American Physical Society Northwestern Section Annual Meeting (APS-NW) (11th : 2009)

Frontiers in Nuclear Theory: From Light Nuclei to Astrophysics Bacca, Sonia May 15, 2009

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Frontiers in Nuclear Theory: From Light Nuclei to Astrophysics Sonia Bacca CANADA'S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada.  American Physical Society - North West Section Meeting May 14-16 2009 University of British Columbia, Vancouver Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  2  What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  2  What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  2  What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”  •  It is a science build on a strong connection between theory and experiment  •  It has also many interesting applications that influence and improve our daily life:  ! nuclear medicine (radiopharmaceuticals) ! hadron therapy (cure of cancer) ! engineering materials (ion implantation) ! archaeology (carbon dating)  ... Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  2  What is Nuclear Theory?  nuclear theory  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  3  What is Nuclear Theory?  link to publication archive nuclear theory  lanl.arXiv.org  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  3  What is Nuclear Theory?  link to publication archive nuclear theory  lanl.arXiv.org  nuclear theory wiki  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  3  What is Nuclear Theory?  link to publication archive nuclear theory  lanl.arXiv.org  nuclear theory wiki  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  no link  3  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer?  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer?  ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together? What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer?  ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together? What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?  ?  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer?  ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together? What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?  ?  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer?  ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together? What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?  ?  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  4  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ! How happens that protons and neutrons are bound into stable and rare isotopes? What are the limits of their existence?  ! How did the nucleosynthesis of elements occur? Big Bang Nucleosynthesis r-process ...  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  5  What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei  What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ! What is the nature of neutron stars?  ! What are the nuclear reactions that drive supernovae explosions?  SN1987a  before  Sonia Bacca  after  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  6  Frontiers in Nuclear Theory Crab pulsar SN1987a  • Interaction challenges Proton Number  How can we connect nuclear forces to QCD?  • Few and many-body challenges How can we accurately solve the Schroedinger equation?  • Astrophysical challenges Can nuclear physics provide an answer to astrophysical questions? Neutron Number Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  7  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  3N 3N  4N  4N  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  3N 3N  4N  4N  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  Sonia Bacca  p  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb Systematic and can provide error estimates  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN Separation of scales  3N 3N  4N  4N  p  n  n n p n  p  Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb Systematic and can provide error estimates Details of short distance physics not resolved, but captured in short range couplings fit to experiment Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  8  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN  3N 3N  4N  4N  - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts  0  50  100  150  200  250  Lab. Energy [MeV]  VN N > V3N > V4N  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  9  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN  3N 3N  4N  4N  - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts  0  50  100  150  200  250  Lab. Energy [MeV]  We have a resolution dependence! Coupling constants run with the resolution scale  Λ  VN N > V3N > V4N  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  9  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach NN  3N 3N  4N  4N  - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts  0  50  100  150  200  250  Lab. Energy [MeV]  We have a resolution dependence! Coupling constants run with the resolution scale  Λ  VN N > V3N >The V4N dependence on the cutoff leads to different potentials, but observables should be cutoff independent Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  9  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector N2LO  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  10  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector N2LO  • What  Sonia Bacca  is its origin?  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  10  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector N2LO  • What  is its origin?  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  “The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in a system with three objects or more” A ≥ 3  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  10  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector N2LO  • What  is its origin?  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  “The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in a system with three objects or more” A ≥ 3 As an analogy, if we identify objects with human beings and forces with emotions, then jealousy is a good example of a three-body force: it is not felt as long as two-person are acting, but it shows up as soon as a third person enters the scene. From N. Kalantar, FM50  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  10  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector -  A≥3  N2LO  • What •  is its origin?  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  How to realize if they are important?  Sonia Bacca  By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  11  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector -  A≥3  N2LO  • What  •  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  How to realize if they are important?  By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data  31  How to constrain it?  30  By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF  E( 4He) [MeV]  •  is its origin?  29 Exp.  28 27 26 NN only  25 24 7.6  7.8  8.0  8.2  8.4  8.6  8.8  E( 3 H) [MeV]  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  11  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector -  A≥3  N2LO  • What  •  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  How to realize if they are important?  By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data  31  How to constrain it?  30  By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF  E( 4He) [MeV]  •  is its origin?  29 Exp.  28 27 26 NN only  25  including 3NF  24 7.6  7.8  8.0  8.2  8.4  8.6  8.8  E( 3 H) [MeV]  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  11  Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach - 3N Sector -  A≥3  N2LO  • What  •  Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom  How to realize if they are important? How to constrain it?  30  By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF  •  By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data  31  E( 4He) [MeV]  •  is its origin?  29 Exp.  28 27 26 NN only  25  Predict new observables!  including 3NF  24 7.6  7.8  8.0  8.2  8.4  8.6  8.8  E( 3 H) [MeV]  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  11  Few- and many-body challenges In the sector of few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incredible level of accuracy.  Challenge:  develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei Coupled Cluster Theory  b  Hagen et al., PRL 101 (2008)  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  12  Few- and many-body challenges In the sector of few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incredible level of accuracy.  Challenge:  develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei Coupled Cluster Theory  b  Hagen et al., PRL 101 (2008)  Future: Sonia Bacca  advance ab-initio methods to heavier and neutron rich nuclei APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  12  The physics of Halo Systems  Moon Halo Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  13  The physics of Halo Systems  Moon Halo Nuclear Halo Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  13  Halo nuclei 208  Pb  one proton halo two proton halo  12 fm  11 one neutron halo  Li  two neutron halo four neutron halo  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  14  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  He  4  bound  bound  3  Sonia Bacca  He  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  He  4  bound  bound  3  Sonia Bacca  He  5  He  unbound  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  He  4  bound  bound  3  He  5  He  unbound  6  He  bound halo  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  He  4  bound  bound  3  He  5  He  unbound  6  He  bound halo  Borromean system  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  He  4  bound  bound  3  He  5  He  unbound  6  He  bound  7  He  unbound  halo  Borromean system  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  3  He  4  He  5  He  6  He  7  He  8  He  .... bound  bound  unbound  bound  unbound  halo  bound halo  Borromean system  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  3  He  4  He  5  He  6  He  7  He  8  He  .... bound  bound  unbound  bound  unbound  halo  Borromean system  bound halo  Most exotic nucleus “on earth”  N =3 Z  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  3  He  4  He  5  He  6  He  7  He  8  He  .... bound  bound  unbound  bound  unbound  halo  Borromean system  bound halo  Most exotic nucleus “on earth”  N =3 Z lives 806 ms  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  lives 108 ms  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  3  He  4  He  5  He  6  He  7  He  8  He  .... bound  bound  unbound  bound  unbound  halo  Borromean system  bound halo  Most exotic nucleus “on earth”  N =3 Z lives 806 ms  lives 108 ms  Synthesized in the laboratory Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  The helium isotope chain Shows many interesting features:  3  He  4  He  5  He  6  He  7  He  8  He  .... bound  bound  unbound  bound  unbound  halo  Borromean system  bound halo  Most exotic nucleus “on earth”  N =3 Z lives 806 ms  lives 108 ms  Synthesized in the laboratory Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  15  Production of rare isotopes at ISAC I & II  Mass separator  Beam  Target Cyclotron  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  16  E0 [MeV]  Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei -25  -25  -26  -26  -27  NCSM  -28 -29  GFMC  -30 -31 -32  NCSM  -27  -28 -29  S.Bacca et al., arXiv:0902.1696  -30  6  -31  He previous  Experimental data  our HH  -32  8  He  GFMC previous  our CCSD(T)  Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force  Previous calculations: NCSM NN only GFMC NN+3NF  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  17  E0 [MeV]  Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei -25  -25  -26  -26  -27  NCSM  -28 -29  GFMC  -30 -31 -32  NCSM  -27  -28 -29  S.Bacca et al., arXiv:0902.1696  -30  6  Experimental data  He  -31  He previous  8  our HH  -32  GFMC previous  our CCSD(T)  Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force  Previous calculations: NCSM NN only GFMC NN+3NF  Sonia Bacca  estimates error in neglected  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  17  E0 [MeV]  Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei -25  -25  -26  -26  -27  NCSM  -28 -29  GFMC  -30 -31 -32  NCSM  -27  -28 -29  S.Bacca et al., arXiv:0902.1696  -30  6  Experimental data  He  -31  He previous  8  our HH  -32  GFMC previous  our CCSD(T)  Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force  Future • Include 3NF  Previous calculations: NCSM NN only GFMC NN+3NF  Sonia Bacca  estimates error in neglected  • Apply to other isotope  chains with halo features  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  17  Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Semi-realistic NN force  3.5  6  3  Li  4  AV4’ potential  6  3  2  "# [mb]  ! # [mb]  2.5 6  Li  1.5 1  He  2 1  0.5 0  S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02), PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04)  0  Sonia Bacca  20  40 60 " [MeV]  80  100  00  20  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  40 60 ! [MeV]  80  100  18  Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Semi-realistic NN force  3.5  6  3  Li  4  AV4’ potential  6  3  2  "# [mb]  ! # [mb]  2.5 6  Li  1.5 1  He  2 1  0.5 0  S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02), PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04)  0  20  40 60 " [MeV]  80  100  00  20  40 60 ! [MeV]  80  100  Giant Dipole Resonance  protons  Sonia Bacca  neutrons  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  18  Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Semi-realistic NN force  3.5  6  3  Li  4  AV4’ potential  3  2  "# [mb]  ! # [mb]  2.5 6  Li  1.5 1  Signatures of the halo  6  He  2 1  0.5 0  S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02), PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04)  0  20  40 60 " [MeV]  Giant Dipole Resonance  protons  Sonia Bacca  neutrons  80  100  00  20  Soft-dipole Mode  neutron halo  !-core  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  40 60 ! [MeV]  80  100  Giant Dipole Mode  neutrons  protons  18  Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Semi-realistic NN force  5  6  "# [mb]  4  He  3 2 GSI ('99) NSCL ('02)  1 0  Sonia Bacca  1  2  3  4 5 ! [MeV]  6  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  7  8  19  Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Semi-realistic NN force  5  6  "# [mb]  4  He  3 2 GSI ('99) NSCL ('02)  1 0  •  1  2  3  4 5 ! [MeV]  6  7  8  Photo-absorption can be also related to neutron capture reactions for astrophysics  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  19  Astrophysics: Neutrino Reactions in Supernovae SN1987a  • Core collapse supernovae are gigantic explosions of massive stars  • 99% of the released energy is carried by neutrinos in all flavors, therefore  neutrino interactions with matter are crucial  • In the iron core the burning process stops and it becomes gravitationally unstable the core collapses • Nuclear forces halt the collapse, and drive an outgoing shock, which loses energy due to dissociation, neutrino radiation. • The shock stalls … possibly revived by neutrino heating  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  20  Neutrino bremsstrahlung reaction  N N → N N ν ν¯ q  Neutrino bremsstrahlung affects the time scale of the delayed explosion  A.Mezzacappa (ORNL), JUSTIPEN Workshop (2008)  but standard neutrino rates are based on one-pion-exchange for NN Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  21  0  Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter N N → N N ν ν¯  q  Chiral expansion  0.2  S.B. et al. arXiv:0812.0102  LO (=one-pion exchange) NLO 2  0.15  N LO  "1  C! [MeV ]  3  N LO 0.1  0.05  0  0  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1  1.2  1.4  -1  kF [fm ]  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  22  0  Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter N N → N N ν ν¯  q  S.B. et al. arXiv:0812.0102  0.2  Used in SN simulations (Yukawa 1935) LO (=one-pion exchange)  NLO 2  0.15  N LO  "1  C! [MeV ]  3  Modern LO prediction N  0.1  0.05  0  0  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1  1.2  1.4  -1  kF [fm ]  Modern Hamiltonians give a very different result! Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  23  0  Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter N N → N N ν ν¯  q  Preliminary 0.2 LO (=one-pion exchange) 3  N LO+ 3NF  0.15 "1  C! [MeV ]  3  N LO 0.1  0.05  0  0  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1  1.2  1.4  -1  kF [fm ]  Visible effect of 3NF at higher density  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  24  0  Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter N N → N N ν ν¯  q  Preliminary 0.2 LO (=one-pion exchange) 3  N LO+ 3NF  0.15 "1  C! [MeV ]  3  N LO 0.1  0.05  0  0  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1  1.2  1.4  -1  kF [fm ]  Visible effect of 3NF at higher density Aim: the new standard rates in SN simulation! Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  24  0  Summary Exciting era in nuclear physics with advances on many fronts! Nuclear physics is build upon a strong connection theory-experiment: fundamental for testing our knowledge of nuclear forces  • Enormous progress done in ab-initio approaches to nuclear structure !  Description of helium halo isotopes from evolved Effective Field Theory forces  • Advances in the !  accurate calculation of nuclear reactions  Different dipole strength distribution in stable-unstable light nuclei  • Nuclear physics provides fundamental microscopic input for astrophysics !  First neutrino rates based on Effective Field Theory  Future: the study of the role of 3NF is key in all areas  from light nuclei to astrophysics Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  25  Thanks to my collaborators:  Nir Barnea Gaute Hagen, Thomas Papenbrock Katy Hally Kai Hebeler, Achim Schwenk Winfried Leidemann, Giuseppina Orlandini Chris Pethick I acknowledge useful discussions with the  Sonia Bacca  APSNW Meeting, May 15 2009  group members  26  Thank you! Merci!  

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