International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies (WCILCOS) (5th : 2012)

Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C : a Canadian story from the perspective of Chinese pioneers living… Chiang, Rudy M.T.; 蔣, 汶德 May 17, 2012

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5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 1 of 17    麗 金  安 懷  安 翹  經 可 戊 己  安 芹 蔣 道 鑠 瑞 芝   安 順  倫 可  安 偉 Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C - A Canadian Story from the Perspective of Chinese Pioneers living in B.C.   during the 1880s to 1920s  Abstract: Chung Nye left his home village at age 16 for the Gold Mountains. Canadian Immigration record indicates that he first landed in Victoria B.C. in April 1882. His career as a Chinese Contractor in the salmon canning industry and as a proprietor of Sun Kum Wo in New Westminster personifies the contributions made by Chinese pioneers of his time. A chapter on the Chinese pioneers, and their many contributions to the economy of British Columbia, remains missing from the history books of Canada.  Key Words: Chinese Pioneers, Chung Nye (蔣奈,字經可),  Moy Kwok Village (梅閣鄉), Sar Tuey Village (沙堆鄉), Sun Woy County (新會縣), New Westminster (二埠), Sun Kum Wo (新 錦和), Chinese contractor, salmon cannery, Chiang Shao Hsien (蔣紹賢,字安懷), Chong On Kui (蔣丁酉,字安翹), Leong Kia Chew (梁啟超), Kang Yu Wei (康有為), Chinese Times (大漢公 報), Chinese Benevolent Association (二埠 中華慈善會), Constitution Reform Association (憲 政黨), Won CumYou (温金有), Charlie Suey (曾瑞,字雲峰), national identity, cultural affinity.  By Rudy M.T. Chiang 蔣汶德, Vancouver, B.C.  Preface The story of Chung Nye begins with a family portrait of him with his sons and nephews. The studio photo was taken on the occasion of his elder son On Whei’s visit in 1922. The paths of the four young men diverged as each pursued their aspiration. Two of them stayed in Canada, while On Wey moved to USA in the 1930s. Visitor On Whei served in the rebuilding of China. Life came to full circle forty years later when their paths, and those of their descendants, converged again in North America. Some settled in Los Angeles and the rest live in Greater Vancouver.  The Chung Nye Family Portrait, 1922  Figure 1.Chung Nye Family Portrait, 1922. Seated (left): son On Whei (安懷), Chung Nye (蔣奈), nephew On Shun (安順); Standing (left): son On Kui,(安翹), nephew On Wey (安偉) 圖一. 蔣奈與子侄合照. 左起,坐: 次子安懷, 蔣奈, 長侄安順. 左起,立: 三子安翹, 次侄安偉  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 2 of 17  Sixty years after this photo was taken, a copy of the original photo returned to Vancouver. It was originally sent by Chung Nye to his eldest daughter Lai Gum (蔣麗金) in China. She married Chiu Jian Dong (趙振東) of Sam Kong Village (三江). They raised three sons and three daughters. This photo was passed on to daughter Chiu Yew Jian (趙瑤珍) who it gave to Luis Chi Yee Chiong (蔣麒儀) in the early 1980s. Luis Chiong was the third son of On Whei (安懷). This well travelled photo now anchors in Los Angeles. It survived the chaos of the 1930s, the Japanese invasion, and the turbulent years of 1940s and 1950s.  Happy Re-union in 1966 Forty-four years after the Chung Nye Family portrait was taken, On Whei visited his brother On Kui and cousin On Shun in Vancouver. On Wey was in Los Angeles at the time.  Figure 2. Vancouver Reunion, 1966. From left: On Kui (蔣安翹), On Shun (蔣安順), & On Whei (蔣安懷, aka Chiang Shao Hsien 紹賢).     The History of Chung Nye (蔣奈 ca 1867–1928 AD) Written family record of Chung Nye did not survive the punishment of time. The first eighty years of the 1900s was marked by wars, depressions, and countless disasters in America and in China. The oral history on Chung Nye was passed down by grandson Chi Ho Chiang (蔣麒賀) to this son. Chi Ho recalled:  Chung Nye left home at age 16 with a friend for the Gold Mountains.  He was paid a Family Settlement Fee (安家費), an advance meant to bridge family needs until the sojourner could send money home. He left the twelve pieces of dai yong (大洋, silver dollar) with his widowed mother for the family.  Chung Nye became a contractor for salmon canneries in B.C. He recruited many of his clansmen and fellow villagers from Moy Kwok (梅閣鄉) and Sar Tuey (沙堆鄉). Nye would prepay their entry fee to Canada 1 . He was well respected among the family and Moy Kwok villagers for bringing them to New Westminster.  Chung Nye bought gold claims from Caucasian partners, only to find out that it was fool’s gold (pyrite).  Chung Nye befriended Leong Kia Chew (梁啟超) when Leong visited Vancouver in 1903. Nye supported Leong’s Reform movement in China.  Chi Ho never met his grandfather Chung Nye in person. The only glimpse he got was through the glass window of the casket when Chung Nye’s embalmed remain was returned from New Westminster to Moy Kwok for interment. Chi Ho was twelve years old at the time.  Family Genealogy Record Kept in Canada Chung Nye (蔣奈), whose married name (字) was King Ho (經可), descended from Grand Ancestor (太始祖) Jiang Shu (蔣書) who settled in Sun Woy County (新會縣) around the 1290s. A grandson of Jiang Shu, named Ching Goh (清居, 字宗輔) settled in Moy Kwok Village in 1373 AD. Chung Nye was the nineteenth generation descendant of the Ching Goh Branch. 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 3 of 17   Records Kept by Library and Archives Canada On line records of Immigrants from China (1885-1949) returned three entries on Chung Nye:  1. 1895:  Register of Chinese Immigration, Port of New Westminster, B.C. 2  The record of November 8, 1895 showed that merchant Chung Nye, age 32, returned to New Westminster from Canton, China. He paid a 50 cents Entry Fee. He was described as “Height 5ft 4 1 /2 inches. Long scar on thumb of left hand, pitt on left corner of left eye. Speaks good English.” It reported a prior landing record of April 1882, in Victoria, via steamship. Declaration No. 414, CI5: 832598, CI6: 6587;  The same record was also kept in the General Register of Chinese Immigration 3 .  The first arrival date of April 1882 coincided with the arrival of the 2,000 men recruited by Andrew Onderdonk on contract with the Canadian Pacific Railroad Co. (CPR) 4 . Only the CPR, with a desperate need for labour, would pay a Family Settlement Fee of twelve silver dollars. The 16 year old Chung Nye and his friend had to be among the 2,000 men contracted to lay tracks along the Fraser Canyon for Canada.  2. 1901: General Register of Chinese Immigration 5  On June 5, 1901, Chung Nye, age 38, Labourer, paid the $100 Head Tax. He arrived Vancouver from Hong Kong on the Empress of Japan. His place of birth was Moy Gock, Senwoy. Description: 5 ft. 5, scar right corner left eye, scar on left thumb, scar on left 2 nd  & 3 rd  finger. CI5 32004     3. 1906:  General Register of Chinese Immigration 6  On Feb. 3, 1906, merchant Chung Nye, age 43, returned from China via Hong Kong on the Empress of China; Fee Paid: Exempted; Place of Birth: Go Deung (古井) Senwoy; Description: 5ft.4 in, scar on left thumb, scar on left 2 nd  & 3 rd  fingers, scar under corner left eye. CI5 45030,      The passenger list of Empress of China dated January 31, 1906, gave on page 4, the name Tseung Noy, age 42 for Chung Nye 7 . Spelling consistency was not a concern.  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 4 of 17  Missing Records Chung Nye have five children, all were born in China. He must have travelled home for at least five times. Missing records might include a trip prior to 1890, and trips in 1892/3, 97, or after 1906.  Census of Canada, 1891 Chung Nye’s name appeared in the 1891 Census as Jung Nye 8. The record on Page 34 and 35 of British Columbia, District 2, New Westminster; Sub District 6, New Westminster, showed that on 6th June, 1891, Jung Nye was the head of Household No. 140. It listed the names of 40 occupants. Jung Nye, at age 28, was married, religion Buddhist. Jung Nye and 3 other occupants were able to read and write English. The house, described as W 2/10, was a two story wooden structure with 10 rooms. Ms. Mary Munk of Library & Archive Canada provided this coding information. She generously offered the following insight:  “…For the reference you found in the 1891 census for Jung Nye, W2/10 refers to a wooden, two-story building, with ten rooms.  The number 140 is the household number, i.e. it was the 140th household the census enumerator recorded for that sub-district. Under Relation to Head of Family, L means lodger.  This means that the men listed on that page were living in a rooming house.  Unfortunately, the other census schedules for 1891 were not retained, only schedule one with the names.  This means that the schedule that would have recorded the addresses for the households listed in schedule one no longer exists.  Therefore, there is no means of knowing the addresses for those rooming houses.”                ---Ms. Mary Munk of Library & Archive Canada, personal communication April8,2010  The lodge description suggested that Chung Nye and his crew of 39 lived in a bunkhouse. It might be on Front Street, but possibly at 701 Carnarvon Street. Council minutes of September 23, 1895 9 recorded a request from Chung Nye for permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street. This location was only a short walk to Front Street canneries where the men worked.  Chung Nye’s Career as Contractor in the Salmon Canning Industry, 1886(?)-1928 The exact year when Chung Nye started in the salmon canning industry is unknown. He could have started by the time Onderdonk began laying off his crew in September 1885 10 .  Nine years after his arrival in April 1882, Chung Nye had transformed from a 16-year-old labourer to the head of a 40 men household in New Westminster. He earned enough money to get married at home. His first trip home probably took place between 1887 and 89. With the money he saved, Chung Nye built two identical houses of solid stone blocks. One was for his mom and himself, the other for his younger brother Leon Ho (倫可), father of On Shun and On Wey. His success attracted others to join him. The 39 men staying with him in 1891 had to be his cannery team. His ability to speak and write good English was an asset for his success.  In 1906 four new canneries started along the shores of Fraser River. One named Nye Canning Company, operated for only one season 11 . Was Chung Nye the owner operator of this cannery? Further research might ascertain this speculation with supporting information. There is no doubt, however, that Chung Nye was a well established merchant and contractor by 1906.  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 5 of 17  With a pool of skilled cannery hands, Chung Nye and his nephews: On Shun (aka Chong Quong, 蔣北強,字安順), On Wey (蔣安偉), Chong Yat (蔣逸琴,字安烈), Chong Dot (蔣炳達,字安鰲), family clan members Chong You (蔣有,字容可), Chung Sat (蔣述,字國多), Chong Tee Poy (蔣 池沛,字會可) secured contracts from Steveston (巿姊廠) to Bella Coola (巴罅咕罅), Klemtu (加 欖粗), to Prince Rupert (片巿魯別), and Port Edward to Nitnet (乃遠叻, 乃典律). His son On Kui (蔣安翹) took care of business in Bella Coola (巴罅咕罅濕) in 1925. There were many more contractors from the Moy Kwok family.  When work was hard to come by in 1916, Vancouver Chinatown handed out daily congee to the needy. Chung Nye and his family clan listed above supported the drive with donations 12 .  Several copies of Chung Nye’s contract with the Brunswick Cannery signed between 1922 to 1927 are housed in The Chung Collection at the University of British Columbia 13 .    Chung Nye Operated Sun Kum Wo (新錦和) in New Westminster Chung Nye was the proprietor of Sun Kum Wo (新錦和), a Chinese herbal and grocery store located on 701 Carnarvon Street in New Westminster. It was the booking agent for CPR ferries in New Westminster.  Sun Kum Wo (新錦和) co-chaired the meeting of the Chinese Benevolent Association (CBA: 二埠  中華慈善會 ) in New Westminster on March 16, 1915 14 . The priority was to deal with the impact of city council’s decision on November 9, 1914 to cancel the Chinese Cemetery Agreement on 8th Street 15 .  A follow up meeting held on March 22 resulted in a decision to ask the Victoria Chinese Benevolent Association to help advise their members, who might have friends or relatives buried in New Westminster, of the urgent need to recover the remains. 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 6 of 17    Meetings in March and April resulted in a coordinated effort to locate the remains of Chinese pioneers. A three page list of the name of the deceased, showing the ancestral village, the year of death and the headstone number was compiled in 1915. It is kept at the New Westminster Museum and Archives:   A note posted by the CBA on June 30, 1919 16  requested help with identifying the site and name of deceased pioneers at the Chinese Cemetery on 8th Street. The City had levelled all wooden markers at the Cemetery in previous years:   二埠撿拾先友遺骸 啟者,本埠定期七月一號開工執拾先友遺骸,大約十天告竣.前因義墳碑記往年已被公家一律 掃平,此時全無形跡可考.想各先友之親屬曾經到墳塲辦理塟事者,尚可糢糊識認. 懇即先期 報知,或先到墳塲竪以証據,俾臨時易於着手,且無混亂.即與先友有親友世戚之關係者,此責 亦難旁貸特此預告.    民國八年  六月廿六号                             中華會館謹啟      弍埠廣安和代理  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 7 of 17   This was followed by an urgent appeal in the Chinese Times on July 29, 1919. Help was again requested to identify the location and name of pioneers at the burial site. The missing markers made correct identification very difficult. The notice read as follows 17 :   欲執先友者見字千祈注意 啟者,本埠義地墳上木碑,原竪有姓氏為記.今據執骸監工人報告,謂因日久,木碑皆被盪廢. 屢有誤挖之弊.仰各梓里如有先友欲執者,請速於五,六日內,到墳塲指明俾工人按址拾執,以 免遺失是為至緊, 此佈    十月十九號                              二埠中華會館再啟  Chung Nye remained an active member of the CBA Board until his passing in 1928 18 .  The Great Fire of New Westminster, 11 pm September 10, 1898 A fire started in the business area of New Westminster at 11 pm Saturday, September 10, 1898 19 . The fire consumed most building structures in New Westminster. According to city records, buildings from Front Street to Royal Ave were burnt. The Chinese District, located south of the town in the “Swamp” area was wiped out 20.  The building of Sun Kum Wo was perished. Chung Nye and the Chinese community’s effort to rebuild while dealing with City Council were captured in council minutes of 1899.  Sun Kum Wo suffered another fire on September 5, 1916 when the second floor of the building went up in flames 21 .  二埠訪函云:五號日下午兩點鐘,本埠新錦和與憲政黨樓上,不知何故失慎,以致回祿之災. 火 由瓦面衡上.為勢棊烈.幸有消防隊馳至.激水注射,乃將撲滅.但火由二樓起,故二樓勢已全燬. 憲政會與新錦和俱在樓下,然亦盡被水漬.該樓原購有保險.至於新錦和貨物,不知有無購得. 左鄰為泰利和,僅隔數尺,幸不殃及,亦大幸矣.                          ----大漢公報, 1916-09-06  Sun Kum Wo was rebuilt and continued to operate in the 1930’s.   Chung Nye’ Dealing with the City Council of New Westminster According to city council minutes, Chung Nye sought permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street in 1895. His request was granted on September 23. A year later, on November 9, 1896, the Council instructed the Board of Works to act on a request by Chung Nye & Co. for a short sidewalk on Carnarvon Street. The B.C. Directory listed the address of 701 Carnarvon Street for Sun Kum Wo & Co.  The 2010 Report  “Council Minutes on Chinese, Sep 21, 1874 to Dec 6, 1926” 15 prepared by John Stark, Stephen Scheving, Colin Stevens, and Wendy Turnbull provided a glimpse of Chung Nye’s dealings with his city hall.      5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 8 of 17  City Council Minutes: Sep 21. 1874 to Dec 6, 1926 Date City Council Minutes page 1895, Sept 23 Chung Nye, asking permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street. Granted 11 1896, Nov. 9 Chung Nye & co., asking for short sidewalk on Carnarvon Street —Board of Works to act.[701Carn] 11 1897, May 31 Chung Nye re: Revenue Tax Fine – Finance to report 12 1899, Mar. 20 Chung Nye, asking for sidewalk – Board of Works to report 13 1899, Apr. 17 Chung Nye, asking refund of water rate paid in advance, the premises having been destroyed by fire – Fire, Water & Fy. Comm. to report Kwong Yuen Lung, asking refund of water rate paid in advance, the premises having been destroyed by fire – Fire, Water & Fy. Comm. to report 13 1899, May 15  That the Fire, Water and Ferry Committee reported recommending that the accounts paid in advance on water services which services were destroyed by fire on September 10 last be refunded. 13 1910, Jan. 17 Corbould & Grant re: Sun Kum Wo’s claim. City Solicitor to report at an early date. (53) 1910, Jan. 24 City Solicitor, re: claim of Sun Kum Wo & Co. stating they had arranged with Mr. Corbould for an inspection of the premises – Rec’d & filed. the Assessment Commission reported on the result of the City just than taken showing the total population to be 12,705, including 949 in Chinese District- Report received and filed for reference. (53) 1914, May 29 …the frame building and attachments known as 31 Blackie Street situate upon Lot Twelve (12) in City Block Eleven (11) in the City of N.W., is a nuisance and dangerous to the public safety and health, AND WHEREAS notice was given to George Mead and Reuben Elley, Executors of Cash Estate, Gorden E. Corbould, K.C. and Joseph R. Grant, owners of the said property and to the occupiers respectively of the said building to show cause at a meeting of the Council on the 30 day of March, 1914…..why the said building and attachments should not be torn down or removed…. (59) 1916, Sept. 25 “Chung Nye and others asking permission to rebuild roof of building belonging to Chinese Reform Assn. Also report of Building Inspector on same, recommending that a life of 1 ½ years be placed on building. Granted and recommended. Adopted” 24 1918, July 04 “The Building Inspector attended and referred to the fire at the building owned by the Chinese Reform Association which destroyed the roof. He stated that the building was a well built one and provided the top story was removed and a new roof put on would comply with the regulations of the No. 2 Fire Limits. The Insurance Co, offered $100.00 for damage done, which would cover repairs, but he advised that alterations mentioned be made at a cost of $235.00. On motion the Building Inspector was instructed to negotiate with the Chinese Reform Association to have this done.” 25 1923, Aug 13 “That the offer of Tom Hin and Chung Nye to purchase the re-sub of Lot S.P. 3, City Block 36, for the sum of $750.00 – payable $150.00 cash, balance in 6,12, and 18 months, with 6% on deferred payments, be accepted, and bylaw prepared accordingly.” [譚欽,蔣奈 1920/5/15,p10,ChineseTimes] 36 1923, Nov 16 “Re: the application of Chung Nye and Yuen Ching for repairs to roadway and sidewalk adjoining corner of Royal Avenue and 11th Street – this matter has received attention. ADOPTED” 36  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 9 of 17  Chung Nye’s Support for the Constitutional Reform Association (憲政黨) in New Westminster When the Reform movement in China failed in 1898, Kang Yu Wei (康有為) left Beijing (Peking) on Sep 20th. Kang went to Hong Kong and Japan prior to visiting Canada in 1899.  According to on line records of Immigrants from China (1885-1949), Kang Yu Wei (康有為) age 42, landed in Victoria as a diplomat on April 12, 1899 via M.V. Igumi Maru. His secretary Li Tang, age 27, accompanied him 22 . Kang recruited supporters for the Reform movement and set up Chinese Empire Reform Societies 立保救大清皇帝救國公司(亦稱「保皇會」).  A day after Kang left Beijing, his student Leong Kia Chew (梁啟超) sought refuge in the Japanese Embassy. Leong landed in Japan on October 16, 1898 where he lived in exile until November 1911. On February 20, 1903, Leong embarked on his trip to North American. Canadian record of Immigrants from China (1885-1949) showed that Leong Kia Chew, Wong Wai Chee (黃慧之), Pow Chee (鮑熾), Pow Man Cheong (鮑文昌?) arrived in Victoria as tourists on March 4, 1903 23 . Leong, age 30, boarded the Empress of India from Yohohama. His companions began their trip in Hong Kong. Wong (age 24) and Pow Man Cheong (age 17) were born in Yohohama. Pow Chee (age 46) was a native of Hung San County (香山). He came from the same county as Dr. Sun Yet San (孫逸仙).         The influential scholar Leong Kia Chew was eagerly welcomed by Chinese communities all across America. A native of Cha Hung Village (茶坑村) in Senwey County (新會縣), Leung shared a special bond with the Senwey pioneers. They turned out in droves to lend him support. If Chung Nye did not join the Chinese Empire Reform Society when Kang Yu Wei visited in 1899, he would certainly have signed up by 1903.  Chung Nye’s support for Leong continued after 1911. When Leong founded the Constitution Reform Association (中國民主憲政黨 ), Chung Nye was named honourary Chair of the Canadian Branch (中國民主憲政黨註加拿大總支部名譽總理) in 1919. His fellow clansmen in New West, 蔣英 (Chong Yin?), 蔣紀鼎 (Chong Gae Ding?), 蔣元理 (Chong Yun Li?), 蔣適道 (Chong Shek Dow?), 蔣美 (Chong Mei?), 蔣有 (Chong You) were all members of the board 24. Chung Nye remained a member up to his passing in 1928 25 .  It was doubtful whether the Constitution Reform Association had any impact on the politics of China. The relentless commitment to keep the Canadian Branch going as late as 1944 26 may best be considered an affirmation of Leong’s vision of a strong and democratic China, offering peace and security to its people.  Chung Nye’s Funeral in New Westminster Chung Nye died on November 14, 1928. None of his sons were in Canada at the time. News of his passing was reported in the Chinese Times on November 15, page 3.大漢公報. 星期四 27. 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 10 of 17   殷商又弱一個 二埠函、殷商蔣奈翁字經可,新會梅閣人。向承辦雇工製沙文魚罐頭事務。去月因在魚濕 食山羊肉煲醋,即覺身體不豫,隨出二埠入醫院調治、越時四日、頗覺痊可、乃出院。未 幾舊病復發、遂再入院、至昨晨五時、醫藥罔效。心血管崩裂、延至下午一時、竟與世長 辭、享壽共十有五。查蔣翁為人、胸懷磊落、忠厚待人、歷任憲政黨總理。對於社會與黨 務、靡不竭力贊襄。今忽歸道山、聞者莫不惋惜。長子紹賢君、英年卓犖、向負笈華北、 畢業于天津大學。次子安翹亦學貫中西、已于上月返國云。  His obituary ran in the Chinese Times on November 19, page 3. 大漢公報 星期一  28.  家主蔣紹賢老爺之封翁 清授雄州司馬、經可太老爺痛於民國拾七年十壹月拾四日未時、病終正寢。謹擇拾一月廿 一日下午兩點鐘在二埠六街六拾六號、保威棺肆開喪、發引另期扶柩回籍安葬。哀此訃 聞                          蔣樂安堂家人禀報  The British Columbian, New Westminster B.C. carried the obituary on November 20, 1928:         CHUNG NYE Chung Nye, 1047 Royal Avenue, a Chinese merchant and contractor well known to businessmen in this city and in Vancouver, died on November 14. He was 62 years of age and lived in New Westminster for 40 years. The funeral service will be held on Wednesday afternoon at 2 o’clock at the Chapel of S. Bowell & Son. The body will be forwarded to China for burial.  The Chinese Times reported his funeral on November 22, page 3, 29 as follows:  生榮死哀 二埠廿壹日函。本市殷商蔣經可翁仙遊、暫厝保威棺肆、擇期扶柩回籍安塟。是日午后貳 時在肆内設奠、中西人士蒞塲致祭者頗多。首由蔣嘉競君贊鱧。(一)奏樂、 (二)上香、 (三) 献花。(四)馮德文牧師祈禱、全體起立、對靈前行三鞠躬禮、(六)廖崇教君演述蒋翁生前 事略、(七)林普慶君讀誄文、 (八)各代表演說者、有憲政黨溫金有、致公堂梁光、岡州總 會館曾瑞、蔣樂安堂蔣思道等君。大意讚頌蔣翁生前、孝友勤儉、忠信誠實。辦理社會與 黨務、均能持以熱誠行以毅力。橋梓賴其造福者不少 。故今日開喪、到弔者有如是之 衆、足見其德望感人之深、誠可謂生榮死哀矣云。(九)奏樂、(十)喪家向靈前舉哀、(十一) 蔣嘉競答謝來賓、(十二)代表來賓向靈柩行最後相見禮而散。  The funeral was attended by many dignitaries of the time, among them Won CumYou (温金有), Leong Kong (梁光), Charlie Suey (曾瑞, 字雲峰), and company representatives from canneries.  The family posted an appreciation note on page 2 of the Chinese Times 30 , November 22 & 28.          先嚴經可府君逝世、于本月廿壹日在二埠保威棺肆設奠。得蒙          宗親戚世友誼、惠贈賻花圈誄詞、並臨致祭、高誼隆情、殁存均感。此鳴          謝                                 棘人 蔣紹賢等泣血稽顙          民國十七年拾一月廿二日  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 11 of 17   Courtesy of Bowell & Son, the author was most grateful for a copy of the funeral record of Chung Nye:  Place of Death: 1047 Royal Ave, Cause of death: Cancer Died: Nov. 14, 1928 Age: 62 (year of birth ~1864) Where Born: China Occupation: Merchant & contractor Residence: 1047 Royal Ave Where Buried: China Physician: Geo. E. Drew The funeral cost was $455.00  The Will of Chung Nye December 10, 1928 the Chinese Time reported on page 13, a B.C. Supreme Court decision on December 8, validating Chung Nye’s will and awarded his estate of $24,193 to Nye’s eldest son Chiang Shao Hsien 31 .  蔣柰翁之遺產 二埠八日電:本處法庭業經察驗囑書三通、內有壹通乃屬拾一月拾四日逝世之華商蔣奈 者。囑書聲明遺產二萬四千一百九拾三元、歸其子蔣紹賢承領、官己判准施行矣。  The file was kept under Probate Record of New Westminster B.C. Supreme Court - 1881-1943 (GR-1422) ord: Call Number: GR-1422 is Result # 1 B09624    Chung. Nye                         3290/1928 B09624    Chung. King Ho                  3290/1928  Chung Nye’s Elder son On Whei (安懷 , 1895-1974) , Visited New West in 1922 & 1928 Born in 1895, On Whei was known by his school name Chiang Shao Hsien 蔣紹賢. His career took him across the Pacific Ocean several times between China and the Americas. After his graduation from Tien Jing University (天津大學), he attended a private business college in the USA. He earned a Diploma in Business Training from the Polytechnic Business College in Oakland California on April 16, 1924. During his stay in US, he visited his father Chung Nye in December, 1922.  The Chinese Times reported 32  that the Constitution Reform Association held a banquet in honour of two visitors from China. One of them was Chiang Shao Hsien, a recent university graduate from Peking. He was visiting his father Chung Nye in New Westminster. Shao Hsien gave a dinner speech on his eye witness account of political upheavals in China. It was well received. The family picture in this article was taken at the time.    5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 12 of 17   憲政會之大讌會 蔣柰翁之長公子蔣紹賢先生、在中國北京肄業多年、茲者學成來遊此地。并陳宗璜先生奉 北京孔教會委任、籌建北京孔教總會堂、駕臨本埠數日。昨日下午六時、憲政會諸先生特 設酒與兩先生晤談、酒酣之餘、會長温金有翁宣布設讌理由、先請蔣紹賢先生演講、亹亹 而談、尤足動聽….  Chiang Shao Hsien returned to China after graduation. While serving the modernization of his country, Shao Hsien maintained close ties with his father and brother Chong Ding You in New Westminster. The Chinese Times reported on March 27, 1927, a car accident involving a party of three returning from a fund raising drive in Chilliwack B.C. The drive was to raise money for the building of a school in Sun Woy County. Chiang Shao Hsien suffered a minor cut on his hand when the car rolled into a ditch 33 .  Upon learning the death of Leong Kia Chew on January 19, 1929, the Chinese Times published memorial tributes offered by members of the Constitution Reform Association in Vancouver. An eulogy by Chiang Shao Hsien was quoted on page 11 of the April 29 edition 34 :                           雲埠憲政追悼梁任公先生輓聯 訃聞萬里、面隔七年、回首京華一別那 知成永訣                          自有傳人                          親附葭莩、情同師弟、等身著作千秋應                                                     蔣紹賢 Translated: “From ten thousand miles away, the sad obituary came; Who would have thought that our face to face encounter in Peking seven years ago, Turned out to be an everlasting memory?  Draped as a kin, we shared a teacher to student bond; Your teachings and lofty publications stacking tall, Shall forever be echoed by followers to come.”                                                                                          --- Chiang Shao Hsien  Chiang Shao Hsien maintained ties with the Chinese community and provided news from China. In a letter he wrote to his brother On Kui, he shared the joy of progress achieved when construction of a 200-mile long railway was completed. It connected Hang Chow and Lang Kai County in Jie Jiang Province. He also negotiated a $7 million loan from Shanghai banks to fund a 155-mile rail extension to Yue San County in Jiang She Province. He was pleased to witness all the progress. He forwarded to his brother, a list of investment projects open to overseas Chinese in Jie Jiang Province.  The Chinese Times published Chiang Shao Hsien’s letter on March 1, 1933, Page 10 35:  編者昨接友人蔣紹賢君由杭來書、內夾上列新聞一則。書中略謂: 弟自去年六月來杭、即蒙曾廰長養甫派在建設廰工作、辨理會計事務。後因杭江鐡路會計 事宜極關重要、故改委來局任會計科長。服務以來於茲半載、責重才輕、阻越時虞。現本 局築成通車部份、約二百公里、由杭州直通達蘭谿縣。前數月分別向上海銀行界及英庚款 委員會借欵七百萬元、以為展築路線至江西省玉山縣、約計一百五十五公里、大約一年有 餘、即可全部通車矣。浙省年來財政雖在困難時期、然各種建設頗有進步、茲將關於華僑 可以投資之事業報告一則。 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 13 of 17   淅江省建設廰、呈報實業部、有關於淅省可以投資興辦之事業、因僑務委員會、函請代調 查各省巿最近之實業計劃及產品、以便介紹僑胞投資興辦….  Shao Hsien continued his accountant career during the war. Reporting to Jung Yeon Pu (曾養甫), he served as controller for the Chinese Army Corp of Engineers. The Corp constructed an airport in the mountainous Yun Nam Province to allow air lifting of supplies to China. A plan to link Yun Nam Province to Siam by rail (滇緬鐡路) started in 1938. The Corp designed and laid the grounds for the Chinese portion for an 886 km railway. It was sadly abandoned when Japanese invaded Siam in 1939.  Chiang Shao Hsien went to Hong Kong in 1950. He left for Cuba in 1952 to join his son Luis Chiong. In 1960 Luis fled Castro’s Cuba to Florida with only US$5 in his pocket. He got a job at Trader Vic the next day. Right away, he sent for his father in Cuba. Shao Hsien left Cuba with the US$5 allowed. He soon accepted a job as secretary-custodian for the Los Angeles Kong Chow Benevolent Association at 931 N. Broadway.  Chiang Shao Hsien passed away at age 79, on June 2, 1974. He was laid to rest at the Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery.  Arrival of Chung Nye’s Son Ching Ding Yow (蔣丁酉 1897 – 1978), May 15, 1910 Chung Nye’s third son, Chong Ding Yow, arrived in Vancouver on the Empress of China from Hong Kong on May 15, 1910. He was exempted from the $500 Head Tax because the 14 year old was a merchant’s son.  The name was recorded as Ching Ding Yow 36. Ding Yow, whose married name was Chong On Kiu (蔣丁酉, 字安翹) graduated from High School in New Westminster. He later moved to Vancouver and became a career journalist for the Chinese Times (大漢公報). He retired as general manager on April 1, 1958.  Chong On Kiu was fluent in both Chinese and English. He was recognized among North American literary circles for his lyrics and couplets. A tribute to Ding You’s talent was evident in a poem by Ho Choy Yee (何彩詒) 37:  蔣安翹詞長乃新會梅閣鄉人也。勤敏好讀、學貫中西、且接友和藹、恭敬禮義、素以聯學 見長、名滿北美。前者投聯迭冠軍之選、馳驟吟壇鈎心鬥角、得以出奇制勝也。先生任職 大漢公報司理、十多寒暑于茲、欽羡無似、因賦俚句敬上、工慵不計也。    [支微韻]         何彩詒 志能伸屈好男兒、仗義行仁永不違、 廣博通融多史識、清新俊逸妙文辭; 賽聯首獎欣榮譽、巧對心裁奪錦旗、 頭角竫嶸瞻器宇、,胸襟磊落仰高儀。      --- The Chinese Times, page 5, July 9, 1956  Chong On Kiu was a committed member of the Vancouver Chinese Freemason. As the Conference Chair of the 3 rd  Pan-America Freemason Party of China, he took responsibility for hosting delegates during their stay in Vancouver in January 1950.  5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 14 of 17  Predeceased by his son Doy Hon (蔣岱漢), Chong Ding Yow passed away at the Vancouver General Hospital on January 22, 1978 at age 83. He was survived by his wife and nephews 38 .  Arrival of Chung Nye’s Second wife Mock Shee and her Son on July 28, 1915 Chung Nye’s second wife Mock Shee (莫氏) and his forth son, Chong Moo Kee (蔣戊己) arrived on the S.S. Axion in Vancouver on July 28, 1915 39 . As merchant’s wife and son, both were exempted from the Head Tax. Mock Shee, age 36, came from Sun Woy City (新會城), her son Moo Kee was age 13. Sadly, Moo Kee passed away at an early age. No record survived on the where abouts of Moo Kee and his mom.  Chung Nye’s Nephew On Shun (蔣安順,名北強, aka Chong Quong, 1891-1972) Nephew On Shun was known by the name Chong Quong. He came at age 12 to stay with Chung Nye in 1903. He became the Chinese boss at age 18. Chong Quong was well known in the canning industry. He held contracts along the Fraser River and up the B.C. Coast. His son Danny Chung (蔣章霖) held contract with the Port Edward Cannery of Nelson Brothers until 1959. Chong Quong’s younger son, Wayne Horne Chong (蔣榮漢) retired from the Canadian Fishing Company’s Home Plant at the Foot of Gore Ave in Vancouver.  Chong Quong passed away at age 81 on July 11, 1972. He was laid to rest at the Forrest Lawn Cemetery in Burnaby B.C. 40 .  Photo: Chong Quong next to a bailful of salmon and holding a 30 pound Spring salmon in each hand. This photo was kindly provided by Dr. Brian Ho.  Chung Nye’s Nephew On Wey (aka Charles On Wey Chong, 蔣安偉 , 1894-1968) Nephew On Wey also stayed with Chung Nye in New Westminster in the 1920s. He was a member of the cannery clan. The Vancouver Gee Gong Tong (雲域致公堂) acknowledged donations received from the cannery crew of On Wey and 鄺田 (Kwong Tien) on November 19, 1930 41 . On Wey move to New York in the 1930s and later worked as a bar tender in Washington D.C. He retired in Los Angeles. In 1963, three generations of the On Wey family were finally re- united when his wife Kwong Shee (鄺仲笑), son Shek Wan (蔣石穩) and family landed in Los Angeles on February 28.  On Wey passed away at age 74 in 1968. He was laid to rest at the Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery.  National Identity versus Cultural Affinity The story of a family photo taken 90 years ago unfolded in different directions, as each of the four young men took divergent paths. Wherever their destiny led them, each took their career seriously. They contributed to the community they lived in.  Even though New Westminster did not acknowledge them during their time, Chung Nye, On Kiu, On Shun, and On Wey accepted the dichotomy of their Canadian identity without compromising their Chinese cultural affinity.  This dichotomy should not invoke the question of divided loyalty. National identity is a commitment to where one lives, and make contributes to. Cultural affinity is an expression of the life style one prefers to live. Where one lives and how one lives, are two distinct issues. They do 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 15 of 17  not have to be congruent. Most Chinese pioneers would incorporate a part European, part First Nations, and part Chinese life style. Their cultural affinity may broaden with time, but Canada was their home, even though they have to wait until 1949 before they were recognized.  The colonial imperative of the day would not allow for such distinction. After the Head Tax, the Chinese Exclusion Act was imposed on July 1, 1923, thus closing all doors to Chinese immigrants. Little did the province and the Dominion realize that they too have closed the door to potential growth opportunities.  Discrimination not only deprived financial rewards to Chinese workers but it taxed the discriminator in productivity gains. New Westminster suffered a population outflow. The opportunity cost of discrimination, expressed as impeded economic growth to the discriminator, is seldom acknowledged.  Conclusion The story of Chung Nye and his family was by no means unique for men of Chinese descend in British Columbia. They struggled and worked hard so that their family in China could have a better life. Impediments, one after another, were imposed against them. Trade unions, civic authorities, provincial and federal governments all conspired to exclude the Chinese pioneers. Lobbyists did not hesitate, however, to reap benefits from the wealth created by the value added labour of Chinese pioneers.  Chung Nye and his peers met each challenge. They not only survived hardships but brought with them ethics, humanity, reciprocity, family value, and the commitment to build a better home in Canada.  They helped each other in times of need and cared for those who were less fortunate. They organized benevolent societies, contributed to a departure fee of $4 for each home trip they made. The money was to pay for shipping home, the remains of those who died in a foreign land.  When the dichotomy of national identity and cultural affinity is fully appreciated as non- congruent, the Chapter of our Chinese pioneers and their way of life at the forefront of Canada’s nationhood will flourish. Their founding role in British Columbia and their participation in our nation building must not be left blank in Canadian history.  Acknowledgement This story is possible thanks to the availability of digital and photo records on the Chinese Head Tax, Census of 1881 and 1891, and the Chinese Times. Library and Archives Canada, Multicultural Canada and the B.C. Provincial Archives are all to be congratulated for posting the data on their website. Mr. Barry Dykes of the New Westminster Museum and Archives kindly made available the minutes of the Chinese Benevolent Association from 1915 to 1929. Ms. Mary Munk of Library & Archive Canada provided explanation on the meaning of census codes.  References [1]  This entry fee was fifty cents initially, but increased to $50 in 1885, then to $100 in 1901, and finally to $500 in 1904. [2]  Register of Chinese Immigration, Port of New Westminster, B.C., http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e146/e003638143.pdf 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 16 of 17  [3]  General Register of Chinese Immigration, http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006066311.pdf [4] Cicely Lyons, Salmon: Our Heritage. The Story of a Province and an Industry, Vancouver: B.C. Packers Ltd. 1969, p. 182. [5] General Register of Chinese Immigration, http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006067023.pdf [6] Ibid., http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006067728.pdf [7] Ship Passenger List, Empress of China, January 31, 1906, p. 4. http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e146/e003631901.jpg [8] Census 1891, http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/1891/pdf/30953_148092-00362.pdf Census 1891, http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/1891/pdf/30953_148092-00363.pdf [9] John Stark, Stephen Scheving, Colin Stevens, and Wendy Turnbull, Background Research, “City Council Minutes Records from September 21,1874 to December 6, 1926”. [10] Cicely Lyons, Salmon: Our Heritage. p.182. [11] David Reid, “ The Development of the Fraser River Salmon Canning Industry, 1885-1913”, Department of the Environment, Pacific Region, 1973, [12]  The Chinese Times, 1916-02-04, page 3, http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/109579 [13]  http://chung.library.ubc.ca/collection/details/6000 http://digitalcollections.library.ubc.ca/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/coll0803- 7&CISOPTR=2837 [14]  New Westminster Museum and Archives, Minutes of the New Westminster Chinese Benevolent Association, March 16, 1915. [15]  John Stark, Stephen Scheving, Colin Stevens, and Wendy Turnbull, Background Research, “City Council Minutes Records from September 21,1874 to December 6, 1926”. [16]  The Chinese Times, 1919-06-30. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/91387 [17]  The Chinese Times, 1919-07-28 page 4;  http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/254448 [18]  New Westminster Museum and Archives, Minutes of the New Westminster Chinese Benevolent Association, 1928. [19] New Westminster, the Great Fire of 1898. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/sos/002028- 4200-e.html [20] New Westminster, the Great Fire of 1898. http://www.newwestcity.ca/residents/public_safety/fire__rescue_services/articles751.php [21]  The Chinese Times, 1916-09-06 page 3. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/486857 [22]  General Register of Chinese Immigration, Kang Yu Wei visit in 1899. http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006066675.pdf [23]  Ibid., Leong Kia Chew visit in 1911. http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006066874.pdf [24] The Chinese Times 1919-3-14, page 5;   http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/240457 [25] The Chinese Times 1927-3-17, page 2;   http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/117004 [26] The Chinese Times 1944-2-21, page 4;   http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/543184 [27] The Chinese Times 1928-11-15, page 3; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/239427 [28] The Chinese Times 1928-11-19, page 3; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/194851 [29] The Chinese Times 1928-11-22, page 3; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/256416 [30] The Chinese Times 1928-11-22, page 2; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/256347 [31] The Chinese Times 1928-12-10, page 13; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/255255 [32] The Chinese Times 1922-12-07, page 3;  http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/246966 [33] The Chinese Times 1928-03-27, page 3;  http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/159023 [34] The Chinese Times 1929-04-09, page 11;  http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/108702 [35] The Chinese Times 1933-03-01, page 10;  http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/483627 5 th  WCILCOS at the University of British  Columbia, May 16-19, 2012 Chung_Nye_Of_New_West.doc       2012-05-17                 Rudy Chiang                                   Page 17 of 17  [36] General Register of Chinese Immigration, Ching Ding Yow, 1910-05-15; http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006068022.pdf [37] The Chinese Times 1956-07-09, page 5, http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/486315 [38] The Chinese Times 1978-02-20, page 4, http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/321184 [39] General Register of Chinese Immigration, Mock Shee & Chong Moo Kee http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/e/e243/e006069270.pdf [40] The Chinese Times 1972-07-11, page 3; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/479081 [41] The Chinese Time, 1930-11-19, page 9; http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/node/481053   Bibliography Lee, David T.H. A History of Chinese in Canada. 加拿大自由出版社, 1967. 李東海, 加拿大華僑史. 加拿大自由出版社, 1967.  Lyons, Cicely. Salmon: Our Heritage. The Story of a Province and an Industry. B.C. Packers Ltd., Mitchell Press, Vancouver B.C., 1969.  McKervill, Hugh W. The Salmon People: The Story of Canned Salmon Industry of British Columbia. Gray’s Publishing Ltd., Sidney, B.C., 1967.  Marlatt, Daphne. Editor. Steveston Recollected. Aural History. Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Victoria, B.C., 1975.  Marlatt, Daphne, and Minden, Robert. Steveston. Ronsdale Press, Vancouver, B.C.,   2001  Newell, Dianne. Editor. The Development of the Pacific Salmon-Canning Industry: A Grown Man’s Game. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal and Kingston, 1989.  Newell, Dianne. Tangled Webs of History: Indians and the Law in Canada’s Pacific Coast Fisheries. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Buffalo, and London, 1999.  Reid, David J. The Development of the Fraser River Salmon Canning Industry, 1885 to 1913. Department of the Environment. NOB/ECON 4-73. July, 1973.  Stacey, Duncan, and Stacey, Susan. Salmonopolis: The Steveston Story. Harbour Publishing, Madeira Park, B.C., 1994.  Weber, Tom. Cannery Row: A-Time-To-Remember. Orenda/United Press, USA, 1983.  Wolf, Jim, and Owen, Patricia. Yi Fao, Speaking Through Memory. Heritage House Publishing Co., Surry, B.C., 2008.  Wu S.Y., One Hundred Years of Chinese in The United States and Canada, S.Y. Wu Publisher, 1954. 吳尚鷹, 美國華僑百年紀實,加拿大附, 吳尚鷹發行, 1954.  Yesaki, Mitsuo, and Nishimura, Sakuya, and Yesaki, Duke. Salmon Canning on The Fraser River in The 1890’s. Fraser Journal Publishing, Coquitlam, B.C., 2000. 5th WCILCOS at University of British Columbia, May 16-19, 2012  Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C --- A Canadian Story from the Perspective of Chinese Pioneers living in B.C. during the 1880s to 1920s 新會梅閣 蔣汶德 撰 Presented by:  Rudy M.T. Chiang May 17, 2012 二埠的蔣柰   --卑詩省華裔先民在的加國故事 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD At age 16, Chung Nye left his home village of Moy Kwok (梅閣鄉) with a friend for the Gold Mountains  They landed in Victoria B.C. in April 1882  His career as 1. Contractor in the salmon canning industry, 2. Operator of Sun Kum Wo (新錦和), Personifies the contribution of Chinese pioneers in British Columbia 2 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD           The story of Chung Nye begins with a family portrait taken in 1922 … on the occasion of son On Whei’s visit to New Westminster …  3 The Chung Nye Family Portrait, 1922 安 偉 丁 酉 字 安 翹 北 強 字 安 順 紹 賢 字 安 懷 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 Son On Whei Son On Kui Nephew On Wey Nephew On Shun 4 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD The paths of the 4 young men diverged as each pursued their aspirations. Two stayed in Canada, whereas nephew On Wey moved to the U.S. The visiting son On Whei served in the rebuilding of China. Destiny came to full circle 40 years later when their paths converged again in North America… 5 Happy Re-union, 1966 44 years after the family portrait was taken, On Whei (right) visited Vancouver again. On Kui 安翹 On Whei 安懷 On Shun 安順 6 1741 Map of Sun Voy City Sun Voy City 新會城 Moy Kowk 梅角 Cooteung 古井 Shiu Tong 小塘 7 The History of Chung Nye - told by his grandson Chi Ho Chiang 蔣麒賀  Chung Nye received a Family Settlement Fee (安家費), an advance meant to bridge family needs until the sojourner could send money home.  He left the 12 pieces of silver dollar (dai yong 大洋) with his widowed mother for the family.  Chung Nye became a contractor for salmon canneries in B.C. He was well respected for recruiting fellow villagers from home.  He founded Sun Kum Wo (新錦和), a Chinese herbal and grocery store in New Westminster. 8 The History of Chung Nye - told by his grandson Chi Ho Chiang 蔣麒賀  Chung Nye bought gold claims from Caucasian partners, it turned out to be fool’s gold (pyrite).  He befriended Leong Kia Chew (梁啟超) when Leong visited Vancouver in 1903. Nye supported the Reform movement in China.  Chi Ho never met his grandfather in person. He got a  glimpse of Chung Nye through the glass window of the casket, when the embalmed remain was returned to Moy Kwok for interment.  Chi Ho was twelve years old at the time. 9 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada On line search turned up 3 entries for Chung Nye:  1) November 8, 1895,  Port of New Westminster Declaration No. 414, CI5: 832598, CI6: 6587; Returning from China, merchant Chung Nye, Age 32, Entry Fee $0.50, Place of Birth: Canton, China. Physical Description: “Height 5ft 41/2 inches. Long scar on thumb of left hand, pitt on left corner of left eye. Speaks good English.” First arrival date: April 1882, in Victoria, by steamship.  10 Port of New Westminster Chung Nye, Nov.8, 1895 1st Arrival: April, 1882; Speaks good English 11 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada  April 1882 coincided with the arrival of the 2,000 men recruited by Andrew Onderdonk, on contract with the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company (CPR).   Only the CPR, in desperate need for workers could afford to pay a Family Settlement Fee (安家費) of 12 silver dollars.   The 16 year old Chung Nye and his friend had to be among the 2,000 men contracted to lay tracks along the Fraser Canyon for Canada.  12 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada Another record:  2) June 5, 1901,  Port of Vancouver  Serial No. 37628, CI5: 32004; Returning from Hong Kong, labourer Chung Nye, age 38, Entry Fee $100 Head Tax. Place of Birth: Moy Gock, Senwoy, China Vessel: Empress of Japan Physical Description: “5 ft. 5, scar right corner left eye, scar on left thumb, scar on left 2nd & 3rd finger.” 13 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada More record: 3)  February 3, 1906,  Port of Vancouver Serial No. 51591, CI5: 45030; Returning from Hong Kong, merchant Chung Nye, age 43, Exempted from Head Tax; Place of Birth: Go Deung (古井), Senwoy, China Vessel: Empress of China Physical Description: “5ft.4 in, scar on left thumb, scar on left 2nd & 3rd fingers, scar under corner left eye.” 14 1891 Census of Canada District 2, New Westminster, Sub District 6, New Westminster, pages 34-35 June 6, 1891 House No. 140, w 2/10, Head of household: Jung Nye, age 28, married, Buddhist. 40 occupants, 4 could read & write English: Jung Nye, Lee Sing Jack, How Lum, & Jung Tie 15 Census of Canada 1891 District 2, New Westminster, Sub District 6, New Westminster, pages 34-35 “…For the reference you found in the 1891 census for Jung Nye, W2/10 refers to a wooden, two-story building, with ten rooms.  The number 140 is the household number, i.e. it was the 140th household the census enumerator recorded for that sub-district. Under Relation to Head of Family, L means lodger. This means that the men listed on that page were living in a rooming house.”  ---Ms. Mary Munk of Library & Archive Canada, personal communication, April 8, 2010  16 Chung Nye in 1891 Nine Years After Arrival  Chung Nye had transformed from labourer to the head of a 40 men household in New Westminster  He established his cannery career  At 28, Chung Nye was married, could read and write English  His first trip home likely took place in 1887-89.  Chung Nye built two identical houses of solid stone blocks. One for his mom and himself, the other for his younger brother Leon Ho (倫可), father of his nephews. 18 The Moy Kwok Cannery Pioneers With a pool of skilled cannery hands, Chung Nye & the Moy Kwok clan secured contracts along the B.C. Coast :  New Westiminster (鳥埠), Delta,  Steveston (巿姊廠), Vancouver (雲埠)  Bella Coola (巴罅咕罅), Klemtu (加欖粗),  Prince Rupert (片巿魯別), Port Edward,  Nitnet (乃遠叻, 乃典律) and  many other locals.  19 The Moy Kwok Cannery Pioneers  Some of the Moy Kwok Contractors  Chung On Shun (Chong Quong, 蔣北強,安順),  Chong On Wey (蔣安偉),  Chong On Kui (蔣安翹)  Chong Yat (蔣逸琴,字安烈),  Chong Dot (蔣炳達,字安鰲),  Chong You (蔣有,字容可),  Chung Sat (蔣述,字國多),  Chong Tee Poy (蔣池沛,字會可) … 20 1922 Brunswick Cannery Contract Chung Nye & B.C. Packers --Courtesy of Chung Collection, UBC, ID 101-1-6 21 Chung Nye Dealings with New Westminster City Council  1895-1926 1895, Sept 23 Chung Nye asking permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street. Granted 1896, Nov. 9 Chung Nye & co. asking for short sidewalk on Carnarvon Street—Board of Works to act. 1897, May 31 Chung Nye: Revenue Tax Fine – Finance to report 1899, Mar. 20 [The Great New West Fire, Sept 10, 1898] Chung Nye asking for sidewalk – Board of Works to report. 1899, Apr. 17 Chung Nye asking refund of water rate paid in advance, the premises having been destroyed by fire… 1899, May 15 The accounts paid in advance on water services… destroyed by fire on September 10 last be refunded. 1910, Jan. 17 Corbould & Grant re: Sun Kum Wo’s claim. City Solicitor to report at an early date. 22 1916, Sept. 25 [Sep. 5, Top floor of CRA on fire] Chung Nye & others asking permission to rebuild roof of building belonging to Chinese Reform Assn. Also report of Building Inspector on same, recommending that a life of 1 ½ years be placed on building. Granted & recommended. Adopted 1918, July 04 “The Building Inspector attended and referred to the fire at the building owned by the Chinese Reform Association which destroyed the roof. He stated that the building was a well built one and provided the top story was removed and a new roof put on would comply with the regulations of the No. 2 Fire Limits. The Insurance Co, offered $100.00 for damage done, which would cover repairs, but he advised that alterations mentioned be made at a cost of $235.00. On motion the Building Inspector was instructed to negotiate with the Chinese Reform Association to have this done.” Chung Nye & the Chinese Reform Association 23 1923, Aug 13 “That the offer of Tom Hin and Chung Nye to purchase the re-sub of Lot S.P. 3, City Block 36, for the sum of $750.00 – payable $150.00 cash, balance in 6,12, and 18 months, with 6% on deferred payments, be accepted, and bylaw prepared accordingly.” [譚欽,蔣奈1920/5/15,p10,ChineseTimes] 1923, Nov 16 “Re: the application of Chung Nye and Yuen Ching for repairs to roadway and sidewalk adjoining corner of Royal Avenue and 11th Street – this matter has received attention. ADOPTED” Chung Nye & Tom Hin Purchased 1047 Royal Ave for $750 in 1923 24 Chinese Benevolent Association (CBA) in New Westminster Minutes of 1915 March 16: Chung Nye of Sun Kum Wo 新錦和 elected Vice-Chair. March 22: CBA appointed 4 members to check on burial site issues. [Nov. 9,1914: City cancelled the 1909 Chinese Cemetery Agreement] 25 March 23: Confirmed that City has revoked the Chinese Cemetery. Prompt action needed to reclaim buried remains. CBA to request Victoria CBA to alert its members of the need for quick action. 26 April 26, 1916: Chung Nye proposed a public meeting be held on Sunday to fund raise for reclaiming buried remains. [July  7, 1919: City approved Mah Chan to exhume 21 or more remains at the 8th Street Chinese Cemetery. ]  蔣 經 可 翁 提 議 本 會 館 可 否 標 帖 長 紅 、 定 於 禮 拜 日 下 午 一 点 鐘 邀 請 各 界 僑 胞 、 假 座 愛 國 學 校 大 叙 會 、 宣 佈 本 會 館 公 款 支[ ?] 、 並 撿 拾 無 名 人 先 友 、 各 責 無 着 、 請 各 界 僑 胞 樂 助 、 以 維 公 益‧  李 兆 平 翁 和 議 、 眾 贊 成‧  27 List of Deceased Pioneers, 1912-1928 Ancestral Village, Year of Death & Marker Number --- Courtesy of New Westminster Museum & Archives 28  “Diplomatic” Visit of Kang Yu Wei in 1899  June – Sept., 1898 Wushu Reform 戊戌變法  Kang Yu Wei 康有為 and his secretary Li Yung arrived in Victoria on April 7, 1899  Kang, age 42, 5ft 2in, of Nan Hoy 南海 County  diplomatic corps, exempted from Head Tax  Li Yang, age 27, 5ft 3.5in, Nan Hoy, secretary,    exempted from Head Tax  They boarded the MV Igumi Maru at Yokohama, Japan  Immigration file: Microfilm C9512 e0060666 29 Visit of Kang Yu Wei 康有為 Kang Yu Wei 康有為 Li Yung 30 Leong Kia Chew Toured America in 1903 Mar. 3, 1903 Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 & his entourage arrived at Vancouver on the Empress of India  Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 age 30, 5ft 5in, of Senwey 新會 [茶坑], boarded from Yokohama 橫濱   His entourage boarded from Hong Kong  Wong Wai Chee 黃慧之 age 24, 5ft 5.5in, of Yokohama  Pow Chee 鮑熾 age 46, 5ft 4in, of Hung San 香山  Pow Man Cheong 鮑文昌 age 17, of Yokohama  Their $100 Head Tax was refunded on Mar. 15  Immigration file: Microfilm C9512 e0060668  31 Leong Kia Chew & His Entourage Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 Wong Wai Chee 黃慧之 Pow Chee 鮑熾 Pow Man Cheong 鮑文昌  32 Chung Nye died on November 14, 1928     殷商又弱一個 二埠函、殷商蔣奈翁字經可,新會 梅閣人 。向承辦雇工製沙文魚罐頭 事務。去月因在魚濕食山羊肉煲醋, 即覺身體不豫,隨出二埠入醫院調 治、越時四日、頗覺痊可、乃出院。 未幾舊病復發、遂再入院、至昨晨 五時、醫藥罔效。心血管崩裂、延 至下午一時、竟與世長辭、享壽共 十有五。查蔣翁為人、胸懷磊落、 忠厚待人、歷任憲政黨總理。對於 社會與黨務、靡不竭力贊襄。今忽 歸道山、聞者莫不惋惜。長子紹賢 君、英年卓犖、向負笈華北、畢業 于天津大學。次子安翹亦學貫中西、 已于上月返國云。 Funeral Record of Chung Nye Place of Death: 1047 Royal Ave Cause of death: Cancer Died: Nov. 14, 1928 Age: 62 [Vital Statistics: Age 66] Where Born: China Occupation: Merchant & contractor Residence:1047 Royal Av Where Buried: China Physician: Geo. E. Drew Funeral cost: $455.00 33  Courtesy of Bowell & Son When was Chung Nye Born? Immigration & Census Records point to 1864 Family History & Funeral Record suggest 1867 34 Chung Nye Estate The Chinese Time December 10, 1928, page 13 December 8, 1928 the B.C. Supreme Court validated Chung Nye’s will and awarded his estate of $24,193 to son On Whei (蔣紹賢, Chiang Shao Hsien). 蔣 柰 翁 之 遺 產 二 埠 八 日 電 : 本 處 法 庭 業 經 察 驗 囑 書 三 通 、 內 有 壹 通 乃 屬 拾 一 月 拾 四 日 逝 世 之 華 商 蔣 奈 者 。 囑 書 聲 明 遺 產 二 萬 四 千 一 百 九 拾 三 元 、 歸 其 子 蔣 紹 賢 承 領 、 官 己 判 准 施 行 矣 。   大 漢 公 報 一 九 廿 八 年 十 二 月 十 日  35 Chiang Shao Hsien 蔣紹賢 字安懷, 1895-1974 On Whei, the 2nd Son of Chung Nye  Graduate of Tien Jing University (天津大學)  Polytechnic Business College Oakland California      Diploma in Business Training      April 16, 1924  Modernization of China Controller, Engineering Division, Ji Jiang 浙江 Province Ji Jiang Railways 杭江鐵路, Chien Tang Jian Bridge 錢 塘江大橋, Negotiated a $7 million construction loan. War Efforts: Controller of Army Corp of Engineers, Yun Nam Airport, Yun Nam-Siam Rail Proj (滇緬鐡路) 36 When Shao Hsien visited his father Chung Nye, the Reform Association held a banquet in his honour. Chairman Won Cumyou invited Shao Hsien to give an eye witness account of recent political upheavals in China. It was well received… Shao Hsien Honoured by the Constitution Reform Association, December, 1922 憲政會之大讌會 蔣柰翁之長公子蔣紹賢先生 、在中國北京肄業多年、茲 者學成來遊此地。并陳宗璜 先生奉北京孔教會委任、籌 建北京孔教總會堂、駕臨本 埠數日。昨日下午六時、憲 政會諸先生特設酒與兩先生 晤談、酒酣之餘、會長温金 有翁宣布設讌理由、先請蔣 紹賢先生演講、亹亹而談、 尤足動聽…. 37 An Eulogy In Memory of Leung Kia Chew  1873-1929  雲 埠 憲 政 追 悼 梁 任 公 先 生 輓 聯 訃 聞 萬 里 、 面 隔 七 年 、 回 首 京 華 一 別 那 知 成 永 訣  自 有 傳 人  親 附 葭 莩 、 情 同 師 弟 、 等 身 著 作 千 秋 應   蔣 紹 賢  From ten thousand miles away, the sad obituary came; Who would have thought that our face to face encounter in Peking seven years ago, Turned out to be an everlasting memory?  Draped as a kin, we share a teacher to student bond;  Your teachings and lofty publications stacking tall, Shall forever be echoed by followers to come.                --- Chiang Shao Hsien 38 39 Controller Branch, Army Engineers Corp. Chiang Shao Hsien & His Staff, 1946 Shao Hsien Chiang Chiang Shao Hsien Resettled in America Chiang Shao Hsien went to Hong Kong in 1950. He left for Cuba in 1952 to join his son Luis Chiong.  In 1960 Luis fled Cuba to Florida with only US$5 in his pocket. He got a job at Trader Vic the next day. He sent for his father in Cuba right away.  Shao Hsien soon accepted a job as secretary- custodian for the Los Angeles Kong Chow Benevolent Association at 931 N. Broadway.   Chiang Shao Hsien passed away at age 79, on June 2, 1974. He was laid to rest at the Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery.  40 Shao Hsien Chiang, 1968 41 Chong Ding Yow 蔣丁酉 字安翹, 1897-1978 On Kiu, the 3rd Son of Chung Nye  Ding Yow, age 14, landed in Vancouver May 15, 1910, Under the Name of Ching Ding Yow.  $500 Head Tax exempted, merchant’s son  He Graduated from High School in New Westminster  Fluent in both Chinese and English  Career journalist for the Chinese Times in Vancouver  Retired as General Manager, April 1, 1958  Renowned for his lyrics & couplets  Member of the Chinese Freemason  Chair of the 3rd Pan-America Freemason Conference in Vancouver, January, 1950. 42 OK Chong K.S. Gee Cuba Y.C.Lau USA S.Y  Seto Cuba L.K. Lui National Y.K. Chan USA K.S. Wong USA J.W. Wang News 43 The 3rd Pan-America Conference of the Freeman Party of China 44 Chong Quong 蔣北強 字安順, 1891-1972 On Shun, nephew of Chung Nye • Chong Quong came at age 12 to stay with Chung Nye in 1903. He became a Chinese boss at age 18. • He was a well known figure with B.C. Packers and Nelson Brothers. • His son Danny Chung (蔣章霖) held contract with the Port Edward Cannery of Nelson Brothers until 1959. • Quong’s younger son, Wayne Horne Chong (蔣榮漢) retired from the Canadian Fishing Company’s Home Plant at the Foot of Gore Ave in Vancouver. 45 Bountiful Harvest at Steveston, ca. 1950’s Credit: This photo, kindly provided by Dr. Brian Ho, belongs to the Chong Quong Family. Chong Quong standing next to a bailful of salmon, and holding a 30 lb. Spring salmon in each hand. Location: Nelson Brothers Phoenix Cannery or B.C. Packers Imperial Plant 46 Charles On Wey Chong 蔣安偉, 1894-1968 Nephew of Chung Nye  Charles On Wey stayed with Chung Nye in New Westminster. He was a member of the cannery clan.  He and his cannery crew donated to the Vancouver Gee Gong Tong (雲域致公堂) in 1930.  Charles moved to New York in the 1930’s and later worked as a bar tender in Washington D.C.  He retired in Los Angeles.  In 1963, three generations of the On Wey family were finally re-united when his wife, his son Shek Wan (蔣石 穩) and family landed in Los Angeles on February 28.  On Wey passed away at age 74 in 1968. He was laid to rest at the Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery. 47 48 CI 36: CHANG FOOK 張福有(楠) Lee Yip Sang of Sartuey 沙堆 李業勝 49 Lee Yip Sang & Rudy Chiang Vancouver B.C., 1964 DISCUSSION Head Tax: An Exploitation Tariff  A $50 Head Tax was imposed in 1885  Raised to $100 in 1900  Jumped to $500 in 1903  Assuming in 1903 At an average wage of $35 per month Canada extracted a 14 month equivalent of free labour from every arriving Chinese worker up front… Room and Board was not provided 50 DISCUSSION Head Tax: An Exploitation Tariff  The Invisible Hand of the Free Market Economy was handcuffed by the excuse of “Cheap Labour”  Things have not changed Modern Anti-Dumping Tariff Replaced the Head Tax  July 1, 1923, A Day to Remember The Chinese Exclusion Act closed all doors to the Chinese.  It too closed the door to potential economic growth for the Province & the Dominion. New Westminster’s population declined.   51 Discrimination Deprived financial rewards to Chinese workers Taxed the discriminator in productivity gains. The opportunity cost of discrimination, measured as impeded economic growth to the discriminator is seldom acknowledged. Denial of National Identity Chung Nye & family accepted the dichotomy of their Canadian identity, without compromising their Chinese cultural affinity. Canada was their home. Even if they have to wait until 1949 for recognition.  Opportunity Cost of Discrimination 52 National Identity is a commitment to where one lives, and contributes to. Cultural Affinity is an expression of the life-style one prefers to live. Where one lives and how one lives, are two distinct issues. Land & life-style do not have to be congruent. National Identity & Cultural Affinity A Dichotomy of Divided Loyalty? 53 Non-Congruency  When the dichotomy of national identity & cultural affinity is fully appreciated as non-congruent,       the Chapter on Chinese pioneers & their way of life at the forefront of Canada’s nation building will flourish. Chinese Pioneers: A Missing Chapter in Canadian History 54 The story of Chung Nye is by no means unique for men of Chinese descend in B.C. Trade unions, civic authorities, provincial and federal governments all conspired to exclude them. Lobbyists did not hesitate to reap benefits from the wealth created by the value added labour of Chinese pioneers. Chung Nye & his peers struggled, but they met each challenge. They helped each other in times of need & cared for those who were less fortunate.  Conclusion 55 The pioneers contributed to a departure fee of $4 for each home trip they made. The money was to pay for shipping home, the remains of those who died in a foreign land. Chinese Pioneers brought with them ethics, humanity, reciprocity, family value, and the commitment to build a better home in Canada. Their founding role in British Columbia and their participation in our nation building Must not be left blank in Canadian history  Conclusion 56 Acknowledgement Library & Archives Canada The Chinese Head Tax  Census of 1881 and 1891 UBC Asian Library & Multicultural Canada The Chinese Times Chung Collection, UBC Chung Nye Contracts New Westminster City Council City Council Minutes Records, 1874 to 1926 New Westminster Museum and Archives Chinese Benevolent Association Minutes, & Archive Materials  The Organizing Committee of the 5th WCILCOS 57 Fish Shop 漁 Yue 濕 Sup 58 5th WCILCOS at University of British Columbia, May 16-19, 2012  Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C --- A Canadian Story from the Perspective of Chinese Pioneers living in B.C. during the 1880s to 1920s 新會梅閣 蔣汶德 撰 Presented by:  Rudy M.T. Chiang May 17, 2012 二埠的蔣柰   --卑詩省華裔先民在的加國故事 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD 蔣柰十六歲離開新會縣梅閣鄉 與同鄉前往金山  他們於1882年四月抵達卑詩省的域多利埠  蔣柰在金山參與 1. 沙文魚罐頭製作業 成為華工承包商(工目,判頭),及 2. 在二埠開設『新錦和』號 刻劃著華裔先民 在加國及卑詩省的貢獻 2 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD           蔣柰的故事可以從一幀1922 年在加國與子姪合照開始….. 照片是記念長子安懷來二埠拜望父親蔣 柰…  3 The Chung Nye Family Portrait, 1922 安 偉 丁 酉 字 安 翹 北 強 字 安 順 紹 賢 字 安 懷 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 Son On Whei Son On Kui Nephew On Wey Nephew On Shun 4 Chung Nye 蔣柰, 字經可 ca 1867–1928 AD 照片上的四位青年,各奔前程,追求理想 兩人以加國為家, 姪兒安偉及後遷往美國東岸 長子安懷學成後回國投入國家建設的行列 四十年後, 命運使他們再次在北美洲重聚… 5 1966年在温華重聚 44 年後安懷到訪温市,與弟安翹及堂兄安順合 照留念 On Kui 安翹 On Whei 安懷 On Shun 安順 6 1741 年的新會城地圖 Sun Voy City 新會城 Moy Kowk 梅角 Cooteung 古井 Shiu Tong 小塘 7     蔣柰的歷史 --- 長子謫孫 蔣麒賀的口述故事  蔣柰上船前收到一筆安家費.  此款是遠渡重洋勞工留給家人的生活費.  蔣柰將12個大洋(銀元) 給與守寡母親,養活家人.  抵加後蔣柰成為漁厰工目,隨後招請家鄉宗親戚 友來卑詩省參與漁業工作.  鄉里對他敬重有加.  蔣柰在二埠開設『新錦和』,經營中藥及唐山雜 貨.新錦和亦成為鄉親聚腳之處. 8 The History of Chung Nye - told by his grandson Chi Ho Chiang 蔣麒賀  蔣柰嘗與西人合股購買金礦.  無柰該礦只出假金,俗稱『鷄屎礦』.  梁啟超在1903年到加美訪問.蔣柰與梁啟超兼屬新會 鄉親,故熱力支持梁啟超更新中國之政見.  蔣麒賀無縁與祖父蔣柰相見.  當蔣柰靈柩運抵家鄉安葬時,他只記得透過棺蓋上的 玻璃窗瞻仰祖父遺容.  蔣麒賀當年只有12 歲. 9 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada 加國海關記錄有三項記載蔣奈入口的日期:  1) November 8, 1895,  Port of New Westminster Declaration No. 414, CI5: 832598, CI6: 6587; Chung Nye,蔣奈,商人,32歲,從廣州回二埠, 繳交關稅$0.50 身體特徵: “五尺四寸半高. 左拇指有長疤痕, 左 眼角左邊有窩. 能說良好英語.” 最早抵加日期及地點:1882年4月,域多利,輪船.   10 Port of New Westminster Chung Nye, Nov.8, 1895 1st Arrival: April, 1882; Speaks good English 11 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada  1882年4月適逢安德鐸 (Andrew Onderdonk)代加拿大太平洋鐡路公司 招聘二千華工抵加的日期.   只有加拿大太平洋鐡路公司的財力方 能先付出12個大洋的安家費.   16歲的蔣奈與他同鄉,應當是這二千位 參與菲沙峽谷鐡路建設的華工之一. 12 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada Another record:  2) June 5, 1901,  Port of Vancouver  Serial No. 37628, CI5: 32004; Chung Nye,蔣奈,勞工,38歲,從香港抵達温高華 繳交關稅$100.00 (人頭稅) 出生地: 梅閣,新會,中國 乘船: 日本皇后號 身體特徵: “五尺五寸高.左眼角右邊有疤.左拇 指有疤痕,左食指及中指有疤痕.” 13 Register of Chinese Immigration (1885-1949) On-line Records, Library &Archives Canada More record: 3)  February 3, 1906,  Port of Vancouver Serial No. 51591, CI5: 45030; Chung Nye,蔣奈,商人,43歲,從香港抵達温高華 繳交關稅: 免 (人頭稅) 出生地: 古井,新會,中國 乘船: 中國皇后號 身體特徵: “五尺四寸高.左拇指有疤痕,左食指 及中指有疤痕,左眼角下有疤.” 14 1891 年加國人口調查 二埠第二區 Sub District 6, New Westminster, pages 34-35 June 6, 1891 House No. 140, w 2/10, 房東: Jung Nye, 28歲, 已婚, 佛教徒. 住客人數: 40人 4 人能說及書寫英語: Jung Nye, Lee Sing Jack, How Lum, & Jung Tie 15 Census of Canada 1891 District 2, New Westminster, Sub District 6, New Westminster, pages 34-35 “…For the reference you found in the 1891 census for Jung Nye, W2/10 是代表二層高木屋,屋內共有 10間房.  The number 140 is the household number, i.e. it was the 140th household the census enumerator recorded for that sub-district.  Under Relation to Head of Family, L 是代房客.  This means that the men listed on that page were living in a rooming house.”  ---Ms. Mary Munk of Library & Archive Canada, personal communication, April 8, 2010  16 New Westminster Council minutes September 23, 1895 House 140 Was Either on Front Steer or at 701 Carnarvon Street  1895, Chung Nye requested permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street.  701 Carnarvon was near Front Street where canneries were located.  17 Chung Nye in 1891 抵達卑詩省後九年  蔣柰從青年勞工, 轉成一位有四十個房客的房東.  他在沙三魚漁罐頭行業立足  廿八歲的蔣柰已婚,並慬英語.  蔣柰約在1887至89年間第一次回鄉.  蔣柰在家鄉建兩間堅固石屋.  一間供母親及家人居住,  一間建給弟弟倫可及其家人居住. 18 The Moy Kwok Cannery Pioneers 蔣柰與梅閣宗親率領鄉梓與卑詩省沿岸漁 濕簽訂勞工合約:  New Westiminster (鳥埠), Delta,  Steveston (巿姊廠), Vancouver (雲埠)  Bella Coola (巴罅咕罅), Klemtu (加欖粗),  Prince Rupert (片巿魯別), Port Edward,  Nitnet (乃遠叻, 乃典律) and  many other locals.  19 The Moy Kwok Cannery Pioneers  梅閣宗親漁濕工目 包括  Chung On Shun (Chong Quong, 蔣北強,安順),  Chong On Wey (蔣安偉),  Chong On Kui (蔣安翹)  Chong Yat (蔣逸琴,字安烈),  Chong Dot (蔣炳達,字安鰲),  Chong You (蔣有,字容可),  Chung Sat (蔣述,字國多),  Chong Tee Poy (蔣池沛,字會可) 等眾… 20 1922 Brunswick Cannery Contract Chung Nye & B.C. Packers --Courtesy of Chung Collection, UBC, ID 101-1-6 21 蔣柰與二埠市政局 在1895-1926年間部份交往記錄 1895, Sept 23 Chung Nye asking permission to lay building material on Carnarvon Street. Granted 1896, Nov. 9 Chung Nye & co. asking for short sidewalk on Carnarvon Street—Board of Works to act. 1897, May 31 Chung Nye: Revenue Tax Fine – Finance to report 1899, Mar. 20 [The Great New West Fire, Sept 10, 1898] Chung Nye asking for sidewalk – Board of Works to report. 1899, Apr. 17 Chung Nye asking refund of water rate paid in advance, the premises having been destroyed by fire… 1899, May 15 The accounts paid in advance on water services… destroyed by fire on September 10 last be refunded. 1910, Jan. 17 Corbould & Grant re: Sun Kum Wo’s claim. City Solicitor to report at an early date. 22 1916, Sept. 25 [Sep. 5, Top floor of CRA on fire] Chung Nye & others asking permission to rebuild roof of building belonging to Chinese Reform Assn. Also report of Building Inspector on same, recommending that a life of 1 ½ years be placed on building. Granted & recommended. Adopted 1918, July 04 “The Building Inspector attended and referred to the fire at the building owned by the Chinese Reform Association which destroyed the roof. He stated that the building was a well built one and provided the top story was removed and a new roof put on would comply with the regulations of the No. 2 Fire Limits. The Insurance Co, offered $100.00 for damage done, which would cover repairs, but he advised that alterations mentioned be made at a cost of $235.00. On motion the Building Inspector was instructed to negotiate with the Chinese Reform Association to have this done.” 憲政黨樓上失火,蔣柰代申請修建屋頂準可証 23 1923, Aug 13 “That the offer of Tom Hin and Chung Nye to purchase the re-sub of Lot S.P. 3, City Block 36, for the sum of $750.00 – payable $150.00 cash, balance in 6,12, and 18 months, with 6% on deferred payments, be accepted, and bylaw prepared accordingly.” [譚欽,蔣奈1920/5/15,p10,ChineseTimes] 1923, Nov 16 “Re: the application of Chung Nye and Yuen Ching for repairs to roadway and sidewalk adjoining corner of Royal Avenue and 11th Street – this matter has received attention. ADOPTED” 1923年蔣柰與譚欽 以$750向市府購買 1047 Royal Ave 24 二埠中華慈善會議案記錄 Minutes of 1915 March 16: Chung Nye of Sun Kum Wo 新錦和 elected Vice-Chair. March 22: CBA appointed 4 members to check on burial site issues. [Nov. 9,1914: City cancelled the 1909 Chinese Cemetery Agreement] 25 March 23: Confirmed that City has revoked the Chinese Cemetery. Prompt action needed to reclaim buried remains. CBA to request Victoria CBA to alert its members of the need for quick action. 26 April 26, 1916: Chung Nye proposed a public meeting be held on Sunday to fund raise for reclaiming buried remains. [July  7, 1919: City approved Mah Chan to exhume 21 or more remains at the 8th Street Chinese Cemetery. ]  蔣 經 可 翁 提 議 本 會 館 可 否 標 帖 長 紅 、 定 於 禮 拜 日 下 午 一 点 鐘 邀 請 各 界 僑 胞 、 假 座 愛 國 學 校 大 叙 會 、 宣 佈 本 會 館 公 款 支[ ?] 、 並 撿 拾 無 名 人 先 友 、 各 責 無 着 、 請 各 界 僑 胞 樂 助 、 以 維 公 益‧  李 兆 平 翁 和 議 、 眾 贊 成‧  27 List of Deceased Pioneers, 1912-1928 Ancestral Village, Year of Death & Marker Number --- Courtesy of New Westminster Museum & Archives 28  “Diplomatic” Visit of Kang Yu Wei in 1899  June – Sept., 1898 Wushu Reform 戊戌變法  Kang Yu Wei 康有為 and his secretary Li Yung arrived in Victoria on April 7, 1899  Kang, age 42, 5ft 2in, of Nan Hoy 南海 County  diplomatic corps, exempted from Head Tax  Li Yang, age 27, 5ft 3.5in, Nan Hoy, secretary,    exempted from Head Tax  They boarded the MV Igumi Maru at Yokohama, Japan  Immigration file: Microfilm C9512 e0060666 29 Visit of Kang Yu Wei 康有為 Kang Yu Wei 康有為 Li Yung 30 Leong Kia Chew Toured America in 1903 Mar. 3, 1903 Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 & his entourage arrived at Vancouver on the Empress of India  Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 age 30, 5ft 5in, of Senwey 新會 [茶坑], boarded from Yokohama 橫濱   His entourage boarded from Hong Kong  Wong Wai Chee 黃慧之 age 24, 5ft 5.5in, of Yokohama  Pow Chee 鮑熾 age 46, 5ft 4in, of Hung San 香山  Pow Man Cheong 鮑文昌 age 17, of Yokohama  Their $100 Head Tax was refunded on Mar. 15  Immigration file: Microfilm C9512 e0060668  31 Leong Kia Chew & His Entourage Leong Kia Chew 梁啟超 Wong Wai Chee 黃慧之 Pow Chee 鮑熾 Pow Man Cheong 鮑文昌  32 Chung Nye died on November 14, 1928     殷商又弱一個 二埠函、殷商蔣奈翁字經可,新會 梅閣人 。向承辦雇工製沙文魚罐頭 事務。去月因在魚濕食山羊肉煲醋, 即覺身體不豫,隨出二埠入醫院調 治、越時四日、頗覺痊可、乃出院。 未幾舊病復發、遂再入院、至昨晨 五時、醫藥罔效。心血管崩裂、延 至下午一時、竟與世長辭、享壽共 十有五。查蔣翁為人、胸懷磊落、 忠厚待人、歷任憲政黨總理。對於 社會與黨務、靡不竭力贊襄。今忽 歸道山、聞者莫不惋惜。長子紹賢 君、英年卓犖、向負笈華北、畢業 于天津大學。次子安翹亦學貫中西、 已于上月返國云。 Funeral Record of Chung Nye Place of Death: 1047 Royal Ave Cause of death: Cancer Died: Nov. 14, 1928 Age: 62 [Vital Statistics: Age 66] Where Born: China Occupation: Merchant & contractor Residence:1047 Royal Av Where Buried: China Physician: Geo. E. Drew Funeral cost: $455.00 33  Courtesy of Bowell & Son When was Chung Nye Born? Immigration & Census Records point to 1864 Family History & Funeral Record suggest 1867 34 Chung Nye Estate The Chinese Time December 10, 1928, page 13 December 8, 1928 the B.C. Supreme Court validated Chung Nye’s will and awarded his estate of $24,193 to son On Whei (蔣紹賢, Chiang Shao Hsien). 蔣 柰 翁 之 遺 產 二 埠 八 日 電 : 本 處 法 庭 業 經 察 驗 囑 書 三 通 、 內 有 壹 通 乃 屬 拾 一 月 拾 四 日 逝 世 之 華 商 蔣 奈 者 。 囑 書 聲 明 遺 產 二 萬 四 千 一 百 九 拾 三 元 、 歸 其 子 蔣 紹 賢 承 領 、 官 己 判 准 施 行 矣 。   大 漢 公 報 一 九 廿 八 年 十 二 月 十 日  35 Chiang Shao Hsien 蔣紹賢 字安懷, 1895-1974 On Whei, the 2nd Son of Chung Nye  Graduate of Tien Jing University (天津大學)  Polytechnic Business College Oakland California      Diploma in Business Training      April 16, 1924  Modernization of China Controller, Engineering Division, Ji Jiang 浙江 Province Ji Jiang Railways 杭江鐵路, Chien Tang Jian Bridge 錢 塘江大橋, Negotiated a $7 million construction loan. War Efforts: Controller of Army Corp of Engineers, Yun Nam Airport, Yun Nam-Siam Rail Proj (滇緬鐡路) 36 When Shao Hsien visited his father Chung Nye, the Reform Association held a banquet in his honour. Chairman Won Cumyou invited Shao Hsien to give an eye witness account of recent political upheavals in China. It was well received… Shao Hsien Honoured by the Constitution Reform Association, December, 1922 憲政會之大讌會 蔣柰翁之長公子蔣紹賢先生 、在中國北京肄業多年、茲 者學成來遊此地。并陳宗璜 先生奉北京孔教會委任、籌 建北京孔教總會堂、駕臨本 埠數日。昨日下午六時、憲 政會諸先生特設酒與兩先生 晤談、酒酣之餘、會長温金 有翁宣布設讌理由、先請蔣 紹賢先生演講、亹亹而談、 尤足動聽…. 37 An Eulogy In Memory of Leung Kia Chew  1873-1929  雲 埠 憲 政 追 悼 梁 任 公 先 生 輓 聯 訃 聞 萬 里 、 面 隔 七 年 、 回 首 京 華 一 別 那 知 成 永 訣  自 有 傳 人  親 附 葭 莩 、 情 同 師 弟 、 等 身 著 作 千 秋 應   蔣 紹 賢  From ten thousand miles away, the sad obituary came; Who would have thought that our face to face encounter in Peking seven years ago, Turned out to be an everlasting memory?  Draped as a kin, we share a teacher to student bond;  Your teachings and lofty publications stacking tall, Shall forever be echoed by followers to come.                --- Chiang Shao Hsien 38 39 Controller Branch, Army Engineers Corp. Chiang Shao Hsien & His Staff, 1946 Shao Hsien Chiang 蔣紹賢在美洲定居 蔣紹賢於1950遷香港. 1952年再遷古巴,與三兒蔣其儀會合. 1960 年古巴政變,蔣其儀遷往美國佛羅里達州. 只攜美金五元.翌日即在Trader Vic 餐館上班. 蔣其儀立即安排父親蔣紹賢來美國. 蔣紹賢隨即遷羅省,在岡州會館任職,負責會務 並審核理會館帳目.  蔣紹賢於1974年6月2日往生,亨壽足79歲.安葬 羅省華人墳場.  40 Shao Hsien Chiang, 1968 41 Chong Ding Yow 蔣丁酉 字安翹, 1897-1978 On Kiu, the 3rd Son of Chung Nye  1910年5月15日,蔣丁酉抵温,行年14歲  入口名字: Ching Ding Yow.  因父親蔣奈是商人,免繳$500人頭稅  蔣丁酉在二埠居往及在中學畢業  學貫中英語言及文化  任職温市公漢公報, 退休前為報社經理  1958年4月1日榮休  蔣安翹以詩詞稱譽於南北美文化界  為温埠洪門會員  任1950年第三屆洪門民治黨美洲懇親大會主席 42 OK Chong K.S. Gee Cuba Y.C.Lau USA S.Y  Seto Cuba L.K. Lui National Y.K. Chan USA K.S. Wong USA J.W. Wang News 43 The 3rd Pan-America Conference of the Freeman Party of China 44 Chong Quong 蔣北強 字安順, 1891-1972 On Shun, nephew of Chung Nye • 1903年蔣安順12歲來加與伯父蔣柰在二埠居往. • 18歲便成為漁濕工目. • 蔣安順長期與 B.C. Packers 及 Nelson Brothers 合作. • 蔣北強兒子蔣章霖與Nelson Brothers關係良好.他與 Port Edward Cannery在1959年訂立的合約是卑省漁 濕合約最後的一份. • 蔣北強兒子蔣榮漢任職温埠的Canadian Fishing Company’s Home Plant at the Foot of Gore Ave至退 休. 45 Bountiful Harvest at Steveston, ca. 1950’s Credit: This photo, kindly provided by Dr. Brian Ho, belongs to the Chong Quong Family. 蔣北強雙手各持一條 30磅沙文魚,在一網籃 的沙文魚旁. Location: Nelson Brothers Phoenix Cannery or B.C. Packers Imperial Plant 46 Charles On Wey Chong 蔣安偉, 1894-1968 Nephew of Chung Nye  蔣安偉亦與伯父蔣柰居於二埠,經營漁濕合約.  1930年他與鄺田及漁濕工友捐雲域致公堂經費.  蔣安偉在1930年間遷往美國紐約謀生.及後在華盛頓 酒吧任職調酒師.  退休後蔣安偉在羅省定居  1963年成功申請夫人鄺氏及兒子蔣石穩擕家眷移民  1963年2月28日,蔣安偉合府兒孫三代終於在羅省團 聚.  蔣安偉于1968年身故,亨年足74歲.安葬於羅省華人墳 場. 47 48 CI 36: CHANG FOOK 張福有(楠) Lee Yip Sang of Sartuey 沙堆 李業勝 49 Lee Yip Sang & Rudy Chiang Vancouver B.C., 1964 DISCUSSION 人頭稅: 一項荷刻剝削的關稅  1885年向抵岸華工徵收 $50人頭稅   1900年增至$100  1903年再大幅增至$500  假設在1903年 勞工平均收入為 每月$35 加國政府向每一位初次抵岸的華裔勞工 徵抽相當於14 個月的無薪勞動… 膳宿欠奉 50 DISCUSSION Head Tax: An Exploitation Tariff  史密夫國富論 賴以調節市場經濟的『無形之手』 被『廉價勞工』借口帶上枷鎖  現代社會並未開解枷鎖 『反傾銷關稅』 取代『人頭稅』  1923年7月1日, 華裔不應忘記的日子 『排華法』禁止華工來加國謀生   亦同時堵塞加國及省會經濟發展的商機   二埠人口下降   51 歧視 剝削華工應得的勞力薪酬回報 亦使歧視者付出生產效力『增長率』降緩的代價 歧視的經濟收益機會代價,引致 歧視者經濟增長率阻塞 卻常被忽略 華裔被否決國籍認同 蔣柰及家屬認同加國,亦同時保留中華文化與生活方 式. 這『兩重雙向』價值觀並無絲毫矛盾 加拿大是他們的家園 雖然華裔要等到1949年方被加國接納為公民 歧視的經濟收益機會代價 The Opportunity Cost of Discrimination 52 國籍認同: 是對居往地的確認,並為籍地 作出貢獻 文化認同: 是生活方式的享往及取捨 所在居往地與 如何取捨生活方式     是兩種不同類別的選擇 地域與生活方式並無相連的必然定律 『國籍認同』 與 『文化認同』 『兩重雙向認同』是忠誠的分歧? A Dichotomy of Divided Loyalty? 53 非相連的必然定律 Non-Congruency  當國人了解『兩重雙向』的 國籍認同與文化認同 並無相連的必要 When the dichotomy of national identity & cultural affinity is fully appreciated as non-congruent, 華裔為加國 開荒及建設的路程與生活記載 將會縭補加國歷史的空缺 華裔先民: 加國歷史空缺的一章 54 蔣奈的故事在華裔先民生活圈中常見. 工會,市政局,省府及中央政府因排華而互相鉤結 政客與仇華者卻樂於安享華工在卑詩省及加國辛勤 勞力的經濟效益. 蔣奈及華裔先民面臨一浪又一浪的排斥,沉默刻苦 對應. 他們互相守望,援助及扶持不遇者.  Conclusion 55 華裔先民互約守則,回鄉者每次捐獻$4, 以供運送不幸客死異鄉者遺骸回鄉安葬 華裔先民帶來 孝悌互助, 仁義道德, 家庭價值觀, 在加國建立更美好的家園 華裔先民在卑詩省創建者的身份 及參與加國建設的歷史路程 不容在加國歷史繼續空缺  Conclusion 56 Acknowledgement Library & Archives Canada The Chinese Head Tax  Census of 1881 and 1891 UBC Asian Library & Multicultural Canada The Chinese Times Chung Collection, UBC Chung Nye Contracts New Westminster City Council City Council Minutes Records, 1874 to 1926 New Westminster Museum and Archives Chinese Benevolent Association Minutes, & Archive Materials  The Organizing Committee of the 5th WCILCOS 57 Fish Shop 漁 Yue 濕 Sup 58

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