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Endangered Government Information: Strategies to Protect Government Collections Church, James; Paterson, Susan; Wakaruk, Amanda; Jacobs, James R. 2018-06-23

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Canada’s access to government information timeline1897 - 1916: reports, loss due to fire, more reports, more threats due to fire● 1897 Western Block fire (150,000 public works documents were destroyed)  ● 1898 Canada. Departmental Commission Appointed to Inquire into and Report upon the State of Public Records, Report of the Commissioners. Ottawa. ● 1914 Canada. Departmental Commission Appointed to Inquire into the State of the Records of the Public Departments (Pope Commission). Ottawa. (recommended building a library for government records and publications)● 1916 Fire on Parliament Hill (Library of Parliament spared due to iron doors installed at librarians’ insistence) Canada’s access to government information timeline1927 Depository Services Program (DSP) established● Program of an executive branch agency, subject to Treasury Board of Canada (~OMB) Policies and Procedures● Not a publisher, compliance from publishing agencies always a problem ● Distributed government publications to libraries (including LAC post-1953) ● Stopped distributing paper in 2013 (end of depository contracts allowed libraries to dispose of their print collections)● Collects, catalogues, and provides access to electronic government publications● Works with CGI DPN to preserve government publications1953 National Library of Canada established (with legal deposit authority)● Received print government publications via the DSP (collection incomplete)● Merged with National Archives of Canada in 2004 to create the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC), reports to Parliament through the Minister of Heritage ● Stopped accepting provincial government materials and ended most reciprocal partnership arrangements in the mid 2010s, during cutbacks in budget, staff, and services ● Web archiving activity (federal only) sporadic and selective, more collections added in last few years Canada’s access to government information timeline2011 Canada joined the Open Government Partnership● Virtual Library was a goal… downgraded to a portal without preservation... upgraded to portal/repository... finally launched in 2014… holds ~278 publications in June 2018● Open government licence: lawful uses (only a court of law can determine fair dealing); attribution required; does not apply to third party content, names, crests, logos, or other official symbols● Publication equivalent (PDF) of web-based content still includes statement, “Crown copyright. All rights reserved. All requests for permission to reproduce this document or any part thereof shall be addressed to the Department of…”● 2017 Canada added to OGP Steering Committee, named leadRemoved due to incompatibility with OGL (e.g., Crown copyright).Government of Canada web content timeline● pre 2000: range of styles, content on agency websites● Common Look and Feel (CLF) standard: implemented 2000; new versions implemented 2008, 2011● 2010: federal court case, Jodhan v. Canada (Attorney General), 2010 FC 1197 (CanLII) ● 2012-2013: “Web Renewal Action Plan” based on removing ROT (redundant, outdated, and trivial content)● Wayback Machine ( some sites prior to 2012; “full” crawl in early 2013 due to advocacy efforts of GODORT IDTF (lots of dead links); first choice for journalists and other users● How do you know what’s been lost?○ Anecdotes○ ATIP (FOI) documents○ Selective comparisons using and LAC web harvestsLibraries and copyright chillAsked permission to web archive site (2012): Unfortunately we are not in a position to help advise you on how to resolve your technical difficulties* in archiving GoC website content.My more immediate concern is ensuring you are provided proper guidance and information regarding Crown Copyright and Licensing and what this means when reproducing (via an archive) GoC website information on your institutions website. To this end, I've sent an email to the Crown Copyright and Licensing and Library of Canada seeking their advice and input on this matter.*not wanting to circumvent a robot.txt fileAsked permission to web archive site (2013): I apologize for the delay in getting back to you. Unfortunately, we decline your request to allow  your user agent archive.org_bot to crawl the website. To respect the recommendation of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada that xxxx protect personal information on their websites by using web robot exclusion protocols, the xxxx implements the robots.txt protocol to prevent search engines such as Google from crawling certain areas of our website that include personal information about individuals who participate in xxxx processes and displaying these search results.Where is such guidance and why is it necessary if noncommercial use is ok?Why is restricted personal information openly available on a gov rnment web site i  the first place?Libraries and copyright chillAsked permission to make a copy for a library collection (2015):Usually, when a publication is not on the website anymore, it means it is no longer available to the public and the government of Canada is not allowed to give you permission to use it, even for a non-commercial purpose. But looking at the publication title, that content looks to be owned by xxxx. Here is a link that may help you in your research: restrictions for new formats? Were print publications ever withdrawn from depository libraries?"What the Heck is Happening Up North? Canadian Government Information Circa 2014." Documents to the People (DTTP), 42.1 (Spring 2014), p. 15-20.  (OA via ALA GODORT: www.fixcrowncopyright.caCopyright Act, s.12 (emphasis added)Without prejudice to any rights or privileges of the Crown, where any work is, or has been, prepared or published by or under the direction or control of Her Majesty or any government department, the copyright in the work shall, subject to any agreement with the author, belong to Her Majesty and in that case shall continue for the remainder of the calendar year of the first publication of the work and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.image courtesy of Kim KemmerWhat is Crown copyright?“Crown copyright comes from and is justified by a particular non-democratic conception of government.” -- David Vaver● Canada & U.S. Contexts● Government Information Access● CGI-DPN● Initiatives & Activities@WhiteHouse on TwitterGovernment Information Landscape: Similarities● Collaborative initiatives● Digital preservation concerns ● Focus on “Open” Government● Commercialization of government information● Shrinking quantity of print materials issued● Exponential growth of e-only information● Fugitive government informationGovernment Information Landscape: Differences● Two official languages● Federal print depository program terminated in 2014● No legislation analogous to USC Title 44 ● Ad hoc Government Information Network ● Declining number of government information librarians ● Copyright significantly differentOpen Government● OGL conflicts with Crown Copyright● Open Government Portal○ Open Information○ Federal Science Library○ Open data○ https://open.canada.caPhoto by Abele Gigante on UnsplashDepository Services ProgramPre-2014● 1927: DSP established by an OIC● 1952: First Daily Checklist● 1981: DSP LAC established● 1995: DSP website created,● 2012: Economic Action Plan (Budget)● 2014: Print distribution ceases● 2014: Copyright clearance devolved back to issuing agencyPost-2014● Reliance on e-publications● Community of practice● New ILS● Statistics Canada Historical Digitization Project● Reimagined DSP Library Advisory CommitteeDSP User Survey FindingsLibrary professionals deem government publications “unique,” of particular resonance, part of an important historical record, and essential to government accountability, an engaged citizenry and the nation’s capacity to learn from the past.Publishing & Depository Services DirectorateClient Satisfaction Survey Report (2017)Canadian Government Information Access Today● Diminished access○ Need for connectivity ○ Concerns over stability○ Concerns over findability● Increased reliance on ATI / FOI requests● DSP Advisory Council● Naylor Report● How will all this government information will be preserved?Canadian Government Information - Digital Preservation Network (CGI-DPN)● To preserve and provide perpetual access to digital content originally published by government agencies in Canada● Decentralized and distributed preservation (Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe)● Local custody and control of assets● Affordable and sustainable● Possession is 9/10 of the law solutionMemory institutions have played a vital role in preserving government publications and making them accessible for long-term use. A distributed, tamper-evident preservation infrastructure is required to maintain this stewardship role in a digital environment.Canadian Government Information -Digital Preservation Network missionCGI-DPN Partner LocationsCGI-DPN Collections• DSP E-collection• At-risk content• Provincial and territorial government sites     • Thematic collections (e.g. opioid crisis)• Statistics Canada site • Available on the CGI-DPN Archive-It site by Samuel Zeller on UnsplashInitiatives & Activities● Provincial web archiving ● Canadian Web Archiving Coalition (CWAC) ● Registry of Canadian Government Information Digitization Projects ● Advocacy (GovInfo Day)● COPPUL Shared Print Archive Network● Digitization grants● National government information network discussions● GALLOP Portal We need to work together to pursue collaborative partnerships to safeguard past, present, and future government information for the public’s long-term access and consumption, and to promote services that encourage our users to critically evaluate and interrogate all information […] the solutions we create today need to be adaptable for the government information landscape of the future.Kian A. Flynn & Cassandra J. HartnettUniversity of Washington LibrariesFinal thoughts...AcknowledgementsMany thanks to Carla Graebner, Government Information and Research Data Services Librarian at Simon Fraser University and the ongoing support of myCGI DPN colleagues.Photo by NordWood Themes on UnsplashVenn diagram of government information“'Issued for Gratuitous Distribution': The History of Fugitive Documents and the FDLP" Less Access to Less information by and about the US Government scope“The number of fugitive print documents has been estimated as about 50% of the universe of Federal printing, but this estimate may be conservative.”Gil Baldwin, “Fugitive Documents – On the Loose or On the Run,” Administrative Notes: Newsletter of the Federal Depository Library Program 24, no. 10 (August 15, 2003): 4–8, “The Superintendent of Documents recently stated that 85% of these non-GPO publications fail to appear in the Monthly Catalog due to the fact that the issuing agencies do not provide copies of them to GPO for cataloging.”GODORT Federal Documents Task Force, “Suggestions to GPO. A Letter to the Superintendent of Documents. February 5, 1973,” DttP 1(3) (May 1973): 21–28. James A. Jacobs, Born-Digital U.S. Federal Government Information: Preservation and Access, March 2014. Prepared for Leviathan, the Center for Research Libraries Global Resources Collections Forum. GOVT INFORMATION ECOSYSTEMGuiding principles of government informationInformation must be:Not just preserved, but discoverable.Not just discoverable, but deliverable.Not just deliverable as bits, but readable.Not just readable, but understandable.Not just understandable, but usable.**Open Archival Information System (OAIS) principles HT to Ranganathan's 5 laws of library science!ACCESSPUBLISHINGOUTPUTCOLLECTIONSCURATION       PRESERVATION METADATA DESCRIPTION PUBLICLY CONTROLLED, COLLABORATIVE, INTEROPERABLE, SUSTAINABLE, PRESERVATION & ACCESS ECOSYSTEMAlready happening:LOCKSS (C, P)Hathitrust (A, M)GOVINFO (O, A)EOT (C, P)Memento (A)Cobweb (C) (A)DPLA (A, M) (O, A)Needs:Public PolicyFunding!DOI/PurlVersioning (Git/wiki)Open standardsOpen APIsInteroperabilityProvenanceRedundancyShort-term and long-term strategies● Librarians can use existing tools to preserve government information today.● But we must also lead a movement for a long-term, comprehensive plan for the life-cycle of government information.“The only kinds of fights worth fighting are those you are going to lose because somebody has to fight them and lose and lose and lose until someday, somebody who believes as you do wins. In order for somebody to win an important, major fight 100 years hence, a lot of other people have got to be willing -- for the sheer fun and joy of it -- to go right ahead and fight, knowing you're going to lose. You mustn't feel like a martyr. You've got to enjoy it.”--I.F. StoneThank you for attending this ALCTS programYour feedback is important to us!Please take a moment to complete a short online evaluation form at the URL below:


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