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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Indigenous architecture through indigenous knowledge : dim sagalts’apkw nisiḿ [together we will build… Stewart, Patrick Robert Reid 2015

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Indigenous Architecture through Indigenous Knowledge : Dim sagalts’apkw nisim̓ [Together we will build a village]  by  Patrick Robert Reid Stewart BA, Simon Fraser University, 1978 BEDS, Technical University of Nova Scotia, 1980 BArch, Technical University of Nova Scotia, 1983 MArch, McGill University, 1989  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Interdisciplinary Studies)  [Educational Studies, Curriculum Studies and Architecture]   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) April 2015                © Patrick Robert Reid Stewart, 2015 ii   abstract [magoondihl adawaak tgun]  The purpose of this research was to find out how the culture of an Indigenous architect informs their practice of architecture. The research for this dissertation was motivated by Indigenous Elders responses to my architectural design work as an Indigenous architect. This is the first known research in Canada that privileges the use of Indigenous Knowledge in the design process by Indigenous architects. The results of this research will inform the future education of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in architecture and their practice within the profession.   The research was based on an Indigenous methodology of respect, reciprocity, redistribution, relevance, reflection, relationship and responsibility. Conversations with nineteen Indigenous architects from Turtle Island, Australia, Cihuatan (El Salvador) and Aotearoa (New Zealand) were recorded, transcribed with content analyzed. They self-identified their culture and its influence on their design work. They assessed their time in architecture school and proposed changes that would assist schools of architecture attracting Indigenous students into the faculty.  The conversations were enlightening in what they did not reveal about the use of Indigenous knowledge in design. Though some of the architects employed Indigenous knowledge in their design process, surprisingly many were not so obvious. There may be many reasons for this, the impact of colonization perhaps the most significant. There was however a general attitude that schools of architecture could do more to attract and retain Indigenous students in their programs. This is significant if universities are truly to embrace cultural competency in an increasingly global economy.   iii   There could be more cultural support for Indigenous students in schools of architecture. The curricula in schools of architecture could demonstrate cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity and cultural competence of Indigenous Peoples. These findings could have an impact within schools of architecture and other professional schools across Turtle Island, Australia, Aotearoa (New Zealand) and Cihuatan (El Salvador). More research needs to be conducted focused specifically on the Indigenous identity with ancestors, places and designs; the significance of Indigenous Peoples knowledges; Indigenous place-based design; Indigenous protocols and Indigenous place-based architectural education.      iv   preface [wil ksiwatkhl bukw tguni yanhl wilaa japkwt]   Simgigat, Sigadum haanaḵ’, Luugigyoothl way̓, Gisk’ahaast  n̓iiy, Wilp Daaxan n̓iiy̓ Nisga’a n̓iiy̓, Git Gingolx,  luu-am’aamhl gagoodim wilgaa’sim. What I said above, is that my name is Luugigyoo [which means, Fish Already in the Creek] of the Killerwhale House of Daaxan of the Nisga’a Village of Gingolx [Kincolith     which means, Place of Skulls] and that I am glad to be here [literally, means my heart is glad to be here], meaning that I am glad to be present. My name, Luugigyoo, situates me close to the village; I have come in from the ocean and am in their waters.     I want to acknowledge the traditional, ancestral, unceded territory of the Musqueam First Nation on whose land the University of British Columbia sits. I have been honoured to attend classes on this land with the knowledge that the Musqueam People have granted permission for the university to use this site for educational purposes as they themselves used this land for their own teachings. The Elders of the Nisga’a Nation taught that introducing oneself is to start a relationship off in a good way and that is what I attempted to do above by introducing myself in the traditional Nisga’a way. This is the traditional formal oral introduction to an audience that I privilege as the readers of this dissertation. The way I introduce myself orally is inseparable from who I am. As Walter Ong (1982) says, “speech is inseparable from our consciousness and it has fascinated human beings, elicited serious reflection about itself, from the very early stages of consciousness, long before writing came into existence” (p. 9).  This dissertation, being a written document that privileges Indigenous Knowledge makes for a very interesting tension because there are not always direct English translations, though v   Ong believes, “...writing, from the beginning did not reduce orality but enhanced it” (p. 9). Hulan and Eigenbrod (2008) privilege the words of Kimberly Blaeser explaining that oral tradition informs literary works by Aboriginal people     as writers translate “not only oral language but form, culture and perspective.” Dei, Hall and Rosenberg (2000) conceptualize Indigenous knowledge “as a body of knowledge associated with long-term occupancy of a certain place (p. 5). This dissertation will use the global term Indigenous rather than Aboriginal, First Nations or Native to refer to those peoples with long-term occupancy of a certain place. They go on the explain that “Indigenous knowledges are unique to given cultures, localities and societies....They deal with the experiential reality of the world. They are forms of knowledge that reflect the capabilities, priorities and value systems of local peoples and communities” (p. 19). They further say that “an important dimension of indigenous knowledge relates to how traditional forms continue to emerge and coexist in diverse situations and settings as part of a local people’s response to colonial and imperial intrusions” (p. 19).  The United Nations (2007) defined Indigenous Knowledge in the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Article 31.1. This Declaration affirms that Indigenous Peoples have the right to develop literatures, designs, intellectual property, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions.  As a member of the Nisga’a Nation, I too have a right to cultural expression.  31.1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic vi   resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.  Beyond Rights, it is proper protocol and a good relationship that I am trying to create here in this dissertation. Archibald (2008) and Wilson (2008) have both written of the value of respect shown by the writer in establishing a good relationship between reader and writer. I have recently had the privilege to hear firsthand about needing to be sympathetic to the reader of my dissertation (L. Walker, personal communication, February 5, 2015). I will therefore gently ease the reader into my writing style. There will be challenges that most readers will face in reading this dissertation in terms of writing style, including format and punctuation, or lack thereof.  The use of the Nisga’a language may also be a challenge for most readers. There is a Glossary of Nisga’a words provided on pages xxx to xxxiii and I will be laax’algax [translating] every Nisga’a word and phrase used in this dissertation, in the spirit of reciprocity, into English.   I will make a comment about my use of Nisga’a in this dissertation. Though I cannot be considered in any way fluent in Nisga’a, I attempted to use the language in order to acknowledge my heritage and, more importantly, to strengthen the use of Nisga’a in the academy. As far as I am aware, this is only the second doctoral dissertation by a Nisga’a person. Amy Parent (2014) was the first Nisga’a to earn a doctorate and she completed her dissertation entitled Bending the Box: Learning from Indigenous Students: Transitioning from High School to University. However, Dr. Parent’s dissertation was written without the use of Nisga’a.  It was never my intention to write the dissertation in Nisga’a, though it may have been interesting to have done vii   so, not unlike Fred Metallic (2010) who wrote and defended his dissertation in his Mi'gmaw language.   In my initial submission to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, I privileged the Nisga’a language as related above, agreed to provide an english translation for each nisga’a word and phrase. This manner of writing is not without precedent. Marker (2009) writes, “The Coast Salish stories of Xa:ls, the creator-transformer...” and  not “The Coast Salish stories of the creator-transformer Xa:ls”  Nancy Mackin writes “I agree that English first changes the meaning: for example, using the word house for wilp deadens the meaning, and adaawak is a more complex idea than the English translation”. (N. Mackin,     personal communication, February 21 2015). Archibald (2011) related a story by Elder, Mary Uslick who spoke of Tamahi [mountain], not about a mountain [Tamahi].  Holmes (2000) writes of her work with Hawaiian Elders in a manner more like my use of indigenous language “Hawaiian kapuna (elders)....hula kahiko (ancient Hawaiian dance)...(p. 37-38).” In a recent meeting (February 20, 2015) with a group of knowledge holders from Kugluktuk and Inuvik, Nancy Mackin writes “the knowledge holders agree with what I have been instructed and with the protocols followed by the Society of Ethnobiology: namely, that out of respect to Indigenous ancestors, the Indigenous language should come first, followed by English”. In an attempt to be responsive to the request for consistency in the Preliminary page listings/headings, including the Table of Contents and the Appendices headings listings, I will follow the English [Nisga’a] format. In the main body of the dissertation however, I will use a Nisga’a [English translation] format.               The research program carried out for this dissertation is based upon indigenous methodologies as ways of privileging indigenous ways of being. It is also a way of creating discursive spaces where relationships, reciprocity, redistribution, relevance, reflection, respect viii   and responsibility can emerge and support knowing and doing within an ever changing and evolving architectural educational context. It is not about describing or comparing the knowledges of local communities. This is an acknowledgement that there is not one global indigenous way of life or set of knowledges that essentializes indigeneity in architecture.  There has been little research into the use of Indigenous knowledge in architectural design and that is okay (Cole, 2002). Though the dissertations of both Burton (2012) and Mackin (2004) focus on Nisga’a knowledge, they approach the knowledge from different perspectives. This is the first time the voices of these indigenous architects, of so many different nations, have been brought together in conversation about the use of indigenous knowledge in design. The results of this research will have an impact on the practice of the profession by indigenous peoples and the preparation of future generations of indigenous architects.             Denzin, Lincoln and Smith (2008) assert that by privileging indigenous knowledges and pedagogies, research is grounded in an oppositional consciousness that resists “neocolonizing post-modern global formations” (p 10). This dissertation combines the theory, epistemology, methodology and praxis as a strategy of resistance. This research will not privilege the concept of decolonization in architecture as it would require an analysis of architectural colonization which is significantly beyond the purpose of this research but may be something to pursue in the future. The concept of decolonization also has problems of inconsistencies, negativity and generalizability.  The perspective and thoughts I have about architecture, as an indigenous person, broadly applies to indigenous architectural practice, research, teaching, thinking and writing. It is the intent of this dissertation to privilege an indigenous methodology as the basis for the research.          Readers and writers from other cultures with other views of the world will undoubtedly need ix   some translation, connection, relationality to connect my words with their own viewoftheplanet (worldview) and experiences.           All research, writing and formatting was done by me as the author. All dissertation elements required by the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies at the University of British Columbia have been included in this dissertation.  The framework for the indigenous methodology of this dissertation was through the traditions and indigenous knowledge of the construction of a longhouse, hammer hammer. This    Preface is an orientation     and will be the entry point into the village /            dissertation and transition into another way of thinking.      This shaped text is analogous to the village dock as      the entry into the village.  It is a narrow entry.     The first adaawak [story / chapter] of this      dissertation is analogous to the architectural     considerations of site, site selection, clearing      clearing, site analysis (drainage; views; orientation;       sensory; human; cultural; services including  water     sewer, electrical, storm) which locates the      conversation and context for the research.           This dissertation is an original intellectual product of the author, Patrick Robert Reid Stewart. Before any jap [building] of the longhouse / dissertation began there was much discussion and planning.  The University of British Columbia, Behavioral Research Ethics Board (BREB), full Board Certificate of Approval number is H12-01189, dated November 2, 2012 covered the fieldwork reported in Chapters 3-4. The BREB approval I obtained required x   revisions, meetings and my acquiescence to write the full application in a standard or conventional academic English format as they did not accept my application written in the writing style that you will soon be reading. See Appendix k’il [1] for a copy of my response to their initial rejection of my application to BREB.  The BREB found the writing style of the original application to be deficient and questioned my writing ability and knowledge of English, suggesting that I hire an editor.  As mentioned above, I will take you on a journey that will make you question what you are reading and perhaps you will wonder why the writing is structured the way it is.  I will introduce you, perhaps for the first time and for others perhaps not, to a way of writing that reads as if speaking. One Indigenous reader said he could hear his grandfather speaking at feasts in my writing (C. Menzies personal communication April 23 2015). The formatting of this dissertation purposely provides an oral / aural / visually designed context and thereby underlines an indigenist research approach. This is the manner in which this dissertation will privilege indigenous knowledges. The style of writing presented here in this dissertation will not be standard or conventional academic English.   Perhaps there will be those who will not question what they are reading but there may be those who cannot “slog it out” (L. Walker, personal communication, February 5, 2015) alone and may need further translation of the dissertation. That is okay (Cole, 2002). This dissertation is innovative for this university and supports those indigenous students wanting to privilege their own languages, stories and culture (M. Marker, personal communication, February 5, 2015). Language of course being more than sets of grammatical rules or vocabulary, Wade Davis (2009) sees it as “...a flash of the human spirit, the vehicle by which the soul of each particular culture comes into the material world” (p. 3). xi   I made concessions during the writing of this dissertation, recognizing the concessions the university is making and the risk the university is taking in supporting this dissertation. As you will have noticed, or if you have not, please note that the Title Page, Abstract and References are all written in standard or conventional academic English. In order to address those persons without the time to invest in reading this dissertation, I have decided to insert a Précis [summary] in standard or conventional academic English at the beginning of each adawaak [story / chapter] that will outline/summarize the main points contained in the adawaak [story / chapter] (L.Walker, personal communication, February 5, 2015). This Preface also started out in standard and conventional academic English but it will soon begin to transform. For the writing style to not follow standard or conventional academic English, the formatting and punctuation or lack thereof, has grown out of my need to privilege Indigenous knowledge in resistance to the colonizing provincial education system that continue to traumatize indigenous peoples in this province. The following adaawak [story or teaching] about teaching adult indigenous learners contextualizes the need for a discursive space to privilege an indigenous methodology. You, the reader, will notice a change in writing style from standard or conventional academic English to one you may be quite unfamiliar with, but read it as if i am speaking directly to your heart.   ...teaching adult indigenous learners who had not been in a classroom since they left residential school as teenagers was a learning experience for me as the teacher         they          came into the classroom afraid of writing          this was a capital planning course in the school of community and regional planning at the university of british columbia which i taught between 1995 and 1997           xii              i had to reassure them that i was interested in their ideas and not their grammar        i told them that i would speak to them separately if i had any questions about their writing       i offered conversation in place of writing         a process that had strong resonance with them     and with me      as most of them came from traditionally oral nations     and given their traumatic experiences in residential school in british columbia...   writing this dissertation reinforced my thinking          it reinforced my confidence             it reinforced my culture by reinforcing my writing as spoken word       part of an oral tradition that has existed since time immemorial          this writing style requires particular deliberation        it is not random       it is democratic     it is not hierarchical  as you have no doubt noticed     there is little adherence to punctuation          as you read this dissertation     the symbols in table 1 will be used as a way to connect and emphasize thoughts and words   table k il  [1] navigation aids  Name symbol definition forward slash / connects words of similar meaning / emphasis backward slash \ considered grammatically wrong    it is used to emphasize incompatibility colon      :    emphasizes conceptual connection ellipse ... indicates a continuity of thought square bracket [ ] english translation  xiii   table k il  [1] navigation aids (continued) Name symbol definition curved bracket ( )  reference / explanation / emphasis question mark      ? indicates an interrogative thought double opening quote “ opens quotation double closing quote  ” closes quotation        i do not use the period     .     or the comma     ,     in the main body of the text unless it is originally used in a quote     but use space to differentiate pauses in thoughts pondering my motivations about writing and reflecting upon my struggle and the struggle of other writers     i came to ask          why do not more people question the rules of grammar and punctuation ? ? ?        i am definitely onside with the deconstructionists who approach language contextually (Hart 1990)           do people not question language because everyone is taught in school     this is the way it is and always has been?          is it that we just like to excel at following other peoples rules?      there is a whole reward system built around following rules     whether it is in school or at work     we like structure        i am not preaching anarchy or anything of the sort      just the freedom of expression                 public education had its start in nineteenth century germany that wanted to create more disciplined soldiers after their defeat in the napoleonic wars      the new teaching system was brought back to the united states (sherman 2012)     back to turtle island because they wanted a more controllable citizenry     and of course the residential school system in the usa was part of xiv   that control and assimilation into a european worldview     c\a\n\a\d\a1 also had a residential school system         the last federally funded and operated residential school closed at gordon saskatchewan in 1996           like germany     like the usa     c\a\n\a\d\a wanted to better control indigenous peoples         are the rules of grammar analogous to the rules of law ?     by creating a standard education system      are first nations peoples really more easily controlled by the state     are we to do as we are told and not question authority because of grammar ?  of course the results of public education on and off reserve for aboriginal people s in this province have been less than successful             heslop (2009) reported that completion rates for aboriginal students in this province are lower at 47% than for non aboriginal students at 79%  (p 2)        she further reported that only 8% of aboriginal students that did complete high school were deemed to be university eligible (p 2)        there appears to be a significant rupture between the aboriginal student and the school system               brayboy and maughan (2009) remind us that the his/her/tory of the schooling process discredits/ degrades/dishonours/disgraces/disparages indigenous knowledges     as deficient (p 3)                 western grammar and punctuation has evolved over the centuries and continues to do so (connor     2003b)          my style of writing is based on what i know as an indigenous person                                                           1 i refer to this country in which i live as      c\a\n\a\d\a     the backward slash     considered wrong (see table p 1) is analogous to the wrongness of this country in its treatment of the indigenous peoples     and is a daily reminder to me of the injustices in the country within which i live         reminding me i can never stop fighting / advocating / resisting / protesting xv   raised  under a system of communication colonization that continues to be largely formalistic2 and abstract       having said that     my experimental (deconstructionist and decolonizing)  style of writing is not without western historical precedent          there is a long list of other writers / artists / academics with definite punctuation principles     though they may be different from my own     push the boundaries of the formalistic and formulistic that which i have read and researched       the list is not exhaustive but shows the breadth of experimentation with language and standard or conventional written english formats      samuel beckett   bill bissett    sherilynn calliou  peter cole ee cummings  rishma dunlop   william faulkner james joyce       cormac mccarthy        bp nichol      marcel proust     roy miki   josé saramago gertrude stein lynne truss                                                           2 “ a reverence for traditional texts” (hart     1990     p 386) xvi   from the above author list     books that stick out in my mind include  coyote and raven go canoeing by peter cole (2006)     saving face by roy miki (1991)    thrones: cantos 96-109 by ezra pound (1960)          peters (2011) adds     charles olson’s the maximus poems     robin blaser’s the holy forest     bp nichol’s the martyrology and bill bissett’s what fukan theory: a study uv language    as worthy of inclusion as writers of experimentation   as an indigenous writer in english   peter cole/coyote (2006)  put it ever so eloquently     “the practice of academically certified punctuation distances me / the idea of  paragraph is meaningless / the idea of chapter is anathema to  who i am as an indigenous person” (p 21)      nothing experimental about his meaning but rather a deep felt spiritual / cultural wellspring of privileging his indigeneity           capital letters are not used in this dissertation except where the use of standard academic english has been agreed upon between myself as the student and the university       i recognize that the dissertation    as connors (2003a) defined it has an emphasis on “error free writing and the ability to follow directions” (p 4)              in my defense    my style of writing is not laziness or lack of knowledge of proper usage of the english language     it is a form of grammatical resistance as a deconstructionist      in the manner of many writers   especially american poet  e e  cummings     he graduated with a master degree in english from harvard university and they called him experimental and innovative          not words likely to be used to describe a indigenous writer who breaks all the rules of writing [the behavioral ethics board at the university of british columbia suggested that i hire an editor as it appeared that i did not know the english language] times though     they are changing coyote and raven go canoeing was written by peter cole (2006) as his dissertation at simon fraser university  besides     expressing oneself in an oral way does not require capital letters    commas or periods     and the writing in xvii   this dissertation is a narrative representative of an oral story    as a classmate said  when they heard me read a dissertation chapter aloud     it sounded like poetry          that single remark to me     meant success  in fact  manymanymany elders / writers / researchers / academics / teachers / thinkers / nations have helped in my personal introspection toward identifying the components of indigeneity / understanding the systemic oppression / racism / colonization inside and outside the education system in this province the list of influences tends to be long because i do not want to minimize the contributions of anyone  i know how that feels  so i tend to be inclusive rather than exclusive including people / nations / organizations such as the aboriginal healing foundation (2003, 2005) david robert adams (1995) taiaiake alfred (2005, 2009) jo-ann archibald (2008) jean barman (1986)  marie battiste (2009) marie battiste and james youngblood henderson (2000) greg cajete (2000)     douglas cardinal (1977)     douglas cardinal and jeanette armstrong (1991)  roland chrisjohn (2006/1997)      peter cole (2006)     vine deloria (1994, 1995, 2001, 2003, 2006)     franz fanon (2008/1952)     fyre jean graveline (1998)     oscar kawagley and ray barnhardt (1999)     margaret kovach (2009) emma larocque (2010)  michael marker (1992, 1998, 2011) nisga a tribal council  (1995)    patricia o’riley (2003)     linda tuhiwai smith (1999/2008)    stó:lō  nation (2001)     shawn wilson (2008)     waziyatawin angela wilson (2004)     waziyatawin angela wilson and michael yellow bird (2005)    as i think / read / write / think again  i am listening overandoverandover again to the music album  music for native americans  by robbie robertson (1994) the song ghost dance is playing...  crow has brought the message to the children of the sun for the return of the buffalo and for a better day to come you can kill my body you can damn my soul...you don’t xviii   stand a chance against my prayers you don’t stand a chance against my love they outlawed the ghost dance but we shall live again     we shall live again ghost dance robbie robertson (1994) the words of the song speak of a history of genocide against the indigenous peoples of turtle island but      we will not go away (alfred 2005)           adaawaḵ   k il [story/chapter one]     architecture as ceremony      has been accepted for publication in the following form: stewart, luugigyoo patrick reid (in press). architecture as ceremony. in,  theodore (ted) jojola, eleni bastea and lynne paxton (eds),  contemporary indigenous architecture: local traditions, global  winds (part 2, chapter 1). albuquerque: university of new mexico  press.              adaawaḵ   gilp il [story/chapter two]     an adaawak [story] of indigenous architecture   has been accepted for publication in the following form:  stewart, luugigyoo patrick reid (in press). an adaawak /story of  indigenous architecture. in, theodore (ted) jojola, eleni bastea and  lynne paxton (eds), contemporary indigenous architecture: local  traditions, global winds. albuquerque: university of new mexico  press. xix   table of contents [wil gigiltkwhl algax]  abstract [magoondihl adawaak tgun] .............................................................................................. ii preface [wil ksiwatkhl bukw tguni yanhl wilaa japkwt] ................................................................ iv table of contents [wil gigiltkwhl algax]  ...................................................................................... xix list of tables [wil huwilhl ansaguwa’ahl] ................................................................................... xxiii list of figures [wil gigil̓tkwhl gwilksḵ alt amtkw] ..................................................................... xxiv list of talking sticks [ganimsiwilyenskw] ................................................................................ xxviii list of abbreviations [wil huwilhl sidilp inhl algax] ................................................................... xxix glossary of nisga a words [algaxhl nisga a] ............................................................................... xxxi acknowledgements [anook askw] ..............................................................................................xxxv dedication [dim hlo odis dip gun] .......................................................................................... xxxviii introduction [hli magoodihl bukw tgun] ..........................................................................................1 précis  ...........................................................................................................................................1 together we will build a village [dim sagalts apkw nisim] .........................................................14 literature review as digging [hagilskw] ......................................................................................17 indigenous methodology protocols [ayuuk] ...............................................................................20 story / chapter one [adaawaḵ k il] architecture as ceremony .........................................................30 précis  .........................................................................................................................................30 space / place / context/ualizing ...................................................................................................31 indigenous place based knowledge ............................................................................................34 traditional form as place based knowledge ................................................................................38 design inquiry as resistance ........................................................................................................43 xx   story / chapter two [adaawaḵ gilp il ] story  on   indigenous  architecture ....................................52 précis  .........................................................................................................................................52 a song of remembrance [ilin] .....................................................................................................53 indigenous peoples knowledges .................................................................................................62 story / chapter three [adaawaḵ gwilal ] research as build(ing) a village [sagalts apkw] ...............76 précis  .........................................................................................................................................76 story / chapter four [adaawaḵ tx̱alpx̱] conversations unpacked .....................................................85 précis  .........................................................................................................................................85 1 [ k il] on being .........................................................................................................................90 2 [gilp il] on being an architect / designer ..................................................................................96 3 [gwilal] on architecture school ..............................................................................................103 4 [txalpx] on indigenous knowledge ........................................................................................106 5 [kwsdins] on indigenous knowledge in design .....................................................................109 6 [k oolt] on indigenous knowledge in design education .........................................................113 story / chapter five [adaawaḵ kwsdins] building community spirit [sijap] : indigenous  architecture and culture ................................................................................................................121 précis  .......................................................................................................................................121 philosophy / viewoftheplanet ...................................................................................................125 instructional methodologies .....................................................................................................125 learning outcomes / subjectives / balance ................................................................................126 teaching / instruction outcomes ................................................................................................126 protocols ...................................................................................................................................127 schedule / space / place / course content / course description / expression..............................128 xxi   code of conduct / plagiarism ....................................................................................................130 week 1 [g̱anuutkw k il]  introduction to indigenous architecture and indigenous  knowledges ...........................................................................................................................131 week 2 [g̱anuutkw gilp il]  indigenous viewoftheplanet : land / language / spirituality / culture  ..................................................................................................................................131 week 3 [g̱anuutkw gwilal]  indigenous protocols / governance / culture / language / peoples / place based architecture  .......................................................................................................132 week 4 [g̱anuutkw txalpx] the place / space of storytelling .................................................133 week 5 [g̱anuutkw  kwsdins]  indigenous architecture .........................................................133 week 6 [g̱anuutkw k oolt] body and memory of colonization ..............................................134  6 week 7 [g̱anuutkw t ipxoolt]  language and history / cultural / architecture / community / planning ................................................................................................................................134 week 8 [g̱anuutkw gandoolt] indigenous design process .....................................................134 week 9 [g̱anuutkw kwsdimoos] indigenous realism in architecture .....................................135 week 10 [g̱anuutkw xbil]  haptic perceptions and indigeneity .............................................136 week 11 [g̱anuutkw xbil di k il] indigenous architectural practices .....................................137 week 12 [g̱anuutkw xbil di gilp il] class presentations preparation .....................................137 week 13 [g̱anuutkw xbil di gwilal] final class presentation / critiques ................................137 evaluation of instruction .......................................................................................................138 evaluation of curriculum.......................................................................................................139 story / chapter six [adaawaḵ ḵ oolt ] saa bax [the end] / conclusions / recommendations ..........141 précis  .......................................................................................................................................141 references .....................................................................................................................................150 appendix one [huxw k ilhl agu]    letter response to the behavioral research ethics board (breb) provisos  ................................168 appendix two [huxw gilp ilhl agu]  original abstract ...................................................................174 appendix three [huxw gwilalhl agu]  conversations     dates and locations .................................176 appendix four [huxw tx̱alpx̱hl agu]  informed consent letter .......................................................177 xxii    appendix five [huxw kwsdinshl agu] conversation guide ............................................................180 appendix six [huxw ḵ oolthl agu] te pare : a cultural framework ................................................184 appendix seven [huxw t ipxoolthl agu] sep yama / finding country to burning city studio .........193 appendix eight [huxw gandoolthl agu] role model workshop     learn    design    create architecture ...................................................................................................................................204    xxiii   list of tables [wil huwilhl ansaguwa’ahl]  table 1 [k il] navigation aids.......................................................................................................... xii table 2 [gilp il] schematic plan for the dissertation ........................................................................28 table 3 [gwilal] six [ḵ'ooìt] themes for research gathering / questions ..........................................87 table 4 [tx̱alpx̱] on being ................................................................................................................90 table 5 [kwsdins] inspired early .....................................................................................................97 table 6 [ḵ oolt] design principles used by maori architect     rewi thompson ..............................112 table 7 [t ipxoolt] conversations    dates and locations ................................................................176  xxiv   list of figures [wil gigil̓tkwhl gwilksḵ’alt’amtkw] figure 1     dave thomas ....................................................................................................................9 figure 2     territorial acknowledgement ...........................................................................................9 figure 3     relationality of indigenous architecture to indigenous knowledges .............................16 figure 4     research wheel ..............................................................................................................19 figure 5     the iconic master builder ..............................................................................................22 figure 6     traditional forms privilege traditional knowledges ......................................................23 figure 7    acknowledgement of culture  ........................................................................................24 figure 8     kill the indian in the child .............................................................................................24 figure 9     haptic awareness ...........................................................................................................25 figure 10    age appropriateness  ....................................................................................................25 figure 11    genuine architectural encounter  ..................................................................................26 figure 12     indigenous homelessness ............................................................................................33 figure 13     design elements in support of  indigeneity .................................................................35 figure 14     a buried pithouse is no less material than a longhouse ...............................................36 figure 15     chief tetlenitsa theatre .................................................................................................36 figure 16     creative interpretation .................................................................................................36 figure 17     brian porter .................................................................................................................40 figure 18     traditional iroquoain form ..........................................................................................41 figure 19     modern interpretation of the traditional iroquoain form ............................................41 figure 20     iroquoain village and interpretive centre ....................................................................41 figure 21     aboriginal children s village fascia .............................................................................42 figure 22     xá:ytem longhouse ......................................................................................................45 xxv   figure 23     ceremony ....................................................................................................................45 figure 24     seabird island lobby ....................................................................................................46 figure 25     gingolx community center ..........................................................................................46 figure 26     xá:ytem pit house interior ...........................................................................................46 figure 27     community gathering ..................................................................................................49 figure 28     blessing ceremony ......................................................................................................51 figure 29     xá:ytem pit house........................................................................................................55 figure 30     stepped pyramid of zoser ............................................................................................56 figure 31     greek architectural elements in pakistan ....................................................................58 figure 32     nave of the sagrada familia .........................................................................................59 figure 33     naas valley ..................................................................................................................59 figure 34     living in care ...............................................................................................................60 figure 35     location of my undergraduate design thesis project ...................................................61 figure 36     urban native non profit housing..................................................................................61 figure 37     new york couture fashion week ..................................................................................63 figure 38     coqualeetza residential school 1893-1948 ..................................................................64 figure 39     xwemelch stn etsimxwawtxw [little ones school] ......................................................65 figure 40     design research ...........................................................................................................65 figure 41    interpretation of traditional form  ................................................................................66 figure 42     natural context ............................................................................................................66 figure 43     government planners kicked off reserve for clearcutting ...........................................66 figure 44     stó:lō  resource centre .................................................................................................68 figure 45     gingolx community hall..............................................................................................69 xxvi   figure 46     dave pranteau aboriginal patients lodge .....................................................................69 figure 47     stó:lō  elders lodge ......................................................................................................69 figure 48     stó:lō  elders lodge ......................................................................................................70 figure 49     stó:lō  elders lodge ......................................................................................................70 figure 50     seabird island administration and recreation building ................................................71 figure 51     seabird island administration and recreation building ................................................71 figure 52     xá:ytem pithouse interior ............................................................................................72 figure 53    dave pranteau aboriginal children s village  ................................................................72 figure 54     xá:ytem traditional form .............................................................................................73 figure 55     sacred transformer stone .............................................................................................73 figure 56     naas river [k alii aks lisims] ........................................................................................74 figure 57     patrick r stewart [luugigyoo] ......................................................................................78 figure 58     alfred waugh ...............................................................................................................81 figure 59     destiny seymour ..........................................................................................................89 figure 60     designing with indigenous viewoftheplanet in mind ..................................................89 figure 61     russell everett ..............................................................................................................94 figure 62     empress hotel ..............................................................................................................99 figure 63     craigdarroch castle ....................................................................................................100 figure 64     tamarah begay ...........................................................................................................101 figure 65     ryan gorrie ................................................................................................................104 figure 66     rewi thompson ..........................................................................................................105 figure 67     rau hoskins ................................................................................................................116 figure 68     st mary s catholic church ..........................................................................................118 xxvii   figure 69     daniel glenn ..............................................................................................................119 figure 70     wordcloud of research concepts ...............................................................................146         xxviii   list of talking sticks  [ganimsiwilyenskw] talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] dave thomas ...............................................................................9 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] douglas cardinal .......................................................................22 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] brian porter ..............................................................................40 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] patrick reid stewart [luugigyoo] ..............................................78 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] alfred waugh ............................................................................81 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] destiny seymour .......................................................................89 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] russell everett ...........................................................................94 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] tamarah begay ........................................................................101 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] ryan gorrie ..............................................................................104 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] rewi thompson .......................................................................105 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] rau hoskins .............................................................................116 talking stick [ganimsiwilyenskw] daniel glenn ............................................................................119    xxix   list of abbreviations [wil huwilhl sidilp inhl algax]  the abbreviations [sidilp in] listed here are either lower case letters or capital letters    depending where they occur in the dissertation as either standard / conventional academic writing or my own indigenizing / decolonizing / deconstructing writing style aaas american association for the advancement of science afta aotearoa film and television award aia american institute of architects aibc architectural institute of british columbia  acsa association of the collegiate schools of architecture APTN Aboriginal Peoples Television Network BA Bachelor of Arts BArch Bachelor of Architecture BEDS Bachelor of Environmental Design Studies breb behavioral research ethics board CCHA Canadian Catholic Historical Association maa manitoba association of architects MArch Master of Architecture m arch master of architecture nasa national association of students of architecture nz new zealand prsa patrick r stewart architect rcmp royal canadian mounted police xxx   scarp school of community and regional planning SRS Spaced Repetition System suny state university of new york  tx texas ubc university of british columbia usa united states of america wa washington xxxi   glossary of nisga a words [algaxhl nisga a]  this glossary of nisga a words and phrases [algaxhl nisga a] contain the words and phrases as used in this dissertation          my own knowledge of nisga a was so limited     for the most part the words and phrases were retrieved from the website       first voices: nisga’a3    and the haniimagoonisgum algaxhl nisga a (1986) [nisga a phrase dictionary]    with confirmation and additional translations by huupil hayatsgum hlboon [allison nyce] (a nyce      personal communication between      december 15      2014 and february 22      2015)  adawaak      [oral history / story / purpose] aks       [water]           algaxhl nisga a    [glossary of nisga a words] aluugigat      [indigenous people] ang̱o oskw      [family owned territory]  anook askw      [appreciation / acknowledgements] ayuukhl       [the law / protocols] daxaan      [killer whale hereditary chief] dim hlo odis dip gun    [dedication] dim huxw ga ay̓ n̓isim    [i will see you all again] dim sagalts apkw nisim̓    [together we will build a village] galxa guii biik sook     [hereditary name]                                                           3 first peoples' heritage  language & culture council (2000-2011)   first voices: nisga’a  retrieved from www.firstvoices.com  xxxii   gandoolt      [eight] ganimsiwilyenskw     [talking stick] gigeenix       [at a place upriver] gilp il       [two] gitlaxt aamiks     [people of the ponds] goypax      [light] gwilaÌ       [three] hagilskw     [digging] haniimagoonisgim algaxhl   [dictionary] han̓iijoḵ      [the earth]   hlaxw       [under something (the place)] huxwdaak  inimii uxwt     [grandsons]      huwilp      [houses] ilin      [a song of remembrance] jap       [building] ji gaanimḵ n̓iin     [speak nisga a] ḵ alii-aks      [river] k aliiyee     [ january] k amksiiwaa     [white people] k amligi hahlhaahl    [creator] k il      [one] ksi gingolx      [kincolith river] ksim ganada     [female frog] xxxiii   ksim gisk ahaast    [female killerwhale] ksim laxgibuu     [female wolf] ksim laxsgiik     [female eagle] ksim neekhl     [female killerwhale] kwsdins      [five] laax algax      [to interpret or translate]         (literal: words are going back and forth) lax gwinsk eexkw     [village of darkness] lisims       [naas river] luu am aamhl gagoodim wilgaa sim  [i am glad to be here]         (literal: my heart is glad to be here) luugigyoo      [killer whale hereditary name] magoon      [the beginning] magoondihl adawaak tgun   [abstract] maasa      [ bark] naas      [valley of eating] nii       [no] nit an sim algaxahl     [translate into nisga a] oo       [or] saa  bax      [the end / conclusion] sagalts apkw     [build a village] sidilp'in     [abbreviation / literal : to be shortened] sigits oon      [artist] xxxiv   sii       [new] sijap       [building of community spirit] simgan      [cedar] sim oogit      [chief] sit aatkws      [the starting of something] siwilpkws     [ build a house] t aahlakw       [tomorrow] t ooyaksiy niin     [thank you (singular)] t ooyaksiy nisim     [thank you (plural)] ts eets iks      [the ground / land] tx̱alpx̱       [four] wahlingigat      [ancient nisga a ancestors] wilp       [house / longhouse / tribal house / chieftan s house]  wil gigiltkwhl algax     [table of contents (to find what you are looking for)] wil gigil̓tkwhl gwilksḵ alt amtkw   [list of figures] wil huwilhl ansaguwa’ahl   [list of tables] wil huwilhl sidilp inhl algax   [list of abbreviations] wil ksiwatkhl bukw tguni yanhl wilaa japkwt [preface] wilpgalts ap      [community hall] wilp  wilxo oskwhl nisga a    [nisga a house of learning] woḵ eskw      [to dig] xxxv   acknowledgements [anook askw] with respect i thank and acknowledge the support of my wife     linda jean lavallee and the support of our children     paul emerson reid     christopher james reid (dad to clarence)     andrea jane reid      quinn reid stewart     preston sterling lavallee     cory ryan lavallee     and elysia jo lavallee (mom to leto)        it has been an intense four years     five months and twelve days since i first enrolled in classes in 2010  i thank my supervisor     michael marker     for his support and leadership       i thank my committee    nancy mackin     peter cole and pat o riley for their positive attitudes     motivation and problem solving skills     with special thanks to hillel goelman though not officially a committee member     he participated in the meetings     discussions     received all the emails      and was strategic support i thank all the indigenous architectural professionals who were so generous with their time and sitting down to have a conversation with me including        julio reyes aguilar                    tamarah begay    douglas cardinal     russell everett   daniel glenn     ryan gorrie   ray gosselin    rau hoskins   xxxvi   brian mccormack  joanne mcfadden     kevin o brien brian porter      mike robertson      destiny seymour      eladia smoke     cheyenne thomas      david thomas    rewi thompson      alfred waugh        my conversations were recorded as voice memos and emailed to my daughter     andrea jane reid     and nick scofield      for transcription        andrea managed to fit the transcription work in between all her various activities such her own doctoral applications for september 2015     starting her own educational radio-podcast called science faction which went live january 2015    “released online and on select community radio stations across the country, from prince george bc to sackville nb and lots of places in between” (a j reid     personal communication     december 4     2014) and her research trip to the solomon islands from january 2015 to april 2015          t ooyaksiy nisim [thank you both] andrea and nick xxxvii    as i began to write this dissertation in english and nisga a     it became very apparent that i needed help with translation         huupil hayatsgum hlboon [hereditary name] allison nyce was very gracious in providing translation services      nit an sim algaxahl [translated into nisga a]        t ooyaksiy niin [thank you] i want to also acknowledge the final touches on the graphic design of my concrete writing by clarissa poernomo      from her desk in yokohama     japan           to all those who gave me permission to quote their words or reprint their illustrations     which are acknowledged at the location of each quote and illustration throughout the dissertation t ooyaksiy nisim [thank you all]      xxxviii    dedication [dim hlo odis dip gun]         to my huxwdaak’ inimii uxkwt [grandsons]     leto cameron lavallee (b 2008) and clarence wolf hamer reid (b 20122) they are my  t'aahlakw [tomorrow / future] 1   hli magoodihl bukw tgun [introduction]    Précis     This introduction begins the dissertation with a prayer, contextualising its use to privilege an indigenous worldview. I introduce myself using Nisga’a oral tradition explaining the use of story and narrative as an indigenous methodology. I explain the nature of my experimental, decolonizing, deconstructive writing style, using shaped text for emphasis     as a tool of r e s i s t a n c e.   The impact of colonization is discussed, contextualizing the use of indigenous knowledge in design. I argue that identity and architecture impact each other influenced by their indigenous knowledges of relationality, respect, relationships, relevance, reflection, reciprocity, redistribution, and responsibility. The process of building a longhouse is introduced as an indigenous methodology for the framework of the dissertation within the context of orality, storywork, visual / built form and hapticity. This introduction includes a schematic plan for the dissertation that lays out each chapter and it components. This introduction concludes with an invitation to the reader to come along on the journey. 2     m y  o p e n i n g  p r a y e r  f o r  t h e  j o u r n e y  dim sagalts apkw nisim [together we will build a village] ...may our de/finition of an indigenous architecture be grounded in a w/holistic indigenous viewoftheplanet4 that includes all conversations  /  wisdom without separation of thinking  /  feeling /  spirituality5  ... new        under        ground              the first prayer that i read written by an indigenous person  that opened an academic paper was written by sharon mcleod (2006)          d christian (personal communication december 1 2010) explained to me that she “indigenized” her own master’s thesis defence by viewing her whole thesis as an act of resistance          for example     she started her thesis introduction with a dream     then a story          she wrote her thesis in four voices: the dream voice (spirit)      the storyteller/filmmaker voice (body)     the mind (the scholar)          the heart voice is silent because it is the synthesizer of all the other voices          she opened with a ceremony and a prayer                    in indigenizing my writing     my work     my thinking     the way i use “prayer”     is to link the subject matter of the paper     to frame it for you     the reader          to make you pause         brayboy and maughan (2009) point out this way of speaking / writing / communicating  is                                                           4 indigenous viewoftheplanet is an indigenized worldview  5 quotations are italicized to emphasize the strength of the words as spoken  3   indicative of a different “way of thought” as evidence of a different knowledge system at work (p.11)  luugigyoothl way̓ [my name is fish already in the creek]     wilp daxaan  [killerwhale house of hereditary chief perry azak]     git gingolx [village of place of skulls]          in order to build a wilp/longhouse within the      ang̱o oskw of wilp daxaan     there is a protocol that must be followed          as a member of the wilp            protocol will involve gifting     feasting and lots of speaking          all during the feast we are told     ji gaanimḵ n̓iin [speak nisga’a]               the site that impacted me most was gigeenix [at a place upriver] on the east side of the ksi gingolx [kincolith river]     north of the fish hatchery     near the bend in the river          though not a place that would have been traditionally selected as a site for a wilp [house]     it was the place i connected with my grandfather upon my first trip to gingolx twenty six years ago         it was there that i felt at home           it was home  the above narrative sets the location for the construction of this wilp           the courage to follow this narrative journey has been supported by the writing of umberto eco (2011) in his book     confessions of a young novelist      in which he summarized  his dissertation process  When I presented my doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of Thomas Aquinas – a very controversial subject, since at that time scholars believed there was no aesthetic reflections in his immense body of work - one of my examiners charged me with a sort of “narrative fallacy.” He said that a mature scholar, when setting out to do research, 4   inevitably proceeds by trial and error, making and rejecting hypotheses; but at the end  of the inquiry, all those attempts should have been digested and the scholar should present only the conclusions. In contrast, he said, I told the story of my research as if it were a detective novel. The objection was made in a friendly manner, and suggested to me the fundamental idea that all research findings must be “narrated” this way.6 Every scientific book must be a sort of whodunit - the report of a quest for some Holy Grail. And I think I have done this in all my subsequent academic works.7   when i read the above passage  i had an  aha!  moment  writing in a   n a r r a t i v e format made sense  though the above quote was not written by an indigenous person  it was further evidence that narration/ storytelling/ storywork (archibald, 2008) was being accepted/used as a research method  in concert with the oral tradition of indigenous nations  here was an italian man   linguist by training a novelist by dare8    pursuing his academic writing through narration    bell hooks (1994, 1999, 2009) is another academic / poet / writer who pursues her truths through narration ridiculed and told that narration was not academic enough         it is                                                           6 italics as published. 7reprinted by permission of the publisher from     confessions of a young novelist     by umberto eco     pp 6-7     cambridge     mass : harvard university press     copyright © 2011 by the president and fellows of harvard college 8 eco (2011) began writing novels because a friend of his said he would not be able to because of his academic training 5   her context     principles and values that inform her writing          think about her message as you read the following words  from bell hooks (1999)     from her book     remembered rapture: the writer at work9    There are writers who write for fame. And there are writers who write because we need to make sense of the world we live in; writing is a way to clarify, to interpret, to reinvent. We may want our work to be recognized, but that is not the reason we write. We do not write because we must; we always have a choice. We write because language is the way we keep hold on life. With words we experience our deepest understandings of what it means to be intimate. We communicate to connect, to know community.10   building on narration     another technique that allows me to question writing conventions is the use of shaped text     a technique used by concrete poets          i use shape to underline the emotion in my writing                                                                      9 reverse italicization in book title as published (1999)          10 excerpt from “women who write too much” from the book remembered rapture: the writer at work     by bell hooks         copyright 1999 by gloria watkins          used by arrangement with the publisher henry holt and company     new york         all rights reserved.  6                       this research privileges indigenous architecture as indigenous peoples knowledges with a goal of creating a discursive space in which to discuss cultural / academic / professional / knowledge  to do this requires finding out about the many voices and experiences of  indigenous architects and indigenous peoples knowledges     enabling differences as well as similarities to be heard   and not to define ‘design solutions’ for indigenous peoples  listening to voices means accepting difference and complexity   it means telling many potentially conflicting stories and it means admitting to what is not working well as well as what is11                lesley lokko (nd) situated the conversation of culture on a most intimate level     that of the body   In many [Indigenous ] cultures, there is one site into which many ... issues-memory, history, language, home, self and place collapse: the body. Oral history, bodily art practices, tribal affiliations, architectures based on social-opposed to formal-relations are                                                           11 discussion adapted january 17 2015 from http://www.discursivespaces.co.uk/?location_id=47  7   all manifestations of a deep, spiritual and aesthetic covenant with the body as the primary site of memory and expression.12 (lokko: nd)  lokko’s writing reflects the personal history of indigenous peoples here in this country   there is nothing more profound or personal than one’s body  it holds the memory of colonization  colonization has sought to destroy the indigenous body and replace it with one of its own making          alfred (2005) is empathic about saying “outright assaults and insidious undermining have brought us to the situation we face today  when the destruction of our peoples is nearly complete    yet resurgence and regeneration constitute a way to power-surge against the empire with integrity” (p. 24)          alfred and corntassel (2005) place contemporary indigenousness as an identity constructed     shaped and lived in the politicized context of contemporary colonization (p 597)     colonization is our daily reality as indigenous persons in this country             the impact of colonization was expressed during the conversations with dave thomas     an indigenous architect and participant of this research ...it is common for a first nations person to deal with a lot of personal challenges               they come in different ways          a lot of what i went through     i attributed what i went through to residential school     as i grew older i understood how those things happened through my life and through my family     it did come down to residential school experiences that were passed down through a couple generations                                               (d thomas     personal communication     march 30     2013)                                                            12 reprinted by permission of the author       lesley lokko was trained as an architect and practiced and taught for years and has now transformed into a full time successful novelist 8     13  now that a site for the longhouse has been identified by myself as important      i need to take it to my sim oogit [chief]        it is his responsibility to decide the protocol that needs to be followed for approval of a site of the new longhouse          as part of the protocol i will need to present / gift to     members of my wilp [house]     the rationale for the design        the design is my tribute to the wilp [house]    and my t ooyaksiy nisim [thank you to them] for taking me in upon my return to the nation  i am still uncertain of who i am     uncertain of my position in the wilp       i am looking to  situate myself          i am a name holder [luugigyoo] in the house of my mother [wilp daxaan] and her mother before her [wilp daxaan] and  her mother before her [wilp daxaan] since time immemorial or     as an anthropologist might say    a matrilineal society  i am as knowledgeable about nisga a protocols and practices as i can be living away from the villages                                                                     13 as a child at school i was given the surname of my foster family to use     i changed it back to my birth name once i knew i had a biological family      with it     i changed   it is a daily reminder of who i am   9   within the nisga a nation cultural learning is a lifelong pursuit       but i am also    doing      i am planning to host the headstone moving feast for my mother and my older brother on august 1 2015      there we will say our final goodbyes    and hand down the name of my brother to our nephew    kodiak daniels     as the eldest son of the eldest sister         names will also be given to two of my younger sisters          my younger brother and younger nieces (sim oogit daaxan [perry azak]      personal communication     february 22 2015) i am also learning cree protocols / ceremony through my wife who is a cree woman from northern saskatchewan who herself has had to live through the abuse of colonization  as a six year old girl starting kindergarten in a mission day school in 1970  she spoke only cree   she  received abusive punishment for speaking cree    for example  she was not allowed to use the washroom until she could say it in english and so you can imagine the outcome on that first day when she could not make herself understood and she was further punished when could no longer hold her bladder    yet at that same time  2500 kilometres away in ottawa  a report was released at the national indian cultural conference 14     launching a pilot project in cree language immersion in a number of schools because the academics feared a loss of language         when i read of the disconnect between the academy and the community     it made me shake my head in disbelief                                                            14 that was the name used in 1970 (see kirkness, 1994, p. xii) 10   ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick] 15 figure 1     david thomas (© 2015 dave thomas)    reprinted with permission david thomas is a member of peguis first nation (cree)     he has many years of experience as an artist     designer      technician and project administrator      his design  focus has been primarily on his culture david s graduate thesis work explored the history and culture of peguis first nation and the establishment of community connections broken as a result of its relocation in 1907        this work explored an interpretative framework for indigenous identity                david recognizes that architecture is not only built form     but relationships  when expressed with an indigenous sensibility creates a sense of purpose and empowerment (d thomas      personal resume      2011)  figure 2     territorial acknowledgement      a wall sculpture created by david thomas     for the september 2014 opening of the canadian museum for human rights in winnipeg     (© 2014 patrick reid stewart)     reprinted with permission                                                            15 within the nisga a nation     the ganimsiwilyenskw  [talking stick]     is a revered symbol of respect     order and authority       whoever holds the talking stick has the floor to speak     and the protocol     is that everyone listens 11     imagine the grief my wife felt as she told me her story     with the tears streaming down her face                         as indigenous peoples we carry the grief of colonization of many family and friends  within our hearts        as i carry on i am committed to maintaining my cultural / spiritual connection to my culture and its knowledge             i am also an academic working on my fifth university degree      which is amazing to me  given that one generation ago the federal government only provided my mother with a grade five residential school education16           in grade eight i was told that i could not be an architect           did i not know “that it took eight years of university to become an architect?”17 those words seared into my brain    at a time when i was coming of age and becoming aware of the discrimination i faced at school and in the community     i never felt so small     so insignificant                                                               16 my mother     phyllis stewart merkley (1925-2002) said to me in 1992 (the year i received my nisga a name) that she was sent home from residential school (1931-1938) because the teacher told her she “could read      write her name and do arithmetic”  17 mrs white (english teacher      w l seaton junior high school     vernon     b c ) personal communication     september 1967 12   so discriminated against by someone i was supposed to trust as my teacher       i will never forget the words    ever            since that time those same words have become a powerful motivation in my life      but the feelings have never left     they still surface in my life  the words from a song     is sorry enough?  by mohawk musician murray porter (2011) and his partner      mohawk songwriter          elaine bomberry     poignantly remind us how much we have lost at the hands of those who want/ed/ing to kill the indian     save the child  CHORUS:     you took away our children        stole our mothers love laid waste to our traditions wasn’t that enough?  separated from our culture so many years, so alone with no mothers and no fathers in a world so far from home  forced to use another language punished when, you spoke your native tongue you tried to kill our spirit but our hearts still beat as one 13   dedicated to the survivors and their families of the canadian indian residential school & american indian boarding school system18   i am a licensed architect with thirty years of experience and one of but a few licensed indigenous architects in this country   i am a husband   father  brother   uncle   nephew  cousin and  grandfather    in my life i have known what it is to be a son and grandson   i am a writer of poetry and non-fiction literature   i am an artist who draws and paints   all these external relations make up my context        i often express my context through poetry as in the poem      i n t e r n a l l y which i wrote in 2013     i   n  t  e  r  n  a  l  l  y    i have known what it is to be born homeless /  live as a foster child /  experience loss /  know abandonment /  know / feel discrimination /  be bullied / abused /  live on the edge of life looking at nothing but blackness                                                             18 italics and text by the song writers     porter and bomberry (2011)           reprinted with permission 14    all of these various experiences in my life influence how i see things  the way i interpret things   the conclusions i make  who i am places me at a crossroads in indigenous architecture and well positioned to have the conversations seeking the counsel of other indigenous architects in pursuit of creating community   by enabling a collaborative process of conversation / action to assist / facilitate a better future for our indigenous communities / peoples           it is also my personal context that makes the construction of a longhouse so vitally important        this is what i express to my wilp [house]     to my family      reminding myself   dim sagalts apkw nisim [together we will build a village]    i am an indigenous man working as an architect / researcher / facilitator / writer / sigits’oon [artist] within indigenous communities and organizations  i work on-reserve   i work with residential school survivors  who influence the planning/design process of structures within communities and organizations and whose reactions are a direct result of having attended government residential schools  my clients are among the most severe critics of architecture  every indigenous culture around the globe has a tradition of design that  was expressed in their architecture  and the knowledge is still felt and sensed  architecture was/is a response to climate changes  geography geology   natural resources and food systems   it expressed culture spirituality  governance / political systems  social systems  sustainability  and it is this relationality / relevance / respect / responsibility that defines my area of research interest  15      in this country there is a need for indigenous approaches to design to be addressed          to date there are is only the published writings of cardinal 1977 and 1991     della costa 2011     gorrie 2014     gorrie and lemieux 2008 and stewart 1991 and 2007       there is a need to address     indigenous identity with places and designs     the significance of indigenous peoples knowledges      indigenous place-based design     indigenous protocols     indigenous place-based architectural education         16    in an effort to contribute to the needed scholarly discourse  the research question for this dissertation is  what do conversations with architects who are indigenous tell us about the impact of indigenous knowledges on present-day architectural design processes?  figure 3 graphically shows the relationality of the above research question          it shows that given any location / land / territory / culture and language      identity and architecture impact each other     influenced by indigenous knowledges of community / cultural protocols         it is the relationality of all these elements that coming together will assist in us together in building a longhouse           as my cousin galxa’guii biik sook said “as we reclaim and make voice we must remember we live many worlds and occupy different identities we are constantly negotiating worlds adjusting to the different worlds in which we participate” (stewart  bc   2005)    figure 3          relationality of indigenous architecture to indigenous knowledges  17   conversations  are appropriate indigenous methodology to witness the use of  an indigenous theoretical and applied approach to architecture one that has long been on the margins  if under the radar  of mainstream  euro-inspired modernist architectural movements          the significance of this research  is its privileging  of indigenous peoples knowledges  and its contribution to the future of sustaining an indigenous architecture based upon the indigenous development of a much-needed indigenous curriculum for indigenous architecture  if the current prime minister of this country now known as c\a\n\a\d\a had the audacity to stand up in his place of governance and apologize for the treatment of indigenous peoples in this country19 then the time has come in this country to implement indigenous control of indigenous architectural education20    literature review as hagilskw [digging]   following wilp [house] protocol     we arrive at the point we begin excavation     for the foundation         for existing knowledge of the ts'eets'iks [ground/land] and aks [water]           this literature review privileged indigenous knowledges but did not ignore the knowledges of other peoples and their contributions                                                           19 prime minister stephen harper apologized to the nation on june 18     2008          my wife and i were seated on a westjet flight to ottawa when we listened intently to the broadcast        we could not believe our ears        what insincerity      what dishonesty       what a slap once again to indigenous peoples of this country     we were sick 20 after      the 1972 paper     indian control of indian education (national indian brotherhood / assembly of first nations)  18               reviewing the literature for my dissertation     i often sat at my desk looking at the more than 300 books on my bookshelves     sitting p        r          e              c                 a r i o u s                                    l                                       y  on the edge        of my desk     on the floor    under the desk     whosahoarder ?  who was i reading then?           at the time i was reading   seeking spatial justice by edward soja (2010) and his compelling chapters  on the production of unjust geographies building a spatial theory of justice translating theory into practice and his concept of spatial trialectics which includes thirdspace, or spaces that are both real and imagined   dreams / visions? recently i was once again reading through     indigenous storywork  by jo-ann archibald (2008)        this book became  an invaluable study on  indigenous methodology which complemented the more complex  presentation on indigenous research methods shown in figure 4      by shawn wilson (2008) and the critical indigenous research methodology of margaret kovach (2009)  the indigenous context for proposing architectural dialogue / conversation has primarily been from the work of cardinal (1977, 1991) deloria (2001) harris and wasilewski (2004)  acknowledging the seminal work on the 4 r s by barnhardt and kirkness (1991)    19    figure 4  research wheel  (© 2008 shawn wilson      reprinted with permission of the author)                                      i reviewed the literature by pallasmaa (2005, 2005b) and tzonis (2005) that explored the character     meaningfulness     reality and significance of haptic perceptions of space [spatial cognition: know it / understand it / feel it]  i attempted to push the boundaries of these ideas toward a new design methodology for  indigenous architecture  which i privileged  as an indigenous architecture of reality   tzonis (2005) argues that haptic perceptions of space are at the heart of an [indigenous] architecture as an  architecture of human emancipation21          hagilskw [digging] for information laid the groundwork for the wilp [longhouse] / dissertation        it is around this ground that the wilp [longhouse] / dissertation can be built                                                                       21 the idea that architecture and human emancipation is a combined ideal is from the work of spanish architect and politician       francisco azorin izquierdo (1885-1975) as cited in tzonis (2005). 20    indigenous methodology as ayuuk [protocols]   it is the ayuuk [protocols] that guides all work on the wilp       orality is paramount and is treated with respect         the conversations with indigenous architects became the structure of the  dissertation          the narrative / story contained within the conversations expressed the speaker s  culture / spirituality / language / place     strengthened by visual / built form          hapticity was in the reality of the wilp / dissertation     it was the self-awareness of the foundation / structure      to be touched     sensed     acknowledged     understood      integrated     made whole                     orality:   the primacy of orality within indigenous communities existed since time immemorial and is still important within my nation         although with the incursion of  colonization    came writing “...to put nisga’a wisdom to paper is to irreversibly enter the white man’s world...” ni’ysgankw’ajikskw (nisga’a, 1995, p. xxiii)  and yet here i am and as i said earlier writing as i speak coming as i am three generations after permanent contact  with the intruders          i am a witness to changes in indigenous peoples knowledges  “...we know this will have profound changes on our people and our customs  these changes are something that we will have to accommodate and adapt to....”     ni’ysgankw’ajikskw  (nisga’a, 1995, p. xxiii)  walter ong (1982) gave primacy to orality over writing when he wrote     “...oral expression can exist and mostly have existed without any writing at all, writing never without orality” (p. 8)      kovach (2009) writes that conversations are a non structured way of gathering knowledge (p.51) which i  privilege as a research methodology     through a combination of reflection story and dialogue   participating in the conversations with architects who are 21   indigenous finding out about their experiences with culture  architecture education and design processes  storywork:   story / narrative     opens culture / spirituality / language / place  to our lives today     making them more accessible           in the spirit of using narrative creatively / story as life / words as art angela sidney told julie cruikshank (1998)      it was with the help of the ancient narratives that allowed her to live life like a story (p.44)  i am grateful / learning to be more alive     to be more receptive to the power of others in my life      because of the stories     underlining what tsaqwuasupp told taiaiake alfred (2005) about his grandmother’s words    that as long as we are alive and doing our arts  people will know that we as indigenous peoples are not going away (p.170)  which i interpret that as long as i am practicing architecture  as indigenous evidence / as roots / as legacy   people will know that we as indigenous peoples are not going away during our conversation     douglas cardinal spoke about the power of community ...each family is responsible for a certain territory and in that territory they know everything that is going on in their territory    every herb    every plant     every tree     every animal every bird [as the birds chirp/sing in the trees surrounding his yard where we sat in the sun]     every fish         they know intimately and they also with their language and what’s passed down to them and their history    they have an entire inventory of every living being on that particular area...           (d cardinal     personal communication     may 4     2013) 22   ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 5 the iconic master builder (© 2015 d j cardinal architects      reprinted with permission)      born in 1934 in calgary, alberta, douglas cardinal s mother knew early in his childhood that he would become an architect        he was brought up to be architect        his architectural studies at the university of british columbia took him to austin     texas where he graduated in 1963            ...she [his mother] determined at six years old that i would be an architect     and she just trained me in that     gave me everything    and    at seven she wanted me     she convinced my father to send me to a convent     to isolate me from racism         my father was first nation and my mother was german     she wanted to isolate me from racism          she did not realize that it was from the frying pan into the fire          but so    the nuns taught me all about all the arts and everything else           it was brutal in the beginning     but     my modus operandi     everybody has a way they survived            my survival mechanism was to excel     if i excelled then i could go through the system     so that was my way of surviving      trying to excel at whatever i did          and so that was the foundation         it was different from most prairie boys      i had more of the arts and culture than most european kids     because of my mother...   (d cardinal     personal communication     may 4      2013)  23   the conversations in this dissertation     like the transcription above     will provide the stories            transcription will change the orality but not the intent of the messages  graphic material will add richness to the stories  remember the saying a picture is worth a thousand words   perhaps experiencing a building will be worth many tens of thousands of words    visual/built form:   ideologically  throughout history      indigenous peoples have been rooted in and continue to be more concerned with space versus the fundamentally opposed concept of the western philosophical issue of time (deloria, 2003)  as deloria says  not much makes sense when moving between these opposing views of the world   western european peoples have privileged the concept of time over the nature of the world from a spatial point of view (deloria, 2003     by the very inclusion of indigenous cultural elements and forms in my own designs      i am     as an indigenous architect     resisting western architectural design archetypes    by making it culturally relevant to my clients as indigenous peoples     as shown in figure 6  figure 6 traditional forms privilege traditional knowledges         (© 2000 patrick reid stewart)    reprinted with permission                  24   it will be through built form that indigenous architects acknowledge their existence and show their cultural resilience   this will add to the      work of other indigenous peoples     such as artists / musicians / film makers / writers / academics / elders      who have used their own visual / textual / oral  mediums  in resistance     hapticity:  ...the very essence of the lived experience is moulded by hapticity... (pallasmaa    2005a     p  10)  i look at my body and i see / remember / feel the acts of colonization   colonization has sought to destroy the indigenous body and replace it with one of its own making    and yet    figure 7 acknowledgement of culture meno ya win health centre     douglas cardinal architect  (© 2010 douglas j cardinal)      reprinted with  permission figure 8  kill the indian in the child thomas moore     before and after 1874      library and archives canada / nl022474 25   yet when i read alfred (2005) i have hope for the future of our bodies     “outright assaults and insidious undermining have brought us to the situation we face today      when the destruction of our peoples is nearly complete  yet resurgence and regeneration constitute a way to power-surge against the empire with integrity” (p 24)            haptic perceptions are about being self-aware within our bodies     for instance             figure 9 haptic awareness      stó:lō  elders lodge     patrick r stewart architect  (© 2008 patrick r stewart) reprinted with permission  or through an entrance way or            looking through a window into a garden                                                                    figure 10 age appropriateness      (© 1998 patrick r stewart architect)      reprinted with permission 26   the haptic elements       a recessed  of the hallway            door or window     lighting     colour being elements in the architecture                               the act of walking down the hallway  through the door or looking through the window  are what pallasmaa (2005b) calls   “genuine architectural encounters” (p  5)  in this instance it is the architectural elements that  “directs our awareness to our own sense of self and being” (pallasmaa     2005b     p  5) this is the integration of the haptic experience within  this integration  “make us experience ourselves as complete embodied and spiritual beings integrated with the flesh of the world (pallasmaa      2005b     p  5)               when i submitted my research proposal to my committee in 2012 it was my intention to have conversations  with six indigenous architects in c\a\n\a\d\a and six in the usa to reflect / listen / see their architectural expression of their cultures/knowledges         having now completed the conversations     i found myself overwhelmed with the support and interest shown by indigenous peoples involved in design and architecture        originally i was privileging my conversations within turtle island but events have occurred which lead me to include indigenous peoples from australia    aotearoa (new zealand) and cihuatan (el salvador)         i have had conversations with nineteen indigenous people       i express it thus… figure 11 genuine architectural encounter sto:lo elders lodge patrick r stewart architect (© 2008 patrick r stewart)  27   i want to...  i want to know why they became architects who were their motivators supports  i want to hear of their life / educational journey their parents their grandparents i want to hear of their visions/dreams for their nations /  themselves i want to know their vision / recommendations for indigenous architecture i want to understand their design process / design theories /  i want to record / remember/ing  the conversations  i will ask permission  the process of building a longhouse as an indigenous methodology will be the framework for the dissertation      table 2 shows the schematic plan for the dissertation 28   table 2 [gilp il] schematic plan for the dissertation site / selection / clearing / analysis (drainage, views, orientation, services [water, sewer, electrical, storm]) [locating the conversation] [abstract, dedication, acknowledgements, preface, table of contents, list of figures] foundation (soils, drainage) [the context] [introduction/sit aatkws: the beginning...new/  underground] floor (structure, materials) [supporting the argument] [chapter 1 : architecture as ceremony & chapter 2 : an adaawak / story on indigenous architecture] walls ( structure, materials, finishes) [form giving]  [chapter 3 : research as sagalts apkw : indigenous methodology/indigenous place-based knowledge in architectural design] roof (structure, materials, finishes) [protecting the words/conversations] [chapter 4 : conversations unpacked]  doors (entry, accessibility, lockable) [access to the profession] [chapter 5 : indigenous architecture and culture] windows (clerestory, skylights, views)  [view to the future] [ chapter 6 : saa bax / conclusions / recommendations]  29   as if from a dream during the process of researching / writing this dissertation     i often went to bed late when the house was quiet and my family was asleep and i would dream of writing     and then           as i awoke from my sleep i realized that i had been dreaming         my visions were yet to come                      h i woke ... i  s     o     k  my head                              o  yet it seemed so real i quickly transcribed my dream it started  sit aatkws [at the beginning]   all that is written here was but a vision of things yet to come so i remained seated and wrote of the future  stay with me as i travel han̓iijoḵ [the earth]   to uncover the future truths  long held here like an indigenous  back to the future we are not just going back to the 1950`s we going back to time immemorial ...have a look ..... 30    adawaak  k il [story / chapter   one] a r c h i t e c t u r e  a s  c e r e m o n y     Précis    Architecture exists as ceremony primarily because I see Indigenous design methodology based in protocol. This chapter, Architecture as Ceremony,  contextualizes indigenous place-based knowledge focusing on the relationship of things and persons one to another through power and place. This chapter also considers traditional form and its strength  inherent in being indigenous.          Lastly,  design inquiry  is considered a necessity for development and expression of indigenous design theory, drawing upon the thinking of those that came before to frame an indigenous architectural  theory as ceremony.  To this end, the use of place-based indigenous knowledge and traditional indigenous forms articulate the principles of indigenous design. 31    this adawaak [story/chapter] has been accepted for publication in the following form: stewart, luugigyoo patrick reid (in press). architecture as ceremony. in, theodore (ted) jojola, eleni bastea and lynne paxton (eds), contemporary indigenous architecture: local traditions, global winds (part 2, chapter 1). albuquerque: university of new mexico press.   s p a c e / p l a c e / c o n t e x t / u a l i z i n g though my vision is dim sagalts apkw nisim [for the building of a village together]      right here right now we focus on siwilpkws [building of a wilp]     hammer hammer              since the beginning of european global colonization     indigenous cultures have been / remain expendable         due to the continued colonization  / destruction of indigenous cultures           it is through actions such as my opening prayer      that indigenous thought within the academy begins to open a space for dialogue as there is still little understanding or acceptance by western culture of indigenous cultural concepts           from the everyday in my life i am so tired justifying what i feel / know as an indigenous person     it has always been at the intersection of my life as a nisga a person with that of the dominant society     it has been like looking through a glass wall     i stand near but never belong     and it with this understanding that i say i will never know freedom in my life            for example the nisga a concept of reciprocal rights or responsibilities were not included in the final  nisga a treaty as written by the federal government (nisga a     1998)          i say the federal government is responsible for the treaty because i will never say that the treaty process was fair or equitable or transparent or a partnership        i was at enough community meetings where we as citizens of the nisga a nation were not allowed to ask questions           we were talked to but never engaged in a discussion         if we asked questions we were seen as trouble makers         for reasons such as we as nisga a experienced in our a treaty process we need to look to our elders / writers to help explain a way through continued 32   colonization          vine deloria22 might have agreed the nisga a treaty does not recognize the nisga a knowledge principle of power or place          power being the living energy that inhabits nisga a knowledge and understanding of the universe          place     being the relationship of things to each other     such as defined in the opening prayer (deloria      2001         see also ruitenberg     2005)           understanding that the treaty is not based on an indigenous viewoftheplanet     i would have to conclude           the nisga a lisims government remains entangled within a western / christian  worldview23          to embrace an indigenous viewoftheplanet          the nisga need to begin to acknowledge that a  western / christian worldview is not place based  and that it sets humans apart / above the environment (not supporting the oneness and unity of the nisga a traditional viewoftheplanet           the western / christian worldview sees the environment only as a resource to be exploited / extracted versus a reciprocal relationship      examples are the frustrations and the real life confrontations between the first nations and the government police in new brunswick over fracking and in british columbia over oil pipelines                                                           22 though vine deloria (1933-2005) may be considered a controversial popular indigenous writer/academic by some      his ability to privilege indigenous peoples     choosing his words sparingly but pointedly     being a lightning rod for controversy makes his contributions all the more valuable and an inspiration to those of us coming behind  23 the western view of the world is expressed by the shorthand     “worldview”        it remains a western word / concept     that is foreign to an indigenous viewoftheplanet upon which we all live and exist in all our differences 33               grand chief stewart phillip  told the georgia straight newspaper that recent clashes between first nations and rcmp officers in new brunswick are part of a struggle shared by indigenous peoples across canada          he said “i think prime minister harper has done an incredible job provoking conflict between the economy and the environment        it’s shaping up to be a war between oil and water      and it applies to the eastern part of this country as well as british columbia” (lupick 2013)       and this western worldview supported or was interpreted  to support the belief that indigenous peoples and lifeways did not need to be respected / valued / acknowledged (savages to be killed or changed / converted) …. this belief system resulted in government policies and actions which have had intrusive and negative or disintegrative impacts on indigenous cultures since early colonization whose impacts can still be seen today as  witnessed in figure 12       figure 12     indigenous homelessness (© 2007 patrick reid stewart) reprinted with permission       as a demonstration of support in this dissertation for indigenous culture / academy     privileging citations of indigenous scholarship builds upon an indigenous viewoftheplanet               34   unfortunately there are as yet few indigenous academics of architecture on turtle island     i am among the first generation in this country known as c\a\n\a\d\a24 to be legally allowed to attend university as first nations peoples since the repeal of the Indian act in 1951 which removed the barrier for first nations people to attend high school and since 1972 when the federal government put post-secondary funding in place   at this stage in our construction project you will see reference to non indigenous writers / thinkers / academics whose ideas  can be indigenized         manymanymany elders / writers / researchers / academics / teachers / thinkers / nations have helped me toward identifying components of indigeneity / an indigenous viewoftheplanet     discussed later in this chapter / understanding the systemic oppression / racism / colonization inside and outside the education system in this land now known as c\a\n\a\d\a        as dr peter cole / coyote put it ever so eloquently     the practice of academically certified punctuation distances me           the idea of paragraph is meaningless          the idea of chapter     is anathema to who i am as an indigenous person (cole     2006     p          21) i n d i g e n o u s  p l a c e – b a s e d  k n o w l e d g e            the concept of place as a location     is host to the relationship of things one to another that define the sense of place or the feelings or emotions one might have about a place          these are elements of place-based knowledge          the principle of these relationships is what vine deloria (2001) calls correspondence or correlation          there is power in these correlations                                                           24 i use the backward slash \      because it is considered wrong and it emphasizes the wrongful treatment of indigenous peoples in this country 35   between how materials relate one to another          though not necessarily spiritually powerful     i would define this sensory experience of materiality as indigeneity               for a building to be real     it has to have elements of cultural meaning           an authentic indigenous building      is a building designed by an indigenous architect that exhibits elements of indigeneity privileging indigenous culture in ‘resistance’ to the western norms of the status quo          expressed in figure thirteen is an interpretation of a traditional single-slope longhouse that exhibits cultural elements in support of indigeneity       figure fourteen shows traditional form sqemel (stó:lō) [pithouse]  which traditionally were winter houses     facilitated25 by my office for the stó:lō  nation          this project was designed to showcase the culture on a site that has been archaeologically dated to 9000 years bp                  in architectural theory     i found the ideas of michael benedikt (1987) to have reciprocity transcending cultural differences           other attributes of indigeneity include     significance     as having meaning to someone          materiality     as being made of ‘stuff’ to be touched     tasted     plainly seen     having a temperature     a weight     an inherent strength     but not necessarily heaviness of material          for example a pithouse      though buried by earth      is no less material than a longhouse      just because it is covered by less rigid material than the other                      the pithouse shown in figure fourteen was researched and designed by my office in collaboration with the elders of the stó:lō nation                                                           25 i say facilitated and not claim to have designed them because they are traditional cultural forms that have existed for thousands of years figure 13     design elements in support of indigeneity  (© 2008 patrick reid stewart) reprinted with permission  36    figure 14          a buried pithouse is no less material than a longhouse      (© 2006 patrick reid stewart)    reprinted with permission     when a building or structure is said to exhibit indigeneity it has cultural significance            it can possess the power to draw a person along or into or be an oasis onto itself           (leuthold     1998)          an example of such a space is the outdoor theatre structure my office designed for the cooks ferry first nation as a memorial to the treaty signed in 1910 by the interior allied tribes of bc     it exhibits indigeneity  and has great cultural significance       it has also become a memorial to the woman in my office who designed the theatre26     figure 15 chief tetlenitsa theatre  figure 16 creative interpretation    (© 2010 patrick reid stewart)    (© 2010 patrick reid stewart)   reprinted with permission   reprinted with permission                                                           26 the design for this outdoor theatre was the m arch thesis project by lynda ursaki (1963-2011)    a graduate of the dalhousie school of architecture     a member of the cooks ferry first nation          it was built while lynda was an intern with my firm       prsa is the architect of record 37     indigenous peoples around the planet have different languages     cultures      customs      habits     ceremonies     identities and spiritual ways of being          vine deloria (1995) privileges indigenous cultures as rich living cultures     something he says     many north americans do not feel they have or can take part in     they are searching for a sense of culture and community deloria believes this contributes to what  he referred to as the “indian wannabe phenomenon” and he acknowledges      that since 1960 when the united states census allowed people to self-identify their ethnic or racial background     there has been a jump in the native american population          he says     “today it is popular to be “indian” (p     14)          twenty years later there are still people discovering / acknowledging their indigenous           i like to see it as a recognition of the sacredness of indigeneity     as indigenous architect     douglas cardinal (1977) explains  we the people of the land will send our chiefs to virgin land     where we will gather together and sit in deep meditation          we will weep for the lost herds of the buffalo            we will weep for the destruction of the animals     the birds and the fish          we will weep for the destruction of the earth     the land which was ours          we will weep for the poisoning of the air which we breathe          we will weep for the poisoning of the water which we drink          we will weep for the destruction of our spirit and our pride and we will contemplate those people who have controlled our destiny and the destiny of our life givers for the past few hundred years          we will weep for the destruction of life and the life givers     for we are life and when our life givers     our environment      is destroyed      we too are destroyed (p  119)   this recounting of the impact of colonialism by cardinal exhibits one of vine deloria`s (2001) foundations of indigenous knowledge     that of being particular     or personal versus 38   general or universal          as does western science    which is based on establishing general laws or explanations of how things work          cardinal was telling a story of warning     certainly there are western scholars who have worked to develop the field of ecology and have expressed also concern and lamented society s actions in poisoning the world     case in point     rachel carson (1962) who published a most seminal book     silent spring           cardinal though     was lamenting the displacement of indigenous peoples and our environment          he was lamenting place          as indigenous peoples we have a responsibility to respect life and our sacred duties          within the context of the reality of everyday life     each and every one of us as indigenous peoples has the responsibility to become a warrior     to be responsible for ourselves     our cultures     our languages     our families     our communities     our nations     our world          it is our responsibility to protect our peoples          life as an indigenous person in this country is a life of struggle for freedom from colonialism     a life of resistance          life as an indigenous architect is a life of asserting indigeneity     so people will know     we as indigenous peoples     have not died (alfred     2005)  t r a d i t i o n a l  f o r m  a s  p l a c e – b a s e d   k n o w l e d g e   ideologically     throughout history     the hereditary people of the nisga a nation have been and continue to be concerned with space versus the fundamentally opposed concept of the philosophical issue of time       the structure of  nisga a culture is rooted in the  ango oskw [territory] of each of the huwilps [chieftans houses]      it is this system of place-based cultural knowledge that continues to be under attack by continued colonization         there is a story told to me by an elder who related how the federal government department of fisheries refused to listen to him about the location of fish stocks because the fish did not show up in their 39   electronic fish finders        he had to physically show them before they would believe         he told them he had been fishing those waters for 50 years and he knew where and when the fish would appear every year     said another way     douglas cardinal and jeanette armstrong (1991) conclude that “technologically advanced societies dismiss the contributions of indigenous peoples” (p  12) and “have attempted to program them for self-destruction” (p  20)          more pointedly steven leuthold (1998) writes that western culture tends to “denature and dehumanize collective symbols identified with the other” (p  26)          herein lies the issue from an architectural standpoint          by incorporating traditional indigenous forms     we are resisting the dominant western culture and privileging indigenous cultures         it is through resistance that we are political      performing a rhetorical function27 by shifting / changing the viewer’s frame of reference (leuthold, 1998)          we need to resist the western / colonizing iconism        the westerner’s choice of emotional and value laden images that relays their attitude about the indigenous culture as nothing more than “cigar store indians”    and western / colonizing reductionism         the westerner’s perception of the indigenous culture’s essential or core elements as no more than “western cowboy / ‘indian’ movies” (leuthold, 1998    p  23)   by the very inclusion of cultural elements and forms     indigenous architects are resisting  the western design paradigm     by relating to the culture within which they are working                    figures 17-19 show the iroquoain village and interpretive centre by two row architect (1999) of oshwegen ontario     exhibiting the traditional massing of a village and highlighting the                                                            27 the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation          my use of traditional indigenous forms and protocols are the appropriate means to shift the viewer’s frame of reference 40   ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 17 brian porter  (© 2015 two row architect)     reprinted with permission  brian porter is a member of the mohawk nation    a member of six nations in ontario      and principal of two row architect which he established in 1992         the name     two row architect     was chosen to reflect the unique nature of the firm as a 100% native-owned and operated firm on the six nations reserve in southern ontario         in keeping with his tradition and to reflect community values     the search for a name was brought to the renowned cayuga faith keeper and linguist     reg henry          after several conversations with the elder     focus was given to architectural terms as interpreted by native language and the meaning these carried from their traditional roots          the final choice of two row was drawn from a weave of beads known as the 'two row wampum'                     two row architect mission statement as a result of culturally discouraging government policy     loss of resources and land     various forms of traditional building practices have fallen to the wayside      only to be replaced with non-native forms           we at two row will assist in promoting an architectural approach that realizes the meshing of local traditional symbols (native arts/crafts/design) into current building technology           we also promote the creative and environmentally conscious use of building materials     and maximum native involvement for local benefit              (retrieved from    january 15     2015          http://www.tworow.com/aboutus.html) 41   ceremony of entry     what they attempted to do in this design is to interpret the traditional form shown in  figure 18           figure 18 traditional       figure 19 modern interpretation of the traditional iroquoain form iroquoain form      (© 1999 two row architect)     reprinted with permission (© 1999 two row architect) reprinted with permission  figure 20 the modern iroquoain village and interpretive centre  (© 1999 two row architect)     reprinted with permission   not that incorporating traditional form is easy or a panacea for community ills    especially given the history of colonization                   designing in urban areas for indigenous community groups and trying to get a building permit 42   from the local city hall can be a challenge coming from the margins         there is little understanding at city hall of indigenous cultural design elements and are quick to dismiss such elements as too exotic and not appropriate for the neighbourhood          they want designs and colours that look like the neighbours          they are striving for uniformity          they do not want difference         it has to do with conformity          an example of this is the red fascia on the aboriginal children s village project we designed for lu ma native bch housing society in vancouver        city hall staff said the red fascia was too exotic for the neighbourhood       in the end the client had a meeting with city hall planning department staff and would not bow down   figure 21        aboriginal children’s village fascia (© 2013 patrick reid stewart) reprinted with permission   there is also a challenge of working with indigenous communities who do not want traditional forms         they have been persuaded     usually through christianity     that traditional forms are primitive / savage  in a negative sense     or they are not wanting the issue to be 43   discussed as they may see it as divisive in the community          they have lost connection with their traditional culture         they do not question  dominant thinking          but as taiaiake alfred (2005) points out      full assimilation is not possible     there is still hope          this is at times a more difficult challenge than working in urban areas          at least you do not expect much from  city hall          you know you`ll be challenged          in indigenous communities however     it is harder to come to terms with the cultural struggle with  another indigenous person  d e s i g n  i n q u i r y  a s  r e s i s t a n c e  alfred (2005)  defines the relationship between the western defined “center” and the “margins” as a power relation           being indigenous is not a centering “viewoftheplanet”         this relationship locates indigenous peoples on the margins of western society          indigenous cultures tend to define what ties them together rather than what separates          the design aesthetic becomes significant for people within a culture who want to retain their being and be regarded as different from the dominant norm (christiansen    2007)            the following quote from an interview between the artist      tsaqwuasupp  and taiaiake alfred (2005) is revealing my grandmother had told me that being an artist is being the best warrior that you could ever be          she said      “if you don’t want to do anything else with your hands     do your arts     because that’s what is going to tell people that we haven’t died     and prove that they’re not going to be able to kill us          she said     “as long as you’re alive and doing your arts     people will know that we’re not going away (p 170) 44   this  quote emphasizes the arts     as resistance28          architecture as i practice it     is resistance          following the thought of tsaqwuasupp     as long as i practice architecture     that’s what is going to tell people that we haven’t died... people will know that we’re not going away          the assaults on indigenous cultures in this country continue and we are forced to continue to fight against the past and current wrongs of a structurally racist governance model called     c\a\n\a\d\a     erasmus (2003) also presents the case that we are not the “vanishing race” as some would like29          though there is more than a five hundred year history of colonization around the globe         indigenous peoples are still here there is a ‘recent’ history of western place-based architectural design theory that is useful in framing indigenous architectural theory          i say recent      because the greeks used architectural elements to represent their identity when they occupied land in egypt      but that was only 2500 years ago (tzonis     2005     p           3) and there is archeological evidence of a 9,000 year old stó:lō village in british columbia           designed by my firm as a cultural interpretive centre     xá:ytem is a designated national historic site as shown in figures 22     educates about the culture    the language    the songs    stó:lō spirituality     interpreting for a modern audience / community    as evidenced in figure 23                                                           28 resistance to dominant euro-intruder culture 29 “our objective is to continue until there is not a single indian in canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic and there is no indian question     and no indian department” (duncan campbell scott, superintendent of indian affairs     1923-1932) as cited in erasmus (2003) 45                                               figure 22     xá:ytem longhouse          figure 23 ceremony          (© 2010 patrick reid stewart)        (© 2010 patrick reid stewart)           reprinted with permission         reprinted with permission                      coined by tzonis and lefaivre in 1981     the term     ‘critical regionalism’ defines the use of place-based cultural elements in design          this architectural theory does not however account for an indigenous “viewoftheplanet”          the stó:lō people have been occupying land and building villages for more than 9,000 years on the stó:lō river          stó:lō is the  halqemeylem [upper river dialect of the stó:lō language] word for what is now known in the english language as the fraser river          the stó:lō people built specific forms     depending upon the location     using     climate     season and their cosmos     six millennia before the greeks ventured across the water to egypt          vine deloria (2001) wrote that whatever was above had to be reflected below     this principle “enabled people to correlate their action with the larger movements of the universe” (pp  26-27)          what the stó:lō were building     defined their territory and helped them make sense of their place in the universe                from the seabird island community building referred to earlier in this chapter     figure 24 shows a design detail of stones around a fire pit in the building lobby          a stó:lō elder drew a plan of a fire pit     naming each stone and how they were to be placed according to the cosmic 46   directions          we designed the floor to represent the fire pit and it is used today as a meeting / gathering place         figure 24     seabird island lobby  (© 1996 patrick reid stewart)  reprinted with permission      this reality is in evidence when indigenous peoples build     whether it is the traditional form of a nisga’a longhouse shown in figure 9 interpreted as a community centre or the  stó:lō pit house being used as an interpretive centre     there are definite historical architectural differences between cultural-based design of different indigenous peoples       figure 25 gingolx community center  figure 26 xá:ytem pit house interior  (© 2010 patrick reid stewart)   (© 2000 patrick reid stewart)             reprinted with permission      reprinted with permission     47   in framing this indigenous architectural theory     foundational indigenous work by ray barnhardt and verna kirkness (1998) and later     la donna harris and jacqueline wasilewski (2004) outline indigenous peoples values that have existed for millennia          both teams of authors     articulate core indigenous values that include relationship     responsibility      reciprocity      redistribution     respect and relevance          the concept of respect which was not articulated in the work of harris and wasilewski     has a moral dimension of appropriateness     “for that part of nature that will be     affected by our action” (deloria     2001     p  24)          the addition of the concept of reflection     to the list  adds what lincourt (1999) calls     the creative dimension of the spirit (p  25)       “spirituality in indigenous thought revolves around forces that are called ‘creativity’ in  english” (battiste and youngblood henderson     2000     p  101)          as an indigenous person i try to emulate these core values in my life’s journey          vine deloria (2001) says respect defines the boundaries of indigenous knowledge (p  21)          marie battiste and james youngblood henderson say that     “since indigenous peoples connect everything with a continuous state of transformation     creativity or spirituality is the matrix that holds everything together”     (battiste and youngblood henderson, 2000     p 101)          these core values are manifest in indigenous architecture          these core values form the context within which i work as an indigenous architect          everything that i do is filtered through these values     allowing me to create / experience indigenous architecture as ceremony          from the writing of harris and wasilewski (2004)     the first core value as an indigenous person     relationship is kinship     is “the profound sense that we human beings are related     not only to each other     but to all things     animals     plants     rocks...this relationship is a kinship relationship         everyone / everything is related to us as if 30 they were our blood relatives” (p  4)         as an indigenous                                                           30 emphasis by harris and wasilewski (2004) 48   architect     my task is “to make sure that everyone feels included and feels that they can make their contribution to our common good” (p  4)          as part of my design protocol     i ensure that everyone in the community within which we are working     is invited to all community forums     workshops     feasts meetings     ceremonies          by everyone     i mean everyone       no one is left out          everyone is made to feel welcome          this is a safe place     there is no hierarchy          all are family (in the indigenous sense of all my relations)                 as an indigenous architect     my role is to facilitate these relationships          i believe that there is a synergy when everyone comes together for a common good          what comes from community direction is often beyond anything i could have imagined          i often say     “all we  need is one idea”          the rest is pure relationship  harris and wasilewski (2004) list the second indigenous core value as      responsibility is community          “rests on the understanding that we have a responsibility to care for all of our relatives           our relatives include everything in our ecological niche     animals and plants     as well as humans even the stones      since everything that exists is alive” (harris and wasilewski    p          5)          it is from this principle that comes     all my relations which reminds us every time we say or hear it of our responsibility to respect life and to fulfill what vine deloria (1999) calls our covenantal duties          this also describes “the epistemology of the [indigenous view of the planet]     providing the methodological basis for gathering of information about the world” (deloria    1999     p  52)              as an indigenous architect          i can care through environmental design         ensuring that i show leadership in energy conservation and materiality          i care through use of indigenous and medicinal plants     through use of recycled materials     through site selection based on environmental input and show respect to the site through all the directions          i care through the culture     by the culture     for the culture          for example     my design methods 49   incorporate cultural elements into the design of a building that have been shared by community members              this then creates a legacy for children     youth and future generations          that legacy can be witnessed at community gatherings such as the canoe journey shown in figure 25  figure 27   community gathering   (© 2006 patrick reid stewart)  reprinted with permission    the third core value as an indigenous person     reciprocity is cyclical          underscores the fact that in nature things are circular/cyclical          for example    “ the cycle of the seasons and the cycle of life     as well as the dynamics between any two entities in relationship with each other     once we have encountered another     we are in relationship with them” (harris and wasilewski 2004    p  5)          as an indigenous architect     my relationship with my client can be very long     well beyond the temporal boundaries of a design / bid / build architectural project          much of the reason for this is because of the nature of our relationship as kin          i often work in communities for years prior to any architectural design being done     and sometimes     long after the work has been completed   the fourth core value defined by harris and wasilewski     redistribution is sharing      “means sharing not only material wealth     but information     time     talent and energy     one’s total self          knowing the protocols of receiving     as well as of giving are equally important” (harris and wasilewski  2004   p  5)          as an indigenous architect     i can share with my client 50   through hiring local people     hosting a feast     or sponsoring a community “give away” 31         my role can require me to sit as a member of a community committee          this is not chargeable time         i am not there as a consultant          i am there as a “community member”          i have been a sponsor of community events     helped host a feast and have hired local community members to be part of the project team  one final core value     as defined by vine deloria     respect is appropriateness         means “killing an animal or catching a fish involve(s) paying respect to the species and the individual animal or fish that such action disturbed          harvesting plants also involve(s) paying respect to the plants” (deloria     2001     p  24)          as an indigenous architect     initiating the harvesting of wood for a building     plants for landscaping     or any other natural material used in the construction of a project means paying respect to those living beings of nature          in a building that my firm completed for gingolx of the nisga a nation      we originally had a blessing  ceremony for the ground upon which the community hall was built         the opening ceremony in figure 28 shows 1 000 nisga’a and visitors   in community giving their many prayers for the building`s continued success32                                                           31 a ‘give away’ is part of a feast normally in conjunction with a community / cultural event  in which people are given items as either witnesses to the event     or as an honouring of their position in that community          as a sponsor of such an event one would receive the help of their extended family and members of their wilp (chieftan s house) in support of the event 32 the gingolx community hall opened to the public in 2012 51                                  figure 28     blessing ceremony  (© 2012 lavinia clayton     reprinted by permission)   c l o s i n g  p r a y e r  t o  k e e p  u s  s a f e  as we continue  o u r  j o u r n e y  in our architecture may we   acknowledge the sacred   acknowledge the process     the ceremony as      architecture and see      architecture as ceremony         as process          as sacred 52   adaawaḵ   gilp'il [story two] :  an adaawak [story] of indigenous architecture    Précis   This adawaak [story/chapter] contextualizes Indigenous Knowledge within an architectural context using the example of the Nisga’a creation story recounting the first construction in the Nass Valley. A compelling narrative shows how Indigenous villages in British Columbia pre date the Egyptian pyramids by thousands of years and as historical precedent, need to be included in architectural school curricula in this country.         A chronological review of regional identity in design precedent is traced from Greek occupation in Egypt and Pakistan and shown through the writings of Vitruvius, Violet-le-Duc, John Ruskin, Louis Mumford, Kenneth Frampton and Alexander Tzonis, arguing that the time has come for indigenous identity in design to be acknowledged. It is not really a new idea.  A discussion is presented about the challenging circumstances of Indigenous peoples in this country and how it has affected the education of the children and why there are not more Indigenous students in architecture. The adawaak [story/chapter] ends with a plea  /   mission for change.         53   i know to start at the beginning   the beginning of time  i understand this from the stories of the nisga’a nation (1995)  the creation story  so let me begin  and on this  journey i invite you  the reader     on an    ilin  [a song of remembrance]  in the beginning of our history     according to our ancestors     there was no light here on earth          there were no inhabitants nor creatures when our chief of heavens (k am ligi hahlhaahl) founded the earth          the history told by our forefathers     and as passed on by them     stated that there were people up above         there were many different races of people there          the world was dark and there was not anything to give light          the only light there was like moonlight or semi-darkness           objects were not very easily identified            when k am ligi hahlhaahl [the creator] sent people down to earth they were grouped in four clans          the eagle clan was one of them     then there was the wolf clan     the raven clan and the killer whale with the owl          these were the specified clans          the crests used were for identification of each family and were recognized as such          k am ligi hahlhaahl [the creator] gave our people these crests when they placed on lisims [naas river]          now     k am ligi hahlhaahl [the creator]    gathered together throngs of people and placed them in various locations other than the naas river          they were informed that they will not speak the same dialect          there would be a distinct difference according to where these people [were] placed 54             there shall be one tongue spoken on the naas river     from the headwaters right down to the estuary          fluent speaking and understanding would be prevalent among them      but not so with others          “you will not clearly understand the  other dialects” is what k am ligi hahlhaahl [the creator] said when he placed them here on haniijok [earth]           their destination was unknown and uncertain          the wahlingigat [ancient nisga a ancestors] did not bring anything with them when they arrived          it was dark on earth then          there were bodies of land     but barely visible          there was nii [no] goyp ax [light] oo [or] aks [water]  then as we know it now          the land was like mountains where they were          our ancestors made preparations to make it their homeland          the first location on lisims for their new community was up-river at lax gwinsk’eexkw [village of darkness]          these people were the first occupiers of the valley     and this was their first village          soon buildings were erected  (p  1)  the nisga a nation (1995) creation story contains the first reference to construction  as the story continues in the next paragraph there is a description of the first huwilp [longhouses]    there were four different huwilps [houses]          the people intermarried with other families here with them          four females were with the other representatives of the clans          one woman was ksim laxsgiik [female eagle]          another was ksim laxgibuu [female wolf]     another was ksim ganada [female frog]          the other was ksim ‘neekhl     or ksim gisk’ahaast (female killerwhale)          when children were 55   born their family ties were with their mother          so that     if a woman was an eagle     the child naturally was an eagle            the same applied to the wolf clan     the raven clan and the killer whale           they erected their village at lax gwinsk’eexkw [village of darkness]    on an island near gitlaxt’aamiks [people of the ponds]     on lisims [naas river]            bark [maasa] was utilized for house walls     also for roofing          there were cedar [simgan] trees above the village     and these were used whole...for stringers and roof ridges  (p  2)  this first village was but one of many villages constructed as the people followed the fish and the seasons  before the intrusion of the europeans  the nisga a followed the resources  their architecture was responsive to the climate in a way that has been lost to modern architecture with its reliance on technology  lost by a nation colonized and ghettoized   nisga a architecture responded to the culture     to the social structure of the nation and it was a reflection of known technology and the environment        much of today’s green design and green building technology gets back to the essentials of indigenous culture     indigenous architecture  was essentially first nations village building  in the traditional territory of the coast salish         it has an older history than the egyptian pyramids       for  example     xá:ytem was built  9,000 years ago     and the stepped pyramid shown in figure 30 was more recently constructed by more than four thousand figure 29     xá:ytem pithouse           patrick r stewart architect   (©1999 patrick reid stewart)    reprinted with permission   56   years          mansell (1979) started his book titled     anatomy of architecture with the step pyramid of zoser      dated to the third millennium bc (~4800 bp) 33 egypt being the typical reference standard starting point for western studies in architecture34  the non western indigenous context has never been the standard reference for anything to do with architecture but simply as the manifestation of an “othering” mentality of western academic k’amksiiwaa[white people]      for example     janson (1978) in his history of art was less than thorough in devoting only one  short paragraph to indigenous building in turtle island [north america]          we know that indigenous nations around the globe have been building for thousands of years  and it was a rare academic  norbert schoenauer (1981)  one of my professors at mcgill university who acknowledged an indigenous history of housing/habitation as architecture     as a                                                           33 retrieved january 13 2015 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pyramid_of_djoser        reprinted with permission     34 russian-born hw janson’s (1978) history of art was the textbook used in my first history of architecture course        one short chapter called magic and ritual – the art of prehistoric man devoted only one paragraph of 157 words to “indians” of north america and commented on one example of built landscape in southern ohio           the chapter itself was only 26 pages long defining everything covered in the chapter as “pre” historic          this book has sold more than two million copies in fifteen languages since 1962 and has had a major influence on art/architecture scholarship (Turner, 1982) figure 30      stepped pyramid of zoser sakkara     egypt (© 1978 charles fowkes)     reprinted with permission 57   response to cultural and physical forces  the course was called history of housing not unfortunately      history of architecture  and so it was but an elective in the school of architecture curriculum which was too bad           it should have been mandatory        though there were no courses on indigenous design and no indigenous faculty in any of the universities i attended     by default i was always searching for writing          one book i used during my graduate architectural studies        besides the writings by anthropologists      was a chapter by k’amksiiwaa [white people] academics and practicing architects     moore     smith and becker    (1983) who wrote      home sweet home: american domestic vernacular architecture   the year i handed in my master of architecture thesis at mcgill university     there was a book that had just came out by nabakov and easton (1988) titled    native american architecture         as i looked through it i remember thinking why? why? why now?       my thesis was done           over the years since the book s publication i have used it many times in my architectural practice as the starting point in my research when i needed to look for different indigenous building traditions somewhere on turtle island [north america]         the graphics were great and it saved me a lot of time of having to research primary sources           as much as i used moore     smith and becker (1983) and nabakov and easton (1988)      there was always the recognition that these were not writings by indigenous people       they were still writing of     “others”            there is now a growing awareness of a distinct / different architecture that associates identity with an identifiable peoples to a defined territory  it is shown to have existed in ancient greece          the greeks used architectural elements to represent their identity when they occupied land in egypt and pakistan as evidenced in figure 31      2500 years ago (tzonis, 2005)  58   35 figure 31 greek architectural elements in pakistan    1st-2nd century ce                ©victoria and albert museum, london. collection is .3-1971      reprinted with permission        tzonis (2005, 2006) presents a history of architecture in two articles tracing references of regional identity in design from the writings of vitruvius (born c. 80–70 bc, died c. 15 bc)       through the middle ages to the eighteenth century where the first mention of the concept of regionalism is made by violet-le-duc and john ruskin   tzonis then cites louis mumford  for his 1924 discussion and examples of ‘regional’ architecture such as the city beautiful movement  tzonis (2005) did not include the work of spanish architect     antonio gaudi (1852-1926)          figure 32 shows the intricate nature of gaudi s sagrada familia church ceiling      he does though      mention the 1929 palace of the arts by spanish architect      anibal gonzalez (1875-1929)       to my mind     it was a serious omission by not including gaudi                  tzonis also does not include the work of Scottish architect     rennie macintosh (1868-1928)          another serious omission      because if anything    both architects practiced an architecture that was definitely critical regionalism         these are examples of design theory to which i aspire     neither architect appeared to be motivated by the modernist international movement                                                            35 original image retrieved january 13 2015 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O25041/stair-riser-stair-riser-unknown/          image used in dissertation provided by the victoria and albert museum     59     figure 32     the nave in the sagrada familia     looking up at its hyperboloid vault (© david sumpton     used with permission) living in the post-treaty world of the nisga a nation  figure 33      naas valley (©2010 patrick reid stewart)  i wonder what has changed really  there is no post secondary training in indigenous architecture in fact there are very few courses offered in indigenous architecture within any school of architecture in this country now known as c\a\n\a\d\a           compound this lack of training in indigenous architecture with the fact that there are very few indigenous university students and you can begin to see the challenge  mendelson (2008) reports that there are fully 60% of indigenous high school students on reserve in c\a\n\a\d\a not graduating grade 12  [compare this to only 14% for the rest of canada] that statistic       right / not right / 60   wrong  is but the tip of the proverbial iceberg when considering other statistics of first nations that show a similar dismal indigenous reality in this country   while it has taken non-indigenous societies thousands of years to evolve     indigenous societies around the world have been c o l o n i z e d / a s s i m i l a t e d / f o r c e d to catch up in only what adds up to be a matter of decades in the blink of an eye  it’s been a culture shock and we are living with the results...  high incidences of aboriginal adult incarceration (75% in sk, mb, yk)36   twelve (12) times more likely for an aboriginal child to be in [foster] care than a non-aboriginal child 37   aboriginal children and youth in care (40%)38 aboriginal youth in secure custody (33%)39 aboriginal homelessness (30% bc)40 domestic violence (33%)  addictions     unemployment     hiv/aids     the list goes on...  mortality rates   governments and c\a\n\a\d\i\a\n society are f a i l i n g  / k i l l i n g / e x t e r m i n  a t i n g indigenous peoples                                                              36 retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2009003/article/10903-eng.htm 37 retrieved from ttp://web.uvic.ca/icwr/docs/news/aboriginal%20cic%20report%20may2009.pdf 38 retrieved from http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/time_out_2.pdf 39 retrieved from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2004/yj2-jj2/p3.html 40 aboriginal homelessness steering committee (2011) homeless count report figure  34     living in care patrick reid stewart      age 6 (© 2010 patrick reid stewart) (used with permission) 61   the challenge remains     what can be done for / with / by     indigenous students    how to interest indigenous students into schools of architecture to this end i have written a course curriculum for a new course in architecture titled  indigenous architecture and culture  the intent of this place-based course is the integration of indigenous peoples knowledges with the practice and theory of architecture       see adawaak [story / chapter] kwsdins [five] in this dissertation for the curriculum as a student of architecture in c\a\n\a\d\a in my first professional degree program i learned about greek architecture egyptian architecture / history    roman architecture / history the renaissance  mannerism           we studied cathedrals     looked at slides of cathedrals  wrote papers on cathedrals not once did we speak of indigenous history nor did we look at first nations his/her/our (s)tory  i knew something was missing and    this has been the case throughout the history of education in this country         the time has come for change to occur in architecture schools          i did my undergraduate thesis on indigenous housing in a first nations community outside an urban area     many of my classmates did not consider this to be architecture   when i did my master’s thesis on urban native housing in this country     some of my classmates      figure 35 location of my undergraduate design thesis project shubenacadie first nation     nova scotia  (©1982 patrick reid stewart) figure 36 urban native non-profit housing   aboriginal patients lodge  (©2005 patrick reid stewart architect) 62   did not see that what i was studying     was of value    when all of them  though by no means poor were from countries with large poor rural populations  they were not themselves indigenous people they were not the subjugated       they were blind to indigeneity        the time has come for their eyes to be opened indigenous peoples knowledges41... i am killerwhale  as was my mother  and her mother and her mother since time immemorial  i only need look back three generations to my great-grandfather  on my mother`s side  who was born before the 1876 indian act  before there were reserves in the naas valley (1885)  before an outsider built a building in the valley     i am amazed that we    as the nisga a nation     still exist   in the short span of time since my great-grandfather s birth   we have withstood the onslaught of colonization   physical  cultural   spiritual genocide indian act violence where silence is still violence   residential school de-education and the stolen generation42  i want/need to say that i wasn`t always able to share my personal story     it has been a critical journey for me to reclaim  examine  and re-establish my very spirit as a nisga`a person   i was damaged by a government trying to “kill the indian and save                                                           41 knowledges is pluralized to acknowledge the existence of the many different and diverse types of indigenous knowledge of the many different indigenous peoples around the globe 42 often referred to as the 60 s scoop where aboriginal children were apprehended by child services and placed with non-aboriginal families both here in this country and in foreign countries  63   the child”          i am here to tell you it didn`t work           figure 37     new york couture fashion week                      (©2012 udor photography)        reprinted with permission it is important for me to say what i have said about my family  to remind myself who i am  in resistance to the conditions of colonization  still prevalent in this country known as c/a/n/a/d/a              as a first nations person  i survived a homeless mother and the child foster care system in this province   mom was taken away 1800 kilometres to 64   coqualeetza residential school at age five  i was taken away at birth   moving twelve times in eighteen years  attending eight different schools in twelve years   it was a very unsettled start to life mom survived but never really recovered43  as her children44  we survived and are still in recovery           as an architect / researcher / facilitator / writer / artist     i work within the context of residential school survivors  they influence the planning/design process within first nations communities and indigenous organizations in reaction to having attended residential schools / and or being inter-generational survivors of residential school survivors  my clients are among the most severe critics of architecture             every indigenous culture around the globe has a tradition of design that was expressed in their architecture  and the knowledge is still felt     sensed and understood                                                           43 my mother     phyllis stella stewart merkley (1925-2002) 44 my oldest brother     matthew ross stewart (1950-2022) has gone on before us     five of us remain figure 38 coqualeetza residential school 1893 – 1948 this was on the back of a poster i found among the photos in a box after she died in 2002      she attended the school 1930-1937 65    indigenous architecture was traditionally a response to climate changes geography geology natural resources and food systems   it expressed culture spirituality governance/political systems social systems sustainability        much of the design work i undertake within first nations communities and indigenous organizations looks like community activism / community development planning  my work often starts years before any design begins and it often includes community organizing /facilitating / meetings / conferences / relationships / feasts         the drawing in figure 39 is by a grade 4 student who drew what he wanted his school to look like    his drawing reflects the importance of the mountains     the trees     the river     the smokehouse     the traditional form of the single slope longhouse and the importance of entry           we spoke with all the kids in the community and they were very excited and active in letting us know what they wanted we had similar talks with the elders parents  artists school staff education department staff and village council     figure 40 was taken by me of my youngest son when he was a toddler  he’s now in grade 12          we travelled to warm springs oregon to visit their tribal school when we started designing the school for squamish nation  figure 39 xwemelch stn etsimxwawtxw [little ones school] (© 1999 patrick r stewart architect)     reprinted with permission figure 40 design research (© 1998 patrick reid stewart) 66       figure 41 is a detail shot of the single slope longhouse massing of the xweme’lch’stn estimxwawtxw school for the squamish nation        figure 42 is a natural context for a community-based approach to residential planning    figure 43 shows a typical federal government residential planning response    where the trees are clear-cut and a single road with double-loaded houses down each side fortunately architecture has forever come into being in response to something we as a society  lack              without being prescriptive  it is with an understanding of how indigenous peoples were / are impacted  that design solutions that support future indigenous community development and culture are being developed and used colonization is very personal to us  as colonized peoples   my own history and the history of every indigenous person reading this paper is a case study of indigeneity   ellen lutz (2006) in beyond indigeneity     says indigenous peoples  figure 41 interpretation of traditional form xwemelch’stn etsímxwawtxw school (© 2004 patrick reid stewart)   figure 43  government planners kicked off-reserve for    clearcutting   shubenacadie first nation     nova scotia  (© 1982 patrick reid stewart) figure 42 natural context   shubenacadie first nation     nova scotia  (© 1982 patrick reid stewart)  67   ... are subject to domination and exploitation within national political and economic structures that are commonly designed to reflect the interests and activities of the national majority          this discrimination      injustice     domination     and marginalization violate [our] human rights as peoples/communities     threaten the continuation of [our] cultures and ways of  life and prevent [us] from being able to genuinely participate in deciding on [our] own future and forms of development” (p 1 )  we still do not know freedom the idea of freedom is but an elusive dream  i don’t think i will know freedom45 in my lifetime   hence the need for action  life as an indigenous person in this country is a life of struggle for freedom life as an indigenous architect is a life of asserting indigenous culture  so people will know  we as indigenous peoples are still here  as long as i practice architecture  “that’s what is going to tell people that we haven’t died... people will know that we’re not going away”        we are not the “vanishing race” as some would like46  we can still be warriors      this is my struggle  my mission  my passion                                                            45 first nations peoples in this country are still wards of the federal government   46 federal government policy on the colonization of this country was and still is greatly influenced by one man who wrote “our objective is to continue until there is not a single indian in canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic and there is no indian question, and no indian department” – (duncan campbell scott, superintendent of indian affairs 1923-1932) 68   it is important as indigenous architects that we push colonizing boundaries / never accept the status quo / seek spatial justice47 / privilege indigenous peoples knowledges in our approach to design          spatial justice     as conceived by edward soja (2010)     defines a geography that sees an equitable distribution of resources     services and access as a basic human right         in the design of buildings  whether a wilp [house]     huwilp [residential buildings]     wilp-siwilaaks [school] oo [or] wilpgalts ap [community hall]     manifesting indigenous knowledge  plays an important role of informing how the indigenous community  the architectural profession   and the broader public perceive indigeneity   the project photographs taken by my office shown in figure 44 to 55 reflect some of our attempts of portraying indigeneity between 1995-2012 and continue to be subject to further research and writing the design interpretation of the stó:lō  resource centre shown in figure 44 is based upon a historic longhouse called “watery eaves”     there are heavy timber columns throughout the three storeys as cultural signifiers of indigeneity carved     wooden male and female welcome figure are located at the main entrance     with arms held high as a gesture of welcome to visitors                                                                figure 44  stó:lō resource centre (© patrick r stewart architect 2010) reprinted with permission 69    gingolx [kincolith] community hall shown in figure 45 is the largest community hall in the nisga a nation      it has a seating capacity for 1000 people       the structure is steel frame   with wood cladding and heavy timber columns it is built on the location of two previously burned down halls        the site was blessed prior to any construction and a sprinkler system installed     an imperative lacking in the two previous halls due to budget constraints  figure 46 shows the aboriginal patients lodge located in east vancouver       it is apartment style  accommodations for people coming into vancouver for extended medical treatment        it won a 2008 united nations good practice          award and a 2006 canada mortgage and housing          corporation best practice award   the stó:lō  elders lodge shown in figure 47 was the first housing project built in british columbia on federal land completely funded by the provincial government    it consists of fifteen one bedroom apartments of assisted living       figure 45 gingolx community hall (© patrick r stewart architect 2010) reprinted with permission figure 46 aboriginal patients lodge (© patrick r stewart architect 2005) reprinted with permission  figure 47 stó:lō  elders lodge (© patrick r stewart architect 2007) reprinted with permission 70   figure 48 shows the interior central curved hallway with heavy timber throughout       there are clerestory windows above the entire length of the central hallway       the light along the south facing corridor is always changing  during the day and with the seasons    keeping the hallway alive      each suite has its own exterior door to a patio so that the tenant does not perceive tight control though every door and window are centrally  monitored      another feature of this building are the colour schemes     the elders said there was to be no white on the walls as it reminded them of residential school  figure 49 is an interior photo from the lobby toward the lounge and dining area      the welcome figure is there to greet the visitors as they enter the building       the heavy timber structure in the common areas evoke a cultural connection          figure 48 stó:lō  elders lodge (© patrick r stewart architect 2007) reprinted with permission  figure 49 stó:lō elders lodge (© patrick r stewart architect 2007) reprinted with permission  71   figure 50 shows one of the administrative wings of the seabird island administration and recreation building       seabird island is part of the stó:lō  nation     designed after a single slope longhouse      the project is a single storey wood      frame and cedar clad with an asphalt  shingle roof building      the building  is a local labour construction project               the community hired its own people to frame and build the building    they harvested their own trees from their own property and milled it and had a neighbouring community kiln dry the lumber     they then hired three men to install the exterior siding and the heavy timber columns             the community has a long tradition in basket weaving and have design patterns for their weaving     they wanted to insert weaving patterns into the fabric of the building     so around the exterior of the building they inserted basket weaving patterns into the cedar siding as shown in figure50       they also inserted basket weaving patterns into the asphalt shingles on the roof   figure 51 shows construction of the main interior lobby floor at seabird island       the design of the lobby floor was based on a fire pit       local indigenous knowledge of the fire pit design showed the location and names of the individual           placement of the stones around the           central fire          due to funding           restrictions     the community could not build a real fire pit so they decided to create a representation of the fire in the floor      an figure 50 seabird island administration & recreation building      (© patrick r stewart architect 1996) reprinted with permiossion figure 51 seabird island administration & recreation building lobby    (© patrick r stewart architect 1996) reprinted with permission 72   interesting result of the design is seeing the elders use this location in the middle of the lobby as a place of conversation with chairs ringing around the perimeter of the fire pit         the photo in figure 52 is the interior of the image shown in figure 29       the pit house was designed based on an interpretation of historical examples of stó:lō  pit houses that we researched during the design process and as a result of our conversations with people of different stó:lō   communities       of course modern utilities such as electric lighting and heat were needed as the pit houses were used as interpretative facilities for their school program  figure 53 the dave pranteau aboriginal children s village  introduces a significant indigenous cultural impact in the urban fabric in east vancouver         with commercial units on the ground floor     there are thirteen units for foster children and their families above        the other eleven units in the building are low end of market units          the units in the building range from studio units for youth transitioning out of foster care to one four bedroom unit      figure 52  xá:ytem pithouse interior      (© patrick r stewart architect 1999) reprinted with permission figure 53  dave pranteau aboriginal children s village (© patrick r stewart architect 2012) reprinted with permission 73             indigenous cultural production  whether in art or architecture privileges indigenous peoples knowledges  materiality form memory natural resources sacred sites exist as indigenous knowledge  sacred sites exist as indigenous knowledge   for example     xá:ytem  is a sacred site of the stó:lō  nation  located east of the town of mission in the fraser valley  it is the site of a 9 000 year old village where it used to sit on the banks of the fraser river  today the village site sits approximately 500 metres from the shoreline  the site today exists because of indigenous knowledge          figure 54 is the built interpretation of traditional form as outlined by a stó:lō  elder who marked with his foot the building proportions in the sand        figure 55 is a photo of the grandfathers trapped forever in stone     singing to whomever can hear their story48                         the continued significance of nisga a places / land comes from the creation stories and occupation by ancestors since time immemorial          there is a feeling of awe as i walk along k alii aks lisims [naas river] that has been the source of food and habitat since time immemorial                                                            48  the story of the three chiefs trapped by the creator in stone because they were not teaching their skills to their people     is well known to people of the stó:lō nation figure 54  xá:ytem traditional form      (© patrick r stewart architect 2003) reprinted with permission figure 55  sacred transformer stone      (© patrick r stewart architect 2003) reprinted with permission 74                                                                                                                all of my projects use interpretations / abstractions of ancestral histories sacredness and / or environmental relationships as a medium to represent the concept of indigeneity in building design i cannot stress indigenous peoples knowledges enough: language / fire / traditional form / ways of entering / being in the space / knowing your place / singing / dancing / speaking... in the present   for the future   each of these elements encompass enormous cultural space and require life-long learning          they need to be repeated here for continued strengthening  issues that are pertinent in my architectural practice  are on the agenda for future research consideration including     indigenous identity with ancestors / places / designs    the significance of indigenous peoples knowledges      indigenous place-based design    indigenous protocols and indigenous place-based architectural education   the existence of indigenous place-making requires that we understand the relationship between the land and people   the role / importance of ancestors  the centrality of land in the culture  for example  the peoples of stó:lō  nation respect their lands as being their ancestors (stó:lō   2012)         their buildings need not physically emulate the land   but need views out onto the land     to place the building within the culture figure 56     k alii aks lisims  [naas river] (© patrick r stewart architect 2010) reprinted with permission 75     projects by indigenous architects such as tamarah begay     douglas cardinal wanda dalla-costa russell everett     ryan gorrie     rau hoskins     kevin o brien     brian porter     alfred waugh  attempt to design complementary to the land   infusing buildings / structures with the cultural  social  spiritual and political viewsoftheplanet of the indigenous peoples who use the buildings/structures acknowledging the significance of the places in which the buildings sit  in the end it is who we work for   it is our children and our children’s children that will inherit our successes and failures so we must be culturally conscious in our work i want to acknowledge that parts of this adawaak [story / chapter] were presented february 10  2012 at the 2012 ubc scarp student symposium  in a session titled  indigenous planning   and february 18 2012 in vancouver at the aaas 2012 in a session titled globalizing indigenous architecture: the power of tradition     providing for the future   closing prayer...  as we leave this adawaak and take the ideas with us…  what i want to leave behind is the injustice (stó:lō , 2001, p.xiv).  xwĕ lī qwĕl tĕl / the honourable steven l point     obc former lieutenant governor of british columbia 76   adaawaḵ  gwilaì [story / chapter three]  :  research as sagalts apkw [build(ing) a village]    Précis   This adawaak [story / chapter] contextualizes the research journey taken through this dissertation. It presents the milestones and the challenges including the contradiction of the university declaring it open for indigenous students yet not demonstrating openness to different ways of knowing or thinking at the level of the Behavioral Research Ethics Board. It presents the detail of the research process taken for this dissertation.   77     here i stand with you the reader     on the floor of the wilp and the walls are about to go up     giving form to the building     in construction     this is called a balloon frame type of construction       the heavy timbers are up and now is the time to infill         this is analogous to the research process for this dissertation       the groundwork has been laid and now is the time to look at the form of the research         this is not something that can be done alone     this is not a solitary activity        sagalts apkw is community based building     dim hlimoonim niin akhl sagalts apkw    in nisga a it means      together we will build a village           the journey to get to this point has been one of learning and discovery       when i considered entering the interdisciplinary studies graduate program i was very hesitant and my thinking was far different than where it is today        this was my second attempt at a doctoral program and the first time did not end well          i ended up frustrated     hurt and decided to walk out       at that time I felt alone     unsupported    not understood     and discriminated against               the twelve years between leaving and coming back have seen significant changes at the university and within the academy in general           there are a lot more indigenous academics on campus now than there was seventeen years ago when i first started       there is more of an air of acceptance though there is a long way to go         i first contemplated entering this doctoral program three years before i entered       i began writing a research proposal called      first nations residential schools in canada: an architecture of cultural displacement (stewart     2007)       two years later it changed to     architecture of displacement: first nations residential schools in canada (stewart     2009)   which i submitted to the university in 2010          the topic evolved into what it is today as the focus became more  78   ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick] figure 57      luugigyoo [patrick r stewart] (© patrick r stewart architect 2014)  establishing an architectural practice     sagalts apkw architecture     in british columbia in 1995     the practice focused on working with first nations communities and aboriginal organizations        expanding to saskatchewan in 1998     the firm changed its name in both british columbia and saskatchewan to     patrick r stewart architect  the firm has worked on over 120 projects in more than thirty different nations constructing over one hundred million dollars worth of buildings in the last twenty years in addition to architectural design    patrick has been involved in community development planning     recognizing that architecture begins with community context    history and planning patrick was featured in the award winning architectural film documentary by paul m rickard (2005)    aboriginal architecture: living architecture          patrick s work is also included in the architectural book by joy molnar and frank vodvarka (2013) (eds)     new architecture on indigenous lands      patrick is past chair (2005-2014) of the aboriginal homelessness steering committee for metro vancouver          he also participated in the award winning film documentary by les merson and ken villeneuve (2008)     something to eat, a place to sleep and someone who gives a damn     a film on homelessness patrick lives on tzeachten first nation with his wife     fashion designer     linda lavallee 79   concerned with the future of indigenous knowledges in architectural education rather than on historic colonial architecture             i decided on the interdisciplinary studies graduate program at the university of british columbia  as it was a local university with an international reputation of being in the top forty universities in the world49  that proposed to give me the most control over my studies        upon entering the university i asked the school of architecture        since i was a registered architect in bc     to be my home department    as a “home department” is a requirement by the university          they unfortunately had no faculty person who could / would supervise my studies       fortunately the educational studies department became my home department       my course work included a directed studies course from the school of architecture      courses from educational studies and a course from the curriculum studies department        once my course work was complete      i submitted a request to wilp wilxo oskwhl nisga a asking for their sanction (since i am nisga a) of my research proposal      i was told that my research would need to directly benefit the nisga a nation for them to sanction it and it was their position that my research only indirectly impacted wilp  wilxo oskwhl nisga a as an indigenous post secondary institute (ouch!)            once my comprehensive exams and research proposal were completed     i was admitted to candidacy and i began my application to the behavioral research ethics board       that process was unfortunately fraught with many delays as i tried to assert my creativity until i decided to fall into line and be the student who followed all the rules       at which time they approved my                                                           49 this was one of the selling points made to me as a prospective student that helped me decide ubc was going to be okay      i really had my heart set on berkeley      but now my daughter    andrea jane reid is applying for her doctorate and one of four choices is berkeley after having graduated from mcgill with her master in science    my alma mater for my master in architecture 80   research application       this is a university process that has to change       appendix one contains my response to the original rejection of my breb application         it contains my arguments and precedents         not that it mattered       they had already made their mind up to reject my application        my criticism on the process was that their rejection was not substantive        they did not question my methods or my research programme        they could not get past the punctuation         so well trained were they to follow the rules             i planned to have conversations with indigenous  architects / graduates / designers with whom i knew either  personally or had friends who knew them or i was introduced to them     they were not randomly selected          it was my intention to travel to each territory  to visit with them face to face and if they did not live in their traditional territory then to have my conversation with them where they lived and worked            the understanding we had as we sat together in our conversations  was a knowledge that this was a place of dialogue of safety     of bravery     of conscience of resistance pushing boundaries pushing the status quo out of the way      privileging indigenous knowledge       we knew we were onto to something bigger than ourselves                               on indigenous knowledge ...with indigenous knowledge    one of the key things from a spiritual aspect is how they embody building with meaning       i think that is also very important thing for anybody     no matter the client         if we want to care about our environment     care about what we do to the earth     if we embody the places we use with meaning then we may be more aware of how we impact our environment  ( a waugh      personal communication     march 13     2013)  81   ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 58 alfred waugh (© alfred waugh architect 2015) alfred waugh architect     founded in 2005     is a 100% aboriginal owned architectural practice         alfred     one of the few professionally registered aboriginal architects in canada     owns and operates the business   alfred waugh architect is an award-winning firm committed to developing solutions that reflect the culture     community and geographic region specific to each project          their designs are a direct response to site context     topography     climate regional materials and precedents          it is a highly creative and technically proficient design firm with a passion for culturally sensitive     innovative and sustainable architectural solutions            alfred waugh architect  has collaborated with and advised cultural institutions     universities         governments and communities  alfred takes pride in listening and fulfilling cultural requirements        this cultural sensitivity is combined with the alfred waugh's expertise in state of the art energy  efficient design strategies          he likes to phrase the technical aspect of his design strategy as 'lowtech-hightech' or combining tried and true native methods of working with nature with modern methods of construction  (a waugh personal communication march 19 2013) 82    when a personal conversation was not possible due to schedules or time     technology allowed an electronic face to face conversation with the use of skype     computer software that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls from computers          i wanted to at least have face to face meetings “to hear the inflection in their words       see the animation in their eyes”50  so that the spirit between us could remain as strong as possible   building stronger  relationships of collaboration in indigeneity51             the conversations with indigenous architects / graduates / designers  were a way to enter storytelling / storywork  to experience / see / touch / feel / hear / understand their theories / design process / life / challenges / understandings / teachings / recommendations before the conversations took place an email was sent asking if they would be interested in participating in the research      the text of the first email contact was as follows  hello – patrick stewart here        i hope this email finds you and yours well [if i knew them personally     i would add some personal news here] i am working on my phd at the university of british columbia     researching the use of indigenous knowledge by indigenous architects in design  i am writing to invite you to have a conversation about your use of indigenous knowledge in your work           i would like to come and visit you to hear first-hand of your experiences         i am planning to be in your area and my visit with you can be planned                                                           50 will hearst (2010) foreword  in, gary synder and jim harrison  the etiquette of freedom      p.viii  51 though sometimes unavoidable       i was advised by a medicine man / elder that electronic communication weakens the spirit between people ( d pranteau ( 1952-2012)      personal communication     august 2011)  83   around your schedule        i am flexible in my time         i would suggest a couple of hours for our visit     if you can spare me the time          i look forward to hearing from you t ooyaksiy niin [thank-you] luugigyoo patrick stewart      architect aibc  once a conversation was scheduled     an informed consent letter  (see appendix 4 [huxw tx̱alpx̱hl agu]) was sent to them along with a copy of the conversation guide (see appendix 5 [huxw kwsdinshl agu]) the informed consent letter was given to each participant personally if we met    or emailed to them if we skyped     with the request that the informed consent letter be emailed back to me         everyone was compliant with the request        the informed consent letter gave everyone the opportunity to stop the conversation at any time and withdraw from the study at any time       no one stopped the conversation or withdrew from the research          the conversation guide was shared with participants so they had knowledge of the topics that were to be discussed         i did not want to ambush anyone with any of the topics         i used the conversation guide as just that     a guide         i did not follow it verbatim but as long as the conversation covered each of the topics i allowed the conversation to flow freely       i was able to travel and have face to face conversations with alfred waugh in vancouver     ray gosselin in regina     dave thomas     cheyenne thomas     russell everett     ryan gorrie      mike robertson      destiny seymour      eladia smoke and joanne mcfadden in winnipeg      daniel glenn in seattle     brian mccormack in both clarkston washington and lewiston idaho as we walked the riverbank of the clearwater river between the two cities    and douglas cardinal at his home in ottawa           84            where i was not able to travel     i had conversations via skype with brian porter in six nations     wanda della costa in los angeles     tamarah begay in albuquerque     julio reyes aguilar in san salvador cihuatan     kevin o brien in brisbane australia and rau hoskins in auckland  aotearoa         once a conversation was complete     the voice memo from my cell phone was transcribed                         i did full verbatim transcriptions and then edited them for clarity              all the indigenous designers who participated in the conversations agreed to be identified by name      i therefore attribute all quotes throughout the dissertation using their names      as doyle (2013) affirmed in her dissertation     naming     claiming      and (re)creating: indigenous knowledge organization at the cultural interface     “this is an important element in the recognition of the importance of names and naming in indigenous contexts       it also recognizes indigenous authority and the significance of the designers’ contributions” (p  15)              85    adaawaḵ tx̱alpx̱ [story four] : conversations unpacked  Précis  This adawaak [story / chapter] presents the results of the research. Narratives of the conversations are presented for each theme. The themes of analysis include, On Being; and this is not about Heidegger,   On Becoming an Architect, On Architecture School, On Indigenous Knowledge, On Indigenous Knowledge in Design, and On Indigenous Knowledge in Design Education.    On Being; and this is not about Heidegger presents narratives about who they are, their motivations, challenges and strengths. The theme, On Becoming an Architect, presents the journey and the moments of initial inspiration for their life`s work. On Architecture School chronicles the highs and the lows of setting foot inside a European-based design education system. The theme, On Indigenous Knowledge in Design, asks the participants to share their own use of Indigenous Knowledge in their own design process. Finally, On Indigenous Knowledge in Design Education, discusses examples of Indigenous design education curricula.   In each of the themes, considerations for the results are reviewed, the implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made.86    at this point in the building process the main structure is up and the roof is being constructed        the main roof logs/beams are placed with purlins placed along each slope of the gable roof with cedar structural tongue and groove decking laid perpendicular to the purlins         on top of the structural decking is two layers of building paper and lapped cedar shingles      this will keep the rain and snow out of the longhouse      a smoke hole is cut into the roof      in these modern times     the smoke hole is designed in the manner of a clerestory roof structure with open sides to allow the smoke to escape          the roof is analogous to protection of     people     words / conversations in thinking about the conversations i had over the past eighteen months with indigenous architects and architectural graduates     there were six themes that emerged       the themes would be analogous to the  beams          i would like to say the idea of themes were my idea but that would not be correct       the idea of themes came from a un architectural source while i was reading          i say un architectural because it was a book about a poet                the book was on canadian poet and singer    and one of my heroes     leonard cohen         his book was     leonard cohen on leonard cohen (2014) and it was not leonard cohen that was the inspiration      but one of the fifty-four interviews / conversations included in the book           it was the way paul williams (1975) presented his conversation with leonard cohen that made me sit up and take notice          while reading the article i noticed that the format was significantly different from the previous transcriptions in the book       it was not presented in the typical format of question and answer pw: asks a question lc: provides an answer 87   rather      paul williams analyzed the conversation and found themes on which to present the responses given by leonard cohen       the themes included     about being a canadian / about the subject matter of the songs / about his early days / about being a novelist / about being more popular in europe than america / about critics / about ….. you get the idea      as I read this article i had an aha moment          the idea that to that date was only a loose structure in my head became a structure for presenting the conversations    table   table 3 ḵ ooìt [six] themes for research gathering / questions  research question : what do conversations with architects who are indigenous tell us about the impact of indigenous knowledges on present-day architectural design processes? themes of analysis research gathering / questions  1 [k il]      on being     and this is not                  about heidegger    tell me where you were born tell me of your tribal affiliation where do you call home? tell me about your clan affiliation tell me about your family  2 [gilp il]  on becoming an architect tell me when you first wanted to be an architect 3 [gwilaì]  on architecture school were there any challenges for you at architecture        school?  tell me your story on how you got to architecture        school  88   table 3 ḵ ooìt [six] themes for research gathering / questions (continued) themes of analysis research gathering / questions  what did you really like about architecture school?  tell me about your time at architecture school  if you could change the way architecture is taught      what would you change? 4 [tx̱alpx̱]  on indigenous knowledge  are you aware of the concept of indigenous knowledge?  5 [kwsdins]  on indigenous                        knowledge in design  if so     how do you incorporate IK into your design  process?  if not     why not  describe your latest project that used indigenous knowledge  tell me how indigenous peoples could use indigenous knowledges to create buildings that truly reflect their cultures  6 [ḵ oolt]  on indigenous knowledge                   in design education  describe how a school of architecture might  incorporate indigenous knowledge into the design curriculum  tell me your vision of a future where  indigenous students are trained as architects        tell me what actions we as indigenous   architects need to do to secure a future for   indigenous youth within this profession           the first theme in the conversation guide was all about     being          this theme in the conversation i wanted to use to access their lives       to establish a relationship     and no     it has nothing to do with existential writings of the german pholospher   martin heidegger (1889–1976) who wrote about     being (wheeler     2014) 89     ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 59  destiny seymour (© destiny seymour 2015)  destiny seymour (cree) has been working at prairie architects in winnipeg manitoba canada     for the past five years         she has contributed to a wide range of projects in terms of cultural relevance and community fit      she has experience in interior and conceptual design in such project as the learning centre at the treaty relations commission of manitoba   and        migizii agamik [bald eagle lodge     also known as the aboriginal student centre] at the university of manitoba      and   figure 60 designing with an indigenous viewoftheplanet in mind (© 2015 destiny seymour)  figure 60 shows destiny s design for the aboriginal reading room in the round at the winnipeg millenium library  the footstep patterns in the rug are aligned with the four points of the compass     with the bear footprints due north          the footprints in the rug represent the bear     wolf      deer and rabbit (d seymour      personal communication      may 1 2013) 90   k il  [1] on being  and this is not about heidegger    at the beginning of this aluugigat adawaak [indigenous story]     the context situates what follows                  each of the nineteen conversations had a context that helped explain what followed        i wanted to know where they were born      where they considered home     about their nation     about their family       this is what i considered to be about their own being    or     about being    and has nothing to do about heidegger (p  cole and p  o riley     personal communication february 13 2015)  table 4 illustrates the range of indigenous nations included in the conversations          table 4 on being on being nation a-1 mayan a-2 navajo a-3 blackfoot a-4 cree  a-5 crow a-6 cree a-7 cree a-8 maori  a-9 nez perce a-10 none declared a-11 mer /torres strait a-12 mohawk  a-13 none declared a-14 cree a-15 cree a-16 cree  a-17 cree a-18 maori a-19 dene   91   considerations  of the nineteen conversations there were seventeen people who identified a specific indigenous nation to which they belonged        there were two people who     though others identified them as indigenous    did not readily identify themselves during our conversation as belonging to a specific indigenous nation       table 4 presents the nine different indigenous nations     with eight people belonging to the cree nation    all but one currently living and working in Winnipeg         the two participants who did not readily self identify themselves as indigenous could be for different of reasons       one participant explained that her great grandmother was cree so she was unsure if she had enough indigenous blood to qualify as being considered cree          when asked if she identified with the lineage of her great grand mother    she said     “No, I don’t even”          i reminded her that she been included and accepted by the other indigenous architects and designers in the city as being indigenous           the other participant said “i identify as someone who is multiracial         so my mom is white         my dad is cree         so i don't pick one or the other         i respect both of them”         he was unwilling to privilege his indigeneity     although again      the local community of architects included him as one of them          what their personal motivations were for keeping their identity to themselves was really none of my business when we had our conversations            destiny seymour of the cree nation framed the fragility of tenure of indigenous peoples in the face of colonization by her own story [adawaak]   we are from saint peters reserve just north of selkirk     manitoba and it later became the peguis first nation          my mom is also from saint peters and she grew up in peguis     i 92   guess until she was four     no i guess five     and then she was in residential school from there           they had a farm in peguis but once they left and were taken to residential school my grandparents were unable to maintain the farm so they lost their land and moved to the city          ( d seymour     personal communication     april 30      2013)  destiny s story reflected the impact residential school had on many indigenous families                                              everyone has a different adawaak [story]    and they are not generalizable     although it is the context of everyday lives that may give an insight into the designer s personality      motivation     strength   when we spoke of our family     about our own birth     it located the conversation on a more intimate level           there were few barriers between us     when we spoke truth from the heart              remember the adawaak [story] on page 22 from douglas cardinal about his mother and her direction in douglas becoming an architect         let me relate some of my own story [adawaak]  i was born homeless under a new moon52       my mom was homeless when i was born and she was not allowed to take me from the hospital          i remained without a name for almost seven weeks as     “baby boy stewart”      (p stewart     personal communication      april 2 1952 to april 22 1954)        but was moved from the hospital twelve days after i was                                                           52 according to the 1954 calendar     the new moon was on march 4th and i was born two days later 93  born to a boarding home53          it was three months before i went to my next foster home    and eight more months before i went to my next foster home    well you get the idea         by the time i was in grade 12 i had moved nine times and went to eight different schools         i never had the feeling i belonged       by the time i was ten      i started to see the signs of my difference       i was taunted in school       i was beat up more than a few times   had my arm broken          i wondered who my family was     where i was from      i knew i did not belong to the family i lived with        my social worker was no help      i was not given an exit interview when i aged out of the system at nineteen as they were supposed to do     when they were supposed to tell me where my mother was living and that i had two brothers and three sisters       a fact that would take me another nine years to figure out for myself        do you know how hard it is to cold call names in the phone book asking     are you my mother ?          patrick reid stewart     january 25 2015       there were those with whom i had a conversation     when i listened to their voices and reread their lines in their transcription     seemed to me    sad      very uprooted    troubled     understandable          listen to russell everett s adawaak [story]                                                               53 all my file says is     boarding     but my first social worker says they called them nursery homes (d kimpton     personal communication        november 1995) 94  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 61 russell everett  (© russell everett 2013) reprinted with permission  i was born in ile-a-la-crosse     saskatchewan     so i am actually part of english river first nation where my mom was a member of and my dad is a member of berens river here in manitoba         he transferred when he married my mother     so a lot of my affiliations historically have been  through saskatchewan     northern saskatchewan     but now since i have been here almost two years i find i am getting     becoming a manitoban     is that the right word     manitoban ?     i don’t know          so i call winnipeg home now     it feels     it does feel like home because like i am an orphan     both of my parents have passed on        both sides of grandparents have passed on     so i am alone     so i always have that sense of where my mom and dad were     was sort of my home so that comfort     that security blanket is no longer there          (r  everett      personal communication     april 30     2013)  there were those whose conversations gave me a strong sense of their cultural connections            when i was born     my mother asked her grandmother : what names could you   suggest ?       granny recited three : all were famous waikato chiefs         she said your son would be entitled to any of these names because he was a direct descent from all three  95  (meaning our families genealogy linked to these chiefs)       mum chose rewi     after the waikato chief rewi maniapoto           i became very fond of my granny     and became her ‘eyes’ when her sight was failing          when we were alone she would recite to me in maori and start crying          i was too young to understand what she was saying     but knew she was reciting and connecting to her history and people          this was an emotional time for me     and as she was holding me     i would reach up and wipe her tears with my hands          i believe this is how i began my passion to draw and ultimately architecture (r thompson personal communication     november 24     2014)  implications  it was evident from some of the conversations that people struggled with their identity      this had an impact of their lives          other people struggled in their lives     and this had an impact on their education and their subsequent professional life          the fact that all the people with whom i had conversations successfully graduated from an architectural program       whether architecture or interior design       showed a great deal of inner strength and integrity  the success of indigenous peoples has been of their own creation     in the face of continued spiritual      emotional and mental colonization         i add physical colonization for those of us indigenous peoples  still living on reserve    where we remain shackled             there are structural impediments for indigenous peoples     especially children     to succeed in western society               these impediments need to be removed / resolved   96  recommendations  colonization continues to haunt indigenous peoples around the globe          there needs to be more than truth and reconciliation          whatever the answer is     it is more than just talking     and beyond the scope of this dissertation       perhaps ovide mercredi points indigenous peoples in the correct direction when he said     “no to assimilation      no to integration and no to accommodation” (o mercredi     personal communication     november 18      2014)  2 [gilp il]   on being an architect / designer   the focus of the theme    on being an architect / designer     was to elicit memories      to  return to the first thoughts      to reconnect      to the time before they were an architect            during the conversations i asked them to tell me when they first had thoughts of design or architecture      for example      destiny seymour  did not necessarily know she wanted to be an architect or interior designer at an early age but she expressed an interest in buildings from an early age  ever since i was little     you know as a little girl you get barbies     you know as your presents and stuff     well i spent more time making the house than i did play with the barbies     so i would make the houses and then it would be time to play with the barbies and then i would lose interest (d seymour     personal communication      april 30     2013)  table 5 showcases some of the earliest memories shared during the conversations 97  table 5   inspired early first design thoughts   a-1 “i spent more time making the house than i did play with the barbies” a-2 “mom decided when i was six that i was going to be an architect” a-3  “i was five when i first went out of my way to go look at buildings”  a-4 “when i was in preschool my dad told me a story about how     he said i kind of had a design instinct in me”      a-5 “as she was holding me     i would reach up and wipe her tears with my hands     i belief this is how I began my passion to draw and ultimately architecture” a-6 “it was always just drawing drawing, so wherever I end up I always knew I’d be drawing, drawing something you know, whether it was art or you know architecture is an extension of that”   though ryan gorrie would not think of architecture as a profession until he was in university    he did reach back into his childhood to find the kernel of an idea  it is interesting     i was trying to reach back in my childhood to think about what     you know how did i get here and i guess i was always just drawing     drawing     so wherever i end up i always knew i would be drawing     drawing something you know      whether it 98  was art or you know     architecture is an extension of that i think     so when i think back     yeah     that is where it started (r gorrie     personal communication     april 30      2013)  the reason i asked of when they first thought of being an architect     was to see how deep rooted were their motivations        i wanted to know if wanting to be an architect was part of their being or was it just a career choice made from a menu of other possibilities later in life     this was an important distinction to me because my becoming an architect was not a choice i made     so  much as i always knew i wanted to be an architect from the age of five    when i became conscious of the world around me     not to say i did not have memories before that     i did             but it was at this time i purposely sought out buildings and walking routes to go look at things                of course it was a different time         who would think now of a five year old going out walking just to go and see         here is my adawaak [story]         i was five years old when i first had a sense of design          it was the first time in the victoria bc  public library and i remember quite clearly i was in the reference section on the first floor near the front doors    i was looking at the books at my height   near the floor    and i found a book     i was at the library with mr taylor          he was one of the residents at the nursing home my foster family operated          he tried to get me to put the book back and take a story book he held up for me    but there was no way i was going to put that book back with all its diagrams and coloured plans (of intersections)         i did not care    this was the book i was going to take home     i remembered being fascinated by the plans and seeing the cars       when i took that book home mr taylor tried to 99  apologize for letting me bring that book home but i remember i walked right up to “my mom” and asked her to read me the story in the book      well we sat down in the living room and i remember flipping the pages with  her as she showed me the pictures      i do not recollect what she said but apparently i was satisfied with her ”story”       it was after that book that i became aware of buildings and intersections and grass boulevards     i remember in grade one i once passed what i thought was a round church that sat at a corner of the street and had a grass boulevard in front (which turns out to be harris green park)      to me that was a pleasing shape and i would go out of my way to walk to school or home to pass the church just so i could look at it     it now turns out that the church is the christian science reading room     and it is not so much round as it has a round cupola on top of a fairly rectangular building but as a six year old kid all i saw was the round shape and imagined that shape going down inside      other buildings i knew in victoria included the empress hotel     because my best friend at the time       his name was robert and his grandfather with whom he lived     worked there      figure 62 empress hotel     victoria bc francis rattenbury     architect completed 1908   100  the bc parliament buildings    craigdarroch castle   which was only a few blocks from where i lived    i also knew the eaton building downtown and its siting which pleased me        i was also in awe of what i remember as the bc hydro building     it was the tallest building i had ever seen... patrick reid stewart     january 23     2015  a very insightful adawaak from tamarah begay (navajo) shows early design skills and determination  ...i kind of had a design instinct in me     when i went to headstart    that is what they call it here in the states     headstart      he said (her father) that i designed my own plastic backpack out of plastic grocery bags and he said     “me and your mom were so embarrassed because you went to your first day of school in these plastic bags that you decided to design a backpack for yourself”     he goes     “ we felt really bad    like we couldn’t afford a backpack for you but you didn’t want to use your backpack”    and he said     “for a whole week it fell apart but you put it back together”    he goes    “i knew that you were going to be some type of designer” and i think when he found that out     he introduced me to architecture     engineering and construction             (t begay     personal communication      january 15     2015)  figure 63           craigdarroch castle          victoria bc warren heywood williams & arthur l. smith architects     completed 1890 photo released into the public domain by magnus manske july 6     2007 101  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]    figure 64 tamarah begay    aia (© tamarah begay 2015) reprinted with permission  tamarah came across the architect barbie workshops held during the 2011 aia national convention in new orleans          she became inspired           she wanted to use architect barbie to connect with navajo girls back home to teach them about architecture and design so that they would begin to learn they have career options         in 2013     begay and volunteers held three workshops called     “role model workshop: learn    design    create architecture”       the sessions drew 40 elementary     middle     and high school students (morris    2013)   rendering of monument valley port of entry welcome center master plan in utah by  ids +a           reprinted with permission102   joanne mcfadden had thoughts of her motivations looking back to why i wanted to become an interior designer     i recall at a very young age     and with stars in my eyes     that i just wanted the opportunity to make things look beautiful      now as a professional     with every new project     i have an opportunity to explore    create and experience the outcome and impact my designs have on the people who live     work and play in the spaces i create       now that is powerful...happy to say my mission has remained the same    but it has certainly evolved to a higher level of understanding and responsibility to ensure that a positive experience is part of every outcome       and when the stars are all aligned    the outcome is truly one of incredible beauty                ( j mcfadden     personal communication     may 31     2014) considerations every person with whom i had a conversation recalled an earlier point in their life when they first considered becoming an architect            there were quite a few architects who remembered very early in life that they were impacted by design in one form or another implications it appears that children at a very young age are able to understand concepts of design recommendations from their own words     it is evident that there is a lack of information on indigenous architectural role models for children      for many it was their inner drive that pushed them                there needs to be more done to provide information on careers in architecture      an 103  indigenous architecture role model program would go a long way to help children know there are career options          this role model program could actively engage indigenous architects in the schools  3 [gwilal]  on architecture school    my motivation for exploring the architectural education of those with whom i had conversations was to seek an understanding of their perceptions of their education     given the colonized european emphasis of architectural education  my own experience at architecture school was at once unreal          ending with a most agrievous display of racism            it was made clear to me by a student in my graduating studio that i did not belong there         my research and design  of first nations housing was not seen as “architecture”       my inclusion of cultural elements within the design was not considered “architecture” and i was told as much in a design crit by one of the professors    who shall not be named so his name shall pass from history patrick reid stewart     january 21 2015   the architecture school experience is different for everyone though i was interested to see if there were any commonalities       ryan gorrie was very perceptive and was able to reach down inside and describe his feelings about the schooling and rewi thompson  104  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]   figure 65 ryan gorrie     maa (© ryan gorrie     2015 reprinted with permission)  i found it really     really challenging     really emotional         i felt alone because we re so      you know     into our own projects and it really     it really pulls something out of you the education         it forces you to question what you thought it was     preconceived notions     and you know i would say     to start at the end     i would say i found a lot of myself there i guess     in the end     my final project     you know i finally pulled something       a little tidbit out of myself that came from me without anyone else influencing me     that was powerful          and i managed to find that in my final presentation     so i finished on a really good note that way          but throughout i guess     throughout the education i was sort of like     well     what is… you know i want to work with     i want to try and work with indigenous people     you know what does that look like         what does architecture look like  (r gorrie     personal communication     april 30     2013) 105  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]   figure 66     rewi thompson (© rewi thompson 2015 reprinted with permission)   My story  Everyone has their own beliefs and aspirations in life and their story of their destiny. For some this has been determined by inheritance, or by accident or by choice. For others it is a never ending journey of hope or despair   My father Bobby Thompson was from Tolaga Bay, East Coast, North Island My mother Mei Koperu was from Kopuatoroa , Horowhenua, North Island. Both were brought up in a rural and strong Maori environment.   In their youth, the bright lights of city life and employment   Lured them to Wellington were they meet and married. The first born was my sister, Ngapine . My father named her after his mother . My mother agreed to this providing the next child would be from her side of the family. At the same time my mother’s grandmother  was living with us, When I was born, my mother asked her grandmother : what names could you suggest ? Granny recited 3 : all were famous Waikato chiefs. She said your son would be entitled to any of these names because he was a direct descent from all 3. ( meaning our families genealogy linked to these chiefs.) Mum chose Rewi, after the Waikato chief Rewi Maniapoto.  (r thompson     personal communication      november 24      2014)  106  considerations for indigenous students applying to architecture school is a daunting step into the unknown            for most indigenous applicants they have not heard of an indigenous architect nor be aware of the use of indigenous knowledge in architecture          the architecture school syllabus in most cases has not incorporated indigenous knowledge into its curriculum implications indigenous students entering architecture school find it a very unreal environment       an environment that once more distances them from their culture recommendations school of architecture need to incorporate the use of indigenous knowledge in design into their curriculum    4 [tx̱alpx̱]  on indigenous knowledge    it is important to know from where      one s architecture is practiced          what one s influences are           so i asked during our conversations if they were aware of the concept of indigenous knowledge    though not all participants needed to have the question asked as it was evident from their work that their design was based on indigenous knowledge and they spoke freely about its use      rewi thompson said “remember that for maori and most indigenous cultures had no written language     so arts     crafts     carving     tattooing     weaving etc  became important elements to retain information     principles     values     stories     heritage and recording histories” (r thompson     personal communication      november 24      2014) 107  dave thomas     destiny seymour       eladia smoke were all involved in the design and construction of the aboriginal house at the university of manitoba (gorrie nd)          dave thomas has given many tours and talks about the building and its design process         the following excerpt describes the many layers of indigenous meaning in the building   there would be elders who said we want to use the school for teaching so can we have seven posts for the seven teachings and we started building           there were these visible ribs that were inside the student area so they ended up being like ten or eleven but they said can we put thirteen so we had to make some symbolic beams through there so they could talk about the thirteen moons and then right off the bat we made the entrance coming from the east and we had to talk to the university because it shifted everything off the grid          the head finance people had their opinion which was they wanted everything according to the grid but because of the elders saying we need it this way      they had to in the end       we had to compromise where we left part of it on the grid and the front part of it shifted when the whole building was supposed to be shifted           so there were discussions about that and another thing was material       we talked indigenous material and we talked about berries       and different types of material like twigs and branches and birch bark and pottery       we spent a lot of time talking about material and the meaning behind those things        how they came from the land     and vegetation      so the elders and the openness of the people who were involved       the indigenous people      really       dictated how far it would go       like this way or that way      they set the parameters      that project really came from the people              (d thomas       personal communication    april 29     2013)  108  destiny seymour was just completing her design thesis at the university of manitoba and i asked her to share her design with me  creating spaces that were inclusive and supportive and about family     and there are temporary family suites so if your mom and dad want to come to visit you     there are family suites there     and how you connect with the children with the elders and if you wanted to learn more about culture     like traditional ceremonies and things like that     an area for that     gardening     bringing in a community kitchen so that you could start looking at diet      traditional foods and how you incorporate that           so they are about little spaces and all about looking at circles and how they overlap and so in between there are all these community spaces      and that is how i address culture      that is how i interpreted it to try and do that             but a portion of it is also a memorial to residential schools and to honour students       past students      and to bring that in there because there is such a lack of awareness about residential schools (d seymour      personal communication       april 30     2013)  considerations indigenous culture is missing from the curricula of architecture schools in this country            indigenous architecture is not taught in schools of architecture in this country  there are over six hundred first nations communities in this country and many of them are taking control over their own development           the federal government no longer provides direct consulting (architecture and engineering) services to first nations    109  implications first nations communities are always needing consultants and more and more first nations communities want to work with indigenous consultants              recommendations establish a national association of indigenous architects and interior to provide support to individual practitioners   5 [kwsdins]  on indigenous knowledge in design   the history of indigenous cultures around the world contain many examples of colonization removing the indigenous culture and replacing it with one of its own making     whether it was the buildings     settlement patterns       village location       cultural artifacts    education     governance            it has been only within this generation of indigenous architects that we as designers have begun to privilege indigenous knowledge    and it has not always been easy         daniel glenn tells of work by a fellow indigenous architect in the usa  dennis sun rhodes  work is criticized all the time by the regular profession because he makes very derivative buildings of animals and stuff     which is just kind of appalling to 110  the modernist architects          it is like    how can you make a turtle-shaped building     it is like we cannot do that      (d glenn      personal communication     august 3     2014)  alfred waugh was very clear about his use of indigenous knowledge in design  what i do is     i will look at where they come from     what nation they are         i will research their background and then i will talk to them and listen to what is important to them         for example      for people in the okanagan area       it is often a 12 pole pit house or kekuli          other tribes may have a different number of poles           and so you  look at those kind of things and what the significance is of that          is it relevant to the project?           as you know     we have these architectural forms based on these structures like pit houses and they may not be applicable to a modern building but what can we draw from the past?            i think that is where the creative part comes in           you get into the actual pure typology of what the form is to the people but you also get into what is symbolically important to them and how can you translate that into built form ( a waugh       personal communication       march 19     2013)  rewi thompson saw his design process as part of the culture of the larger society  “i do not restrict myself to building types but rather focus on issues relating to  maori      sensitive to environmental     cultural      communal     health and social etc      concerns”       (r thompson personal communication november 24 2014)  111  knowing that it was the right thing to do     i started talking to a local first nation close to the school of architecture and proposed working with them to research their settlement patterns      to propose a new way to locate housing in their community     because the existing federal government solutions were not working  i first incorporated indigenous knowledge in shubenacadie first nation in nova scotia back in 1982-83 when i was working on my thesis project for my bachelor of architecture at the dalhousie school of architecture          i took my lead from the  members of the community       they knew their community    they knew what they wanted     they just needed someone to listen patrick reid stewart     january 24     2015  rewi thompson (personal communication       november 24 2014) acknowledged that any ‘gifts’ given to him by his ancestors     in the form of cultural knowledge     were ‘tools’ he could “translate and utilise to craft architectural space”       rewi s latest project that uses indigenous knowledge is a house at titirangi     for a family of four children plus the parents        the house “is sited within manuka bush on a sloping site west of auckland”      the house is “focused around an informal central living / family space...      conceptualized as part of the native bush in which the house is sited”  (r thompson personal communication      november 24 2014)      the design principles that rewi employs are listed in table 6    112  table 6 design principles used by maori architect     rewi thompson  wairuatanga the way of the spirit     the spiritual nature of a person and their relationship with the natural      other people and their environment awhinatanga the way to care for     to embrace manaakitanga the way to support     kindness towards each other kohititanga in unity and collaboration mauritanga life force or essence         binding the physical and the spiritual kohitahitanga caring and being responsible for the natural resources rangatiratanga a sense of pride and responsibility as indigenous people of new zealand  tane god of the forests  daniel glenn related how he used stories to begin the design process   i asked these homeless folks about different stories that were important to them and they were all in this kind of trailer thing that was all grouped together     trailers to make a shelter     but they had a sweat lodge structure and they were talking about how the seven buffaloes were important     the story of the seven buffalo brothers     which is the story about the big dipper and the seven stars of the big dipper and that is known as the seven buffalo brothers          so i took this story and i made that the heart of this project and so we made seven lodges basically based on the seven buffalo brothers (d glenn     personal communication     august 3     2014) considerations inclusion of indigenous knowledge by indigenous architects and designers has begun        without much institutional support from the academy and especially not from the profession 113  implications without support from either the academy or the profession     the current situation will continue on in its fractured way recommendations that support from university schools of architecture and provincial and national associations of architects and interior designers be sought by indigenous architects and interior designers  6  [ḵ oolt] on indigenous knowledge in design education    there has been indigenous curriculum developed in many different faculties in many different universities in this country        for example     the faculty of education at the university of british columbia is celebrating forty years of an indigenous teacher education program          there are indigenous law programs at many universities including the university of british columbia       indigenous law programs exist at the university of alberta      university of saskatchewan     ottawa university     university of toronto     university of western ontario     and dalhousie university           the school of community and regional planning at the university of british columbia has begun a graduate indigenous planning stream        there are also indigenous access programs designed to attract indigenous students       for example the faculties of engineering and     forestry have access programs        unfortunately architecture is lagging behind     which reminds me of a adawaak [story]       114  a few years ago i asked an elder in my community of gingolx why architecture was not seen as a career choice       he told me that since the repeal of the indian act in 1951     the communities have had to be strategic in getting their people university educated      he said they first needed lawyers to fight the government on the land question     next they needed teachers so that the children could be taught their own culture by their own people     next they needed social workers to try and prevent the flow of children being taken away from the reserves       he told me to be patient     the time will come for our people to become architects (r dangeli (1922-1997)     personal communication     may 1992)  there were those who     during the conversation     focused on structural solutions   i think the short term answer to increase enrolment is increasing the success of and resources of access programs          cause systematic change is long term           you can increase access programs but we will likely start to see increased outputs in terms of success          it is one of those things that you get     to my mind     you get more out of it than you put in right         you get a learner     and hopefully he is there for however many years depending on their track     but you are meeting your objective through it and it’s for the province of manitoba        it is good for the economy     it is good for institutions     it is good for everybody     and it is great for the student     so everybody wins          the cost per student in an access program is not astronomical ( m robertson     personal communication      may 1     2013)  there were those who focused on the student  115   we worked with a lot students and like letting them play with paper and let them move things around but just to see like how people get so involved with it and that they are creating a space that is a possibility that they have a big input in it     it is really nice to see            as a kid      i would have loved to have been able to do say a summer camp where you know you go and you see a first nations architect           i did not know back then     but for kids you have that and have those role models and see them in action and things like that       it would be really nice (d seymour       personal communication     april 30     2103) there was the acknowledgement that indigenous peoples traditional knowledge was being  taken by others who benefitted personally i mean     it [architecture school] is very much a western framework     in the way that knowledge is treated as a commodity     you pay for it      you have to earn it     and hold on to it      and it becomes very much about the individual          the thing i found     indeed still find that quite unusual     i am not sure about your people     but my people         knowledge is a collective thing     and there are still times at which you receive more knowledge     but in the end it is owned by everyone     it is not this thing where someone writes a book and then there s copyright and all these sorts of things so one of the things i really found hard recently was watching these supposed writers going to aboriginal communities     writing their stories down      and then putting them in their books which they then claim copyright     (k o brien     personal communication      november 28 2014) 116  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick] figure 67  rau hoskins (© rau hoskins 2015)  reprinted with permission Iwi: Ngā Puhi, Ngāti Wai        Hapu: Ngāti Hau             rau hoskins is a practitioner and educator working in the field of māori architecture         rau brings a rare combination of kaupapa māori design skills coupled with significant experience with urban design     research     māori housing and maori cultural     health and educational design consultancy over the last 24 years             rau is a founding director of design tribe architects (1994) specialising in the field of māori architecture particularly within cultural  / visitor     health     urban design     educational and papakāinga environments         rau is a part time lecturer at the unitec nz department of architecture and coordinates te hononga     the centre for māori architecture and appropriate technologies          rau is also the current chairperson for te matapihi national māori housing network (www.tematapihi.maori.nz)             rau completed filming (as writer / presenter) for a 13 part māori architecture television series for māori television which screened from may 2011        the series called ‘whare māori’ celebrates the best of both historic and contemporary māori buildings and ‘cultural landscapes’          ‘whare māori’ won an afta award for the best information programme at the 2011 aotearoa film and television awards       for information see     http://www.maoritelevision.com/tv/shows/whare-maori (r hoskins     personal resume      october 2014)  117  having graduated from both undergraduate and graduate programs in architecture in this country     i can state that there were no indigenous architects on faculty       nor were there any courses on indigenous design at either the school of architecture at what is now known as dalhousie school of architecture or mcgill university           as a student i adapted the design studio and any course assignments to fit my own interests in indigenous design                   for example in a second year design theory course there was an assignment to design a house in the style of a famous architect      i chose douglas cardinal         the professor questioned my choice       he wanted to know what i knew about him before he would agree to my choice       at the time in 1979     douglas cardinal was the only registered aboriginal architect in the country        of course i knew about him         i read his book       of the spirit (1977) and various articles written about him           i knew of the catholic church in red deer from photos        i wanted to explore cardinal s design theory        i built a model of a house designed in his style and used the photo lab to create a 3 minute video fly through      now unfortunately lost to time        patrick reid stewart january 15 2015                                        118           it’s about being humble      and balanced      and mostly respectful and loving and caring    and caring about whatever you did      and       so that knowledge was still there      and     i was so inspired because as they say     how can you plan for your future without planning for the future of every living things     how can you plan the future of the next generation without planning the future of your life givers     because all of these resource around you     food     clothing and shelter     are life givers     (d cardinal     personal communication     may 4     2013) ...as technology is quickly unifying the world and blending us into a mono culture     architecture becomes an important and  vital ‘symbol ’ to hand down ancestral  treasures  for future generations     but also to maintain     reinforce and celebrate cultural knowledge and identity   more importantly     these gifts of cultural knowledge and wisdom     are timeless and     as a student or architect     these gifts are given to us to protect     to test our ability     to examine     to translate     or redefine their relevancy     to make us take risks     to seek and push our cultural boundaries     possibilities     and new horizons     so that we in our time make a meaningful contribution to our built world     community and lives (r thompson personal communication november 24 2014) figure 68 st mary s catholic church douglas j cardinal architect (© 1968 douglas j cardinal architect) used with permission 119  ganimsiwilyenskw [talking stick]  figure 69  daniel glenn  (© daniel glenn 2015) reprinted with permission  i was going to not go into architecture     but i wanted to be an artist     like a writer          i told my father that and i remember this conversation          i was going to go to art school and he said     so you want to work in a coffee shop      and i was like     what?      no     i want to be an artist      and he said      well you got to make money and artists do not make money so you will work in a coffee shop     you will do your art     maybe you might make some money but why not you make architecture your art and make a living of it     that was his argument         (d glenn personal communication     august 3    2014)  considerations there are a few examples of indigenous architects working on indigenous design curriculum         in appendix k ooit [6] is the curriculum     te pare : a cultural framework by rewi thompson (2006) which is a maori cultural framework that was accepted and embedded into the school of architecture syllabus where he was teaching           in appendix t ipxoolt [7] is the curriculum     sep yama/finding country to burning city studio    by kevin o brien (2013) (mer / torres strait) who is a professor of architecture at queensland university of technology in brisbane        the genesis of the curriculum is “it is not unreasonable to suggest that clues can be found by considering the absence of property title as a 120  way of inverting the imposition of the city” based on the premise that “the ambition is to arrive at a new paradigm that argues for country as the beginning of the city      thereby countering the current condition of city as the end of country” (o’brien 2014)  appendix gandoolt [8] contains the design curriculum     learn     design     create     architecture  by tamarah begay (2013) which is an indigenous role model workshop based on the non indigenous 2011 workshop called     architect barbie sponsored by the american institute of architects  implications the more indigenous design curricula exist      the possibly for a larger impact on schools of architecture and especially the profession as the new graduates begin their careers  recommendations there is much to be done and it is this generation of architects like tamarah begay      rau hoskins     daniel glenn     kevin o brien and rewi thompson  that have started to privilege an indigenous design curriculum        in the next chapter i have outlined a course curriculum for a first year undergraduate architecture course titled     indigenous architecture and culture        the course title was from a list of proposed course that needed to be developed for the proposed school of architecture at the university of saskatchewan in saskatoon   121   adaawaḵ    kwsdins [story five] : sijap [building of community spirit] indigenous architecture and culture : a curriculum for the new school of architecture at the university of saskatchewan  Précis   Students from Saskatchewan who want to study architecture have to leave to go study elsewhere because there is as of yet no school of architecture in the province. The fact that there is no school of architecture is not due to the lack of trying. The Saskatchewan Association of Architects, the City of Saskatoon and the University of Saskatchewan have all supported the creation of a new school of architecture. This new school is to have two design streams,     indigenous design and northern building. As a strategic advisor on Indigeneity in Architecture to the new school of architecture since 2010, I have had discussions on the curriculum, Indigenous student enrollment and the mission of the school. With a lack of financial resources to develop course curricula I volunteered to develop a course curriculum for a first year undergraduate course to be called, Indigenous Architecture and Culture. This adawaak [chapter] presents a course that is to be a barrier-free aluugigat [Indigenous] community / place-based architectural course curriculum that engenders the Indigenous principles of respect, relevancy, reciprocity, reality, relationality,  and is also redistributive, responsible,  examines and explores indigenous-designed architecture and indigenous culture.122   perhaps the federal government should be brought in to negotiate with the provincial government for a new school since they were instrumental in establishing a new school of architecture in the gambia in west africa (wanzel 2014)  this chapter will underline the importance of the right to be different and the extent of work to be done as an indigenous architect          side stepping the whole discussion of government defined aboriginality          i privilege indigeneity          aboriginality on the other hand is but a power relationship that has become “progressively governmentalized” (foucault 1982) in which the government s power “is both individualizing and a totalizing form of power” (foucault 1982)           in studying how human beings are made subjects     foucault could have been writing about the intent of the canadian government and its indian act  “...they attack everything, which separates the individual, breaks his links  with others, splits up community life, forces the individual back on himself, and ties him to his own identity in a constraining way” (p 781)  indigenous peoples struggles are “against the government of individualization” (foucault 1982)      against domination (ethnic / social / religious) and exploitation     which separates indigenous peoples from what their land produces          privileging / resistance is therefore in our architecture           in an earlier paper i wrote     “life as an indigenous architect is a life of asserting indigenous culture     so people will know     we as indigenous peoples     haven t died” (stewart 2010a)          which contextualized the practice of architecture          this dissertation has as one of 123  its goals is to privilege indigenous culture / knowledge / architecture as voice              the task is to produce an indigenous architecture as voice          fyre jean graveline (1998) believes that “ decolonization requires and allows reclamation of voice        voice is a complex     multifaceted     multilayered process       traditionalists believe in the power of expression through voice – words are believed to be sacred (p 41)”          wheeler (1992) also believes that  “...beyond art     voice determines the survival of a people     for without voice     the people will perish          when art becomes voice     the writer / artist / storyteller also faces the responsibility of achieving excellence within that art...” (pp 42-43) 124  in finding that voice  breinbach and nyiri (2009) suggest we look to the international community    who     without the cooperation or support of  c\a\n\a\d\a     signed the un declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples : “under article 12 of the un declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples, “indigenous peoples have the right to their cultural traditions and customs. This includes... sacred sites, designs, ceremonies, technologies and performances. Their cultural property shall be returned to them, if it was taken without their permission” (p  230)  as indigenous architects     working within indigenous communities      for indigenous peoples      we have a mandate to find our voice to “achieve excellence” (wheeler 1992)          though all levels of government in this country have worked to marginalize indigenous peoples          tator    henry and mattis (1998)    report that the writings of bell hooks inspire from a site of possibility and change           this is one of the ways that we as architects are political          in an advocacy role       pushing for change 125   “... as bell hooks (1990) points out, the margin should not be viewed solely as a site of exclusion and oppression. It can also be a site of possibility, the catalyst for “radical perspectives from which to see and create, to imagine alternatives, new worlds”... (p.150), and for transforming change. Marginality itself becomes a strategy in the construction of one`s own identity as well as a sense of collective identity. Those who are obligated to negotiate both ‘margin and centre’ are well placed to deconstruct dominant discourses and systems of representation (ibid.).” (tator, henry and mattis:42-43).  we see in tator et. al., that indigenous peoples becoming architects have an obligation to “deconstruct discourses and systems of representation”     we need to look beyond what we learned in architecture school because architecture school curriculum in this country up to the present time has been very circumscribed within a euro-american worldview the question      how does one “indigenize” a curriculum for a school of architecture?  philosophy/viewoftheplanet this course is to be a barrier-free indigenous [aluugigat]  community / place-based architectural course curriculum that is respectful / relevant /  reciprocal / real / relational / redistributive / responsible examining / exploring indigenous-designed architecture and indigenous culture           there is a need for a course like this    especially at the university of saskatchewan if they are wanting to start a new school of architecture with one of its main design streams being indigenous architecture  126  information that is at the core of indigenous architecture includes an indigenous/  ecological approach to understanding the interdependence of elements and processes in the natural world (castellano     2004)  instructional methodologies a community / place-based indigenous approach to architectural course curriculum will be a student centered outcome-based approach that will include     but not be limited to indigenous protocols-governance-culture-languages-peoples- / course description-expression- graphic / organization-creativity / learning outcomes-subjectives-balance / topics-plateaus / texts-orality / reading-oral-graphic-environmental / lists-circles / supplies-language / evaluation criteria- possibilities / expectation-freedom / schedule-space-place  learning outcomes / subjectives / balance  at the end of the course     the learner should be able to:  be respectful/relational/responsible/realistic/reciprocal/wholistic/creative/critical thinkers   demonstrate/apply community/place-based protocols   be knowledgeable about current/traditional indigenous designs/forms   illustrate an indigenous design process   recognize/recall differences in art forms  express themselves graphically and verbally 127   construct/design indigenous spatial concepts  evaluate/critique/synthesize writings on architecture and indigenous culture   teaching / instruction outcomes before / during / after the course     architecture faculty will:  demonstrate a responsibility to encourage respectful/relational/responsible/realistic student learning / thinking   know the reality that many indigenous students speak english as a second language  know that indigenous students have experienced cultural barriers / discrimination as indigenous people / aluugigat in this country  know that indigenous students are looking for courses that affirms their culture / themselves as indigenous human beings / peoples / aluugigat  understand that indigenous students have experienced a lack of affirmation of their indigenous language / culture   know that indigenous students have experienced in one form or another the inter-generational effects of residential school  understand that indigenous students have experienced a public education system that had lower expectations on them than on non-indigenous students  understand that non-indigenous students are searching for a worldview that affirms them as human beings  learn that non-indigenous students are dissatisfied with current curriculums in architecture 128   know that non-indigenous students do not know the indigenous history of their community / province / country / world  know that non-indigenous students have had a better elementary / secondary school education than indigenous students  protocols this curriculum is based upon respectful protocols for barrier-free (prerequisite-less) indigenous community / student / practitioner involvement in the study and practice of indigenous architecture   protocols to be respected include:  gifts of indigenous medicines (cedar / sage / sweetgrass / tobacco) to honour peoples help / words / participation  indigenous elders as a curriculum advisory body   access to land and discussion with peoples living in indigenous communities  participation by indigenous architects / architectural profession  access to and participation by indigenous academics at the university of saskatchewan  schedule / space / place / course content / course description / expression  129  in this course students will study / learn / start conversations with indigenous knowledges by examining indigenous ways of life     including indigenous viewsoftheplanet     land     languages      spirituality     technology     architecture  community planning / protocols          indigenous-designed architecture     community planning interiors     sculpture    painting     ceramics     basketry     photography     literature     science and fashion          students will examine / analyze indigenous  languages and see how they augment their understanding of indigenous history     culture community      planning     architecture          course activities will include community site visits / case studies     discussions / presentations     readings / writing / drawing guest lectures and film  essential / required readings the required readings listed below     are available online through the course website     except for week 8 required reading which is available in the library or in the bookstore          readings are to be done prior to the class to which they are assigned supplemental/additional readings these readings supplement the required readings and can inform / provide insight to your weekly journal writings or your research / writing / design final project  participation participating in class allows you the opportunity to safely / respectfully present your ideas     reflections     insights     questions as practice prior to working in an office          you are asked to be in class / on site on time     prepared to discuss readings     events     ideas     projects 130     journal notes each week you will hand in your journal notes of a minimum of 250 words          the purpose of the journal is to give you the opportunity to safely / respectfully / confidentially share your thoughts     reflections and insights about the readings     discussion     films     site visits     guests     designs      film reviews you will be expected to write a review of the films seen in class     this will be a four page (250 words / page) review / analysis / critique of the film  final research  / writing / design project this project allows you to explore in some depth a topic that interest you either from the weekly discussions     readings or another topic of your choice      consulting first with the instructor          it must be related to the larger theme of the course     indigenous architecture / indigenous culture a one page outline is to be handed in by week 5          scope and length of final project to be agreed upon with the instructor 131   code of conduct / plagiarism please familiarize yourself with the university regulations concerning academic misconduct (i.e. plagiarism) and other offences of conduct (i e  racism     discrimination      harassment     violent or threatening behaviour)           please remember to give credit to those with ideas that you choose to use  the following is a weekly schedule of readings / activities         please note that course grading will be on a pass / fail criteria          there will be no letter grades although your student file will contain an evaluation of your successes and challenges   ganuutkw k il [week 1]: introduction to indigenous architecture and indigenous knowledges   required reading: archibald, jo-ann (2008). the journey begins. in jo-ann archibald, indigenous storywork  (pp. 1-33). vancouver: ubc press.  brayboy, bryan mckinley jones and emma maughan (2009). indigenous knowledges and the story of the bean. harvard educational review, 79, 1-21.  stewart, patrick r. luugigyoo (2010a). it’s indigenous, not aboriginal. unpublished commentary,  architecture 545, school of architecture, university of british columbia. 132   additional reading: fantin, shaneen (2003). aboriginal identities in architecture. architecture australia. september /  october.    ganuutkw gilp il [week 2]: indigenous viewoftheplanet: land / language / spirituality / culture  1st class trip to local first nation community required reading: barnhardt, r., & kirkness, v. (1991). first nations and higher education: the four r’s – respect, relevance, reciprocity, responsibility. . journal of american indian education, vol. 30(no. 3), pp. 1-15.  kawagley, oscar and ray barnhardt (1999). education indigenous to place: western science meets native reality. in, gregory smith and dilafruz r. williams (eds). ecological education in action: on weaving education, culture and the environment (pp. 117-140). new york: suny press. wilshire, bruce (2006). on the very idea of “a worldview” and of “alternate worldviews”. in jacobs, don trent (ed.), unlearning the language of conquest (pp. 260-272). austin, tx:  university of texas press. 133   wilson, waziyatawin angela (2004). reclaiming our humanity: decolonization and the recovery of indigenous knowledge. in, mihesuah and angela waziyatawin wilson (eds.) indigenizing the academy: transforming scholarship and empowering communities. lincoln: university of nebraska press.  ganuutkw gwilal [week 3]: indigenous protocols / governance / culture / languages / peoples place-based architecture   required reading: christiansen, steen. transgressing borders: the aesthetics of cultural resistance. new mappings. http://www.newmappings.net/research/transgressing-borders.  johnson, jay t. (2010). place-based learning and knowing: critical pedagogies grounded in indigeneity. geojournal. published online 19 august 2010. doi: 10.1007/s10708-010-9379-1 ruitenberg, claudia (2005). deconstructing the experience of the local: towards a radical pedagogy of place. in kenneth r. howe (ed.), philosophy of education 2005. retrieved from http://ojs.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/pes/article/viewfile/1623/357 134   ganuutkw txalpx [week 4]: the place / space of storytelling required reading: archibald, jo-ann (2008). coyote searching for the bone needle. indigenous storywork: educating the heart, mind, body and spirit (pp. 35-57). vancouver: ubc press.  ganuutkw kwsdins[week 5]: indigenous architecture one page outline of final research / writing / design project due. required film: aboriginal architecture: living architecture (film)  ganuutkw k oolt[week 6]: body & memory of colonization  required reading: leuthold, steven (1998). aesthetics and the expression of identity, pp. 14-27. in,  indigenous aesthetics: native art, media and identity. austin: university of texas press.   ganuutkw t ipxoolt [week 7]: languages and history / culture / architecture / community / planning required reading: 135  cajete, gregory (2000). art as a means of ceremony and transformation (pp.46-52). in, native science: natural laws of interdependence. sante fe: clear light publishers, 2000.   ganuutkw gandoolt[week 8]: indigenous design process  required reading: cardinal, douglas and jeannette armstrong (1991). the native creative process: a collaborative discourse between douglas cardinal and jeanette armstrong.  photographs by greg young-ing. penticton: theytus books. pages: 127.     ganuutkw kwsdimoos [week 9]: indigenous realism in architecture  required reading: frampton, kenneth (1983). towards a critical regionalism: six points for an architecture of resistance. in hal foster, the anti-aesthetic: essays on postmodern culture. (pp.16-30). port townsend wa: bay press.   tzonis, alexander (2005). the never ending challenge of regionalism. lecture given at the university of cordoba. retrieved from http://www.tzonis.com  136  additional reading frampton, kenneth (1983b). prospects for a critical regionalism. perspecta, 20, 147-162.  frampton, kenneth (1983c). regionalism, a discussion with kenneth frampton and trevor boddy. the fifth column, summer, p.53.  tzonis, alexander (2006).  peaks and valleys (by architecture) in a flat (digital) world. lecture given at the symposium “cultures of design,” bauhaus-universität weimar. retrieved from http://www.tzonis.com      ganuutkw xbil [week 10]: haptic perceptions and indigeneity required reading: lokko, lesley naa norle (n.d.). body.memory.map. sites of memory iii [abstract]. retrieved from http://www.arch.virginia.edu/site-mem/abstract3.html   o’neill, maire eithne (2001). corporeal experience: a haptic way of knowing. journal of architectural education 55/1, 3-12.  137  pallasmaa, juhani (2005a). the eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses. chichester, west sussex: john wiley & sons ltd.  additional reading:  herssens, jasmien and ann heylighten (2007). haptic architecture becomes architectural hap.    retrieved from http: //nordiskergonomi.org/nes2007/cd_nes/.../a34_herssens.pdf  mahiques, myriam (2009). essay on haptic perception. blog, pp.5. retrieved from   http://myriammahiques.blogspot.com/2009/10/essay-on-haptic-perception.html  pallasmaa, juhani (2005b). touching the world – architecture, hapticity and the emancipation of the eye. retrieved from http://www.enhsa.net/downloads/2005proceedings/ 06pallasmaa.pdf   ganuutkw xbil di k il[week 11]: indigenous architectural practices required reading:  cajete, gregory (2000). a sense of place. in, g. cajete, native science: natural laws of interdependence (pp. 177-213). santa fe, nm: clear light publishers. o'riley, patricia (2003). preamble. in, technology, culture, and socioeconomics: a rhizoanalysis of educational discourses (pp. 1-22). new york: peter lang.  138  ganuutkw xbil di gilp il [week 12]: class presentations preparation benedikt, michael (2009). on the role of architectural criticism today. journal of architectural education 62(3), 6-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1531-314x.2008.00253x   ganuutkw xbil di gwilal [week 13]: final class presentations/critiques research / writing / design project due /  individual crits in front of class members and invited critics evaluation of student learning / expectations / freedoms using the weekly readings / class participation     journal submissions     class presentations     a research / design project     final class presentation and portfolio approach54      student learning will be reviewed and a plan for continued performance will be designed in consultation with the elders / student assignment value due date weekly attendance  / participation / community site visits/case studies 15% every week journals/readings/writing/drawing 15% every week research / writing / design project 45% last class final class presentation/critique 5% as scheduled portfolio 20% last class                                                           54  presentation of a portfolio of work (graphic/written/verbal/film) is evidence of skill/performance/learning (berlach ,1997). 139  evaluation of instruction the instructional evaluation techniques will include:  student ratings of instruction   review of student work   anecdotal comments, letters, and records   peer review of course outline  the school of architecture will regularly review  all aspects of the course for the purpose of making changes and improvements to the course. evaluation of curriculum evaluation of the course curriculum will: • identify aspects of the course curriculum that are working and those that need to change • assess the effectiveness of changes that have already been made • demonstrate the effectiveness of the current course •  meet regular architecture school review requirements •  satisfy professional architectural association accreditations evaluation of curriculum based on community needs     traditional culture and language      and indigenous process models will be accomplished through     end-of-course conversations with community participants / elders / students     on-line feedback forms      annual  140  student / staff / faculty / community conversation      interviews with staff / faculty / elders and review of community-based55 and university-based indicators  closing prayer cardinal (1977) implores us to action / work / play / write / speak / read all we can do to ensure life will continue  we the people of the land will send our chiefs to virgin land,  where we will gather together and sit in deep meditation. we will weep for the lost herds of the buffalo. we will weep for the  destruction of the animals, the birds and the fish. we will weep for the destruction of the earth, the land which was ours. we will  weep for the poisoning of the air which we breathe. we will weep for the poisoning of the water which we drink. we will weep for the destruction of our spirit and our pride and we  will contemplate those people who have controlled our destiny and the destiny of our life givers for the past few hundred years. we will weep for the destruction of life and the life givers,  for we are life56 and when our life givers, our environment, is destroyed we too are destroyed. (p. 119).                                                             55 these will be created in partnership with members of the selected indigenous community 56 my italics 141     adaawaḵ   ḵ oolt [story six] : saa bax [the end]  conclusions / recommendations  Précis This adawaak [story/chapter] presents the conclusions and recommendations for this dissertation, recognizing that the work is ongoing and will never really be finished as long as Indigenous peoples in this country live under a government / system / rule of colonization. Through the conversations with Indigenous architects and designers, it is evident that motivations for being architects and designers varies. Looking for a link between the age a person knew they wanted to be an architect and use of Indigenous Knowledge in design would be interesting         i see something there     but it as yet an unproven theory There is much that can be done to privilege Indigenous architecture such as an Indigenous Architect Role Model program; advocating to schools of architecture in this country to include Indigenous Knowledge in their design curricula including specific Indigenous course development; advocating partnerships between schools of architecture and Indigenous organizations; and, advocating to provincial and national architectural associations, the association of collegiate schools of architecture (acsa), national architectural accreditation board and the national association of students of architecture (nasa). 142  as i walk into the longhouse    i look around and i see the journey          i see the distance i have come on this journey through the construction of the longhouse and i see the site  and the beauty       which is the understanding of the lack of indigenous knowledge in design       i can sense the foundation beneath my feet     the gravel     the logwork     as the foundation     for the words           for the introduction     to the issues     the history of colonization embedded in the foundation          i can see the floor i am walking on     and i know i am starting to sense the framing of the discussions     i see the walls     and the vertical log structure     as it starts to hold up the roof structure     i begin to sense the discussion of how colonization has affected indigenous knowledge in design and construction          i look up at the ceiling and roof beyond     the skylights     and i get a sense of closure     of completion     of protection of finalization of words      once the conversations were complete the words / visions between us were transcribed and their content analyzed  visual analysis was carried out on the physical experience of visiting / seeing / touching / feeling  architectural works  as well as other graphic material supplied by the architects  textual and graphic material / findings are summarized and discussed with those who participated in the conversations enumerating the implications and recommendations for moving forward  the results of the conversations formed the basis for the recommendations made toward future research / curriculum / professional practice   conclusions summarize the research process and findings      hopefully pointing a practical way forward for the next generation      from the conversations with indigenous architects and designers     the impact of indigenous knowledges on present day architectural design processes are at once relevant      respectful      redistributive     reciprocal      responsible     reflective       relational     and yet 143  suffer from the impact of colonization and are therefore always changing and subject to further research for the next generation to know what the findings imply and what to do with them      they    as  readers      become the site of inter generational meaning for indigenous peoples knowledges              for example    the relevance of indigenous knowledges to ecological responsibility knowing that environmental knowledge is  contingent on indigenous knowledge, and specifically an indigenous place-based approach to architecture provides specific ecological benefits (e g      knowledge of site and prevailing climate       source and use of local materials        knowledge of which materials are suited to place     climate and use) having now built the longhouse we need to think about what is next in the process        in the days before the intruders landed on our shores     our villages were laid out with each longhouse gable end facing the water         there were no windows     only a smokehole in the roof to let the smoke from the fires escape        after colonization     many longhouses were torn down and western style houses built       it was an attack on our culture       now it our turn to tear down the western style houses / design paradigm  and rebuild and privilege our own indigenous knowledges   the dissertation began with a prayer       contextualising its use and privileging an indigenous viewoftheplanet           writing in the format of nisga a oral tradition i explained the use of story and narrative as an indigenous methodology and the nature of the experimental     decolonizing     deconstructive writing style the impact of colonization was discussed      contextualizing the use of indigenous knowledge in design     arguing that identity and architecture impact each other         the process 144  of building a longhouse was introduced as an indigenous methodology for the framework of the dissertation within the context of orality     storywork     visual / built form and hapticity            adawaak k il [story/chapter one] stated indigenous architecture exists as ceremony primarily because indigenous design methodology is based in protocol contextualizing indigenous place-based knowledge which is focused on the relationship of things and persons one to another through power and place           this chapter also considered traditional form and its strength  inherent in being indigenous          design research / inquiry  was considered a necessity for development and expression of indigenous design theory     drawing upon the thinking of those that came before to frame an indigenous architectural  theory as ceremony          it is through the use of place-based indigenous knowledge and traditional indigenous forms that articulate the principles of indigenous design  adawaak gilp il [story/chapter 2] contextualized indigenous knowledge within an architectural context using the example of the nisga’a creation story recounting the first construction in the nass valley         a narrative showed how indigenous villages in british columbia pre date the egyptian pyramids by thousands of years and as historical precedent           need to be included in architectural school curricula in this country         a chronological review of regional identity in design precedent was traced from greek occupation in egypt and pakistan and shown through the writings of vitruvius     violet le duc john ruskin     louis mumford     kenneth frampton and alexander tzonis     arguing that the time has come for indigenous identity in design to be acknowledged  a discussion was presented about the challenging circumstances of indigenous peoples in this country and how it has affected the education of indigenous children and why there are not more indigenous students in architecture      this can change 145  adawaak gwilai [story / chapter 3] contextualized the research journey taken through for this dissertation          it presented the milestones and the challenges including the contradiction of the university declaring it open for indigenous students yet not demonstrating openness to different ways of knowing or thinking at the level of the behavioral research ethics board adawaak txalpx [story / chapter 4] presented the narratives of the conversations of each theme           the themes of analysis included     on being; and this is not about heidegger     on becoming an architect     on architecture school     on indigenous knowledge     on indigenous knowledge in design and on indigenous knowledge in design education   on being; and this is not about heidegger presented narratives about who they are     their motivations     challenges and strengths       it was here that an inkling of a relationship between the age a person first wanted to be an architect and them being able to articulate acceptance/use of indigenous knowledge in design            the theme     on becoming an architect     presented the journey and the moments of initial inspiration for their life s work         on architecture school chronicled the highs and the lows of setting foot inside a european-based design education system          the theme     on indigenous knowledge in design     asked the participants to share their own use of indigenous knowledge in their own design process          finally     on indigenous knowledge in design education     discussed examples of indigenous design education curricula.   the recommendations that end this research     are based on the narratives of each of the six themes     and are very actionable and would go a long way to establishing the use of indigenous knowledge in design           as i began my doctoral studies     the research ideas were competing for attention as shown in figure 70  146   figure 70      wordcloud of research concepts57  having now completed my doctoral studies    there is a more actionable path forward       hopefully in collaboration and so it recommended that as indigenous architects    we... 1 seek the opportunity to reach out and partner with other indigenous organizations in this country to explore moving the discussion beyond truth and reconciliation because colonization affects us all  2 create an indigenous architects role model program to benefit indigenous school age children to know there are professional indigenous people who care                                                            57 wordcloud created february 19 2015 at http://www.jasondavies.com/wordcloud/# 147  3 advocate to schools of architecture the need to incorporate the use of indigenous knowledge in design into their curriculum      nancy mackin (2004) cited sim oogit [chief] alvin mckay saying that “important knowledge needed to be kept in active use” (p 233)        the design process becomes a conduit for keeping indigenous knowledge alive  4 establish a national association of indigenous architects and interior designers to provide support to individual practitioners  5 lobby for support from university schools of architecture and provincial and national associations of architects and interior designers to recognize / acknowledge the use of indigenous architecture through the use of indigenous knowledge  6 develop indigenous architecture and culture course curricula to be added to the schools of architecture syllabi across this country  for any of you indigenous architects / designers who have read this dissertation and want to pursue the recommendations     let me know it has been an honour to work on this project with you     the reader          to be sure though the work is not yet complete       this is but the sit aawks [start of something] sii [new]           it was apparent through this journey that this dissertation would not contain all material gained through the conversations held over the last two years     but provide the framework for research          writing and conversations yet to come          148  if i can think for a moment about the significance of my writing for all the readers who do not / will not / cannot conform to the dominant majority     this has been for you    for us      for nancy     who was told in architecture school that she “had to learn to design like a man”     who began reading books about architecture and plants at age three         in her own words     “hard to find one s voice when a soprano is being told to sing basso profundo [italian: deep bass]”  (n mackin     personal communication     february 19 2015) as i close this adawaak [story / chapter] i want to acknowledge the tremendous support of time       conversation      ideas and work shared by all those indigenous designers who spent time with me over the past couple of years     t ooyaksiy nisim [thank you all]  149  closing prayer as we leave this first conversation on indigenous architecture through indigenous knowledge     i thank you    the reader     for your support     contributions     and openness to stay through this journey         stay safe in your travels     inside your head and 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Unpublished Commentary, Architecture 545, School of Architecture, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Stewart, Patrick R. (2010b).  The use of indigenous place-based knowledge in architectural design. Unpublished Paper. EDST 508A, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Stewart, Patrick R. (2012).  Conversations with indigenous architects on turtle island. Doctoral research proposal. Unpublished. Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies Program. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Stó:lō  Nation (N.D.). Stó:lō  nation site tour source book. Chilliwack: Stó:lō  Nation.  Stó:lō  Nation (2001). A Stó:lō -coast salish historical atlas. Vancouver: Douglas and Mcintyre. Stó:lō  Nation (2012). Man turned to stone: T’xwelatse. Chilliwack: Stó:lō  Nation and The    Reach Gallery Museum.  Tator, Carol, Frances Henry and Winston Mattis (1998). Challenging racism in the arts: case studies of controversy and conflict. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  Thompson, Rewi (2006). te pare : a cultural framework. [Course curriculum].  School of Architecture, Faculty of Creative Arts, University of Auckland, New Zealand. 166  Till, Jeremy (2009). Here, there and north of nowhere. Building Material, 18, 15-18. Turner, A. Richard (1982). In, Horst Waldemar Janson. Renaissance Quarterly, vol.35, no.4 (Winter 1982), pp. 672-673. Retrieved from doi: 10.2307/2861406 Two Row Architect (1999). The iroquoain village and interpretive centre. Retrieved    from http://www.tworow.com/selectprojects.html United Nations (2008). The declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. Geneva: United   Nations. Wanzel, Grant (2014). Gambia Gambit. Canadian Architect, 59(10), 34. Weisman, Leslie K. (1994). Discrimination by design: A feminist critique of the man-made environment. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Wheeler, Jordan(1992). Voice. In, Per Brask and William Morgan (Eds). Aboriginal Voices: Amerindian, Inuit and Sami Theater. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, p.37-43. Wheeler, Michael (2014). Martin Heidegger. In, Edward N. Zalta (Ed.).  The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall). Retrieved February 20 2015 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/heidegger/  Williams, Paul (1975). Leonard Cohen: The romantic in a ragpicker’s trade. In, Jeff Burger (ed.) (2014). Leonard Cohen on Leonard Cohen: Interviews and encounters. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, pp. 81-95. Originally published in Crawdaddy! March 1975. Wilshire, Bruce (2006). On the very idea of “a worldview” and of “alternate worldviews”. In Jacobs, Don Trent (ed.), Unlearning the language of conquest (260-272). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 167  Wilson, Shawn (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing. Wilson, Waziyatawin Angela (2004). Reclaiming our humanity: Decolonization and the recovery of indigenous knowledge. In, Mihesuah and Angela Waziyatawin Wilson (eds.) Indigenizing the academy: Transforming scholarship and empowering communities. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Wilson, Waziyatawin Angela And Michael Yellow Bird (2005). For indigenous eyes only: A decolonization handbook. Sante Fe: School Of American Research.                                                              168   appendix one [huxw k ilhl agu]:  response to the behavioral research ethics board (breb) provisos        the following letter was my response to the breb committee at the university of british columbia upon their initial rejection of my application         the original application was filled out online written in a style similar to the one contained in the following letter       the text of the letter is reproduced here in its entirety in the same font as submitted    except that all personal information has been removed for the safety of those involved (k kadakawa     personal communication february 20     2015)   july 20     2012  the university of british columbia office of research services behavioural research ethics board  re: provisos of h12-01189 indigenous architecture : indigenous knowledge (version 0.1)   dear   __________  ,   after discussion with my doctoral committee, my committee chair recommended I write this letter of response to our breb application, known to you as h12-01189          based on the interpretation by the breb reviewer of my proposed research      i feel it necessary to outline the context and explain the format and writing style  the proposed research is part of my dissertation research          i am of the nisga’a nation     a father of seven     a grandfather of soon to be two     a husband       a registered architect in bc and 169  past-president of the architectural institute of bc         as a way of introduction to my research      i say the following  luugigyoothl way̓ gisk’ahaast  n̓iiy  wilp daaxan n̓iiy̓ git gingolx nisga’a n̓iiy̓ the translation in english of what you have just read in nisga’a is    my name is fish already in the creek of the killer whale house of daaxan from the place of skulls in the valley of eating  i have learned from my elders in the nisga’a nation that introducing oneself is to start a relationship off in a good way / it is proper protocol  as it appears necessary to explain my writing style / format            i am including the following 1250 word excerpt from my dissertation prologue60  and     in the event that it was not yet reviewed  a copy of my dissertation research proposal was/is attached to my breb application        it is written in this same style and no comment is made about it in the review          in creating the necessary space for narrative/story in this dissertation       the words will sit on paper as if  being spoken     and should be read as if heard  there will be little adherence to dominant/privileged/temporal  forms of punctuation    there will be no distinction between upper case and lower case letters  no use of commas  periods61     semi colons  or colons in the body of the text  there may be use of brackets   if i need to whisper to you           there will be commas     periods and brackets  in reference to other works         there will be use of emphasis and respect for works of writing especially other writers who are celebrated in their use of alternative / experimental  writing styles / forms  such as ezra pound’s      the cantos  charles olson’s      the maximus poems      robin blaser’s      the holy forest  bp nichol’s     the martyrology and bill bissett’s      what fukan theory: a study uv language (peters, 2011)           as an indigenous writer in english   peter cole62/coyote put it                                                           60 references are available upon request 61 toward understanding what is written     commas are given 5 spaces     like a breath when speaking      and periods and given 10 spaces as a break in a line of thought 62 capital letters are not used in this research          it’s not laziness or lack of knowledge of current usage of the english language 170  ever so eloquently  “the practice of academically certified punctuation distances me / the idea of  paragraph is meaningless / the idea of chapter is anathema to who i am as an indigenous person” (cole, 2006, p. 21)  in this writing for example     there is not a capital letter in the body of the text    that is not to say there is any less respect for the work of the authors quoted in this paper  there is the utmost respect for their words in fact              manymanymany elders/writers/researchers/academics/teachers/thinkers/nations have helped in my personal introspection toward identifying the components of indigeneity/understanding the systemic oppression/racism/ colonization inside and outside the education system in canada  the list of influences tends to be long because i do not want to minimize the contributions of anyone  i know how that feels  so i tend to be inclusive rather than exclusive including people/nations/organizations such as the aboriginal healing foundation (2003, 2005) david wallace adams (1995) taiaiake alfred (2005, 2009)    jo-ann archibald (2008) jean barman (1986) marie battiste (2009) marie battiste and james youngblood henderson (2000)      gregory cajete (2000)  roland chrisjohn (2006/1997) peter cole (2006) vine deloria jr (1994, 2006) franz fanon (2008/1952)     fyre jean graveline (1998)oscar kawagley and ray barnhardt (1999) margaret kovach (2009) emma larocque (2010)  michael marker (1992, 1998, 2011)      nisga’a nation (1994)  patricia o’riley (2003)      linda tuhiwai smith (1999) stó:lō  nation (2001)      waziyatawin angela wilson (2004)      waziyatawin angela wilson and michael yellow bird (2005)      shawn wilson (2008)                                                                                                                                                                                                            it’s a form of grammatical resistance      in the manner of american poet  e.e. cummings         he graduated with a masters in english from harvard university and they called him experimental  innovative not words likely to be used to describe a indigenous writer who breaks established rules of writing in english   although times are changing in some places    see peter cole’s book coyote and raven go canoeing (2006) besides    expressing oneself in an oral culture does not require capital letters and the writing in this dissertation is a narrative representation of an oral tradition as someone said  when i read aloud   in one of my class it sounded like poetry thanks  rupert 171  as i think/read/write/think again      i am listening overandoverandover again to the cd album music for native americans  by robbie robertson (1994) the song ghost dance     is playing...  crow has brought the message to the children of the sun for the return of the buffalo and for a better day to come you can kill my body you can damn my soul...you don’t stand a chance against my prayers you don’t stand a chance against my love they outlawed the ghost [buffalo/sun] dance but we shall live againwe shall live again ghost dance robbie robertson (1994)  while i was in elementary /junior high/high school  i never understood textual punctuation/paragraphs/ indentation i never understood it  i never understood how learning the rules of grammar would benefit the ideas i had in my head      or the words that I said     or the words that I heard         no one said     now I will speak in capital letters      or no one said      period     after they were finished speaking a sentence chickenortheegg  i could not see how grammar helped me to think and in fact i thought it wrecked my thinking     hmmmmmm now i know that was that the plan all along education was/is to make us all into good little indians/robots/robotic indians unquestioning society’s status quo school was/is a stifling/limited/contained/ constrained/ shaming way to teach/write/think soldier/shoulder three/tree tee/tea63     not that i did not learn the use of punctuation      but it was forced  decades later i am finally here at the university of british columbia (ubc)  i feel the shackles falling away and hope/pray that there will be acceptance/space/ academic freedom for whatever form/at  i use to express my thoughts/research  i should mention that bolded phrases in the text  are indicative of  future oriented research     be it narrative/story/history not all the events in this paper unfolded exactly as                                                           63 it took me years to understand the differences between words to my ears they often sounded the same when said aloud   so i was often confused because i could not understand what was being said  for example when a gym teacher said for everyone to touch the shoulder of the person next to them i would not touch the person next to me because they were not a soldier no wonder teachers thought i was mentally slow especially in gym class i can laugh now     years later 172  written time/events may be compacted/expanded to suit the flow of the ideas other people’s may be incorporated as suits the narrative            all human events/stories are  true in that they happened but not necessarily chronologically as written  i write to share my thoughts/ideas  not my understanding of the rules of grammar       this is also what i have said to first nations peoples coming into scarp64 extension courses i taught here at ubc  i was  looking for their ideas not their spelling punctuation understanding of the rules of grammar and i  witnessed visible relief in the room  as danny65 said    he had not been in a classroom in forty years since he left residential school he was hesitant/ashamed to show me his writing yet his ideas were profound   his lived experience  on paper it was a breakthrough for him    story/narrative opens culture/spirituality/language/place into lives today         in the spirit of using narrative creatively     angela sidney told julie cruikshank       it was with the help of the ancient narratives that allowed her to live life like a story (p.51)   i am grateful/learning to be more alive because of  stories  underlining what tsaqwuasupp told taiaiake alfred about his grandmother’s words  “that as long as we are alive and doing our arts  people will know that we as indigenous peoples are not going away” (p.170)  which i interpret that as long as i am practicing indigenous architecture people will know that we as indigenous peoples are not going away  with this written creation     as dr hillel goelman said to me earlier this week      i am an architect of words                                                                64 school of community and regional planning 65 i use his given english name with the understanding and knowledge that indigenous peoples in this country now known as canada have been forced to use english pseudonyms for generations          it is time to resist this practice   173  having read the above excerpt from my research proposal      i am hoping that you better understand the intent of this application and the academic principles behind the writing format           should you still require further explanation       i would request an immediate face-to-face meeting to be held at      and mediated by staff at     the first nation longhouse between ors/breb staff     myself and my  doctoral committee including     dr michael marker     dr  nancy mackin      dr  peter cole     dr  pat o’riley  and my departmental head      dr hillel goelman the other reviewer comments are addressed in the edited version of the application            i look forward to your immediate response  all my relations  174  appendix two [huxw gilp ilhl agu] : original abstract this appendix contains the format of the abstract as originally written          i was advised by my doctoral committee that an abstract written in a standard academic english format would perhaps be more acceptable to dissertational abstracts international (dai)       thus the abstract to this dissertation is written in a standard academic english format        i include the original abstract  here to remain true to my own self as an indigenous person the purpose of this research was to find out how the culture of an indigenous architect influenced their practice of architecture          the research for this dissertation was motivated by indigenous elders responses to my architectural design work as an indigenous architect          this is the first known research in c\a\n\a\d\a that privileges the use of indigenous knowledge in the design process by indigenous architects          the results of this research will inform the future education of indigenous and non-indigenous students in architecture and their subsequent practice of the profession  the research was based on an indigenous methodology of respect / reciprocity / redistribution / relevance / reflection / relationship and responsibility          conversations with nineteen indigenous architects from turtle island     australia     el salvador and aotearoa were recorded     transcribed with content analyzed          they self-identified their culture and its influence on their design work          they assessed their time in architecture school and proposed changes that would assist schools of architecture attracting indigenous students into the faculty  175  the conversations were enlightening in what they did not reveal about the use of indigenous knowledge in design          though some of the architects employed indigenous knowledge in their design process     surprisingly many were not so obvious          there may be many reasons for this     the impact of colonization perhaps the most significant          there was however a general attitude that schools of architecture could do more to attract and retain indigenous students in their programs          this is significant if universities are truly to embrace cultural competency in an increasingly global economy    there could be more cultural support for indigenous students in schools of architecture         the curricula in schools of architecture could demonstrate cultural awareness     cultural sensitivity and cultural competence of indigenous peoples          these findings could have an impact within schools of architecture and other professional schools across turtle island     australia     latin america and aotearoa          more research needs to be conducted focused specifically on the indigenous identity with ancestors     places and designs       the significance of indigenous peoples knowledges       indigenous place-based design        indigenous protocols and indigenous place-based architectural education   176  appendix three [huxw gwilalhl agu]  : conversations     dates and locations table 7      conversations    dates and locations  name designer type type of conversation date location 1 julio reyes aguilar     architect skype 2014 12 16 el salvador 2 tamarah begay architect skype 2015 01 15 albuquerque new mexico   usa 3 douglas cardinal    architect in person 2013 05 04 ottawa ontario canada 4 russell everett  architect in person 2013 04 30 winnipeg manitoba canada 5 daniel glenn   architect in person 2014 08 03 seattle washington  usa 6 ryan gorrie architect in person 2013 04 30 winnipeg manitoba canada 7 ray gosselin   architect in person 2013 05 11 regina saskatchewan canada 8 rau hoskins      architect skype 2014 11 25 auckland new zealand 9 brian mccormack  landscape architect in person 2014 08 04 clarkson idaho usa 10 joanne mcfadden     interior designer in person 2013 04 30 winnipeg manitoba canada 11 kevin o brien architect skype 2014 11 28 brisbane australia 12 brian porter       architect skype  oshwegen ontario canada 13 mike robertson     architect in person 2013 05 01 winnipeg manitoba canada 14 destiny seymour       interior designer in person 2013 04 30 winnipeg manitoba canada 15 eladia smoke       architect in person 2013  winnipeg manitoba canada 16 cheyenne thomas      intern architect in person 2013 05 01 winnipeg manitoba canada 17 david thomas     intern architect in person 2013 04 29 winnipeg manitoba canada 18 rewi thompson      architect skype 2014 11 24 auckland new zealand 19 alfred waugh        architect in person 2013 03 19 vancouver british columbia canada  177  appendix four [huxw txalpxhl agu] :  informed consent letter         the following letter of informed consent was an appendix to my application to the behavioral research ethics board and therefore complies with their requirements that the application be written in a standard academic english format  April 28     2013  Dear _______________, With respect, Dr. Michael Marker, Associate Professor of Educational Studies at the University of British Columbia, and his graduate student, Luugigyoo Patrick Stewart (Nisga’a), would like to invite you to have a conversation about how your Indigenous Knowledges influence your design/making of architecture. We would appreciate your participation in this process, as it will provide recommendations for improving the teaching of Indigenous architecture and the way knowledge is respected.   To begin the conversations, Luugigyoo Patrick Stewart, Architect AIBC and PhD candidate will contact you to set up a convenient place and time to speak/meet with you. Should you agree to have a conversation with Patrick, you will be asked if the conversations can be photographed and audio/video recorded. It is anticipated that the transcripts, photographs and audio/video recordings will be used to create teaching tools for use in Indigenous architecture studies.         The information you share will also form part of Patrick’s dissertation research. It is anticipated that the dissertation will eventually be published as a book.   We do not anticipate this research will present any personal, emotional, social or financial risk to you other than the time required for you to have the conversations. However, should you become aware of personal or emotional issues during the conversation, you would be completely free to stop your participation at any point. You may also refuse to answer particular questions as they arise.     We anticipate a benefit that you may experience from your conversation, is a clarity in being able to express your thoughts on the use of Indigenous Knowledges in your practice. We also anticipate that the results of this research will benefit the architectural education of future Indigenous students across Turtle Island (North America).   The information we gather through conversation, photographs and audio/video recordings will be kept in a safe secure location until ready for release as a dissertation, presentation, publication and teaching tools. You will be asked how you would like to be identified in the research. We will not release information on you to anyone other than yourself    until ready for release as a dissertation, presentation, publication or teaching tool. You will be given copies of all transcripts, photographs and audio/video recordings of yourself for your review and editing prior to the final completion of the study.   Your participation in this research is completely voluntary. If you do decide to participate, you may withdraw at any time without any consequences or any explanation. If you do withdraw from the study any data collected will be used in the research analysis only if you agree. You will not be asked to reimburse any gift you received prior to your withdrawal.   To make sure that you continue to consent to participate in this research, we will discuss your 178  participation on each occasion that we request a conversation and you will be given full opportunity to withdraw from the study without question. If at any time you feel uncomfortable, ill at ease, or if any medical conditions surface during the proceedings     we will take immediate steps to remedy the situation, including stopping the interview.     Once the study is complete, we would be glad to give you a copy of the study and a copy of the final audio/video recording to be used as an educational tool. In the meantime, if you have any questions or concerns, please ask us or contact;     Dr. Michael Marker, Associate Professor    Department of Educational Studies    University of British Columbia      Vancouver, BC  (xxx) xxx-xxxx  I  do      do not consent (please check one box) that this conversation with Luugigyoo Patrick Stewart be recorded on audio/video tape. I am aware that the conversation can proceed without being recorded on audio/video tape. Even if I do consent to have this conversation audio/video recorded, I am aware that I am free to request that the audio/video recording be turned off at any point during the conversation.      I   do      do not consent (please check one box) that this conversation be photographed and that photographs from this conversation or taken at other times, with my consent, may be used in a dissertation, publications and presentations pertaining to the specific information that I provide in the conversation or during related events. Even if I do consent to have this conversation photographed, I am aware that I am free to request that photographs not be taken at any point during the conversation or during other related events.    I  do       do not consent (please check one box) to having my name associated with the Indigenous architecture and Indigenous Knowledges I provide, in a dissertation, publications and presentations prepared by Luugigyoo Patrick Stewart.   ____________________________________________________________________________________  I am aware that the information that I provide during this conversation with Luugigyoo Patrick Stewart is completely voluntary. I am aware that I can withdraw information at any time and that I have the right to review and edit all publications and presentations pertaining to the specific information that I provide in the conversation.     Name_______________________________________________ Date  ___________________                             (signature of participant)   179  Once completed, please email this form to; ____________________. 180  appendix five [huxw kwsdinshl agu] : conversation guide        the conversation guide was sent to those architects / designers who agreed to have a conversation with me about indigenous knowledge and indigenous architecture         the guide was used as just that     a guide         it was not followed word for word or line by line          as a conversation i was mindful that all the themes and points contained in the guide were discussed            again this guide was attached to my application to the behavioral research ethics board and so it too was written to comply 1. Name: ________________________________ 2. Date: _________________________________ 3. Location: ______________________________ 4. Start time: ____________________________ 5. Finish time: ___________________________ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ I will tell you a bit about myself so you know who I am. I have learned from my Elders in the Nisga’a Nation that introducing oneself is to start a relationship off in a good way / it is proper protocol.                 I am from the Nisga’a Nation in northwest British Columbia.  My Nisga’a name is Luugigyoo which means, fish already in the creek. I am from the Killer Whale House of Daaxan. I was born homeless in Vancouver and raised in a series of foster homes. I attended 8 different schools in 12 years of public school. I wanted to be an architect since I was 5 years old. Of course, I did not know what it was called at that age, but I had an interest in buildings and building from that age. I have a BA in Psychology from Simon Fraser University; a BEDS and BArch from what is now known as Dalhousie University; a MArch from Mcgill University and I started doctoral studies at the University of British Columbia in 2010.  The conversation we are having today is a result of my thinking and experience as an architect, that Indigenous Knowledges informs the practice of architecture. I would like to start by inviting you to tell me about yourself, where you’re from, your Nation, your family, why you are an architect. I want to hear it all, your thoughts on the future of architecture and Indigenous Knowledges. If we do not have enough time today for you to say all you want, I am available to meet you again if you are agreeable, at a time and place convenient for both of us.  181  1. Tell me where you were born: _________________________________________________________   2. Tell me of your tribal affiliation:  _____________________________________________________________________________  3. Where do you call home?: ______________________________________________________________________________  4. Tell me about your clan affiliation:  ______________________________________________________________________________   5. Tell me about your family: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  6. Tell me when you first wanted to be an architect: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Tell me your story on how you got to architecture school: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  8. Were there any challenges for you at architecture school? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  182  9. What did you really like about architecture school? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  10. Tell me about your time at architecture school: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________    11. If you could change the way architecture is taught     what would you change? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  12. Are you aware of the concept of indigenous knowledge? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. If so, how do you incorporate IK into your design process? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  14. If not, why not: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________  15. Describe your latest project that used IK   ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 183  16. Describe how a school of architecture might incorporate IK into the design curriculum ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  17. Tell me how Indigenous Peoples could use Indigenous Knowledges to create buildings that truly reflect their cultures: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  18. Tell me your vision of a future where indigenous students are trained as architects: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  19. Tell me what actions we as indigenous architects need to do to secure a future for indigenous youth within this profession: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________         184  appendix six [huxw k oolthl agu]  : te pare : a cultural framework  i enclose the following maori cultural framework as submitted to the school of architecture at the university of auckland by rewi thompson       this document is an indigenous curriculum example produced by an indigenous architect practitioner / academic                       Te Pare : a cultural framework.    School of Architecture, Faculty of Creative Arts, University of Auckland, New Zealand.  prepared by Rewi Thompson  Adjunct Professor. 2002-2007  185   Above : This lintel, carved in the Bay of Plenty in the 1850s, depicts Papatūānuku (earthmother)  and Ranginui (skyfather),during the  creation period. The spirals show light entering the world.    Bicultural course assignment 2006 : based on the creation myth. The birth  of a ’ line’.  Mihimihi /Greetings:   Kei roto i te ahuatanga o te Ao... Mai te Mana me te Tu Rangatira... Mai te aroha me te Mahaki... Tena Koutou, tena koutou, tena koutou katoa.  ........Within the majesty and splendor of the boundless universe With dignity and respect, With humility and love Greetings, greetings, greetings  to you all.    Iwi /Tribal Affiliation:   Ko Te Aitanga a Hauiti / Ngati Raukawa aku Iwi Te Aitanga a Hauiti / Ngati Raukawa are my tribes.   Whakatauiki / Proverb :…………………………Kahore a te rakau nei whakaaro, kei to tohinga te whakaaro.                                                                         The wood has no understanding, the insight belongs to the skill of the carver . . This whakatauiki/proverb, highlights the approach to this cultural framework  …..We can give our students the tools, but unless their creativity comes from the heart, with passion and spirit : There is nothing to be gained….but more importantly, as teachers , we should give much support, much encouragement and much affection.   …………………Nga maanaki, nga awhina, nga aroha ki te katoa    Contents :   A : Kaupapa :  - Topic/Principles/ Matters to discuss. - Traditional Knowledge and Architecture - Towards a contemporary Translation, New Horizons and Possibilities   B : Implementation : - Recruitment  - Opportunities : Integration : Course/programme  structure  - Support / Recommendations  - Appendix  A. KAUPAPA : Topic/ Principles/Matters to Discuss    186  The development of this cultural framework is in response to the School of Architecture, the Faculty of Arts, Planning and Property and Auckland University objectives and visions for the education progression and development of Maori  and non Maori. This introduction document is a personal response and envisaged as a starting point, and intended as a guide. It is hoped that the contents and associated topics will develop as an ongoing process, just as culture itself, is a ever evolving phenomena and spirit.  The architectural world of the Maori is holistic and expansive, and influenced by many tangible and intangible forces. This document endeavors to ‘look’ beyond the iconic meeting house and Marae, and provide a wider ‘glimpse’ and perspective into the Maori architectural world and future possibilities.     Motion : Passed by Architecture School Committee: That the Cultural Framework approved and embedded into the school system for further development. Essentially, the cultural framework for the school of architecture is a new initiative compiling of three main components :  : Develop the recruitment of Maori and Pacific students  : Develop and integrate a cultural dimension into all aspects of the school life. : Post graduate support              Te Pare : A Architectural translation   The term, Pare can have several meanings, but in relation to this document, Te Pare refers to the expansive translation of the carved  wooden lintel that spans the door of a Whare nui, / Whare tupuna, or Whare whakaaro ( traditional houses). In a literal sense Pare is a structural beam. However, its significance and meaning is more abstract, conceptual and dynamic.   - Marks the division between the outside world and the inside world,  - Between exterior and interior, - Sacred and profane - Outside the body and inside the body, - That point between the real and surreal, - That point between light and dark, - The threshold between imagination and reality, - Between inner space and outer space.     - Physical and metaphysical - Conscious and unconscious - confinement and suspended animation -  Its roots lay at the theoretical foundation of architecture beginnings and development,  -  A nest,  through which ideas can be nurtured and grow. -  A discussion primarily of first principles.  - New derivatives and possibilities. - Constructed of key tikanga or concepts, integral and holistic.  - Wisdom and Knowledge (theory and culture ) - conceptual,  symbolic and represents both a point of arrival and departure : a transition or threshold.  - envisaged to provide the framework and strategy for this development.   - meaning and concept is broad, and embraces the boundless extremities and unlimited possibilities architectural theory and architectural making. - reflects several objectives that are organized into three main areas but are embraced by a overall kaupapa or set of protocols.  - envisaged to compliment and integrate within the existing school systems and academic coarse.          -      a conceptual architectural framework from which the architectural language is born and nurtured.     Bi Cultural Coarse : Te Ao Marama : The birth of light and knowledge   187  Te Ara : The pathway or journey  The school is a place, a time that signals a further development of one’s education.  A journey of exploration in the field of architecture. That is to say this document is envisaged to develop a cultural appreciation and awareness.    The school is Te Pare : a moment, a special time :  to enter and in search of knowledge,  and having acquired this, once again pass “under the lintel”  too enter a new world too discover, too pass on one’s knowledge, to reconnect and serve ones  community.  Te Pare : also summarizes 3 stages of this journey as a ‘conceptual moment’ but also as a conduit with the ‘real world’.                                                                                                          What we see is obvious. What we don’t see can be more. Much is written and taught about architecture in the physical sense. But to understand what Maori architecture can offer our future environment, it is  understand both the physical and the spiritual dimension. These realms co-exist and holistic.   What do we mean by Spiritual ? Our world has accelerated materialistically and physically, such as : cars,  roads, buildings, computers, saturated with media, information, technology etc. We are surrounded in ‘objects’, but often neglect our spirituality. Spirituality differs for everyone, and in a simple sense, spirituality can be :  : One’s personality, intuition, creativity, sensitivity, believes and values, emotions, the way of doing things. : One’s  relationship with friends, family and communities. : One’s  heritage, roots, identity : One’s relationship with the natural world, environment and the heavens.  Therefore :   Diagrammatically, or to ‘draw’ Te Pare : It is neither hierarchical ( time ) or  contained or bordered or defined by absolute boundaries. It is like the universe itself, dynamic, a ever changing spiral energy : concentric, contracting and expanding.  Pito / Centre : It is neither dominated or controlled by any single force or spirit , but is merely an architectural space and place. The size, form, structure and quality is influenced by all matter and forces,  that revolve and isolate around it’s centre : the creative, potential and possibilities yet to be discovered, emerge and birth.    188  TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE :   TIKANGA : Theory  Every culture, have their roots firmly embedded in respective historic stories, myths, legends, believes, systems, protocols, and rituals etc., that explain or legitimize all elements of origin, life, matter, and phenomena etc. It shapes too govern our attitude, behaviour patterns, and how we live our daily life’s.  Tikanga has a wide range of meanings — culture, custom, ethic, etiquette, fashion, formality, lore, manner, meaning, mechanism, method, protocol, style etc  In general it is a "the Māori way of doing things". Tika meaning  that’s correct.  Tikanga concepts are handed down by our ancestors, to treasure, too assist to live long and healthy. It marks , who we are, our sense of belonging, identity and locates us, within the boundaries of the Universe. This explanation is only a ‘glimpse’, as it has taken generations to develop and appreciate the true meanings of Tikanga.  Many of these concepts relate to creating appropriate architectural processes, spaces and places, that translate into the  everyday :    - place of work,  - places to socialise , gather, enjoyment,  - places for dance, sing, display , perform. - places for making laws, lore, rules, regulations . - places to govern and leadership  - places to make, fabricate, produce, assemble things - places for healing, rehabilitate, well being - places to teach, learn and listen - places to create, imagine, dream. - places for play, recreation and sport - personal places : to dwell, to take stock, to seek, too be alone. - places for community to gather, meet - places to rest   - places to worship, for rituals,  - places for remembrance, reflect, to treasure , to preserve    - a place called home  EXAMPLES : The following illustrate examples or derivatives of some Tikanga principles,  and indicate how these inform architecture from a traditional Maori perspective, and how Tikanga/ cultural values can be translated, appreciated and share in a contemporary  and multi-cultural society.         Origins / Cosmology : The Creation Myth. Architectural beginnings.   Bi-cultural coarse 2006  : Creation Myth.: The separation 189   Io - the supreme god, the creator or all creations, ideas, thoughts etc.  Te Kore – the void  : unorganized chaos : the void, the nothingness, : where there was nothing ,  : could see anything,  : there is no sound , no feelings : nothingness : with nothingness there is always the potential for something. : The possibilities. : unlimited potential  Te Po - the night : Primal Parents   - A time of ignorance of no order of no discipline, of no sense - In which there is no light or invisible light the absence of light, light yet to be born, discovered.  - Within the night and darkness there is the potential for light. The night is in the form of darkness  - Therefore form , shape yet to be seen , form as in a body, the body of night, the body of darkness  - The creation of unseen body or darkness absence of light, therefore a state of unconsciousness -.The body of darkness - the body of Rangi and Papa -unison with the bosom of Rangi and Papa   - Potential and the possibilities  Te Ao marama - the separation  Out of the darkness is created Ranginui and Papatuanuku Out of the darkness light is born Out of the darkness is created light  Out f the darkness comes space  Out of the darkness comes form  Out of the darkness comes dimensions Out of the darkness comes elements  Out of the darkness comes nature Out of the darkness comes materials  Out of the darkness comes texture  Out of the darkness comes colour Out of the darkness comes people Out of the darkness comes evolution  Out of the darkness comes order  Out of the darkness comes life    Creation of departmental Gods  When Rangi and Papa were in union and embrace this resulted in the birth of many children. It is said that six children took a active part in discussions and to allow light to enter their world. : Tangaroa : God of the sea : Rongomatane : God of kumera : Haumiatikeike : God of bracken, fern : Tanematua ; God of forests, birds : Tawhirimatea : God of winds and storms,  : Tumatauenga :God of man  It was Tane the god of the forests who separated his parents, so that light could enter the world. The expansion of this narrative can be told else were, but fundamentally, this myth indicates how we and all matter and natural resources etc. have evolved, exist and integral. The architectural dimension of Tane : is that he gave ‘physical form’ to the world as we know it.   190    Therefore :   Such beliefs, are our identity, our heritage, but equally important, they guide us to have a better understanding,  a more expansive appreciation, and better attitude, into how we see our ‘environment’ as a living soul and spirit.  And, to see our environment that provides us with nourishment, air to breath and well being : essential for architecture.        ORIGINS:   Te Moana nui a Kiwa : The great sea of Kiwa : South Pacific Ocean : Navigation / The great Migration    By following ancient navigation chart like this, Polynesians visited many of the South Sea Islands. The chart indicates island relationships, sea currents /swells,  flight of birds etc., that indicated location of land and direction to travel.    Moana : The sea , was important for island life as it provided a source of food, a resource to make implements and ornaments, a play and enjoyment venue, and a highway. In architectural terms it was more than a open space. The sea and its vastness also provided a sense of spirituality : calmness, therapeutic, rehabilitative, peaceful and A sense of belonging / identity.        This diagram illustrates the fundamental spatial relationship of what one can see. The relationship between the sea, land/island, sky and oneself. The sea touches the sky, the sky touches the island, the island touches the sea. Architectural / cultural dimensions of boundaries, distances, context, line, form, perspective and space. Ones back against the mountain, one feels safe and secure… looking out to openness : maybe the unknown and unprotected :  Shelter --------open  By understanding the natural boundaries of things, we begin to understand how to make a sense of place and  cultural boundaries, in which we feel comfortable.   191    Kupe “ The great Navigator.  Kupe: the great ancestral explorer, made several voyages to Aotearoa and named many places though out  Aotearoa. He returned home to Hawakii and told his people of a bountiful land lying in the southern ocean. Food was becoming scarce and fighting broke out, so a group decided to venture and seek a better life in this new land. They settled and prospered.      He Korero Puuraakau mo ngaa Taunahanahatanga a nga Tupuna: NZ Geographic Board.  …after a while Kupe settled just inside Te Whanganui a tara ( the great harbour of Tara) at Maraenui ( Seatoun).  The beach is named Turanganui o Kupe . The reef into the harbour he named Te Tangihanga o Kupe ( Barrets Reef) after the mournful sound of the waters around it.  Te Ure o Kupe (steeple Rock) was a fishing  place Kupe reserved for himself.   He named the rocks on the other side of the entrance Matauranga after one of this crew and Makaro (Ward island and Matiu (Somes island)  after two  of his daughters.   Most of us today refer to place names to locate us. New Zealand is blanketed in Maori place names, some of these have been renamed in other languages. . For Maori, the Maori name of a place has a definite reason. It might reflect  a certain person or people, a history, a story or event, or named because of its natural quality, resource, ecology or its beauty or spirit.  By understanding these meanings, they can inform architecture in qualitative ways such as appropriateness, context, and sensitivity..        Aotearoa : ….the land of the long white cloud.                       Te Ao : Cultural Centre : Team Hinaki : Waitemata Harbour.  Linking :  Hawakii-----------------------------------------Waka---------------------------Iwi---------------------------------Whare nui   Many Maori Iwi trace their ancestor back to the paramount chiefs of the great fleet and respective waka.  Here lies the fundamental and direct relationship with architecture.   192   The great fleet : Auckland City Gallery                                                                   Rongopai Waituhi :National Museum.   Canoe Chief Arrived Tribes   Maamari Ruuaanui Hokianga Ngapuhi, Te Rarawa, te Aupoouri, Ngati Kahu                                               Ngaatoki Nukutawhiti Hokianga Ngapuhi   Maahuuhuu Rongomai Kaipara Ngati Whatua   Tainui Hoturoa Kawhia Waikato, Ngati Maniapoto, Ngati Haua, Ngati Maru, Ngati Paoa, Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Toa, Ngaitai   Te Arawa Tamatekapua Maketu Te Arawa, Ngati Tuwharetoa   Tokomaru Whata Mohakatino River Ngati Tama, Ngati Mutunga, Ngati Raahiri, Manukorihi, Puketapu, Te Atiawa, Ngati Maru   Aotea Turi Aotea Harbour Ngati Ruanui, Ngarauru, Atihau   Kurahaupoo Maungaroa or Ruatea Whangaroa Taranaki, Atihau, Ngati Apa, Rangitaane, Muaupoko   Maataatua Toroa Whakatane Ngati Awa, Tuhoe,Whakatohea, Whanau a Apanui   Horouta Pawa Waiapu River Ngati Porou   Tohora Paikea Ahuahu (Gt Mercury Island) Ngati Porou   Takitimu Tamatea Waiau River Rongowhakaata, Ngati Kahungunu, Ngaitahu      193  appendix seven  [huxw t ipxoolthl agu]]     :   Sep Yama / Finding Country To Burning City Studio I reprint here in its entirety, with permission from the author, Sep Yama/Finding Country To Burning City Studio by Kevin O’Brien (2014) (© 2014 Kevin O’Brien). I am reprinting this paper because it is possibly one of the most radical indigenous approaches to resisting /reframing colonization, but I will let you the reader, make that conclusion for yourself.   SEP YAMA/FINDING COUNTRY TO BURNING CITY STUDIO PROFESSOR KEVIN O'BRIEN School of Design, Faculty of Creative Industries, Queensland University of Technology  INTRODUCTION On the 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, Lieutenant James Cook claimed on behalf of the British Crown the entire eastern coastline of Australia that he had begun surveying on the 19 April earlier that yeari. In 1835 General Sir Richard Bourke, Governor of NSW between 1831-1837 declared terra nullius by proclaiming that Aboriginal people could not sell or assign land, nor could an individual person acquire it, other than through distribution by the Crownii. In one swift move, a singular state by way of property title was enacted on the Australian continent radically altering its ancient uses. Entering the new millennium, what remains a distinct and haunting reality is that the Australian City has not yet come to terms with those origins located deep in the Australian continent. It is not unreasonable to suggest that clues can be found by considering the absence of property title as a way of inverting the imposition of the City. This inevitably leads backwards to a time prior to 1770. From one continent of one country, back to one continent of many Aboriginal Countries, and away to something else, it can be further argued that there exists numerous, distinct and unresolved tensions between City and Country.  Sep Yama/Finding Country is an idea that seeks to engage this tension. Since 2005, the idea has taken several forms of investigation, drawing on collaborations with numerous colleagues and 194  students to reveal the next iteration of enquiry. The ambition is to arrive at a new paradigm that argues for Country as the beginning of the City, thereby countering the current condition of City as the end of Country. PROPOSITION Mabo The Meriam people are located on the eastern islands of the Torres Strait between the furthermost northern point of mainland Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea. In 1982, several Meriam claimants, led by Eddie Koiki Mabo, commenced proceedings in the High Court of Australia testing the validity of their legal rights to the islands of Mer, Dauar and Waier. On the 3 June, 1992 Mabo v Queensland (no.2) was decidediii. The High Court by a majority of six to one upheld the claim and ruled that the lands of this continent were not terra nullius when European settlement occurred, and that the Meriam people were ‘entitled as against the whole world to possessions, occupation, use and enjoyment of (most of) the lands of the Murray Islands.’  The decision struck down the doctrine that Australia was terra nullius – a land belonging to no one.  This case is relevant to this paper for two reasons. Firstly, in response to the ensuing judgement, the Parliament of Australia, led by then Prime Minister Paul Keating enacted the Native Title Act 1993iv to recognise Aboriginal people's claim to Country. This move exemplified the political will of the time and declared a shift towards the acknowledgement of Country as a pre-existing condition the nation needed to come to terms with. Secondly, as an architectural educator, the author has observed that architecture students are trained to begin with an empty sheet of paper in direct line with the 1835 declaration of terra nullius. The Mabo decision, in overturning terra nullius, clearly imputes that the paper on which architects draw is not empty, but full of what needs to be seen, that is, Country.   Country Country, in the context of this paper, refers to an Aboriginal idea of place. A definition of Country carries two distinct categories, on one hand the spiritual, and on the other the practicalv. Country as a spiritual connection binds Aboriginal people to the place of their ancestors, it is a matter of belonging to a place, as opposed to owning it. The connection also considers every moment of the land, sea and sky, its particles, its prospects and its prompts, as enablers of life in an endless cycle of renewal. Its spiritual connotations are considered a belief system complete with symbols and signals commensurate with those religions bound to nature.  195  Country as a practical connection is found in the way Aboriginal people managed natural resources and domiciliary constructions. In 'The Biggest Estate on Earth, How Aborigines Made Australia' historian Bill Gammage argues that Aboriginal peoples managed this continent with fire. Fire was the tool used to manage and alter the land. A variety of burning techniques were applied to regenerate plant life and direct wild life to locations for harvesting. Small, medium and large fires were scaled according to use. Gammage recounts that in Sydney at the time of British contact, a horse could gallop at full speed through the forests, so clear was the ground plane of fuel. Within 7 years of the establishment of the colony, the undergrowth was thick and at times impenetrable due to the absence of fire clearingvi. To not burn your Country could be interpreted as allowing your estate to fall into disrepair. Fire was, and in a number of regions still is, used as a tool of management, a matter of renewal by way of emptying.   Emptying In a 2007 paper titled 'Shrinking Cities in Australia' by M.Christina Martinez-Fernandez and Chung-Tong Wuvii the authors noted that at the time the topic had 'not yet become a prominent national issue despite the critical impact that cities with shrinkage patterns have in regional Australia'. At the same time, analysis of shrinking cities was intensifying in North America, Europe and Asia and in light of the devastating fallout from the financial crisis this could be considered all the more poignant. In analyzing Australian Bureau of Statistics population and economic data, the authors argue that there are three kinds of shrinkage: urban shrinkage, rural shrinkage and industrial centre decline.  If these forms of the City have confronted shrinkage it seems reasonable to suggest that there exists an opportunity to reveal Country across a spectrum of understandings.  In the authors' Concluding Remarks, in particular, their third issue, the question of alternatives to the current planning paradigm of growth is reservedly tabled as being bound 'to the history and national economic context of the place.' Despite the initial development of Sep Yama/Finding Country occurring two years prior to this paper, it was most definitely informed by the shrinkage discussion at that time, particularly population decline as an integral factor. It followed that conceptually adjusting population levels as the determining factor in the first instance could lead to alternative models from those that follow population or economic decline as a matter of catastrophe.  Catastrophe is commonly understood to be the primary force affecting the permanence of a city and its population. However, Sep Yama/Finding Country is not an attempt to pick up where shrinkage or catastrophe leaves off. Sep Yama /Finding Country is arguing explicitly for a practical engagement with Country by bringing it into a symmetrical tension with the City. Active emptying of both the City and Country is unlike the passive shrinking that occurs to the City as an exclusive condition. Implicitly, Sep Yama/Finding Country is searching for the 196  unknown agent of change that can achieve the required symmetrical tension through an informed analysis of a hypothetically reduced population.   EXHIBITIONS In 2005, the author in collaboration with Michael Markham, formalized the idea of Sep Yama/Finding Country as a bi-lingual catalogue entry for an Australian competition. The catalogue was entered under the respective practice names of Merrima and tUG Workshop for the Creative Directors of the Australian Pavilion for the Venice Architecture Biennale 2006. The competition, procured by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA), received the submission that was initially shortlisted but later unsuccessful. The same entry was resubmitted to the RAIA in 2007 and again, was initially shortlisted but later deemed the unanimous winner by a national jury of architects. The win, however, was short livedviii due to creative differences with national office staff of the RAIA. The experience proved invaluable and a decision was taken to pursue the idea as an independent undertaking.  Sep Yama/Finding Country: A Primer In 2009, the author commissioned and directed 'Sep Yama/Finding Country: A Primer' in Melbourne and Brisbane. The basic, if slightly naive, position of the enquiry requested that the invited participants imagine a 50% reduced population and that they empty their allotted A4 city grid according to a defined logic. The location of the enquiry was Brisbane and its greater region. The final drawing was approximately 8m x 3m and included 19 submissions of varying complexity and understanding.  Carol Go-Sam, architect and writer, in reviewing the exhibition noted 'rather than a sentimental return to the past, Sep Yama was a prompter, to push those living in the present to remember that the city of today must be vigorously interrogated, and that it is the culmination of earlier displacements.'ix 197   Figure 1. Sep Yama/Finding Country: A Primer (photograph by author) Finding Country Exhibition In 2012, the author commissioned and directed 'Finding Country Exhibition' as an official Collateral Event of the Venice Architecture Biennale 2012x. The central exhibit was a remade 8m x 3m canvas drawing of Brisbane and its greater region including 44 submissions. On this occasion an opportunity to up the ante was relayed to the contributors with each grid being an explicit architectural negotiation with a 50% reduced population, whilst carrying an implicit personal challenge to non-aboriginal architects to engage Country, a slight, yet important shift in the ambition of the exercise. Upon the completion of the Vernissage opening celebrations, the author burned the drawing. Professor David B Stewart, architectural historian, in contributing an essay to the exhibition catalogue noted ' the entire notion is a rubbing out, organic and cautiously hopeful. A Nemesis, diffused, even confused, and deliberately de-centered, to modernism's hubristic "cold nebular cloud" - yet one foretold as a work of years, if not of centuries. To be set afire at the end of this Biennale, are we not perfectly entitled to discern here a glowing stick plucked from the burning?'xi  198   Figure 2. Finding Country Exhibition (photograph by Phil Crowther)  The Everyday Experience From November 2013 to January 2014, curator Nathalie Weadick exhibited a photograph titled ‘Black Bones’ in a group show at the Irish Museum of Modern Art. The photograph, taken by the author, was exhibited as supporting material at both the 2009 and 2012 exhibitions. The exhibition sought to 'reveal how much of our experience of designed or informal space is unconscious, immersed in the everyday and woven into life.'xii 'Black Bones' took a close look at the local timber housing tradition referred to as the Queenslanderxiii. The Queenslander's origin is located around the turn of the 20th century as the British colony extended into the northern regions of the Australian continent. The Queenslander comes complete with its own construction order, where the pyramid (tin roof) sits on the plinth (verandah) that sits on the capital (ant cap) of the column (Doric) under. Numerous local writers have sentimentalized these honest creations for decades. Anyone who has ever lived in a Queenslander is familiar with the creaking, the scale, the sounds and the heat. It is quintessentially Queensland and for a young state, such as Queensland, an absolute source of identity and pride.  The Queenslander is a logical tectonic structure derived from the spanning strengths of the first growth timber sections. For the best part of a century it was the domain of carpenters and their guild's mathematical proportions. However, further research indicates that one (of many) traditional burial rituals amongst Aboriginal people involved embedding deceased family members in the forks and hollows of trees. This further presumes that the trees grew around, or more precisely, Aboriginal people grew into the trees. Rites included laying of the deceased on platforms high up in tree branches, as well as carving tree limbs to indicate location and identity of those deceased and place (known as scar trees). Over thousands of years these trees represented what is referred to as first growth forestry here in Australia. It is this first growth that 199  was felled and milled in order to construct the houses (amongst other things) of the new British colony. The irreconcilable tension is revealed as a matter of construction. Although a side project, the photograph embodied the irreconcilable differences that can exist in a state of tension, here the carpenter was located in the construction and Aboriginal people in the structure. Two seemingly exclusive conditions brought into a symmetrical contest with one another, the central theme of the previous exhibition's emptied drawings.   Figure 3. Black Bones (photograph by author)   QUT Finding Country Lecture Series In between the first two exhibitions, back in 2011, Queensland University of Technology (QUT) invited the author to direct a lecture seriesxiv under the title 'Finding Country' to flesh out the project's position and broaden its discussion. Between August and October that year, six speakers, namely Eames Demetriosxv (geographer and artist, USA), Tom dePaorxvi (architect and artist, Ireland), Tim Hallxvii (structural engineer and architect, Australia), David B Stewartxviii (architectural historian and writer, USA/Japan), Gina Levenspielxix (materials researcher and architect, Australia) and Michael Markhamxx (architect and provocateur, Australia), presented and discussed the inherent contests within their own areas of expertise and works.  200  The lecture series was a side project in the same way that the 'Black Bones' photograph was a side project; it sparked a number of urban, architectural and artistic possibilities that laid the framework for future studios.  Studios At the end of 2012, QUT invited the author to teach design studios in the final year of the architecture course of the Faculty of Creative Industries beginning January 2013 and ceasing December 2015. At this juncture, all three studios have drawn on the central theme of the symmetrical contest, and the explicit question of how to empty a City and find Country.   The Burning City Studio The first studio, titled 'The Burning City Studio' revisited the Brisbane and greater region drawing. The class of 32 students considered their individual grids with the benefit of hindsight and two central texts. The first was 'The Biggest Estate on Earth, How Aborigines made Australia' by Bill Gammage, and the second, discovered during the Venice experience, was 'The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture' by Pier Vittorio Aurelixxi. The purpose of these respective texts was firstly, to introduce students to the use of fire as a practical tool of Country, and secondly, to consider architecture 'at once the essence of the city and the essence of itself as political form: the city as the composition of (separate) parts.' In other words, establish a case for Country to be brought into contest with the City. However, unlike the previous exhibition drawings where the scale was locked to 1:10000, the students were required to empty the City at 1:10000, 1:5000, and 1:1000. At each of these scales the detail of the City shifted the investigation up to a new consideration beginning with the form of the City, then its blocks, and then its lots. Significantly, it stopped before building detail became a premature and distractive mode of investigation. That would be the purpose of the second studio, along with overcoming the anxiety that non-aboriginal students felt in confronting aboriginal spiritual definitions of Country.   Finding Crevalcore Studio The second studio, titled 'Finding Crevalcore Studio' piggybacked an international student competitionxxii that sought ideas for the redevelopment of the medieval town, just north of Bologna, Italy. In 2012, an earthquake struck the northern region of Italy destroying many historical buildings and leaving areas as abandoned ruins. Accompanying statistics indicated that many of the regions towns were also experiencing declining populations. The challenge for the students was to look past the catastrophic nature of the earthquake and focus their thoughts on a 50% reduced population as a way to not only empty the town but also to arrive at an architecture with an awareness of Aureli's notions.  201  Students moved directly in from 1:1000 drawings, through 1:500, 1:200, 1:100, 1:50 and 1:20 developing the emptying technique as a dialectic method between 2 conditions at respective scales. At the same time, a third text titled 'The Australian Ugliness' by Robin Boydxxiii was introduced to expose the students to the practical question of how a singular architectural form might be derived from its method of production; a provocative recalibration away from Aureli's theoretical gaze. After all, a 1:20 detail would be expected to resonate with the 1:1000 emptying of the City.  The non-Australian setting invited the students to move past the spiritual anxiety of the first studio by recognizing Gammage's ideas on Country as a matter of managed production and as a way into the agriculture context of Crevalcore.  Burning City II: Finding Sydney The third studio, titled 'Burning City II: Finding Sydney' returned to the concerns of the first but ended in the requirements of the second. The central business district of Sydney was divided into grids and allotted to each of the 32 students to pursue the previous lines of enquiry and the same referential texts. The difference on this occasion was an accompanying axonometric drawing that sought to translate the 2-dimensional plan enquiry into a 3-dimensional spatial enquiry at the scale of the City and the scale of an architectural intervention derived from the context between burnt Country and emptied City. This proved to be challenging territory delivering unexpected and at times surprising revelations. At the time of writing the students work is undergoing final assessment, however the preliminary form of the reassembled drawing of Sydney carries a layer of interrogation that has inevitably moved well forward of the 2009 Primer drawing confronting broader ideas about Finding Country as a strategy and suggesting alternative tactics for an accompanying architecture.   CONCLUSION  Over 200 years after Cook's proclamation, the Australian City has comprehensively extended itself through the instrument of property title drawn on empty paper over an emptied continent. Its spatial derivatives, played out as surveyor’s pegs and speculative land holdings inform an urban expertise still preoccupied with building expansion. Its accompanying architecture, taught from European historical origins, remains bound to these marks and limited to individual pursuits.  202  The Sep Yama/Finding Country idea has, over the course of 9 years, slowly developed an idea about a symmetrical context between City and Country, into one now titled Burning City. Fire is currently understood as the mediating tool, in the same way that water might be for Aureli in Venice. The next frontier for this project is to confront Country as a genuine origin of architecture that at once reveals Country as the form and politic of the City.                                                            ENDNOTES  i "Secret Instructions to Lieutenant Cook 20 July 1768 (UK)," Museum of Australian Democracy, accessed June 6, 2014, http://foundingdocs.gov.au/item-did-34.html. ii "Governor Bourke's 1835 Proclamation of Terra Nullius," Migration Heritage Centre, accessed June 6, 2014, http://migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibition/objectsthroughtime/bourketerra/ iii "The Mabo Case and the Native Title Act," Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed June 7, 2014, http:// http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature Article21995. iv "Native Title Act 1993," Australian Government ComLaw, accessed June 7, 2014, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00128. v Bill Gammage, The Biggest Estate on Earth, How Aborigines made Australia (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011), 139. vi Gammage, The Biggest Estate on Earth, 5-17. vii M. Christina Martinez-Fernandez and Chung-Tong Wu, 'Shrinking Cities in Australia,' State of Australian Cities, Conference Proceedings (2007): 795-810. viii "Biennale," ARCHITECTUREAU, accessed June 12, 2014, http://www.architectureau.com/articles/biennale-4/. ix Carol Go-Sam, 'Sep Yama: "Ground you cannot see" Finding Country (a primer),' Interstices 11, The Traction of Drawing, A Journal of Architecture and Related Arts (2010): 154-159. x David Chipperfield, 'Common Ground: 13th International Architecure Exhibition,' La Biennale di Venezia (2012). xi David B Stewart, 'Rescinding the Erstwhile Brisbane "Curfew Zone" to Regain its Lost Places: Implicit Personal Challenge to Find Country,' Finding Country Exhibition catalogue (2012): 2-5. xii "The Everyday Experience," Irish Museum of Modern Art, accessed June 9, 2014, http://www.imma.ie/en/page_236790.html. xiii "Queensland house," Queensland Museum, accessed June 9, 2014, http:// http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/Find+out+about/Histories+of+Queensland/Queensland+families/Queensland+house#.U57KxS90yRM. xiv "QUT Design Lecture Series - Finding Country session 3," ARCHITECTUREAU, accessed June 12, 2014, http://www.architectureau.com/calender/talk/finding-country/. xv "Eames Demetrios," accessed September 15, 2014, http://www.eamesdemetrios.com/ xvi "Tom dePaor," accessed September 15, 2014, http://depaor.com/home/index.php xvii "Tim Hall," Tim Hall and Associates, accessed September 15, 2014, http://www.thas.com.au/ xviii "David B Stewart," accessed September 15, 2014, http://japanesearchitecture.net/home.html xix "Gina Levenspiel," articulation, zeitgeist lecture series, accessed September 15, 2014, http://articulation.arts.unimelb.edu.au/?s=gina+levenspiel xx "Michael Markham," tUG Workshop, accessed September 15, 2014, http://www.theurbangreen.com.au/ xxi Pier Vittorio  Aureli, The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011) xxii "Post-Quake Visions," Young Architects Competitions, accessed June 12, 2014, http://www.youngarchitectscompetitions.com/en/pqv-competition.html. xxiii Robin Boyd, The Australian Ugliness (Melbourne: F.W.Chesire, 1960)  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ARCHITECTUREAU. "Biennale." Accessed June12, 2014. http://www.architectureau.com/articles/biennale-4/.  ARCHITECTUREAU. "QUT Design Lecture Series - Finding Country session 3." Accessed June 12, 2014. http://www.architectureau.com/calender/talk/finding-country/.  Aureli, Pier Vittorio. The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.  Australian Bureau of Statistics. "The Mabo Case and the Native Title Act." Accessed June 7, 2014. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature Article21995.  203                                                                                                                                                                                             Australian Government ComLaw. "Native Title Act 1993." Accessed June 7, 2014. http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00128.  Boyd, Robin. The Australian Ugliness. Melbourne: F.W.Chesire, 1960. Chipperfield, David. 'Common Ground: 13th International Architecture Exhibition.' La Biennale di Venezia catalogue (2012).  Demetrios, Eames. "Eames Demetrios." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://www.eamesdemetrios.com/  dePaor, Tom. "Tom dePaor." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://depaor.com/home/index.php  Gammage, Bill. The Biggest Estate on Earth, How Aborigines made Australia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011.  Go-Sam, Carol. 'Sep Yama: "Ground you cannot see" Finding Country (a primer).' Interstices 11, The Traction of Drawing, A Journal of Architecture and Related Arts (2010): 154-159.  Irish Museum of Modern Art. "The Everyday Experience." Accessed June 9, 2014. http://www.imma.ie/en/page_236790.html.  Martinez-Fernandez, M. Christina and Chung-Tong Wu. 'Shrinking Cities in Australia,' State of Australian Cities Conference Proceedings (2007): 795-810.   Migration Heritage Centre. "Governor Bourke's 1835 Proclamation of Terra Nullius." Accessed June 6, 2014. http://migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibition/objectsthroughtime/bourketerra/  Museum of Australian Democracy. "Secret Instructions to Lieutenant Cook 20 July 1768 (UK)." Accessed June 6, 2014. http://foundingdocs.gov.au/item-did-34.html.  Queensland Museum. "Queensland house." Accessed June 9, 2014.  http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/Find+out+about/Histories+of+Queensland/Queensland+families/Queensland+house#.U57KxS90yRM.  Stewart, David B. "David B Stewart." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://japanesearchitecture.net/home.html  Stewart, David B. 'Rescinding the Erstwhile Brisbane "Curfew Zone" to Regain its Lost Places: Implicit Personal Challenge to Find Country.' Finding Country Exhibition catalogue (2012): 2-5.  University of Melbourne. "Gina Levenspiel." Articulation, ZEITGEIST lecture series. Accessed September 15, 2014. http://articulation.arts.unimelb.edu.au/?s=gina+levenspiel  Tim Hall and Associates. "Tim Hall." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://www.thas.com.au/  tUG Workshop. "Michael Markham." Accessed September 15, 2014. http://www.theurbangreen.com.au/  Young Architects Competitions. "Post-Quake Visions." Accessed June 12, 2014. http://www.youngarchitectscompetitions.com/en/pqv-competition.html.             204                                                                                                                                                                                             appendix eight [huxw gandoolthl agu]  :        role model workshop  :   learn    design    create architecture                              The curriculum, Role Model Workshop: Learn, Design, Create Architecture by Tamarah Begay (2013) is reprinted with permission (© 2013 Tamarah Begay). I am reprinting this curriculum in its entirety       205                                                                                                                                                                                                         206                                                                                                                                                                                                         207                                                                                                                                                                                                                  208                                                                                                                                                                                                                         209                                                                                                                                                                                                                         210                                                                                                                                                                                                                         211                                                                                                                                                                                                                         212                                                                                                                                                                                                                         213                                                                                                                                                                                                                         214                                                                                                                                                                                                                         215                                                                                                                                                                                                                         216                                                                                                                                                                                                                         217                                                                                                                                                                                                                         218                                                                                                                                                                                                                         219                                                                                                                                                                                                                         220                                                                                                                                                                                                                         221                                                                                                                                                                                                                         222                                                                                                                                                                                                                         223                                                                                                                                                                                                          

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