  The concept of stress in regards of metanoia and second language acquisition, as related to the theme of emotion, was particularly salient in Betty’s answers during the interview.  Stress refers to the pressure that participants feel or have gone through during their time in Canada.  This theme of stress was prevalent throughout the examples provided by participants within the follow-up interview.  Betty explained how her transition to another culture was quite difficult and she became what she termed “mentally ill”, and she felt stressed and was admitted to the hospital.  When attending school in her first and second year she felt so stressed that she felt “blocked” from doing her work, her “lecture notes was not very good because not very uh not catching every word of the professors ya I I need to pay a lot of attention”.  Due to her difficulties with stress and school Betty dropped out of EAP studies halfway through the semester, completing them in the following semester. Emotions	Negative	Experiences	Major	Subthemes	 Stress	Anxiety/Worry	Minor	Subthemes	Culture	Shock	UnsatisQied	Frightened	Lost	Shy	Positive	Experiences	Major	Subthemes	 Gained	Experience	Happy	Minor	Subthemes	 Relaxed	Gratitude			 65	 Secondly Betty felt familial stress, she did not want to let her parents down and wanted to succeed for her parent’s sake.  When she fell ill, Betty found that it stressed her mother out and emphasized this in the interview. Additionally, part of this stress Betty experienced was due to the fact that she had failed the final big exam in China.  Based on her experiences, Betty described the importance of international students not only receiving “academic help but they need um many uh psychological help…like mental support”.  Lastly she mentions (while crying throughout the interview) that she was worried the university would kick her out due to her being open and honest about her illness.  Clearly mental illness and stress impact the lives of international students.  Throughout the participants’ experiences there were a number of instances of anxiety, related to the theme of emotion with metanoia and second language acquisition, mentioned by Ann, Tim, and Pat.  Anxiety/worry consists of the concerns the participants had and overwhelming negative anticipation for whatever reason during their time in Canada.  When experiencing something new and unfamiliar, Ann felt worried.  One instance of this occurred during a group presentation in a new and unfamiliar setting (transitioning from EAP to first year university English classes), and there were unknown expectations.  In Canadian high school, she also felt similar emotions when not knowing what to expect of her peers or instructors.  The most interesting instance was when Ann discussed her unhappiness due to entering the first level of EAP, she felt as if she wanted to simply start first year university courses, wanting to be a “normal university student”.  She became:  really worried about my like my university life like if I couldn’t graduate.  Like like a normally as others, so I was really regret getting into the program.  But then after the first week um I I can’t got to know the mm process of like learning. Therefore, this anxiety and worry initially hindered or delayed her ability to proceed and achieve her goals in life and at university.  Pat also found her transition to Canada worrying and frightening initially.  Conversely, Tim found the anxiety and worry to work to his advantage.  When feeling overwhelmed (such as being worried or shy) he decided to utilize resources and this helped him in dealing with his emotions, growing as an individual, and stepping outside of his comfort zone in a supportive environment as is mentioned below: 		 66	 I just kinda just kinda my personality thing like I kind of feel intense about stuff but like I um I I go there and like I I was introduced to the the friendly uh like um resources that they they help international students international student services which they um they help you do with your uh [mumbling] and all this stuff and…I was applying for the Jumpstart like uh…Assistant and I got in like the last year and I’m applying this year as well so um ya like it’s like uh like uh a lot of things like come from like EAP…like a lot of like uh connections and people I know it’s from like uh like in the EAP time. Similarly both Tim and Ann expressed nervousness when they initially arrived in Canada, finding it overwhelming; finding it difficult to adjust to a new routine and communicating with others effectively.  From these results it is apparent anxiety/worry are negative emotions yet when utilized appropriately can cause motivation and promote growth within the individuals experiencing it.   4.4.2.8  Theme 4 Emotions: Negative experiences, minor subthemes  The negative experiences related the theme of emotion include minor subthemes related to culture shock, satisfaction, being frightened, being lost, and being shy in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition.  These were all subthemes that were important to mention however only occurred once or twice throughout the transcriptions.  Betty and Pat both expressed an experience of feeling “culture shock”, this feeling of being detached or unable to understand a new and completely different culture that an individual is immersed in.  According to Brown (2000), culture	shock	can	range	from	mild	feelings	of	discomfort	to	major	feelings	of	crisis.		People	suffering	from	culture	shock	might	be	upset,	angry,	alienated,	frustrated,	unhappy,	lonely,	and	homesick.		They	also	might	feel	misunderstood	and	disconnected.		Betty explained that she did not experience culture shock, however her mother did during her time living in Canada and taking care of Betty during the time of her illness.  Pat experienced culture shock in a very real sense, mentioned below:  I was having a little bit of cultural shock because I didn’t expect to see um that many Chinese people at Vancouver [laughs] so um ya I I thought it was Tokyo [laughs] or something like that.  But then they start speaking in in English and then I couldn’t understand them.  And then the waitress came came and I didn’t understand her, what what she was saying.  And then I didn’t know what to say, I was just blocked.  I couldn’t say any word, so um I just choose um the number, there was like combos so I just said 		 67	combo one [laughs] or something like that because I I didn’t really wanted to to to speak.  Because if I ask something then she was going to ask me more things and I didn’t I didn’t want to speak.  I don’t know the the first day it was just a bit weird because I didn’t I didn’t understand what they were saying. Pat had a specific vision of what Canada was like in her head, this concept was immediately changed once she entered the country and walked into a restaurant.  Additionally, she was unable to communicate effectively, causing her to experience culture shock.  Both Ann and Betty felt “unsatisfied” (unhappy with their experiences), they both expressed a strong dissatisfaction and unsatisfactory opinion of EAP in some form.  For Ann, this “unsatisfied” feeling occurred when initially entering the program, after the first week, however, she changed mindset and felt there was a lot she needed to learn from EAP.  Betty (did not elaborate however she) stated that initially she was “not quite satisfied with with what EAP taught me.”  To be “frightened” is to be scared, afraid, etc. When experiencing culture shock, this in turn caused Pat (specifically given in the example above) a moment where she was uncomfortable and felt frightened; not knowing what would happen next, being in a strange environment, and unable to communicate effectively.  Additionally, when she was in the restaurant Pat felt “lost” meaning unable to understand and make sense of her situation and surroundings.  Here she states she “felt uh maybe lost…like out of context.  I don’t know.”  This feeling of being lost can also be perceived as not fitting in or getting along for whatever reason in a culture or environment.  Being “shy” meaning to be quiet and possibly a bit of an introvert, when Ann began building relationships and attending high school in Canada she also had a difficult time transitioning.  “I was really shy at the beginning but they were really nice to me so I can change my personality a little bit”.    Many of the negative experiences elicit patterns of personality shifts, communicating, language barriers, cultural differences, and the inability to adapt or transition to different situations.   4.4.2.9  Theme 4 Emotions: Positive experiences, major subthemes   There were moments of “gained experience” related to the theme of emotion developed around metanoia and second language acquisition throughout the interviews within Betty’s, Ann’s, and Pat’s responses.  Gained experience as an emotion is described as the moments where 		 68	participants felt reassured and proud of themselves as they achieved a new level of understanding or experience in life.  It is the emotions felt when experiencing growth.  When retaking EAP, Betty had a moment of “gained experience”.  Earlier it was mentioned how Betty found EAP too simple; however, when attending the course for the second time, she found the materials and topics useful, educating her on language learning, Aboriginal issues, and becoming an international citizen.  Due to EAP and the support of her mother, Betty felt she was making improvements and becoming more courageous. Both Ann and Pat expressed that working hard and living in a new culture had forced them to take on new activities and feel more experienced, allowing them to grow.  Ann described how opportunities in Canada helped to  “kind of improve my personality” and being exposed to new situations made Pat “feel more prepared more experienced.”   “Happy” is described as the emotion of joy or happiness; the individual expresses a simple positive moment in which they were “happy”.  Within the interviews there were moments of happiness described by Ann, Tim, and Pat in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition.  Ann felt “happy” when she attended the first level of EAP.  It made her feel comfortable and content, reassuring her that university would be safe and she would be okay in this environment.  She also felt prepared, having attended Canadian high school and was able to assist her peers by translating in EAP.  In her time in high school in Canada “I definitely learned a lot from that time so I was really happy with that at the time”.  The moment when Tim realized he was happy because of his language learning abilities and progress he stated “And then that’s like the the moment when I feel like it’s just like it’s a big change and then I feel like just like just like um multiple feelings like a um mixed but like mostly just happy.”  Pat also felt happy when she realized she had a better grasp of the English language.  Therefore, all three participants felt “happy” when making strides with their language abilities.   4.4.2.10  Theme 4 Emotions: Positive experiences, minor subthemes   Two minor subthemes arose in the positive experiences section in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition of the theme “Emotions”.  The first of the two subthemes was “relaxed”, this meant the participant verbalized a felt moment of calmness, Pat experienced this.  When being prepared for assignments she felt “relaxed”, knowing she did not have to study.  Secondly “gratitude” (meaning thankfulness) arose once in Ann’s responses.  This experience of gratitude occurred at a time when she felt understood by her teacher and appreciated. 		 69	  4.4.2.11  Theme 5 Relationships: Major subthemes  The fifth theme of relationships dealt with the bonds built between the participants and different individuals/groups.  Each individual/group was developed as a subtheme: Peers, family/host family, community, staff/faculty, and roommates.  It is clear from the results that relationships are important to the human identity and to academic support and growth.  A diagram (Figure 4.6) listed below shows the themes and subthemes in “Relationships”:  Figure 4.6.  Theme 5: Relationships major subthemes and minor subthemes.  The concept of peers in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition was very important in connection to the theme of relationships.  All of the interview participants had responses related to this concept.  There is a difference between the “peers” subtheme in communication and here.  In communication it has to do with the act of talking and communicating, whereas here it is to do with the ties that people have.  Peers here are individuals that are classmates or friends, usually these are people at or around the age of the participants and can come from any background.  Betty mentioned how her peers’ viewpoints and opinions are very important to her, she holds them in high regard, wanting to impress them and build friendships with them.  She emphasizes how she is influenced by their personalities also.  Creating friendships with peers seems to be the most prevalent aspect of “relationships” in this subtheme.  Multiple participants Relationships	Major	Subthemes	Peers	Family/Host	Family	Community	Staff/Faculty	Minor	Subthemes	 Roommates			 70	felt that creating friendships with peers would assist them in communicating and developing stronger language abilities.  It also is mentioned that building relationships with peers creates moments where collaboration can occur, offering each other support and encouragement, specifically in an academic sense.  Betty discussed the impact of peer relationships when she said, “I’m influenced by their openness…Their uh maybe happiness…Just greatly influenced by other students.”  Pat also mentioned how developing friendships was important, however she also realized that collaborating with peers creates a sense of diversity and larger awareness of the world and other cultures.  When she would get to know and develop relationships with other students, she realized everyone has something to give, to learn, and comes from a different background.  Therefore “peers” are influential, as participants felt they could work with them as coworkers but also have friendships, they could learn and support one another.  In connection to relationships, Betty, Ann, and Meg all related experiences connected to the theme of family/host family developed around metanoia and second language acquisition.  The family and host family are very important as they are the home environment the individual has grown up with or has had support from the participants throughout their growing years; most likely the families still show the individuals some kind of support and care.  When speaking of “family” this means the family the participants grew up with (such as possibly a mother, father, sister, brother, cousin, aunt, uncle, or grandparent).  The host family is usually a family in another country that provides lodging, food, amenities, and other family like aspects for an individual, when the individual is living in another city or country.  Betty had described her time experiencing mental illness in her interview.  For this reason her mother moved from China to Canada to come take care of her, she had a nurturing relationship with her mother and had a lot of respect for her mother.  Her mother had difficulty with the culture and communicating in English, in return Betty would give back, helping her mother with her mother’s language, communicating for the both of them.  Because of the lack of English skills in the household, Betty worked even harder to get healthier and to achieve her language acquisition goals.  She had such a strong relationship with her parents that when she mentioned she wanted to immigrate to Canada (to the interviewer) she said she never would because she could neither leave her family behind or force them to move to a country where they would not be happy.  Similarly, Meg also had a family member in Canada, her sister.  Having her sibling in Canada motivated Meg to improve her language abilities so she too could have a 		 71	similar experience, clearly she looks up to her sister as she mentioned she wanted to “follow her”.  Ann had a different experience.  She discussed her relationship and time with a host family when she went to high school in Canada.  They supported her, and although the change was scary at first they assisted her in transitioning into (as she called it) “Canadian style” or culture.  She would:  … think I can improve my spoken English a little bit after that so we became uh like a really like a family.  So they knew what I want to do, what I want to eat, so at that time I was really like a I was able to communicate with um them and they got to know my feeling properly. It is evident from this quote that she felt as if she not only was part of Canadian society but was part of a family.    Family clearly plays a large part in most people’s lives.  The relationships between these participants and their families/host families were quite powerful.  The “community” subtheme in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition describes the relationships the participants had with groups of people.  These relationships could be for example volunteering or getting involved in an activity group and the relationships within that group.  Explaining also how these relationships improved their learning and how it may have assisted them in exploring their identity.  Meg, Ann, Betty, and Tim all related responses in connection to the concept of community.  Meg emphasized how it is important to get involved with the community, university/campus life connected to moments of metanoia and second language acquisition, and to “get more interest interested into English learning”.  Clearly she had found a link between getting involved in the community and language learning.  Tim furthered this by stating how part of the learning process is to experience life and to give back.  Here he stated he “just joined the community and then like make friends and pay payback the community, and then at the same time but you learn some experience like you get some experience and you learn like what like what other people in like in the society do”.  In other words, it is important to be mindful and learn from others, to build these “community” relationships. 		 72	 For Ann, EAP was an important time in her life.  The following quote explains the community or family-like dynamic of EAP from the eyes of a student and why her learning was so successful during that time:  Mmm I think um even though I’m not not longer in the EAP program anymore, well there are sometimes I always miss the time.  I you know the instructor they were really nice to me and the classmates.  When I’m not in normal classes I think um I’m not that close with every classmates in my lectures in the lectures always big.  But EAP class small always smaller than the normal lecture size so I really like the way like we can knew each other, like we were really close to each other.  But now I don’t really know like [laughs] my classmates name, like maybe few of them I made friend with them but just I still miss the time when I was in EAP program.  Like everyone’s we are just like a family, like we were just really close friends we go to talk about everything in our life ya. Betty found building a diverse community of friends outside of her culture was important and really broadened her horizons, learning new things every day.  From these participants’ results it can be concluded that community is important to the learning, social, and emotional progress of an individual.   Staff and faculty are members of the academic institutions (teachers, instructors, or professors, etc.) who have made some sort of an impact on that participant’s academic career (whether positive or negative) also were part of the theme of relationships.  Tim, Ann, and Betty all refer to staff and faculty in their interview responses.   Tim felt he had made “professor friends” as he was initially shy, yet the EAP experience (and assuming the instructors) made him feel at home and welcome.  He had become much more social due to the help of EAP and his instructors; they were supportive, kind, and friendly to him.  He later described that the EAP instructors built a strong relationship with him because they were always accessible for assistance and patient with him.  Ann also mentioned how EAP instructors built a strong relationship with her because she also felt they were willing to help and taught her some effective tools for academic writing.  Additionally, Betty felt a strong connection with her EAP instructor; however it was for another reason.  She felt her instructor was compassionate and understood what she was going through with her mental illness.  All three participants made it clear that a student and instructor can build multiple strong and healthy relationships whether based on academics, health, or social issues.  Either way, 		 73	instructors clearly play a large role in the growth and change in a student, specifically within their academic career.   4.4.2.12  Theme 5 Relationships: Minor subthemes  There was one subtheme that arose in the theme of relationships: “roommates” in connection to metanoia and second language acquisition.  “Roommates” are the relationships the participants developed with individuals who lived with them.  This is separated from “peers” as roommates could be of any age, any background.  It is much more diversified than that of a peer (usually individuals in the same year or similar of university and around the same age).  To Tim, his roommate was a very important individual in his life.  He provided a lot of guidance.  He not only assisted Tim in adjusting to independent life and life in Canada, he assisted him with his academics, became friends with him, and introduced him to aspects of North American culture (for example, websites such as Urban Dictionary to help him understand slang terms).  This person clearly played a large part in Tim’s life and was important to mention.  Tim expressed this when stating, “Just everyday I keep on getting new things and I keep on remember them and uh I feel like…everyday there’s a moment…I feel like he said something I feel like that’s really cool.”   4.4.2.13  Theme 6: Resources  The theme “Resources” as it relates to metanoia and second language acquisition is compiled of resources or tools the participants learned of or found useful throughout their academic and language learning process.  There were seven subthemes related to the concept of resources: Groups/Organizations, media, library, listening, peers, assignments, and textbooks.  As seen in the results below there are multiple resources available and they are very important to both the academic and social development of a student.  Below is Figure 4.7, a diagram shows the different subthemes within “Theme 6: Resources”: 		 74	 Figure 4.7.  Theme 6: Resources and subthemes.  “Groups/Organizations” is a subtheme that deals with different groups or organizations in terms of metanoia and second language acquisition that assist with both academic skills and social skills.  This subtheme was most important in Tim’s interview responses.  He mentioned both the IPS (this is assumed to be the International Programs and Services) and the university’s writing centre.  IPS assisted in transitioning to university life and the writing centre provided writing/academic help.  More specifically the writing centre, “they correct your um grammar mistakes and they they kinda help you with I paper.”  The theme of “Media” in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition also arose in Pat and Meg’s responses.  Media can take on multiple forms; however, in the context of the interviews, the participants were referring to it as film or television watched in English and how it acts as a learning resource.  Pat found watching movies can assist in language learning and about the world around her.  Here she offers an example, “watching the movie what was the name?  Food, Inc.?  Ya um I learn new new things but not only about English.  So it also helps you to understand um the outside world and then you apply the the language”.  Meg found Netflix to be a useful media resource, she was able to enjoy learning English in her spare time.  The “library” addressed metanoia and second language acquisition in the subtheme under resources.  It is meant as a facility in which multiple tools can be learned and used for academic Resources	Groups/Organizations	Media	Library	Listening	Peers	Assignments	Textbooks			 75	work and research.  Meg in particular mentions the library.  The library taught her how to cite sources correctly, how to search and find sources on the library website, and how to structure an essay; all useful and important information to know.  The subtheme “listening” arose in Pat’s work in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition.  She expresses listening as an important resource and integral aspect of the learning process.  Listening is a resource as it works as a tool to assist language learning in acquiring second language skills.  She actually explains that more listening and more challenging listening should be implemented within the EAP program; it would be a useful future tool in her opinion for the learning process.  In this section “peers” refers to any individual perceived as an equal or a person in the same stage of life and how they can assist in the learning process affecting metanoia and the second language acquisition process.  Meg mentioned that her roommate (a peer) would assist in reviewing and making corrections of her paper.  Her peer assists in editing; an important resource for a language learner and first year university student.  The subtheme “assignments” arose in Ann’s interview when experiencing metanoia and second language acquisition.  Assignments are projects and given out in classes at university to provide practice for tests, etc.  By completing assignments, Ann found she could learn more diverse content both inside and outside of the classroom.  “Textbooks” was a subtheme mentioned once in Ann’s interview also in relation to metanoia and second language acquisition.  Textbooks act as a good point of reference for many different kinds of information.  Ann discussed how textbooks acted as a powerful resource in multiple ways, specifically when citing sources (such as APA format). 4.5  Conclusion  The overarching research question in this study was related to how EAP students experience metanoia and what the relationship is with their language acquisition.  The data were gathered from a survey and interview, from here it was triangulated by comparing the survey and interview results.  The survey answers served to foreshadow the themes arising in the interview data.  Six themes were found (from most common to least common except communication and emotions which were tied for the same amount of instances): Growth, Learning Process, Communication, Emotions, Relationships, and Resources.  All of these themes (and their subthemes and categories) presented different viewpoints and aspects.  However a common 		 76	pattern was seen throughout: academic and social development take place simultaneously. EAP students need to be taught from a holistic approach, looking at the learner as an individual with both academic and social needs.  By viewing the learner as a “whole” individual educators and investigators can assist learners in reaching heightened levels of thinking and thought processes such as metanoia, that will in turn benefit their language acquisition.     		 77	Chapter 5:  Discussion 5.1  Overview of the Study  The qualitative study is framed within a socio-cognitive perspective with influences from narrative and phenomenological research traditions.  Second language acquisition theory was used prominently throughout the study as a means of understanding the process of language learning, in particularly the concept of metanoia.  Multiple additional language learning theories influenced the current study; however, Krashen’s work (1982a; 1982b) on second language acquisition in relation to sociocultural understandings of learning (e.g. Vygotsky, 1978) was found to be effective and appropriate for this investigation.    It was put forward in this study that metanoia and language learning, work together simultaneously.  Metanoia, a Greek term, was described by Cuddon (2013) as an “after thought, change of mind” (p. 432).  Additionally Senge (1990a) described it in the field of Educational Leadership as moments in which there is a change of mindset causing a new awareness within one’s mind.  In the current study, metanoia is defined as an “aha” moment, a moment of realization, an epiphany; instantaneously an individual will suddenly notice a new step in his or her learning process and abilities. It is the proverbial light bulb turning on in an individual’s mind, leading him or her to a heightened sense of awareness and a new level of both comprehension and learning.  Mostly, metanoia promotes internal motivation, which Gardner and Lambert (1972) refer to as integrative motivation which is related to personal enrichment and growth, causing the individual to want to meet a new higher level of awareness and understanding; therefore it is theorized here they will continue to study and want to learn more to improve the self, both academically and socially.  Senge (1990a) discussed metanoia as a form of transformative learning within a learning organization.  Metanoia can be thought of as a process that occurs rapidly, allowing an individual to transform, change, and grow both socially and academically.  It is a conscious awareness of a subconscious change occurring.  To reiterate, the purpose of this study was “How do EAP students experience metanoia, and what is the relationship with their additional language acquisition?”.  The findings of this study may be of use to EAP instructors who could view their students differently, possibly using new or different techniques to assist the students in reaching moments of metanoia.  Instructors may gain information from these learning patterns and gain insight on differing cultures and education systems.   		 78	 Participants were students who were or had been enrolled in PIU’s EAP program.  Data were gathered in the present study via an online survey questionnaire and a follow-up in person interview.  The data were then coded to find themes and subthemes prevalent throughout the investigation, finding parallels and connections between participants’ answers (Creswell, 1998; Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012; Wolcott, 1994).  Because of the qualitative nature of this study, the research hypothesis worked mainly as a guiding hypothesis, allowing it to work fluidly with the needs of the participants. Here it was theorized that participants progressed and reached moments of metanoia.  This metanoia could occur, hypothetically, in either a conscious or subconscious manner and could influence the additional language learning process.  It was anticipated that this would happen mainly in new environments while engaging in new cultures.  Because of the metanoia experiences, participants would see their English language skills grow and improve.  5.2  Summary of Results  The results identified six major themes and multiple subthemes (within each theme) The subthemes are more specific emotions, actions, memories or other patterns within the larger theme.  As, the results focused on the students’ growth both academically and socially.  The six prominent themes found were: growth, learning process, communication, emotions, relationships, and resources.  Participants found these to be the most important and resonating themes contributing to their academic and social success, possibly assisting them or acting as catalysts in achieving metanoia.  The responses from the participants contributed to understanding the relationship between identity and learning an additional language, specifically in the EAP environment.   5.3  Discussion of Results   5.3.1  The relationship between metanoia and second language acquisition  The results showed that multiple moments of metanoia did occur throughout the research and study.  To fully understand the process of gaining moments of metanoia, the investigator had to take a step back and look at the literature.  For this aspect of the study (investigating how students realize moments of metanoia), the literature was extremely important to the findings.  For this specific question, Krashen’s (1982b) second language acquisition theory provided the backbone or foundation to the findings in following sections.  In addition to comprehensible 		 79	input (Krashen, 1982b), restructuring theory (McLaughlin, 1990), and the interaction hypothesis (Long, 1996) informed the interpretation of the results.  Figure 5.1 displays a metaphorical funnel of how these three theories of additional language acquisition combine and funnel into creating moments of metanoia.  This figure reiterates how the process of metanoia and second language acquisition occurs through a combination of comprehensible input, restructuring theory, and the interaction hypothesis.  Figure 5.1.   Second language acquisition and metanoia.  Krashen’s second language acquisition theory (1982a), the monitor hypothesis, stated, “We acquire…by focusing on meaning.  We do not acquire by first learning the rules and then trying to use them,” (Krashen, 1982a, p. 97).  Krashen proposed multiple steps in his theory, of those mentioned below in greater detail are: comprehensible input and the affective filter, with i + 1 referring to the concept of comprehensible input.  Comprehensible input was theorized to be the most effective form of language learning.  Comprehensible input would be considered the best learning stage to gain comprehension of a language; “i” (the level a learner’s language is at in the present moment) plus “1” (one level above their current stage). Further, i + 1 is defined as the “i” representing “the level of language already acquired, and the ‘+ 1’ is a metaphor for language…that is just a step beyond that level” (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 106).  Therefore, in theory the learner will subconsciously learn the language in a context slightly above his/her current level of understanding. Metanoia	Interaction	Hypothesis	Comprehensible	Input	Restructuring	Theory			 80	 Krashen (1982a) put forward that the majority of learning takes place from input such as listening, reading, or communicating with other individuals in the chosen additional language (as the learner is listening to the interlocutors).  It was anticipated in this study that there would be multiple outputs such as media, books, and interlocutors to increase language acquisition for the participants; much of this aligns with Krashen’s (1982b) ideas about comprehensible input and how additional languages are acquired. Krashen described comprehensible input below as:  We acquire by understanding what we hear (or read), by understanding the message, what is said (rather than how it is said).  We are aided a great deal in comprehension by the context, by our knowledge of the world, as well as our knowledge of the language (Krashen, 1982a, p. 97). He does acknowledge also that some learning does take place from grammar, lessons, etc.; however, the majority of grammatical comprehension would be developed over time as the learner would gain a stronger understanding of the language (Krashen, 1982a).  “If the input is understood, and if there is enough of it and if it is somewhat varied, it will contain all the grammatical structures necessary, and expose the language acquirer to everything he needs” (Krashen, 1982a, p. 98).  It was further anticipated that there would be a strong relationship between identity development, metanoia (a mind shift), and second language acquisition theory such as input (Krashen, 1982a) and communication (Long, 1996) being key) in language learning.  The participants enrolled in EAP classes were an appropriate community of learners for this study as it was revealed in the data how they experienced moments of comprehensible input when learning new languages such as English.    The interaction hypothesis (Long, 1996) was important to this study as it worked as a theoretical basis for the understanding of the learning process in language acquisition. The interaction hypothesis holds that “language acquisition is based both on learners’ innate abilities and on opportunities to engage in conversations, often those in which other speakers modify their speech and their interaction patterns to match the learners’ communication requirements.” (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, pp. 219-220).  It was theorized that both natural ability/knowledge and learned knowledge are needed to gain language acquisition.  Additionally, both academic and social aspects (conversing and listening) create comprehensible input and thus can create the best language learner with the strongest ability to communicate and comprehend. 		 81	 When the participant was involved as an active learner in these aspects, he or she became the ideal individual for experiencing metanoia.  It was evident via the results that many participants felt that they were able to easily express the moment of metanoia occurring.  However, this seemed to occur as a pattern of reflection.  The participants were not only noticing metanoia had occurred, but how it had occurred (what was the method/s) in creating this thought altering event.  It seems as though Krashen’s ideas on additional language acquisition provide a useful framework for understanding how metanoia might occur.  However, as metanoia is an activity that happens “in the moment”, meaning an individual is not actively seeking it (it occurs automatically and naturally), it appears that that it is acknowledged and recognized only as an afterthought.  Below, figure 5.2 shows the process of how metanoia could occur and the growth or change that are predicted to occur due to metanoia. The three circles represent the increasing content knowledge and comprehension that is associated with the process.  Essentially metanoia could cause people to gain further awareness via reaching new levels of recognition, reflection, and realization within the learning process.  Figure 5.2.  Process of acknowledging metanoia.   5.3.2  Personal and Academic Development and Growth Based on Metanoia  The overall goal of participants was to become a good language learner, specifically good English language learners for whom their English language skills would not hold them back from success when attending an English medium university in Canada.   It appears that good language learners success depends on a gain in second language acquisition.   Beginning	of	metanoia	process.		Beginning	to	understand	the	content	from	a	sociocognitive	perspective.	Second	Language	Acquisition	 Metanoia	occurs,	however	the	individual	is	not	fully	aware	of	what	has	happened.	Metanoia	 The	individual	has	had	time	to	process	the	information	and	recognizes	that	he	or	she	has	achieved	a	moment	of	metanoia.		The	Qindings	show	the	individual	has	essentially	come	full	circle.	Recognition,	ReQlection,		Realization			 82	 Confidence was the major subtheme mentioned throughout the theme of “growth” in the results chapter.  For example one student mentioned how hard work, consistency, and about the motivation to communicate and learn. The participant (Tim) expressed that the payoff was moments of metanoia.  As a result, he felt more aware of who he was and his surroundings personally, he felt he had a stronger comprehension of academics, and how he was now able to communicate more effectively with instructors and other individuals within the English language; the awareness was caused by a growth in confidence.  More importantly, this (along with other instances provided by other participants within the data) may have contributed to the idea that identity is affected by metanoia.  By gaining awareness and confidence, it can be interpreted from the examples of metanoia prevalent in the subthemes of growth that the majority of participants grew in positive ways (a few instances of negativity); however, it can be concluded that metanoia does tend to act as a catalyst for confidence which leads to awareness.  Awareness in turn promotes academic and personal growth, this progression is displayed within Figure 5.3 “Formula for Personal and Academic Growth” below.  Figure 5.3.  Formula for personal and academic growth.  Participants were experiencing these moments of metanoia both inside and out of the classroom; hence, they were growing in a cultural, social, emotional, and academic sense.  The accomplishment of communication within another language acted as an enlightening moment, causing participants to commit to gaining further awareness and growth.  Other subthemes within growth were language acquisition, younger life, academic skills, organization, tolerance, community, and awareness. Metanoia	 ConQidence	 Awareness	 Personal	Growth	Academic	Growth			 83	 When growth occurs, participants become active learners and good language learners.  This sets the proverbial stage for further moments of metanoia to occur and more development of the self (both academically and socially).  5.3.3  The Development of Moments of Metanoia; The Conscious and Subconscious  There were many instances of metanoia recognized throughout the surveys.  In the data, it appears that metanoia occurred both consciously and subconsciously to participants.  Consciously participants were in a state of mind that allowed them to act as good language learners (being active learners).  By doing so, participants put themselves in the position to practice their English skills.  The participants were placing themselves in a vulnerable state and allowing themselves to engage in moments of comprehensible input.  As such, the results report that subconsciously moments of epiphany or metanoia occurred.  In turn participants consciously noticed upon reflection (in some cases immediately and in others after a delayed period of time) that metanoia had occurred.  Therefore, the data reflects how experiencing moments of metanoia occurs both consciously and subconsciously.    Figure 5.4 below displays the thought process of metanoia.  This diagram explains the connectedness and state of mind needed to reach moments of enlightenment that allow individuals to experience metanoia and reflection.  Figure 5.4.  The thought process of metanoia.  Vulnerable	Learning	State	Comprehensible	input	occurs	Occurs	Consciously	Metanoia	Occurs	subconsciously	 ReQlection	Occurs	consciously				 84	 When discussing this aspect of the findings it is important to take into account during this study that everyone learns differently and language is not a consistent learning process.  At times all language learners improve and then decline or worsen at other points (usually while learning something new).  Essentially no one learns language at a consistent and stable rate.  There are jumps and dives to the learning pattern (Larsen-Freeman, 1997)  Therefore, each participant experienced a varying number of experiences of metanoia, it occurred at different rates (along with reflection), and in differing environments.  The majority of instances of metanoia took place when individuals were communicating or observing.  For the purposes of this study, communication is defined as a form of listening, comprehending, and taking part in an oral interaction.  An example of this was when one participant was ordering something at a store or restaurant (it was unspecified); however, he or she was communicating with a willing interlocutor (the employee) and realized not only had he or she achieved metanoia, but felt comfortable as if the individual was speaking within his or her own language and within his or her own culture/country.   Observing is defined in this chapter as listening or watching, this is only taking part in one action or acting as an outside observer that would help a participant reach moments of metanoia.  For example one powerful moment of observance was when an individual was sitting on the bus and pretending to listen to music; however, they were really observing the conversation between individuals on the bus sitting near the said participant.  This participant in that instance experienced a moment of metanoia, noticing he was understanding what the other individuals were saying.  From the data  moments of metanoia took place both inside and outside of the EAP classroom.  However, it showed the vast majority of moments of metanoia took place outside of the classroom.  This research proves that communicating with interlocutors and observing others within the surroundings allows a learner to gain awareness and confidence, experiencing moments of metanoia and becoming a good language learner.  Figure 5.5 below showcases the step-by-step learning process that allows for the majority of metanoia experiences to take place. 		 85	 Figure 5.5.  The steps to enlightenment of higher language learning.    5.3.4  The relationship between Identity and Learning an Additional Language  Throughout this study it was put forward that EAP participants were experiencing multiple changes in life (including attending EAP courses), which fostered a change and growth in identity.  In turn this identity growth would cause moments of metanoia and more academic growth.    From the literature and research it appears that good language learners succeed via a growth in identity and a gain in second language acquisition.  A learner’s identity is an important aspect of how an additional language is acquired, and identity can be impacted by how others perceive the learner as well as the learner’s background and experiences (Norton & Toohey, 2001).  Therefore, again there is an interweaving of identity, metanoia (growth), and language acquisition; all three of these things tend to create a good language learner.  This is shown below Communication	or	Observation	Metanoia	 Higher	Level	of	Thinking,	Active	Language	Learner			 86	in Figure 5.6, in which all three factors intertwine. Figure 5.6.  Metanoia, language acquisition, and identity.  Although some participants’ overall experienced moments where metanoia occurred in only one area (either in a social setting or an academic setting), it was rare.  The majority of instances (and there were multiple from each participant) caused growth in both language acquisition and identity.  This caused the individual to gain awareness and confidence.  There were cases that occurred due to both positive and negative instances; however, they assisted in the growth of awareness for the specific individual.    One participant reported experiencing mental stress; however, as a result of this negative experience she redefined an aspect of her identity in a positive way.  She mentioned how she found herself through faith; she realized being more confident and willing to open herself up to others built stronger relationships; it taught her about her own strength and breaking points/triggers.  Thus this individual now knew the best way to improve and live her lifestyle both academically and socially.  Additionally, she (like many other participants who took part in experiencing metanoia) gained a stronger appreciation of Canadian culture.  This meant that she learned it is acceptable to open up about one’s specific needs and weaknesses.  As a result this participant felt a form of release and safety within Canadian culture.  This in turn motivated the Identity	Language	Acquisition	Metanoia			 87	said individual to continue learning English, to express herself more effectively and to enjoy the environment she was being exposed to.    Many of the participants in this study implied via their results that one of the most difficult forms of transition into university life was acclimating to a new culture.  Initially, some felt almost as if they were “lost in translation”; they were so overwhelmed culturally that working on language and communication felt almost unbearable.  Therefore, as educators, it is important to remember with participants in this study that although some may speak the same first language they may come from different societal and cultural contexts such as different financial backgrounds, family dynamics, differing educations, or from opposite sides of a country or continent.  This transition amidst communication difficulties caused moments of metanoia to become powerful, the participants relied on moments in which they felt achievement and growth both socially and with language acquisition.  It is imperative to constantly remind ourselves that every person has their own story, weaknesses, strengths, and backgrounds.  An individual defines their own identity, which can clearly grow and change due to moments of metanoia and development of additional language acquisition.   5.3.4.1  Automaticity  It was apparent throughout the study that the main goal of some participants was to gain proficiency to develop identity growth and learning goals; one common image of gaining proficiency was thinking with automaticity (thinking automatically).  When learners gain an increasing automatic ability to use language, this frees up cognitive space in order to learn faster (Gass, 2013).  This would be because a proficient speaker can automatically communicate, thus articulating their speech to a higher degree, use resources more effectively, and learn more effectively.  On the other hand additional language learners with developing levels of language proficiency have to give all of their resources and attention to gaining automaticity in order to speak and communicate in a fluent manner without hesitation (Lightbown & Spada, 2013).  Once language structures are automatized, specific rules and knowledge about the target language are no longer conscious, and the target language user is able to communicate with greater fluency (Dekeyser, 2007).    Many participants mentioned throughout their experiences as a language learner that their priorities changed.  Originally they thought the goal was to become fluent; however, now (mainly after taking part in EAP and delving into Canadian culture) they were realizing that 		 88	automaticity is not the epicenter of language learning.  Instead the data shows that many participants feel (after taking part in EAP) that learning takes place both inside and outside of the classroom, it is not always about academic growth; but a balance between academics and the social experience.  This creates an environment in which the participants felt less stressed, more motivated, and more interested in gaining an understanding of both their work practices and identity.  Therefore, it is the proverbial journey and not the destination that shapes who they are; automaticity comes in time as a result of identity and language acquisition growth.  Figure 5.7 (shown below) describes a formula for automaticity in which the aforementioned identity and language acquisition can be combined to produce automaticity.  Figure 5.7.  Formula for automaticity.   5.3.4.2  EAP Environment  The prevalent theme throughout the results indicated that EAP creates a strong sense of community that is almost a familial environment.  As such the participants feel safe to trust both the instructors and peers.  By allowing themselves to be vulnerable, participants allowed themselves to experience moments of growth bettering their language acquisition and identity.  When one participant who took part in the follow-up interview stated she had to quit EAP due to personal issues, she came back the following semester to complete and succeed in the program.  When participants failed assignments or tasks, they felt safe to communicate with their instructors and redo the assignment or improve for next time.  Thus, safety, consistency, and Identity	 Langauge	Acquisition	 Automaticity			 89	community support are important factors that should be taken into account when observing the success of individuals in EAP.  5.4  Summary Statement  The research results for this study seem to show that metanoia is important to the growth of the participants within the EAP classroom.  In general, this may imply that metanoia could be important for many learners as they attempt to reach higher and newfound levels of understanding in their language practice.  The participants not only became stronger learners, but they also built stronger communities and relationships as a result of experiencing moments of metanoia.  The participants also gained confidence and their identity changed and grew as they went through these moments of epiphany.  Figure 5.8 represents how identity is impacted by both metanoia and language acquisition.  The research results point to how an individual is shaped is by their learning processes; how they communicate (language acquisition) and “aha” moments (metanoia).   Figure 5.8.  Identity. 5.5  Applications of Research  This work could provide post-secondary institutions with information on how to provide sound learning contexts for EAP students.  By providing a community feel for EAP students, post-secondary institutions can create a safe and welcoming space for ideal learning that Identity	Metanoia	Language	Acquisition			 90	promotes metanoia.  In such an instance professors and instructors have the ability to be actively aware of their learners, reminding themselves to be cognizant that each individual comes from a different background and culture with a particularly unique story.    Post-secondary institutions such as universities are becoming global environments for learning, and this study pertains to international students and how they connect with the global and local environment surrounding them.  It provides information and insight into how EAP practices could be extended to further accommodate students such as the participants in the current study.  Although this study focused on EAP students at a research intensive university in Canada, it could be extended to other English Language Learning programs.  Additionally the approach in the current study could be applied and adapted to different age groups, attending to English Language Learners of all ages from kindergarten through to graduate school. 5.6  Implications for Practice and Recommendations  With the renewed understanding of the participants proposed in the current study, the results can support individuals throughout universities within Canada being able to communicate and understand international students more effectively.  In addition, possibly more funding could be given to resources and supports needed for these particular students such as counseling, the library, tutoring, or writing centers.  With these supports, students could possibly gain more insight to their language acquisition and identity, experiencing more moments of metanoia.   Possible professional development would allow instructors to work with professors, supervisors, and peers (possibly from other universities), and graduate students in social justice theories developed around English language learning and metanoia.  This information would assist in gaining stronger and more detailed insight into the thought process and patterns of EAP students for the future.  Finally, after students have completed an EAP program, they could take part in other services such as new student orientation week or the international student services centre on their campus to earn additional course credits and assist in the development of metanoia and language acquisition for other new students. 		 91	5.7  Limitations  This study essentially asked how and why individuals who take part in EAP programs experience metanoia.  There was little information available on English language learning being connected to metanoia and as such it is difficult to say whether this study is typical or atypical.  To gain specific data with a stronger understanding, the research was triangulated via an online questionnaire and a follow-up set of interviews that were voluntary.  This information cannot be generalized as research has only been conducted at one university and within one program with limited participants.  To generate generalizations one would need to conduct the survey with a much larger group of participants across a span of multiple institutions.  It is also recognized that having a sample of convenience made up of participants who choose to be in the study is a limitation (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012).  Furthermore, the number of participants was small, with only nine participants completing the online survey, and five participants taking part in the interviews.  As a result, the findings are not generalizable due to the small sample size.  The participants may not be representative of the general population of EAP students at the research site.  However, creating generalizations is not typically a goal of qualitative research, and for the findings to be meaningful, it is not necessary to generalize the results to a larger population.  Instead, the goal of research carried out in the qualitative tradition is to understand the matter being studied for the participants in the study (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012).    As an educator with a background in working with English language learners, and in particular international students, this study may be biased.  Although efforts were made to examine the data objectively, the researcher plays a central role in interpreting the data.  To counteract this, the researcher made every effort to understand how bias “may have influenced how an observation was made or reported” (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012, p. 477).  Future studies would be needed to further understand and examine this topic with other participants and within other locations.   For the purposes of this study, there was a broad enough range of participants who took part in both aspects of the study.  Therefore, the information provided in the study may offer insight to create a foundation for studies within this area and act as a resource for other instructors and researchers within the field. 		 92	5.8  Recommendations for Future Studies  In a future study, possibly more research could be completed on this topic surrounding good language learners, EAP, teaching, and strategies.  If there were more participants this could have been a stronger study.  Additionally, if there was a longer time period to gather participants, more information would have been compiled.  Possibly a longer interview time with more questions (or an interview split into two sessions) could have provided more feedback and more specific answers to the research questions.  To triangulate the data further, focus groups could have occurred.  Finally, it could benefit the understanding the relationship between metanoia and EAP, if this topic were explored in other research locations.   5.9  Conclusion  This research addressed an area of education that is commonly overlooked; second language acquisition in EAP contexts and the relationship of that process with metanoia.  Many times educators and investigators tend to either academic or social needs of these students, however, to achieve higher levels of thinking and thought processes such as metanoia an EAP student must be taught as a “whole learner” in which the instructor or institution pays attention to their cultural, social, emotional, and academic needs.    As English as an additional language teaching and learning continues to increase in Canadian post-secondary institutions, studies such as this one will become more important so as to gain insight into the minds of English language learners.  The results from this study may provide insight into how to improve or change the ever-growing EAP environment.  This information in the study is essential to the growth of such an important field of learning and education for students, instructors, and the general public.    		 93	References About Fluid Surveys. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fluidsurveys.com/about/ Academic English Development Programs. 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N. Cin, J. Istanto, M. Nagami, J. W. Sew, T. Suthiwan, & I. Walker, Proceedings of CLaSIC 2010, Singapore, December 2-4 (pp. 721-737). Singapore: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies.  Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158. Senge, P. (1990a). Give me a lever long enough…and single-handed I can move the world.  In Grogan, M. (Ed.), The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (3-16).  United States of America:  Jossey-Bass. Senge, P. (1990b). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. NY: Doubleday. Statistics Canada (2011). Location of study and the labour market success of immigrants to Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-595-m/81-595-m2011093-eng.htm Statistics Canada (2012a). The Canadian population in 2011: Population counts and growth. Retrieved from https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-310-x/98-310-x2011001-eng.cfm Statistics Canada (2012a).  Population growth in Canada: From 1851 to 2061. Retrieved from https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-310-x/98-310-x2011003_1-eng.cfm Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (eds.) Input in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 235-253. Thomas, W.P. and Collier, V. (1997) School effectiveness for language minority students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Ungerleider, C.S. (2009) Racism, Justice and Social Cohesion in Canada, in S. Hier, B.S. Bolaria & D. Lett (Eds) Racism and Justice: critical dialogue on the politics of identity, inequality 		 98	and change , 173-188. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing. University of British Columbia. (n.d.).  English for Academic Purposes.   Retrieved from http://eli.ubc.ca/eap/ University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus. (2014).  About the English Foundation Program.   Retrieved from http://students.ok.ubc.ca/efp/welcome.html Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wolcott, H.F. (1994). Transforming qualitative data: Description, analysis, and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.   		 99	Appendices  Appendix A: Information on Informed Consent for the Online Questionnaire  Information about Consent  What is the title of this study? Experiences of Metanoia: The Relationship Between Education, Language Acquisition, and Identity  Who is doing this study? Samantha Ranson, MA candidate, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia’s Okanagan campus.  As a graduate student, Samantha Ranson is the co-investigator of this study. samantha.k.ranson@gmail.com (250)826-2843  Who is Samantha Ranson’s graduate supervisor? Scott Roy Douglas, PhD, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia’s Okanagan campus.  As the graduate supervisor, Scott Roy Douglas is the principal investigator. Scott.douglas@ubc.ca (250)807-9277  Who is funding this study? Currently there is no funding for this study.  Why take part in this study? Your voice is very important to the study.  This investigation will be open to all current students of [EAP].  The objective of the study is to understand who EAP students are in more depth and what works/does not work for them when learning.  In turn, the students will gain a better understanding of themselves and the investigators will learn more about the EAP program.  This is an entirely voluntary opportunity.  Whether or not you agree to participate, it will have no effect on your standing in [EAP].  The instructors of [EAP] will not have access to the individual results of the study or to the personal information of the participants.   What happens if you say “yes”? When you participate in this study you will take part in a 20 minute questionnaire online about who you are and your experiences and opinions in [EAP].  Please complete all of the questions in the questionnaire.  If you consent to it, you may be contacted for a follow up interview about your experiences.  A follow up interview would take 		 100	approximately 30 minutes of your time.  If you are willing to participate in a further interview, please provide your e-mail address at the end of the questionnaire.  All names and email addresses will be kept confidential and will only be used for this study.  Before you participate in the interview you will sign an additional consent form and you may choose to withdraw at any time.  Participants who take part in the interview portion of this research project will be given a $15 gift card that can be used at a food outlet on the [PIU] campus at the interview site on the same day as they complete the interview.  Participants who choose to take part in the study may choose to pull out of the study at any time. They do not have to give a reason, and they will not be required to return the gift card.   This information will be used to develop the Co-Investigator’s Master’s thesis.  How will you know the results of the study? If you would like to know the results of the study please contact the researchers or leave your email address at the end of the questionnaire.  As a result we will contact you by email with the results.  The findings may be reported in presentations and journals developed around the Co-Investigator’s Master’s thesis; it will also be a public document available online through UBC’s Circle.  What are the risks of participating in the study? This is considered a “low risk” study meaning there are no risks greater than what you would experience in your daily life when participating in this study.  Nothing in this study will harm you or affect you negatively.  You can decline to participate by not completing the questionnaire.  Once you start you may quit by not submitting your responses in the questionnaire with no adverse effects.  What are the benefits of participating in the study? The information you provide may assist in understanding international students further and working closer with them during future EAP courses.  You will be able to reflect on your own transition and growth as an individual and EAP student.  How will your identity be protected? The researchers will not know who you are unless you provide your email and name to be contacted.  If you choose to do this, your confidentiality and personal information will be maintained.  Your information will be held anonymously through Fluid Surveys.  This online company is hosted by a websurvey company located in the USA and as such is subject to U.S. laws.  In particular, the US Patriot Act which allows authorities access to the records of internet service providers.  This survey or questionnaire does not ask for personal identifiers or any information that may be used to identify you.  The websurvey company servers record incoming IP addresses of the computer that you use to access the survey but no connection is made between your data and your computer’s IP address.  If you choose to participate in the survey, you understand that your responses to the survey questions will be stored and accessed in the USA.  The security and privacy policy for the websurvey company can be found at the following 		 101	link: https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/policy/ All of the collected data will be kept in a locked cabinet in the office of the Principal Investigator at UBC’s Okanagan campus for five years, after which it will be destroyed.  Only the Principal and Co-Investigator will have access to this data.  All original data and associated research material must be stored securely for at least five years following publication. Who can you contact if you have any questions about the study? Please contact one of the researchers if you have any questions.  Their names, phone numbers, and email addresses are provided.  Who can you contact if you have any complaints or concerns about the study? If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 1-877-822-8598 or the UBC Okanagan Research Services Office at 250-807-8832. It is also possible to contact the Research Participant Complaint Line by email (RSIL@ors.ubc.ca).  Participant Consent for the Questionnaire. Taking part in this study is up to you and you have the right to refuse to participate. If you decide to take part, you may choose to pull out of the study at any time by not completing the questionnaire, you do not have to give a reason for opting out. By reading this information and clicking the link to complete the questionnaire, you agree to participate in this study. Your signature is not required, and you will not be required to submit a copy of this by email. If the questionnaire is submitted, it will be assumed that consent has been given.  You may print out a copy of this message to keep for your records.  Survey: http://fluidsurveys.com/surveys/sranson/experiences-of-metanoia/   		 102	Appendix B:  Online Questionnaire  Experiences of Metanoia  Section 1: Demographic Questions Please answer these questions to the best of your knowledge.  1. How many years have you been studying English? 2. How old are you? 3. What is your gender? 4. What is your country of origin?  (For example, Switzerland) 5. What is your first language?  If it is a language with more than one dialect, please state your dialect.  (For example, Mandarin) 6. How long have you been living in Canada?  Section 2: Short answer questions **Minimum 25 word answers.  Please use complete sentences.  1. How has EAP helped you in improving your academic English skills? 2. How has EAP changed how you study English?  Please describe. 3. Describe a time that you felt you were really successful at using English on campus. 4. Since arriving in Canada, describe your most memorable moment, either positive or negative, when you were using English. 5. Do you feel like you have ever made any sudden progress learning English during your EAP courses?  Please explain. 6. Since arriving in Canada, has there ever been a time when English suddenly made sense to you.  If yes, please describe. 7. Since arriving in Canada, has there ever been a time when you surprised yourself with your English abilities.  If yes, please describe. 8. Do you have anything else you would like to share?  Please use the space below for any additional comments. 		 103	 Section 3:  Email Please provide your e-mail below if you would like to volunteer to participate further in the interview portion of the study.   E-mail address (optional):      		 104	Appendix C: Semi-Structured Interview Questions  Experiences of Metanoia: The Relationship Between Education, Language Acquisition, and Identity  Semi-Structured Interview Questions  1. How has EAP changed who you are as a person? 2. How has EAP helped you in improving your academic English skills? 3. How has EAP changed how you study English? 4. Describe a time that you felt you were really successful at using English on campus. 5. Since arriving in Canada, describe your most memorable moment, either positive or negative, when you were using English. 6. Do you feel like you have ever made any sudden progress learning English during your EAP courses?  Please explain.   7. Since arriving in Canada, describe a time when English suddenly made sense to you. 8. Since arriving in Canada, describe a time when you surprised yourself with your English abilities. 9. Is there anything else you would like to share? 	  		 105	Appendix D  

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