World Sanskrit Conference (WSC) (17th : 2018)

The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava Scriptural Tradition Sugiki, Tsunehiko 2019

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 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava Scriptural Tradition Tsunehiko Sugiki Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies.  Section Convenors: Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, on behalf of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0390879.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/74490. Suggested Citation Format: MLA:
Sugiki, Tsunehiko. “The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava Scriptural Tradition.” Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies. Edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0390879. APA:
Sugiki, T. (2019). The structure and meanings of the Heruka maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava scriptural tradition. In D. Acharya, M. Slouber, & J. Törzsök (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0390879. Chicago:
Sugiki, Tsunehiko. 2019. “The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava Scriptural Tradition.” In Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies, edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök. DOI: 10.14288/1.0390879. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaCopyright © 2019 by the author. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/THE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018वैधुसव ्मकबुंटुकअ ारा यसं तृा यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIES THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala in the Buddhist Ḍākārṇava Scriptural Tradition Tsunehiko Sugiki Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima University,  Hiroshima, Japan. Abstract The Śrīḍākārṇavamahāyoginītantrarāja (abbreviated to Ḍākārṇava, “Ḍāka’s Ocean”) is one of the latest tantras among those belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara/-śaṃvara tradition, composed in the eastern area of the Indian subcontinent around the 11th century. The 15th chapter of the Ḍākārṇava teaches a large-scale and elaborate maṇḍala of Heruka, consisting of 986 major deities. I have a plan to publish the first critical edition and English translation of the whole chapter. The present paper describes and analyzes the structure and meanings of that maṇḍala expounded in the Ḍākārṇava, chapter 15. The maṇḍala consists of four layers comprised of thirteen circles, that is, one lotus at the cen-ter and twelve concentric circles. Through this structure the maṇḍala represents several Buddhist concepts such as the Fourfold Body and the Twelve Levels. The maṇḍala is formed by deities from the major Vajrayāna or Buddhist Tantric tra-ditions (Cakrasaṃvara, Guhyasamāja, Hevajra, and Catuṣpīṭha traditions) and deities who are deifications or anthropomorphized transformations of the Six Realms of Reincarnation and the Three Realms of Existence, namely, the whole Buddhist cosmos. Furthermore, all deities constituting the maṇḍala are equated with Jinas in the auspicious eon. Keywords: Ḍākārṇava, Buddhist Tantra, Heruka, maṇḍala. Introduction The Śrīḍākārṇavamahāyoginītantrarāja (“The Glorious Ḍāka’s Ocean Great Yoginī Tantra King,” abbreviated to Ḍākārṇava, “Ḍāka’s Ocean”) is a Tantra belonging to Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies, edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök. General editor: Adheesh Sathaye, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0390879. SUGIKI 2the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara/-śaṃvara tradition.  It was composed in the eastern 1area of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the late 10th and the early 12th centuries (viz., around the 11th century).  The 15th chapter of the Ḍākārṇava 2teaches a large-scale and elaborate maṇḍala of Heruka, consisting of 986 major deities. In this paper I call it the “Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala” to distinguish it from other Heruka maṇḍalas found in other Buddhist tantric texts.  Maeda (1955) published a Sanskrit edition of about one third of the 15th chapter of the Ḍākārṇava (which corresponds to lines (1)-(89) of the whole chap-ter [lines (1)-(294)] in my unpublished edition) and stopped his study. I have a plan to publish the first critical edition and English translation of the whole chapter, using Sanskrit manuscripts of the Ḍākārṇava and related works that Maeda did not use.  3 I mean the scriptural tradition starting with the Cakrasaṃvaratantra. More general 1name for this scriptural tradition is Śaṃvara or Saṃvara. However, this term also indi-cates the Sarvabuddhasamāyogatantra. For this reason I use the term Cakrasaṃvara/-śaṃvara to indicate the tradition starting with the Cakrasaṃvaratantra and distinguish it from the Śaṃvara indicating the Sarvabuddhasamāyogatantra. As for the words śaṃ-vara and saṃvara, see Cicuzza (2001: 15), Sanderson (2009: 166-169), and Sugiki (2015: 360-361). See Sugiki 2007: 17-19, Sanderson 2009: 158, Sugiki 2015: 363-364, Sugiki 2018a: 39, and 2Sugiki 2018b: 45. The important materials that Maeda did not use and that I have used are Sanskrit man3 -uscripts NGMPP A138/9 (the oldest Sanskrit manuscripts of the Ḍākārṇava), NGMPP B24/52 (the oldest Sanskrit manuscript of Ratnasena’s Śrīmahāsaṃvarasaparikara-maṇḍalārcanavidhi containing many parallel passages), and Matsunami 346 (a Sanskrit manuscript of Śrīvajravārāhīkalpamahātantrarāja containing many parallel passages), and some others that I have noted in the Primary Sources section of the present paper. Jayasena’s Śrīḍākārṇavatantramaṇḍalacakrasya sādhana, named Ratnapadmarāganidhi, is also a highly important material. Although only its Tibetan translation is available, it teaches deities’ respective mantras, in which every deity’s individual Sanskrit name is transliterated. Its transliteration is useful in deciding how to divide the deities’ names. I have also consulted it. The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 3The present paper describes and analyzes the structure and meanings of the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala expounded in the Ḍākārṇava, chapter 15.  41. Deities and Circles Constituting the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala In this section of the present paper I describe the contents of the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala with a focus on names of circles and individual deities consti-tuting the maṇḍala and their identities. I indicate deities’ names and other key components of the maṇḍala by boldface when they appear first in this paper. Numbers in parentheses, such as (15.246), are line numbers in my unpublished Sanskrit edition of the 15th chapter of the Ḍākārṇava. The maṇḍala consists of four layers (puṭa) comprised of concentric circles (cakra, totally one lotus at the center and twelve concentric circles, that is, 13 circles in total). The four layers are the Sahaja, Dharma, Saṃbhoga, and Nirmāṇa Layers, which represent the Buddha’s fourfold body as presented below. When performing offering and prais-ing, a practitioner recites each deity’s name with a word “Vajra” at the beginning (15.246). 1.1. The First Sahaja (Innate) Layer (15.33-116) The Sahaja or Innate Layer is the innermost layer and consists of a lotus and three circles (viz., the Adamantine, Heart, and Merit Circles) arranged in a con-centric way. 1.1.1. The lotus (padma) at the center (15.33-64)  5(1) Heruka and (2) Vajravārāhī in sexual union, the Lord and Mistress of the whole maṇḍala, are situated at the center of the lotus, the innermost of the Sa-haja Layer. Heruka has seventeen faces (with three eyes on each) and seventy-six arms. Vajravārāhī has one face (with three eyes on it) and two arms.  Some passages mentioning deities’s names in the Ḍākārṇava’s Sanskrit text are difficult 4to read: It is obscure regarding how to divide deities’ names (how to divide compounds mentioning deities’ names). In the present paper I have divided the deities’s names following Jayasena’s interpretation in his Sādhana mentioned in footnote 3 of the present paper (except for a few parts). In his Vidhi referred to in footnote 3 of the present paper Ratnasena in some parts presents different interpretations regarding how to divide deiteis’names. As a whole, Jayasena’s interpretation seems to be more faithful to the original text of the Ḍākārṇava than Ratnasena’s. In the present paper I have reported Ratnasena’s different interpretation in footnotes. This lotus is called thig le’i ’khor lo (*bindu-/tilaka-cakra) in Jayasena’s Sādhana (Tib. D 8r4).5 SUGIKI 4Twenty-four ḍākinīs reside on the petals of the lotus. They are headed by the major four ḍākinīs of the Cakrasaṃvara tradition (viz., Ḍākinī, Lāmā, Khaṇḍarohā, and Rūpiṇī). Their names and locations are as follows: (1) Ḍākinī, (2) Rūpikā, (3) Cumbikā, (4) Parāvṛtā, (5) Sabālikā, and (6) Anuvartī are on the petals between the east and the north; (7) Lāmā, (8) Yogeśvarī, (9) Bhadrā, (10) Kapālinī, (11) Kaṅkālikā, and (12) Rājavartī, on the petals between the north and the west; (13) Khaṇḍarohā, (14) Śmaśānī, (15) Vidravī, (16) Kurukullikā, (17) Rudantī , and (18) Naṭī, on the petals between the west and the south; and (19) 6Rūpiṇī, (20) Bhairavī, (21) Śikhī, (22) Śikhaṇḍī, (23) Jaṭilī, and (24) Rudrā, on the petals between the south and the east. They reside alone without male consorts. Like Vajravārāhī, they have one face (with three eyes on it) and two arms. In this way there are twenty-six deities on the central lotus. Skull bowls [filled with] the fivefold immortal nectar (pañcāmṛtakaroṭaka) are placed in be-tween the petals where the twenty-four ḍākinīs reside. 1.1.2. The Adamantine Circle (Vajracakra) (15.65-76) All circles starting with the Adamantine Circle are comprised of thirty-six cou-ples of ḍākinī and hero (vīra). The ḍākinīs and heroes each have one face (with three eyes on it) and four arms. Alternatively, the heroes each have four faces (with three eyes on each) and twelve arms (15.234ab). I consider that the number “thirty-six” is derived from the number of deities residing on the fivefold maṇḍala of Heruka, the most popular maṇḍala in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition: In that maṇḍala thirty-six coupled or single deities forms five circles and encircle the Lord and Mistress Heruka and Vārāhī located at the center.  The Adamantine Circle consists mostly of the major deities in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition, such as the major four ḍākinīs (1)-(4), the twenty-four ḍākinīs and heroes connected with the twenty-four Cakrasaṃvara holy sites (5)-(28), and five of the Six Armor ḍākinīs (29)-(33). The thirty-six ḍākinīs, who are in copulation with their consort heroes (collectively called “Leader Heruka,” nāyaka, 15.84c and 15.237-241b) are as follows: (1) Ḍākinī & Vajraḍāka, (2) Lāmā & Viś-vaḍāka, (3) Khaṇḍarohā & Padmaḍāka, (4) Rūpiṇī & Ratnaḍāka, (5) Pracaṇḍā & Khaṇḍakapālin,  (6) Caṇḍākṣī & Mahākaṅkāla, (7) Prabhāvatī & Kaṅkāla, (8) 7Mahānāsā & Vikaṭadaṃṣṭrin, (9) Vīramatī & Surāvairin, (10) Kharvarī &  She is Rūpatā in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 9v3 and 22r3). However, a possibility also 6exists that rūpatā is merely a corruption of rudantī. He is Vajrakhaṇḍakapāla (or Khaṇḍakapāla) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r1 and 22v5).7 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 5Amitābha, (11) Laṅkeśvarī & Vajraprabha, (12) Drumacchāyā & Vajradeha,  (13) 8Airāvatī & Aṅkurika,  (14) Mahābhairavī & Vajrajaṭila,  (15) Vāyuvegā & 9 10Mahāvīra,  (16) Surābhakṣī & Vajrahūṃkāra,  (17) Śyāmādevī & Subhadra,  11 12 13(18) Subhadrikā & Vajrabhadra,  (19) Hayakarṇā & Mahābhairava,  (20) 14 15Khagānanā & Virūpākṣa,  (21) Cakravegā & Mahābala,  (22) Khaṇḍarohā & 16 17Ratnavajra,  (23) Śauṇḍinī & Hayagrīva,  (24) Cakravarmiṇī & Ākāśagarbha,  18 19 20(25) Suvīrā & Heruka,  (26) Mahābalā & Padmanartaka,  (27) Cakravartinī & 21 22Vairocana,  (28) Mahāvīryā & Vajrasattva,  (29) Yāminī & Mahābala,  (30) 23 24 25 He is Vajradehāṅkurika in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r3 and 22v6).8 He is Vajrajaṭilaka (or Vajrajaṭila) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r4 and 22v6).9 He is Vajramahāvīra (or Mahāvīra) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r4 and 22v6).10 He is Vajrahūṃkāra in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r4-r5 and 22v6).11 He is Vajrasubhadra (or Subhadra) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r5 and 22v6).12 He is Vajrabhadraka (or Vajrabhadra) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r5 and 22v6).13 He is Vajramahābhairava (or Mahābhairava) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r6 and 22v6).14 He is Vajravirūpākṣa (or Virūpākṣa) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r6 and 22v6).15 He is Vajramahābala (or Mahābala) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r6 and 22v6).16 He is Vajraratnavajra (or Ratnavajra) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r7 and 22v6).17 He is Vajrahayagrīva (or Hayagrīva) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r7 and 22v6).18 He is Vajrākāśagarbha (or Ākāśagarbha) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10r7-v1 and 22v6).19 He is Vajraheruka (or Heruka) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v1 and 22v7).20 He is Vajrapadmanarteśvara (or Padmanartaka) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v1 and 2122v7). He is Vajravairocana (or Vairocana) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v1-v2 and 22v7).22 He is Vajrasattva in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v2 and 22v7).23 He is Vajramahābala (or Mahābala) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v2 and 22v7).24 He is Vajrajñānaḍāka (or Jñānaḍāka) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v2-v3 and 22v7).25 SUGIKI 6Yuminī  & Jñānaḍāka,  (31) Saṃcālanī & Dhairya,  (32) Trāsanī & Sthairya,  26 27 28 29(33) Caṇḍikā & Mokṣa,  (34) Sarasvatī & Jñāna,  (35) Icchāsiddhi & Upāya,  and 30 31 32(36) Mahājvālā & Cittavajra.  331.1.3. The Heart Circle (Hṛdayacakra) (15.77-89) The Heart Circle consists mostly of the major deities from the Guhyasamāja tra-dition, viz., those derived from the six lineage masters (1)-(6), the four goddesses (7)-(10), the six adamantine goddesses of the Six Sensorial Objects (11)-(16), a group of deities including the Eight Bodhisattvas (17)-(26), and the Ten Vidyā Kings (27)-(36). The thirty-six ḍākinīs, who are in copulation with their consort heroes, are as presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Light Heruka” (laghuheruka, 15.84d), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Vajradharī, (2) Akṣobhyī, (3) Vairocanī, (4) Ratneśikā, (5) Padmanartī, (6) Amoghī, (7) Locanā, (8) Māmakī, (9) Pāṇḍarā, (10) Tārā, (11) Rūpavajrā, (12) Śabdavajrā, (13) Gandhavajrā, (14) Rasavajrā, (15) Sparśavajrā, (16) Dharmadhātuvajrā, (17) Kṣitigarbhī, (18) Kha-garbhakī, (19) Vajrapāṇī, (20) Lokanāthī, (21) Sarvanī (= Sarvanivaraṇav-iṣkambhinī), (22) Samantabhadrī, (23) Ratnolkī, (24) Nairātmyā, (25) Bhṛkuṭī, (26) Parṇaśabarī, (27) Yamāntakī, (28) Prajñāntakī, (29) Padmāntakī, (30) Vigh-nāntakī, (31) Acalī, (32) Nīladaṇḍī, (33) Ṭakkirājī, (34) Mahābalā, (35) Uṣṇīṣā, and (36) Sumbharājñī. 1.1.4. The Merit Circle (Guṇacakra also called Sarvaguṇacakra) (15.90-115) The Merit Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of human social divisions, such as the varṇas, occupational groups, and local ethnic groups. A relatively similar list of thirty-six ḍākinīs can  Generally her name is Mohanī. Manuscript NGMPP A142/2’s reading is Kāminī. Its 26Tibetan translation is skyes gshin rje ma.  He is Vajradhairya in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v3 and 22v7).27 He is Vajrasthairya in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v3 and 22v7).28 He is Vajramokṣa in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v3 and 22v7).29 He is Vajrajñāna in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v4 and 22v7).30 He is Vajropāya in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v4 and 22v7).31 He is Vajracitta in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v4 and 22v7).32 He is Vajracakraka in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 10v5).33 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 7be found in Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, a commentary on the Herukābhidhāna or Cakrasaṃvaratantra.  The thirty-six ḍākinīs in copulation with their consort he34 -roes on the Merit Circle are as presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Lotus Heruka” (padmaheruka, 15.85a), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Brāhmaṇī (“Brahmin woman”), (2) Kṣatriṇī (“Kṣatriya woman”), (3) Vaiśyī (“Vaiśya woman”), (4) Śūdrī (“Śūdra woman”), (5) Caṇḍālinī (“Caṇḍāla woman”), (6) Śvacī (= Śvapacī, “Dog-cooker woman”), (7) Ḍombī (“Ḍomba woman”), (8) Naṭī (“dancer woman”), (9) Kapālinī (“skull-bearer woman”), (10) Kaivartī (“fisher woman”), (11) Veṇunaṭī (“flute-dancer woman”), (12) Śaṅkhinī (“shell-bearer woman”), (13) Tantuvāyī (“weaver woman”), (14) Kandukī (“cooker woman”), (15) Kāṣṭhakārikā (“carpenter woman”), (16) Mālinī (“gardener woman”), (17) Tailinī (“oilman woman”), (18) Cheyī (“dyer woman”),  (19) Kośakārī (“box-maker woman”), (20) Dūtinī (= Dūtī, 35“messenger woman”), (21) Haḍagāḍī (“bone-worker woman”),  (22) Gaṇikā 36(“courtesan”), (23) Kallavālī (“woman of the wine-seller [caste]”),  (24) Kūparī (= 37Kūpakārī, “well-digger woman”), (25) Rājabhaṭī (“royal-solder woman”), (26) Khaṭṭikī (“butcher woman”), (27) Tambolavikrayī (= Tāmbūlavikrayī, “betel-sell-er woman”), (28) Suvarṇakārī (“goldsmith woman”), (29) Lohārī (= Lohakārī, “blacksmith woman”), (30) Maṇihārī (“jewel-stealing woman”), (31) Dāvakī (“for-est-dwelling savage woman”), (32) Mlecchī or a foreign woman called Oḍinī,  38(33) Vanijī (“merchant woman”), (34) Pattharagāḍhī (“masonry woman”),  (35) 39Kṛṣikā (“farmer woman”), (36) Carmakārī (“leather-worker woman”).  40 Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, Skt ed. (Cicuzza 2001), p. 69, l. 3-l. 16. Twenty-six of them 34are identical or similar. I am not certain of the name Cheyī, which appears to be some Prakrit. Its Tibetan 35translation is tshos ma. The name Haḍagāḍī appears to be some Prakrit. (In Hindi, haḍ [Sanskrit haḍḍa] means 36bone, and gāḍī means carriage.) Its Tibetan translation is bshang 'phyag ma. I am not certain of the name Kallavālī. Its Tibetan translation is chang 'tshong.37 In Ratnasena’s Vidhi, Mlecchī and Oḍinī are two different goddesses (Skt ms. 12v1 and 3812v2). The name pattharagāḍhī appears to be a Prakrit. In Hindi pathar means a stone and 39gāḍhnā is to shape or forge. Its Tibetan translation is rdo bzo ma. In Ratnasena’s Vidhi, Carmakārī is not regarded as a goddess’s name: Kṛṣikā is the 40thirty-sixth and last ḍākinī. SUGIKI 8The Merit Circle also contains the four gates, eight charnel grounds, and some others. These all constitute the Merit Circle. The eight ḍākinīs shown in Table 1 reside at the four gates and four corners outside the thirty-six couples of ḍākinī and hero described above. They are identical with the eight ḍākinīs on the samayacakra (Pledge Circle) of the most popular Heruka maṇḍala in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition. There are eight charnel grounds (śmaśāna), trees (vṛkṣa), the guardians of directions (dikpāla), serpent kings (nāgendra), and cloud kings (meghendra) outside the four gates. These are shown in Table 2. A similar set of these can be found in Umāpatideva’s Vajravārāhīsādhana (Skt ed. [English 2002], 70-76). They are also similar to the eight śmaśānas in Lūyīpa’s Cakrasaṃvarābhi-samaya,  the eight śmaśānas, vṛkṣas, direction-guardians (no word for it), ser41 -pent kings (no word for it), and meghādhipas in the Saṃvarodayatantra,  and the 42eight śmaśānas, vṛkṣas, dikpatis, nāgas, meghas, and so on in Jālandharapāda’s Va-jrapradīpā,  Bhadrapāda’s Dveṣavajrasādhana,  and Rāhulagupta’s Heva43 44 -jraprakāśa.  45Table 1. Eight ḍākinīs at four gates and four corners on the Merit Circle. East gate (1) Kākāsyā North gate (2) UlūkāsyāWest gate (3) Śvānāsyā South gate (4) SūkarāsyāSoutheast corner (5) Yamadāḍhī Southwest corner (6) YamadūtīNorthwest corner (7) Yamadaṃṣṭriṇī Northeast corner (8) Yamamathanī Lūyīpa’s Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya, Skt ed. (Sakurai 1998), 7.b.41 Saṃvarodayatantra, Skt ed. (Tsuda 1974), 17.36-41.42 Jālandharapāda’s Vajrapradīpā, Skt ed. (Gerloff 2017), 8.1-8.43 Bhadrapāda’s Dveṣavajrasādhana, Skt ed. (Gerloff 2017), p. 414, l. 9-p. 416, l. 6.44 Rāhulagupta’s Hevajraprakāśa, Skt ed. (Gerloff 2017), p. 491, 8.1-8.45 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 9Table 2. Eight charnel grounds and others outside the four gates on the Merit Circle. 1.2. The Second Dharma Layer (15.117-155) The Dharma Layer encircles the Sahaja Layer and consists of three circles (viz., the Space, Wind, and Earth Circles) arranged in a concentric way. 1.2.1. The Space Circle (Ākāśacakra) (15.117-127) The Space Circle consists of flying musical deities, who are divine musicians and anthropomorphized transformations of musical instruments and concepts. The thirty-six flying musical deities or ḍākinīs (collectively called “Sky-goer,” khecarī), who are in copulation with their consort heroes, are as presented below. The he-roes are collectively called “Space Heruka,” (ākāśaheruka, 15.85b), and their indi-vidual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a) : (1) Kinnarī, (2) Gandharvrī, (3) Huttakī,  (4) Pāṭavī, (5) Vīṇā, (6) 46Vaṃśā, (7) Mukundā, (8) Murajā, (9) Gargarikā, (10) Kāṃsyā, (11) Selendrikī,  47(12) Gītā, (13) Karaṭā, (14) Tamaḍā,  (15) Nṛtyā, (16) Lāsyā, (17) Ḍukkā (= Ḍhakkā), 48Charnel grounds Trees Direction-guardiansSerpent kings Cloud kingsEast Caṇḍogra Śirīṣa (1) Indra (1) Vāsuki (1) GarjitaNorth Gahvara Aśvattha (2) Kubera (2) Takṣaka (2) GhūrṇitaWest Jvālākula Kaṅkeli (3) Varuṇa (3) Karkoṭa (3) GhoraSouth Karaṅka Cūta (4) Yama (4) Padma (4) ĀvartaNortheast Aṭṭaṭṭahāsa Vaṭa (5) Īśāna (5) Mahāpadma (5) GhanaSoutheast Lakṣmīvana Karañja (6) Agni (6) Huluhulu (6) PūraṇaSouthwest Ghorāndhakāra Latāparkaṭi (7) Rākṣasa (7) Kulika (7) VarṣaṇaNorthwest Kilikilārava Pārthiva (8) Vāyu (8) Śaṅkhapāla (8) Caṇḍa Perhaps it derives from the word huḍukka (a kind of rattle or drum).  Its Tibetan trans46 -lation is hu ṭu ka ma. Unidentified. (The name Selendrikī may be Śailendrikī.) Its Tibetan translation is śī lan 47dri ki ma. Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ta ma ḍā.48 SUGIKI 10(18) Tālī, (19) Sāraṇā,  (20) Dundubhikā, (21) Modrī,  (22) Tānī, (23) Pañcamā, 49 50(24) Nālavī (= Nālavaṃśī), (25) Ṭambhakī,  (26) Ḍamarī, (27) Ḍuṇḍukī,  (28) 51 52Kāhalī, (29) Ḍorakī, (30) Bhūkī,  (31) Ghaṇṭā, (32) Kiṅkiṇī, (33) Ghurghurī, (34) 53Ḍukolikā,  (35) Śāṅkhī, and (36) Ghoṣavatī. 541.2.2. The Wind Circle (Vāyucakra) (15.128-137) The Wind Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of sky-going creatures such as birds.  About half deities are 55similar to half of the thirty-six female messengers taught in Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā,  who are transformed into birds or sky-going creatures. The 56thirty-six ḍākinīs in copulation with their consort heroes on the Wind Circle are as presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Wind Heruka,” (bhairamb-haṃ heruṃ, 15.85c), also collectively called “Ākāśagarbha,” and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Garuḍī (female Garuḍa), (2) Haṃsī (swan), (3) Citrī (a multicolored bird), (4) Kākī (crow), (5) Bakī (crane), (6) Tittirikā (partridge), (7) Mayūrī (peacock), (8) Tām-racūḍī (cock), (9) Gudacūlikā (“intestine-like crest,” some bird),  (10) Komalā 57(some charming bird),  (11) Pārāvatī (dove), (12) Bṛhatkākī (raven), (13) Gaḍinī 58 In Jayasena’s Sādhana, Tālī and Sāraṇī are not divided: Tāliśaraṇī is the name of a single 49goddess (Tib D, 26r6). The word parṣadā, which comes after the word ghoṣavatī, is re-garded as a name of the thirty-sixth goddess (Tib D, 27v3). Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is mau dri.50 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ṭham ba ki.51 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ḍun tū ki.52 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is bhu ki ma.53 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ḍa ko li ka ma.54 If the names of the twenty-sixth and the thirty-sixth deities respectively means cat and 55hunter, and those who hunt birds also constitute this circle. Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, Skt ed. (Cicuzza 2001), p. 70, l. 16-p. 71, l. 2.56 I have not identified which bird is indicated by this name. Its Tibetan translation is gu 57da bu li. Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ’jam pa mo.58 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 11(“goldfish-carrier,” some bird),  (14) Kapiñjalī (pheasant), (15) Śukī (parrot), (16) 59Mantrī (some bird),  (17) Sārasā (swan), (18) Gṛdhrā (vulture), (19) Ulūkī (owl), 60(20) Caṭakī (sparrow), (21) Kāṣṭhacaṭī (woodpecker or some bird),  (22) 61Cakravākī (Chakra bird), (23) Vṛkṣāraṇī (“tree-refuge,” some bird),  (24) Karkavī 62(some bird),  (25) Jalakākī (water crow), (26) Biḍālī (some cat-like bird or a cat), 63(27) Nālagrīvī (“reed-neck,” some bird),  (28) Sārikā (some bird),  (29) Śyenā 64 65(hawk), (30) Kuṅkumalolā (“saffron-like tongue,” some bird),  (31) Vāṭirī (some 66bird),  (32) Kākajaṅghakī (“crow-shank,” some bird),  (33) Sāmā (some bird),  67 68 69(34) Lehapiṣṭā (heron), (35) Daddarī (some bird),  and (36) Mṛgāriṇī (some big 70bird attacking animals or a hunter). 1.2.3. The Earth Circle (Medinīcakra) (15.138-154) The Earth Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of animals living on the ground. Some deities are similar to some of the thirty-six female messengers taught in Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā,  71who are transformed into dry-land creatures, water creatures, and forest crea-tures. The thirty-six ḍākinī (collectively called “Ground-goer,” bhūcarī) in copula-tion with their consort heroes on the Earth Circle are presented below. The he- Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ga ḍi nī.59 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is sngags ma.60 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is shing bye'u mo.61 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is bri kṣā ra ṇī.62 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ka kka pa'i.63 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is lcug ma'i mgrin.64 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is sā ri mo.65 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is gur gum lce can ma.66 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is bā ṭi rī.67 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is kā ka dzaṃ gha mo.68 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is hor mo (meaning Mongolian woman).69 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is da ddha ri mo.70 Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, Skt ed. (Cicuzza 2001), p. 70, l. 1-l. 15.71 SUGIKI 12roes are collectively called “Ground Heruka” (bhūheruka, 15.85d), and their indi-vidual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Siṃghī (lion), (2) Vyāghrī (tiger), (3) Bhīmbhā (some animal),  (4) Śaśī (hare), 72(5) Gajī (elephant), (6) Mṛgī (deer), (7) Mārjārakī (cat), (8) Gāvī (cow), (9) Mahiṣī (buffalo), (10) Turagī (horse), (11) Jambukī (jackal), (12) Gaṇḍī (rhinoceros), (13) Camarī (yak), (14) Mūṣī (rat), (15) Gardabhī (donkey), (16) Bheḍī (ram), (17) Ajakī (goat), (18) Eḍakī (sheep), (19) Śvānī (dog), (20) Sūkarī (boar), (21) Bhallī (bear), (22) Daṇḍārī (elephant), (23) Muñjakī (some animal),  (24) Vesarī (mule), (25) 73Vilāsī (some charming animal),  (26) Araṇyī (some forest animal),  (27) Bṛhac74 75 -chvānikā (big dog), (28) Droṇakākī (raven), (29) Śārdūlī (panther), (30) Vyāḍā (snake), (31) Citriṇī (chameleon), (32) Kuṭikā (camel), (33) Nakulī (mungoose), (34) Kṛkī (lizard), (35) Guhī (some animal),  and (36) Grāmanivāsinī (some village-76animal).  77The Earth Circle also contains the four gates, eight charnel grounds, and some others outside the thirty-six couples of ḍākinī and hero described above. These all constitute the Earth Circle. The eight ḍākinīs at the four gates and four corners are shown in Table 3. They are the Eight Mothers quite general in god-dess-worship traditions both in Buddhism and Śaivism. The eight charnel grounds, trees, female direction-guardians (lokapālinī), female serpents (nāginī), and female clouds (meghinī) outside the four gates are shown in Table 4.  I have not identified which animal is indicated by this name. Its Tibetan translation is 72bhi mba. Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is mau dznyā ka.73 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is sgeg mo.74 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is nags mo.75 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is phug pa mo.76 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is grong na gnas pa mo.77 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 13Table 3. Eight ḍākinīs at four gates and four corners on the Earth Circle. Table 4. Eight charnel grounds and others outside the four gates on the Earth Circle. 1.3. The Third Saṃbhoga (Enjoyment) Layer (15.156-198) The Saṃbhoga or Enjoyment Layer encircles the Dharma Layer and consists of three circles (viz., the Fire, Water, and Knowledge Circles) arranged in a concen-tric way. 1.3.1. The Fire Circle (Agnicakra) (15.156-169) The Fire Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are gods or spirits (1)-(4) or deifications of human kin members (5)-(36). (Because most of them are humans, who are viviparous, the Fire Circle is also proclaimed to be a circle of the vi-viparous [15.178c-179b].) The thirty-six ḍākinīs (collectively called “Sky-goer,” khe-carī), who are in copulation with their consort heroes, are presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Fire Heruka” (jvālāheruka, 15.86a), and their indi-vidual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Devinī, (2) Nāginī, (3) Yakṣī, (4) Bhūtī, (5) Mātā (mother), (6) Bhāryā (wife), (7) Bhaginī (sister), (8) Duhitā (daughter), (9) Bhāgineyikā (sister’s daughter), (10) Pitur Bhaginī (father’s sister), (11) Sā ca Mātulasya Bhāryakā (maternal uncle’s East gate (1) Brahmāṇī North gate (2) MāheśvarīWest gate (3) Kaumārī South gate (4) VaiṣṇavīSoutheast corner (5) Vārāhī Southwest corner (6) IndrīNorthwest corner (7) Caṇḍī Northeast corner (8) MahālakṣmīCharnel grounds Trees Female Direction-GuardiansFemale ser-pentsFemale cloudsEast Māraṇa Pūga (1) Indrī (1)-(8) Female forms of the previous ser-pent kings(1)-(8) Female forms of the previous cloud kingsNorth Saṃtrāsana Akṣoṭaka (2) YamāWest Mahābhaya Nālīra (3) RudrāSouth Bhayaṃkara Dāḍima (4) YakṣiṇīNortheast Uccāṭaṇa Bilva (5) BhūtinīSoutheast Vidveṣaṇa Āmalaka (6) ṚṣīSouthwest Mūkana Bijjora (7) RākṣasīNorthwest Stambhana Rudra (8) Vāyubhāryā SUGIKI 14that wife) , (12) Bhāryābhaginī (wife’s sister), (13) Mātā ([wife’s] mother),  (14) 78 79Tasyaiva Pitur Mātṛkā (her [viz., wife’s] father’s mother),  (15) Bhāryāpitāmahī 80(wife’s paternal grandmother), (16) Mātur Mātā (mother’s mother), (17) Bāndhavī (female relative), (18) Mātur Bhaginī (mother’s sister), (19) Bhāgineyikā (sister’s daughter), (20) Svamātur Mātā-bhaginī (one’s mother’s mother’s sister),  (21) 81Bhāgineyī (sister’s daughter).  (22) Asya Putrikā (her [viz., sister’s daughter’s] 82daughter),  (23) Pitur Mātā (father’s mother), (24) Pitāmahī (paternal grand83 -mother), (25) Pitulasya Bhāryakā (paternal uncle’s wife), (26) Duhitā-putrab-hāryā (daughter’s son’s wife),  (27) Bhāryāyā Bhaginī (wife’s sister),  (28) Sva84 85 -pitur Bhaginī (one’s father’s sister),  (29) Putrī ([one’s father’s] daughter),  (30) 86 87Tasyaiva tu Svagotrajā (that same one’s [viz., one’s father’s] own female kin),  88(31) Bhrātāyā Bhāryā  (brother’s wife), (32) Putrī ([brother’s] daughter),  (33) 89 90Putrasyaiva tu Bhāryakā (the same son’s [viz., that brother’s daughter’s broth- In Ratnasena’s Vidhi, she is Mātulabhāryakā (Skt ms. 15r5). In Jayasena’s Sadhana the 78words sā ca in the text are regarded as a part of her name (Tib. D 29r1). (The similar is said of the names of deities (14), (30), and (33) of this circle.) She is Bhāryāmātā (or -mātī) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15r6).79 She is Bhāryāpitur Mātṛkā in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15r6). Tasyaiva is tasyā eva.80 Ratnasena’s Vidhi divides Svamātur Mātā-bhaginī into two: the goddess Svamātur 81Mātā and the goddess Svabhaginī (Skt ms. 15r7-v1). She is Svabhāgineyī in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v1).82 She is Bhāgineyīputrikā in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v1). Asya is asyāḥ (her) for met83 -rical reason. In Ratnasena’s Vidhi, Duhitā, and Putrabhāryā (Skt ms. 15v2). 84 She is Bhāryābhaginī in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Smt ms. 15v2).85 She is Pitur bhaginī in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms 15v2).86 She is Pituḥ Putrī in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v2-v3).87 Tasyaiva Svagotrajā is not regarded as a goddess’s name in Ratnasena’s Vidhi.88 She is Bhrātrā Bhāryā (or -bhāryī) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v4). Bhrātāyā[ḥ] is 89bhrātur. She is Bhrātrā Putrī in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v4).90 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 15er’s] wife),  (34) Duhitāyā Bhartṛmātuḥ Putrasyaiva Śvaśṛkā (daughter’s hus91 -band’s mother’s same son’s mother-in-law [viz., daughter’s mother]),  (35) 92Duhitā (daughter),  and (36) Putrī (daughter). 931.3.2. The Water Circle (Jala-/Udakacakra) (15.170-180) The Water Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of creatures living in water, wet place, or places near water. Some deities are similar to some of the thirty-six female messengers taught in Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā,  who are transformed into dry-land creatures, wa94 -ter creatures, and forest creatures. The thirty-six ḍākinīs in copulation with their consort heroes on the Water Circle are presented below. The heroes are collec-tively called “Water Heruka” (dravaheruka, 15.86b), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Makarī (makara), (2) Kūrmī (turtle), (3) Macchā (fish), (4) Viṅgī (from vyaṅga, frog), (5) Kacchapī (tortoise), (6) Oḍrikā (from udra, otter), (7) Sūcī (black scorpion or some stinging creature), (8) Gargarī (catfish), (9) Śīlī (large snake), (10) Jalaguhī (some water creature),  (11) Kiṭimukhā (some hog-face creature),  (12) Phaṭiṅgī 95 96(from pataṃga, grasshopper), (13) Karkaṭī (crab), (14) Sūyī (some creature),  (15) 97Mūṣikā (mouse), (16) Pippaṭīmukhā (from papīlamukha, some ant-face creature), (17) Jalanārī (mermaid), (18) Vaḍavā (mare), (19) Dantinī (elephant), (20) Vyāghrī (tiger),  (21) Jambukī (jackal), (22) Jalāhī (water snake), (23) Śaṅkhā 98(conch shell), (24) Kapardī (cowrie), (25) Muktikī (pearl), (26) Maṇī (another kind  She is Bhātrā Putrasya Bhāryī (or -ryā) in Ratnasena’s Vidhi (Skt ms. 15v4).91 Śvaśṛkā is śvaśrū. In Ratnasena’s Vidhi she is not a single goddess: Duhitāyā Bhartur 92Mātā and Putraśvaśṛkā (Skt ms. 15v5). Ratnasena’s Vidhi regards Duhitā-putrī (who is regarded as separate goddesses Duhitā 93and Putrī in Jayasena, Sādhana) as a single goddess (Skt ms. 15v5). Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, Skt ed. (Cicuzza 2001), p. 70, l. 1-l. 15.94 I have not identified which creature is indicated by this name. Its Tibetan translation is 95chu yi phug ma. Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is srin bu’i gdong ma.96 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is sū ya mo.97 In Ratnasena’s Vidhi she is Vyāghrajambukī (Skt ms. 16r3): It does not divide Vyāghrī 98and Jambukī. SUGIKI 16of pearl),  (27) Jiṅgurī (some creature),  (28) Līsī (some creature),  (29) Dur99 100 101 -durī (some creature),  (30) Karṇāṭī (some creature),  (31) Phāṭakī (some crea102 103 -ture),  (32) Dāvakī (some creature),  (33) Kṛmī (worm), (34) Juṣujuṣī (some 104 105creature),  (35) Daṃśakī (gadfly), and (36) Kalā (some creature).  106 1071.3.3. The Knowledge Circle (Jñānacakra) (15.181-197) The Knowledge Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes born of the asura clan. They are presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Knowledge Heruka” (jñā-naheruka, 15.86c), and their individual names are masculine forms of their con-sort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Tilottamā, (2) Atisukhā, (3) Apsarasā,  (4) 108Mahāratā, (5) Ratī,  (6) Ratākhyā,  (7) Padminī, (8) Śaṅkhinī, (9) Citriṇī, (10) 109 110Gajā, (11) Mahārūpā, (12) Surūpā, (13) Kāntī, (14) Vilāsinī, (15) Sukhā, (16) Puṣpa-kāmī, (17) Kumudī, (18) Nīlotpalā, (19) Sundarī, (20) Rāgā, (21) Mahārāgā, (22) Rāmākhyā, (23) Mahārāmakī, (24) Madanā, (25) Madanapriyā, (26) Kāminī, (27) Mahākāmikā, (28) Sukhodbhavā, (29) Sukhamatī, (30) Priyatamā, (31) Premakā, (32) Saubhāgyamatī, (33) Saubhāgyā, (34) Meṇukā, (35) Pradyumnakī, and (36) Jātirūpī.   In Ratnasena’s Vidh she is Maṇijiṅgulī (Skt ms. 16r4): It does not divide Maṇī and Jiṅgurī.99 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is dzing gu ra ma.100 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is li sa mo.101 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is dud du ra ma.102 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is ka rṇṇa ṭā.103 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is pha ṭa ka mo.104 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is dā ba ka ma.105 Unidentified. Its Tibetan translation is dzu ṣa dzu ṣī ma.106 Undentified. Its Tibetan translation is ka lā ma. In Ratnasena’s Vidhi Kalā (or Kalī) is 107the thirty-fourth goddess; the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth goddesses are respectively Devatā (or Devatī) and Nāyakī (Skt ms. 16r6-r7).  Apsarasā is apsaras + female ending ā. Alternatively, her name is Āpsarasā (emenda108 -tion). In Ratnasena’s Vidh she is Ratiratā (or Ravinabhā) (Skt ms. 16v2).109 In Ratnasena’s Vidh she is Ākhyā (Skt ms. 16v2).110 The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 17The Knowledge Circle also contains the four gates, eight charnel grounds, and some others outside the thirty-six couples of ḍākinī and hero described above. These all constitute the Knowledge Circle. The eight ḍākinīs at the four gates and four corners are presented in table 5. They are the Eight Yoginīs from the Hevajra traditoin. The eight charnel grounds, trees, and the guardians of directions outside the four gates are shown table 6. Charnel grounds similar to the first four charnel grounds can be found in Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā.  The 111direction-guardians are planets. Table 5. Eight ḍākinīs at four gates and four corners on the Knowledge Circle. Table 6. Eight charnel grounds and others outside the four gates on the Knowledge Circle. 1.4. The Fourth Nirmāṇa (Emanation) Layer (15.199-264) The Nirmāṇa or Emanation Layer encircles the Saṃbhoga Layer and consists of three circles (viz., the Mind, Speech, and Body Circles) arranged in a concentric way. East gate (1) Gaurī North gate (2) CaurīWest gate (3) Vetālī South gate (4) GhasmarīSoutheast corner (5) Pukkasī Southwest corner (6) ŚabarīNorthwest corner (7) Caṇḍālī Northeast corner (8) ḌombinīCharnel grounds Trees Direction-guardiansEast Bālamṛtyu Candana (1) Ravi (Sun)North Śiṣṭabhakṣa Karpūra (2) Śītala (Moon)West Ghorayuddha Jātiphala (3) Bhūsuta (Mars)South Sarpadaṃśa Elā (4) Śaśisuta (Mercury)Northeast Dhūmāndhakāra Nāgakesara (5) Guru (Jupiter)Southeast Agni Campaka (6) Bhṛgu (Venus)Southwest Hāhārava Kunduru (7) Ravitanaya (Saturn)Northwest Mahārava Devadāru (8) Daityaśiras Vajrapāṇi’s Laghutantraṭīkā, Skt ed. (Cicuzza 2001), p. 75, l. 1-l. 4. Those similar charnel 111grounds are Bālamṛtyu, Sarpadaṃśa, Ghorayuddha, and Ucchiṣṭa. SUGIKI 181.4.1. The Mind Circle (Cittacakra) (15.199-209) The Mind Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of unwholesome states of mind, viz., hatred, ignorance, envy, greed, and stinginess and pride-intoxication ([19]-[23]), and unwholesome states of existence, such as demons, pretas or ghosts, and hells ([1]-[4], [5]-[18], and [24]-[36]). Most of these unwholesome states of existence are hells. A possibility exists that the words (19)-(23) also indicate hells with the names of unwholesome states of mind. The thirty-six ḍākinīs, who are in copulation with their consort heroes, are presented below. The heroes are collectively called “Mind Heruka” (cittaheruka, 15.86d), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Nāginī, (2) Yakṣiṇī, (3) Bhūtī, (4) Pretī, (5) Nārakī, (6) Avīcī, (7) Pātakī, (8) Anantarī, (9) Kumbhī, (10) Yamastrī, (11) Kālasūtrī, (12) Kukūlī, (13) Tapanī, (14) Pratapanī, (15) Rauravī, (16) Mahārauravī, (17) Tailapacī, (18) Dviparvatī, (19) Dveṣī, (20) Mohī, (21) Īrṣyī, (22) Rāgī, (23) Madamatsarī, (24) Sūtikā, (25) Śītakī, (26) Asivanī, (27) Krandanī, (28) Durbhikṣakā, (29) Rogakān-tārī, (30) Śastrakāntārī, (31) Pānīyakāntārī,  (32) Asinakhī, (33) Vaitaraṇī, (34) 112Kṣuradhārī, (35) Cakrikā,  (36) Kumbhāṇḍī. 1131.4.2. The Speech Circle (Vākcakra) (15.210-219) The Speech Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are anthropomorphized transformations of various states of mind, equated with Jñānaḍākinī and other deities taught in the Catuṣpīṭhe. The thirty-six ḍākinīs in copulation with their consort heroes on the Speech Circle are presented below. Except for the names ending with -cintā, the female endings ā and ī of their names imply the word -cintā or -cintī (“considering,” e.g., Pūjā is Pūjācintā, and Bhakṣā is Bhakṣacintā). The heroes are collectively called “Word Heruka” (vāggheruka, 15.87a), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Pūjā (worship), (2) Bhakṣā (eating), (3) Nidrā (sleeping), (4) Ālasyā (idleness), (5) Dharmacintā (considering the dharma), (6) Bhāvanā (visu-alization), (7) Gṛhacintā (considering household), (8) Strīcintā (considering a woman), (9) Arthacintā (considering benefits), (10) Viyogakā (seperation), (11) Putracintā (considering a son), (12) Abhiśokā (ardor),  (13) Dhyānā 114 In Ratnasena’s Vidhi they are two separate goddesses, Pānī and Kāntārikā (or Kān112 -tārakī) (Skt ms. 17v5 and v6). Cakrikā is not regarded as a goddess in Ratnasena’s Vidhi.113 She is Śokā according to the Tibetan translation (mya ngan ma), Śokacintī in Jayasena's 114Sādhana (Tib D, 31v1), and Bhikṣokā in Ratnasena's Vidhi (Skt ms. 18r3). The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 19(meditation), (14) Mantrajāpikā (reciting a mantra), (15) Hrīkā (shame), (16) Mānā (arrogance),  (17) Saṃtāpā (pain), (18) Sattvārthakaruṇodyamā (generat115 -ing compassion to benefit sentient beings),  (19) Rājacintā (considering king116 -ship), (20) Paradrohā (harming others), (21) Jñānalābhā (acquiring wisdom), (22) Tapasvinī (ascetic), (23) Jarā (aging), (24) Maraṇacintā (considering murder), (25) Sukhā (pleasure), (26) Duḥkhā (suffering), (27) Aśubhā (inauspicious), (28) Āstikā (believing in the existence), (29) Nāstikā (unbeliever), (30) Gurucintā (con-sidering a teacher), (31) Gamanikā (sexual intercourse), (32) Kṣemā (happy), (33) Akṣemā (unhappy), (34) Śrāntā (tired), (35) Viśrāntā (rested), and (36) Bub-hukṣitā (hungry). 1.4.3. The Body Circle (Kāyacakra) (15.220-263) The Body Circle consists of ḍākinīs and heroes who are Wheel-turning rulers of the worlds that constitute the Three Realms of Existence (viz., the Desire, Form, and Formless Realms). The thirty-six ḍākinī in copulation with their consort he-roes are presented below. The heores are collectively called “Body Heruka” (kāyikaṃ, 15.87b), and their individual names are masculine forms of their consort ḍākinīs’ names (15.241c-242a): (1) Cāturmahārājakāyikī, (2) Trāyas-triṃśacakravartinī,  (3) Yāmī, (4) Tuṣitī, (5) Nirmāṇaratayī (from 117Nirmāṇarati), (6) Paranirmitavaśavartinī, (7) Brahmakāyikī, (8) Brahmapuro-hitī, (9) Mahābrahmāṇavartinī; (10) Parīttābhī, (11) Apramāṇābhī, (12) Ābhās-varī, (13) Parīttaśubhī, (14) Apramāṇaśubhī, (15) Śubhakṛtsnī, (16) Anabhrakī, (17) Puṇyaprasavī, (18) Bṛhatphalacakravartinī, (19) Avṛhī, (20) Atapī, (21) Sudṛśī, (22) Sudarśanī, (23) Akaniṣṭhavartinī, (24) Ākāśānantyāyatanī, (25) Vi-jñānānantyāyatanī, (26) Ākiṃcanyāyatanī, (27) Naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñākī, (28) Nārakī, (29) Pretakī, (30) Tiryī, (31) Narī, (32) Asurī, (33) Vimānacāriṇī, (34) Śaśi-ravī, (35) Yamī, and (36) Indrī.  118 In Ratnasena’s Vidhi she is Mānasaṃtāpā: It does not divide Mānā and Saṃtāpā (Skt 115ms. 18r4). Ratnasena’s Vidhi divides sattvārtha and karuṇodyamā: These are two goddesses, viz., 116Sattvārthā and Karuṇodyamā (or Karuṇottamā) (Skt ms. 18r4). In Ratnasena’s Vidhi she is not a single goddess; rather, they are two goddesses, Trāyas117 -triṃśā and Cakravartinī (Skt ms. 18v2 and v3). In Ratnasena’s Vidhi the thirty-sixth goddess is Yamī (or Yamā) and does not mention 118Indrī (Skt ms. 31v6). SUGIKI 20The Body Circle also contains the four gates, eight charnel grounds, and some others outside the thirty-six couples of ḍākinī and hero described above. These all constitute the Body Circle. The eight ḍākinīs at the four gates and four corners are shown in table 7. The eight charnel grounds, trees, and female hell-guardians (narakapālā) outside the four gates are presented in table 8. Table 7: Eight ḍākinīs at four gates and four corners on the Body Circle. Table 8: Eight charnel grounds and others outside the four gates on the Body Circle. 2. The Inner Meanings of the Ḍākārṇava Heruka Maṇḍala As described above, various classes of deities constitute the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala. The major deities on the lotus at the center are from the Cakrasaṃvara tradition; the Adamantine Circle consists mostly of the Cakrasaṃvara deities; the Heart Circle, the Guhyasamāja deities; the Merit Circle, human castes and gate-keeping Cakrasaṃvara deities; the Space Circle, musical deities and instruments; the Wind Circle, birds; the Earth Circle, animals living on the ground and gate-keeping Eight Mothers; the Fire Circle, human kin members; the Water Circle, water creatures; the Knowledge Circle, asuras and gate-keeping Hevajra deities; the Mind Circle, pretas and hells; the Speech Circle, various states of mind East gate (1) Śvetāmbujā North gate (2) GāndhārikāWest gate (3) Vajranaṭī South gate (4) VaḍavāmukhāNortheast corner (5) Vajrajvālāmukhī Southeast corner (6) VajrabhṛkuṭīmukhāSouthwest corner (7) Vajrakhaṇḍī Northwest corner (8) Caṇḍī Charnel grounds Trees Hell guardiansEast Dagdha Śālmali (1) ŚālmalīNorth Adagdhaka Aśoka (2) AśokavṛkṣāWest Khaṇḍita Pārijāta (3) PārijātāSouth Akhaṇḍita Umbara (udumbara) (4) Umbarī (from udumbara)Northeast Bhīṣaṇa Ḍombara (5) ḌombarīSoutheast Bhayaṃkara Gambhāra (gambhīra) (6) Gambhārī (from gambhīra)Southwest Śūlabhinna Bhadira (badara) (7) Bhadirakī (from badara)Northwest Udbandhaka Piśāca (8) Piśācakī The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 21equated with the Catuṣpīṭha deities; and the Body Circle, the Three Realms of Ex-istence.  From these, we can say that the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala consists of deities from the Cakrasaṃvara, Guhyasamāja, Hevajra, and Catuṣpīṭha traditions and deities who are deifications or anthropomorphized transformations of the Six Realms of Reincarnation (viz., gods, asuras, humans, beasts, pretas, and hells) and the Three Realms of Existence, namely, the whole Buddhist cosmos. They are organized within the framework of the Cakrasaṃvara system: The major deities on the inner circles are from the Cakrasaṃvara tradition, and the number of deities on each circle is thirty-six, which is identical with the number (thirty-six) of coupled or single deities encircling Heruka on the most popular fivefold maṇḍala of the Cakrasaṃvara tradition.  The outer circles (where there are the four gates and so on) of the four lay-ers of the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala are respectively decorated with two, three, four, and five lines. Of these the three, four, and five lines mean the triple dhar-ma (body, speech, and mind, kāyavākcittadharma), the Four Pleasures (caturānan-da), and the Fivefold Gnosis (ādarśādi), respectively, which are expressive of sev-eral aspects of the pure nature (śuddhi) inherent in the maṇḍala (15.98cd, 104cd-105a, 147c-148b, 188cd, 229c). The maṇḍala also represents these Buddhist concepts, viz., the Fourfold Body of the Buddha, the Four Modes of Birth, the twelve classes of holy sites, the Twelve Levels, and, again, the Three Realms of Existence (15.72c-74b, 83a, 84ab, 96-97a, 122cd-123, 134d-136, 143c-144, 165, 175c-176b, 187, 205ab, 206-207, 217cd, 228-229b, 245cd). They are shown in table 9. Furthermore, all deities constituting the maṇḍala are equated with the Victori-ous Ones (jina) or Buddhas in the auspicious eon (bhadrakalpa) (15.243).  SUGIKI 22Table 9: Some Buddhist concepts represented in the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala. *) dvīpaṃ prathamakaṃ, dvitīya-, tṛtīya-, catur- (caturtha-), pañcama-, ṣaṣṭha-, and saptama-dvīpa. Buddhist Tantric maṇḍalas are multi-dimensional. It shows its various forms from different viewpoints. It represents various doctrinal concepts that were originally developed from different perspectives, and those different con-The first Sahaja layer (puṭa) The Sahaja body ( / The self-born)(1) Lotus (padma) ——— ———(2) Vajracakra Pīṭha / Pramuditā Ārūpyadhātu ———(3) Hṛdayacakra Upapīṭha / Vimalā Rūpadhātu The 1st continent*)(4) Guṇacakra Kṣetra / Prabhākarī Kāmadhātu The 2nd continent*)The second Dharma layer The Dharma body / The egg-born (aṇḍaja)(5) Ākāśacakra Upakṣetra / Arciṣmatī ——— The 3rd continent*)(6) Vāyucakra Chandoha / Sudurjayā ——— The 4th continent*)(7) Medinīcakra Upacchandoha / Ab-himukhī——— The 5th continent*)The third Saṃbhoga layer The Saṃbhoga body / The moisture-born (saṃsvedaja)(8) Agnicakra Melāpaka / Dūraṃgamā——— The 6th continent*)(9) Jala-/Udakacakra Upamelāpaka / Acalā ——— The 7th continent*)(10) Jñānacakra Śmaśāna / Sādhumatī ——— ———The fourth Nirmāṇa layer The Nirmāṇa body / The womb-born (jarāyuja)(11) Cittacakra Upaśmaśāna/Dhar-mameghā——— ———(12) Vākcakra Pīlava / Saman-taprabhā——— ———(13) Kāyacakra Upapīlava / Adhimuk-ticaryā——— ———Four gates and four corners of each layerThe 13th bhūmiSixteen gate-keeping ḍākinīs The Sixteen Emptinesses The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 23cepts coexist in a single maṇḍala. This is also said of the Ḍākārṇava Heruka maṇḍala. Acknowledgements This research was partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) numbered 17K02216 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan and by the 84000 Translating the Words of the Buddha project. Abbreviations Goshima&Noguchi  See Goshima and Noguchi 1983. Matsunami  See Matsunami 1965. NGMPP  Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project r    recto Skt ed.   Sanskrit edition Skt ms./mss.  Sanskrit manuscript(s) Tib. D    Tibetan Tripiṭaka, Sde dge edition. Tib. P    Tibetan Tripiṭaka, Peking edition. v    verso Bibliography Primary sources Vajravārāhīsādhana of Umāpatideva. Skt ed. See English 2002.  Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya of Lūyīpa. Skt ed. See Sakurai 1998. Ḍākārṇava. The Śrīḍākārṇavamahāyoginītantrarāja. Skt ed. of ch. 15 by author (un-published). Skt mss.: NGMPP A138/9 (undated, oldest: Chapter 15, 13r10-17r2), Matsunami 145 (NS 779: Chapter 15, 66v1-87v7), NGMPP A142/2 (NS 951, jyeṣṭha, śukla 7: Chapter 15, 27r1-35r6), and Goshima and Noguchi 41 (NS 986: Chapter 15, 46r2-61r1); Tib. (translated by Jayasena and Dharma yon tan) D 372 (Chapter 15, 130v5-156r2) and P 19 (Chapter 15, 35v4-46v1). Dveṣavajrasādhana of Bhadrapāda. Skt ed. In Gerloff 2017.  SUGIKI 24Hevajraprakāśa of Rāhulagupta. Skt ed. In Gerloff 2017.  Laghutantraṭīkā of Vajrapāṇi. Skt ed. See Cicuzza 2001. Sādhana of Jayasena. The Dpal mkha’ ’gro rgya mtsho’i rgyud kyi dkyil ’khor gyi ’khor lo’i sgrub thabs rin po che pa dma rā ga’i gter zhes bya ba (Śrīḍākārṇavatantra-maṇḍalacakrasya sādhana ratnapadmarāganidhi nāma) of Dza ya se na (Jaya-sena) (translated into Tibetan by Dharma yon tan), Tib. D 1516. Saṃvarodayatantra. Skt ed. See Tsuda 1974.  Vajrapradīpā of Jālandharapāda. Skt ed. In Gerloff 2017. Vārāhīkalpa. The Śrīvajravārāhīkalpamahātantrarāja (or Śrīvajravārāhīkalpayoginī-tantrarāja). Skt ms.: Matsunami 346 (NS 937, phālguṇa, śukla 10: Parallel passages, 74r1-92r7 [Chapter 20]). No Tibetan translation. Vidhi of Ratnasena. The Śrīmahāsaṃvarasaparikaramaṇḍalārcanavidhi of Ratnase-na. Skt ms.: NGMPP B24/52 (1r-34r) (palm leaf, 19rv missing, undated). No Tibetan translation. Vohitā. The Dpal mkha’ ’gro rgya mtsho rnal ’byor ma’i rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po’i ’grel pa gru gzings zhes bya ba (Śrīḍākārṇavamahāyoginītantrarājasya ṭīkā vohitā nāma) of Pa dma rdo rje (Padmavajra) (translated into Tibetan by Jayasena and Dharma yon tan), Tib. D 1419 (Chapter 15, 130v5-156r2). Secondary Sources Cicuzza, Claudio. 2001. The Laghutantraṭīkā by Vajrapāṇi: A Critical Edition of the Sanskrit Text. Roma: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente. English, Elizabeth. 2002. Vajrayoginī: Her Visualizations, Rituals, and Forms. Bos-ton: Wisdom Publications.  Gerloff, Torsten. 2017. “Saroruhavajra’s Hevajra-Lineage: A Close Study of the Surviving Sanskrit Works.” Doctoral Thesis, University of Hamburg (South Asian Studies). Goshima, Kiyotaka and Noguchi, Keiya. 1983. A Succinct Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the possession of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University. Kyoto: Society for Indic and Buddhistic Studies, Kyoto University. Maeda, Takashi. 1995. “Ḍākārṇavamahāyoginītantrarāja Chapter 15 (1): Sanskrit edition with Tibetan translation.” In Bongo Bukkyō Bunken no Kenkyū (Stu-dies on the Buddhist Sanskrit Literature), edited by Shōmon ji Kenkyū Kai and  The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala 25Mikkyō Seiten Kenkyū Kai (The Śrāvakabhūmi Study Group and the Bud-dhist Tantric Texts Study Group). Tokyo: Sankibō Press, 147-169. Matsunami, Seiren. 1965. A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Tokyo Univer-sity Library. Tokyo: University of Tokyo. Sakurai, Munenobu. 1998. “Cakrasaṃvarābhisamaya no genten kenkyū.” Chisan Gakuho (Journal of Chisan Studies) 47: 1-32. Sanderson, Alexis. 2009. “The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period.” In Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 41-349. Sugiki, Tsunehiko. 2007. Saṃvara Kei Mikkyō no Shosō: Gyōja, Seichi, Shintai, Jikan, Shisei (Aspects of Saṃvara Esoteric Buddhism: Practitioner, Holy Site, Body, Time, and Death and Life). Tokyo: Toshindo. Sugiki, Tsunehiko. 2015. “Śamvara.” In Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. 1, edi-ted by Jonathan A. Silk, skar von Hinüber, and Oskar von Hinüber. Leiden: Brill, 360-366. Sugiki, Tsunehiko. 2018a. “Rethinking the Buddhist Discourse on Holy Sites in the Ḍākārṇava: A Critical Edition and a Translation of the Sanskrit Ḍākārṇava Chapter 50-3.” WIAS Research Bulletin 10: 39-90. Sugiki, Tsunehiko. 2018b. “The Sādhana of the ‘Adamantine Body’ Maṇḍala: A Critical Edition and a Translation of the Sanskrit Ḍākārṇava Chapter 50-8.” Chisan Gakuho (Journal of Chisan Studies) 67: 45-87. Tsuda, Shin’ichi. 1974. The Saṃvarodaya-tantra: Selected Chapters. Tokyo: The Hoku-seido Press.

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