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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 19, September/October 2003 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Sep 30, 2003

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 19 – September/October 2003Unfortunately,this reallyisn’t about anexploratory expedition tothe Kerguelen Islands(though I would have lovedfor it to be!).  Rather, DanielPauly and I went to Paris toattend the workshop onmodeling the Kerguelenecosystem (Figure 1), heldat the Muséum Nationald’Histoire Naturelle(MNHN) in late September2003. This was one of therare occasions whereDaniel delivered anEcopath course in hisnative tongue. Incidentally,some of the participantswere not aware that Danielis French and they arrivedarmed with English uptheir sleeves, greetingDaniel in their best English.When Daniel responded inFrench, they were all amazedto have discovered acompatriot. That immed-iately broke the ice, pavingthe way to a successfulworkshop and to Daniel’stwo-day lecture on Ecopathwith Ecosim being receivedwith keen interest.  Partici-pants included represent-atives from the Centred’Etudes Biologiques deChizé;  l’Observatoire Océan-ologique de Villefranche surMer; L’Université du LittoralCôte d’Opale; the Centre deGeostatistique of the ÉcoleNationale Supérieure desMines; the Université deRennes 1; and of course, ourpartners from the MNHNGuy Duhamel and PatricePruvost.We might ask why theMNHN is interested inkeeping an eye on theseislands, part of the FrenchAntarctic territories. In theearly 20th century, the largenumber of marine mammalsaround Kerguelenarchipelago (notably spermwhales, elephant seals andfur seals) was the target of afishery which continueduntil the late 1960s - whenwhaling as a whole wasbanned (IWC 1994). In the1970s, the Soviet Unionstarted bottom trawling,targeting marbled rockcod,mackerel icefish and greyrockcod without anymanagement or control (G.Duhamel, pers. com.).  Then,in 1978, an EEZ wasestablished, which led to thecreation and implement-ation of a fishery manage-ment scheme (Duhamel1995) which included a limitof seven trawlers. In 1984, astock of Patagonian toothfishwas discovered in the area,but it was not until 1996,when the Japanesediscovered a liking for thewhite tasty flesh of thetoothfish, that the industryswitched from bottom trawl-ing to longlining for tooth-fish (Duhamel 1993). Thishighly profitable fishery ledto the emergence of anillegal  longline fishery in1997 which is now stilloperating. This longliningproduces large bycatch ofother fish species, e.g.macrourids and skates, andalso seabirds (Capdeville andDuhamel 1996), as well asmarine mammals (e.g. orcas).Why ‘rediscover’ Ecopath inthe title of this account? Well,because I did rediscoverEcopath. The last time I usedthis modeling approachextensively was for my Ph. D.			Figure 1. The Kerguelen Islands (andExclusive Economic Zone), acomponent of the French AntarcticTerritories. Continued on page 2 -  Kerguelen !!"The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at the Uni-versity of British Columbia.Included with theFisheries Centre’sn e w s l e t t e rFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is:UBC Fisheries Centre, 6660 NW Marine Drive,Bldg 022, Vancouver, British Columbia,Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is (604)822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat saup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-date information on the project.thesis in 1991. The objective ofmy latest visit to MNHN was tohelp Patrice Pruvost and GuyDuhamel improve the KerguelenEEZ model that Patrice and Istarted during his February 2003visit to Vancouver. This entailedre-examination of thepreliminary model (presented atthe workshop on ModellingAntarctic Ecosystems held at theFisheries Centre in April 2003 andto  be included as a contributionin the Fisheries Centre ResearchReport for that workshop). Thisproved to be a very successful‘bug hunting’ process and wewere able to fine-tune some ofthe parameter estimates of theKerguelen ecosystem. ThoughEcopath’s ‘look’ has changedsince 1991, its recognizableinterface allowed me to navigatethrough the routines withouthaving to shout ‘HELP’ to a far-away Villy Christensen.Thus in the end, Patrice was ableto present a well balanced modelto the workshop participants.This elicited constructivecomments and suggestions and,aside from some minor adjust-ments to the parameter est-imates of a few major groups, theparticipants all agreed thatthis model represented theKerguelen ecosystem well.They also agreed that afollow-up workshopfocusing on testingdifferent fishing scenariosand simulations usingEcosim and Ecospace is alogical progression to thiseffort.References    IWC (1994) Reports of theInternational WhalingCommission. IWC Report No. 44.    Duhamel, G. (1993) CampagnesSKALP 1987 et 1988 aux îlesKerguelen à bord des navires“SKIF” et “KALPER”. InstitutFrançais pour la Recherche et laTechnologie Polaires. Rapportsdes campagnes à la mer N° 93-01.614pp. (2 Vol.).    Duhamel, G. (1995) Gestion despêches aux îles Kerguelen. Rech.mar. 13: 16-17.     Capdeville, D. and G. Duhamel(1996) By-catch in the longlinefishery on the Kerguelen shelfslope (Division 58.5.1) during the1994/1995 and 1995/1996cruises. Commission for theConservation of Antarctic MarineLiving Resources (CCAMLRScience). 4: WG-FSA-96/11.1996, 11, 6 pp.Kerguelen - Continued from page 1G46$This book, by Stuart J. Green andcolleagues, highlights the currentcrisis  facing Philippine fisheriestoday.  In itsown words, itsobjectives areto highlightthe role offisheries infood security inthe Philippines;measure thelarge economicrole played byfisheries and other coastalresources; illustrate what is lostfrom the destruction of fisheriesand habitats; and thus provideadvice and support to decision-makers.  It does this clearly andconcisely, making good use ofgraphics. With a foreword byEdgardo Gomez, Pew Fellow inMarine Conservation andProfessor at the Marine ScienceInstitute, University of thePhilippines,  this book will be avaluable source of information foranyone concerned aboutsustaining the fisheries of thePhilippines.Reference     Green, S.J., A.T. White, J.O. Flores,M.F. Carreon III and A.E. Sia. 2003.Philippine Fisheries in Crisis:  Aframework for management. CoastalResource Management Project of theDepartment of Environment andNatural Resources, Cebu City,Philippines, 77pp. ... theparticipantsall agreedthat thismodelrepresentedtheKerguelenecosystemwell ...The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and humanservices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, theTrusts make strategic investments to help organisations andcitizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000,with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committedover $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations."  !!"This year’s  ICESAnnual Scienceconference was held inTallinn, Estonia, one of thethree small Baltic Statessandwiched between Russiaand Poland. The primepurpose for this trip was topresent to the Europeanfisheries science and advisorycommunity a paper of the keyfindings andrecommendations of ourproject to date. Additionally, Iarranged to meet with localscientists in order to establishcooperative workingrelationships for our fisheriesdata-recovery efforts. Estoniaand the other Baltic states(Latvia and Lithuania)represent a special challengefor improving global fisheriestime series, given that theybecame independentcountries only with thedissolution of the formerUSSR. Thus, prior to the early1990 catches taken byEstonian, Latvian andLithuanian vessels werereported as part of USSRcatches within the FAOstatistics.The conference was wellattended, with 200 papers and41 posters presented in 15theme sessions over four days.While major emphasis wasplaced (for geographicallyobvious reasons) on the BalticSea, topics ranged from thetraditional (fisheriestechnology and stockassessment) to moreprogressive and holisticthemes such as stock recoveryand reference points. Oneinteresting point was the factthat the president of ICES(Pentti Mälkki) in his openingremarks, as well as all threekeynote addresses, by FredrikWulff (University of Stockholm,Sweden), Randall Peterman(Simon Fraser University,Canada) and John Caddy(Mexico), while coveringdiverging topics, all made a pleafor the urgent need forscientists to improvecommunication outside of thedirect science forum, especiallywith decision makers and thepublic.  Judging by the amountof media and high-level briefingexposure our project hasachieved so far (see publicationand media records listed on ourweb page:  www.saup.fisheries.ubc.ca), it seems we areon the right track and ahead ofthe curve in this area.Other highlights of theconference were the themesessions on long-term changesin spatial distribution andabundance, recovery planning,and reference points. The paperI presented was titled “Towardssustainable fisheries: mappingregional and global trends inabundance and catches”,  andsummarized the major projectfindings to date. I also outlinedsome of the solutions wepropose for the global fisheriescrisis, with major emphasis onreduction of overcapacity, andon the need for ecosystemrecovery through theestablishment of no-take zonesof substantial size (Pauly et al.2002; Russ and Zeller 2003).An additional outcome of thisEuropean visit was theestablishment of co-operationwith local scientists in our datarecovery efforts. Thus, I met withDr. Henn Ojaveer (EstonianMarine Institute), the author of apaper on Estonian fisheriescatches in Baltic waters from 1928to 1995 (Ojaveer 1999), and withDr. Maris Plikshs (Latvian FisheriesResearch Institute), who dealswith Latvian fisheries catches.Attempts continue to try toextend this collaboration toLithuania.On a lighter note, it was pleasingto see that an establishedorganization like ICES has not lostits sense of humour, as evidencedby a poster contribution entitled“Staying in tune with ourecosystem”, authored by noneother than “J. Bach, G. Mahler, F.Schubert and Co-author Charlie”,and submitted for the imaginarytheme session, Σ ,  on “EcosystemTuning Management”.    Theauthors allege that “an excitingnew scientific area has emergedin hydroacoustics: the tuning ofvarious fish species. Tuning hasbeen performed for many yearswith data, but now a small groupof scientists has started tuningthe fish themselves.” The authorsfurther present a simplemathematical formula designedto assist in individual scale-tuningof fish. The equation, replicatedbelow (without permission) hasbeen passed on to the Fisheries	 !"	"	%&Judging bytheamount ofmedia andhigh levelbriefingexposureour projecthasachievedso far [...] itseems weare on theright trackand aheadof thecurve inthis area.Continued on page 4 - ICES' !!"Your recent article, ‘SalmonFarming in Chile’ (SeaAround Us, Issue 18),depicts a state of affairs that is inmany ways very similar to what Iobserved on a recent six-monthstint in the Philippines. I spentthis time as a research internwith the TambuyogDevelopment Center – a leadingPhilippine Non-GovernmentalOrganisation (NGO) in coastalcommunity development -studying the effects of thenation’s aquaculture industryupon its artisanal fishers. Mywork revealed a widespreadignorance towards the rights ofartisanal fishers and towardsenvironmental protection as awhole, and indicated that thePhilippines’ coastal communitiesshare many of the same worriesas their Chilean counterparts.     The Philippines – a nationextremely dependent upon itscoastal resources - has recentlyseen a dramatic increase inmarine aquaculture production.While this growth has generallybeen cast in a positive light,centred on the belief thataquaculture will lead to foodsecurity and economic growth,the nation’s artisanal fishers arehighly susceptible to its lessdesirable results, and thus haverecently seen their livelihoodcome under significant pressure.#	$""	())ICES - Continued from page 3     As things stand, the threatpresented by aquaculturedevelopment comes in a varietyof forms. Many of the potentialdownsides of intensive andsemi-intensive fish farming –including physical, chemical,and biological pollution – arewidely acknowledged, and wellrepresented in your article onChile. Additionally, develop-ment of the Philippines’ coasthas resulted in widespreaddestruction of mangroves in therush to develop fish-ponds.Another concern commonlyexpressed by artisanal fishers isthat as large, high-value, farmedfish become increasinglyprevalent, the demand forsmaller fish – those that can stillbe caught in significantquantities in the wild - willsharply decrease. This wouldinevitably lead to lower pricesfor their wild catch, and acorresponding decrease in theirincome.     While many artisanal fishersin the Philippines would like tosee a decrease in aquacultureactivity, it seems unlikely thatthe industry’s growth will beslowed or stopped bygovernment intervention. It ismore realistic to hope thatindustry, NGOs, andcommunity-basedorganizations of fishers will takea more active role in managingthis development to ensure thatartisanal fishers are not drivenaway from their traditionallivelihoods. In addition toensuring that soundenvironmental practices areadhered to, a variety ofapproaches should beconsidered. These would includegranting coastal property rightsto artisanal fishers and theircommunities, improving accessto sources of credit in coastalcommunities, expanding fishers’access to education and training,and developing alternativelivelihoods to ease the transitionfrom fisheries for those thatdesire to follow such a path.While such efforts would notsingle-handedly bring socio-economic parity to thePhilippines’ marginalizedartisanal fishers, they could playan essential role in the process ofbeginning to recognize theneeds and rights of this portionof the Philippines’ population.Josh Moncrieff is a UBC graduate,with a degree in oceanography.In 2002, he began a CIDA-fundedinternship in the Philippinescoordinated by the InternationalMarine Institute of MemorialUniversity, Newfoundland.He is now a Masters studentat the University of Calgary.Centre’s own Prof Carl Waltersfor further modellingexploration and incorporationinto Ecopath!Note that ψ  is a scale-densityparameter for summer-spawning herring west of 62o N,Smean is the mean scaleHzApamean rsonlyoddyeacdefgabeHASGFS73.014159.3?lim290903.1 ))(67))957114.7((/(ln −Π±≠≤∂∂−= ∫ ξψequilibrium coefficient at 47.341oK (Pasteur Institute), ξ  is theaverage off-key level, and Π  isthere for mathematical effect.”Happy fish tuning!References     Ojaveer, H. 1999. Exploitation ofBiological Resources of the BalticSea by Estonia in 1928-1995.Limnologica 29, 224-226.      Pauly, D.,  V. Christensen, S.Guénette, T.J. Pitcher, U.R. Sumaila,C.J. Walters, R. Watson and D. Zeller.2002. Towards sustainability inworld fisheries. Nature 418, 689-695.      Russ, G.R. and D. Zeller. 2003.From Mare Liberum to MareReservarum. Marine Policy 27,75-78.Philippines’coastalcommunitiesshare manyof the sameworries astheirChileancounterparts


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