International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Research for generating 2D-drawings of superstructure in highway bridge Jiang, Wenyuan; Tanaka, Shigenori Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   RESEARCH FOR GENERATING 2D-DRAWINGS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE IN HIGHWAY BRIDGE Wenyuan Jiang1,3 and Shigenori Tanaka2 1 Graduate School of Informatics, Kansai University, Japan 2 Faculty of Informatics, Kansai University, Japan 3 jwy0086@yahoo.co.jp Abstract: Maintenance of highway bridges built during the high economic growth period is performed based on their design drawings and as-built drawings. For these elevated highway bridges, however, drawings were produced on paper media at the times of design and completion; therefore, in many cases they have already been disposed, making it difficult to perform maintenance. In such a case, regenerating the detail design of the current status is required, but it takes huge cost. For this problem, a large number of researches have been made on automatic generation of three-dimensional models for maintenance of highway bridges from point cloud data obtained through MMS (Mobile Mapping System). However, it is hard to use the models generated in these researches because engineers do not consider the original geometric information of highways. Thus in this research, we aim to regenerate the CAD drawings of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, and propose a method for extracting alignment information of the elevated highway bridge from point cloud data of MMS. We verify the usability of our method and system by comparing the experimental data with surveyed drawings in our experiments. 1 INTRODUCTION In Japan, many elevated highway bridges built in the high economic growth period have been worn out. Particularly for elevated highway bridges, it is urgently required to propose effective and feasible maintenance plans to extend their lifetime. Further, to ensure the appropriateness of inspection, repair plans and construction methods, the construction drawings (e.g. design drawings and as-built drawings) need to be provided to correctly understand the current status. However, drawings of many elevated highway bridges constructed during the high economic growth period around the 1970s were produced on paper media. After the lapse of 30 years document retention period(MLT 2010, MLT 2001), many of them have been disposed. In such a case, it is necessary to regenerate the detail drawings of current status. However, the field surveying will be necessary involving road closure, which will result in huge costs. To avoid this, many researches were done to obtain the data of current status without disturbing the traffic flow by using Mobile Mapping System (MMS). These researches, however, were made on automatic generation of 3D models from point cloud data, which were only tailored for visual data processing of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, without considering the original alignment information of the elevated highway bridge. Therefore, it is too hard to rely on as the drawing of current status to use for maintenance. Thus in this research, we aim to regenerate two-dimensional (2D) CAD drawings in SXF format(CAD Data Exchange Standards Subcommittee 2005) of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, and propose a method for extracting alignment information of the elevated highway bridge from the 3D data, in order to solve the problem of current status. 320-1 2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW This research aims to regenerate the CAD drawings of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge by performing a proposed method to extract alignment vector information of the superstructure from point cloud data of MMS measuring the elevated highway bridge. System flow is shown in Figure1. Point-Cloud Analysis FunctionFeature Point of Cross-Section Point RangePoint Range of Road Center LineCross-Section Point RangePoint Cloud DataINPUTStructural Point in Each Span of SuperstructurePoint Range of Cross-Section at Regular SpacingCAD Drawing(SXF Format)OUTPUT3D DataAlignment Information of Longitudinal -SectionAlignment Information of Cross-SectionAlignment Information of PlanAlignment InformationAlignment Information Owns RelativenessGeneration  of 3D Data3D-Data Generation FunctionFunction of Segmenting Elevated Highway BridgeStructural point of 3D dataLine-Type Determination FunctionLine-Type Correction FunctionFunction of Generation of CAD DrawingsAnalysis of Alignment InformationSYSTEM FLOW Figure 1: System flow This system consists of two parts of functions: Generation of 3D data and analysis of alignment information. Firstly, in the generation of 3D data, we analyzed the point cloud data obtained through MMS to get the point range of plan, cross-section and longitudinal-section of elevated highway bridges, which generated the 3D data. Secondly, we extracted the joint of elevated highway bridge to segment superstructure and generate the 3D data which can keep the information in each span of them. Then in the analysis of alignment information, we used the 3D data obtained through the generation part of 3D data to calculate the alignment information through analyzing the point range of plan, cross-section and longitudinal-section, thereby obtaining the required alignment information. On this basis, we considered the association of geometric information of the front and back of the superstructure to correct the alignment information, thereby improving the precision of geometric information. Finally, we calculated the formula parameters of the alignment information in each span of superstructure, with CAD drawings generated. 2.1 Point-Cloud Analysis Function The high-precision laser scanner carried in MMS can ensure the accuracy of data amount. However, the collected data amount through the laser scanner is too large, making it difficult to analyze via common software. Thus, in this function, we analyzed the feature of point cloud data as shown in Figure 2, to recognize the features of elevated highway bridges, thereby extracting only the useful data for generation of 3D data.  Figure 2: Point-cloud analysis function 2.2 3D-Data Generation Function As such, we extracted the useful point cloud data through the point-cloud analysis function, and automatically generated 3D data which can be processed by common software. We also extracted the center line to use for maintenance based on 3D current status drawings. In this function, we used the point range and feature points of each cross-section obtained through the point-cloud analysis function as 320-2 input data, and output the point range representing the road alignment of the elevated highway bridge and the feature points of the cross-section point range at regular spacing, as shown in Figure 3.  Figure 3: 3D-data generation function 2.3 Function of Segmenting Elevated Highway Bridge In drafting the construction plan, a design proposal is supposed to be made for each span of the superstructure. In this regard, we segment the 3D data from span to span of the elevated highway bridge, in order to fulfil the design requirement of the construction plan. In this function, we extracted out the joint parts between the spans of superstructure by using colour information. Then we segmented the structural points of 3D data based on the joints, as shown in Figure 4.  Figure 4: Function of segmenting elevated highway bridge 2.4 Line-Type Determination Function To extract out the alignment information, it is essential to figure out the line type. In the alignment of road plan, we applied straight lines, arcs and clothoid curves. In addition, we used straight lines and quadratic curves in the vertical alignment. In this function, we chose the joints which were output through the 3D data generation part as the candidate locations of the start and end points of the alignments, and determined the line types of all alignments by performing the method of least squares as shown in Figure 5.  Figure 5: Line-type determination function 2.5 Line-Type Correction Function When the curvature radius of an arc or a clothoid curve is too long or there are too many abnormal feature points, the line type may be misjudged. In this function, we harnessed the feature of a clothoid curve to link a straight line with an arc for improving the extraction precision of alignment information by correcting the possibly misjudged line type, as shown in Figure 6. 320-3  Figure 6: Line-type correction function 2.6 Function of Generation of CAD Drawings In this function, we calculated the CAD alignment parameters based on the formula of various CAD alignments as shown in Figure 7, and generated CAD drawings. However, we used a cubic Bezier curve to represent a quadratic curve.  Figure 7: Function of generation of CAD drawings 3 CONCLUSION In this research, we tried to generate CAD drawings by using the features of 3D data obtained through MMS measurement of elevated highway bridges, as shown in Figure 8. In the future, we will verify the applicability of our method to practical business and aim to improve the precision of alignments so that municipalities in Japan can use CAD drawings generated by applying this method.  Figure 8: Output image References Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). 2010. Implementation policy on business efficiency improvement of clients in civil engineering works. Retrieved from http://www.mlit.go.jp/tec/sekisan/sekou/pdf/220929kouritsuka02.pdf (last accessed on 14 February 2015) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). 2001. Regional Development Bureau Document Management Rules. Retrieved from http://www.mlit.go.jp/page/kanbo01_hy_000166.html (last accessed on 14 February 2015) CAD Data Exchange Standards Subcommittee. 2005. Construction Information Standardization Committee. SXF Ver3.0 specifications. Retrieved from http://www.cals.jacic.or.jp/cad/developer/download/051202_SXFV300Shiyo.pdf (last accessed on 14 February 2015) 320-4  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   RESEARCH FOR GENERATING 2D-DRAWINGS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE IN HIGHWAY BRIDGE Wenyuan Jiang1,3 and Shigenori Tanaka2 1 Graduate School of Informatics, Kansai University, Japan 2 Faculty of Informatics, Kansai University, Japan 3 jwy0086@yahoo.co.jp Abstract: Maintenance of highway bridges built during the high economic growth period is performed based on their design drawings and as-built drawings. For these elevated highway bridges, however, drawings were produced on paper media at the times of design and completion; therefore, in many cases they have already been disposed, making it difficult to perform maintenance. In such a case, regenerating the detail design of the current status is required, but it takes huge cost. For this problem, a large number of researches have been made on automatic generation of three-dimensional models for maintenance of highway bridges from point cloud data obtained through MMS (Mobile Mapping System). However, it is hard to use the models generated in these researches because engineers do not consider the original geometric information of highways. Thus in this research, we aim to regenerate the CAD drawings of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, and propose a method for extracting alignment information of the elevated highway bridge from point cloud data of MMS. We verify the usability of our method and system by comparing the experimental data with surveyed drawings in our experiments. 1 INTRODUCTION In Japan, many elevated highway bridges built in the high economic growth period have been worn out. Particularly for elevated highway bridges, it is urgently required to propose effective and feasible maintenance plans to extend their lifetime. Further, to ensure the appropriateness of inspection, repair plans and construction methods, the construction drawings (e.g. design drawings and as-built drawings) need to be provided to correctly understand the current status. However, drawings of many elevated highway bridges constructed during the high economic growth period around the 1970s were produced on paper media. After the lapse of 30 years document retention period(MLT 2010, MLT 2001), many of them have been disposed. In such a case, it is necessary to regenerate the detail drawings of current status. However, the field surveying will be necessary involving road closure, which will result in huge costs. To avoid this, many researches were done to obtain the data of current status without disturbing the traffic flow by using Mobile Mapping System (MMS). These researches, however, were made on automatic generation of 3D models from point cloud data, which were only tailored for visual data processing of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, without considering the original alignment information of the elevated highway bridge. Therefore, it is too hard to rely on as the drawing of current status to use for maintenance. Thus in this research, we aim to regenerate two-dimensional (2D) CAD drawings in SXF format(CAD Data Exchange Standards Subcommittee 2005) of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge, and propose a method for extracting alignment information of the elevated highway bridge from the 3D data, in order to solve the problem of current status. 320-1 2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW This research aims to regenerate the CAD drawings of the superstructure of an elevated highway bridge by performing a proposed method to extract alignment vector information of the superstructure from point cloud data of MMS measuring the elevated highway bridge. System flow is shown in Figure1. Point-Cloud Analysis FunctionFeature Point of Cross-Section Point RangePoint Range of Road Center LineCross-Section Point RangePoint Cloud DataINPUTStructural Point in Each Span of SuperstructurePoint Range of Cross-Section at Regular SpacingCAD Drawing(SXF Format)OUTPUT3D DataAlignment Information of Longitudinal -SectionAlignment Information of Cross-SectionAlignment Information of PlanAlignment InformationAlignment Information Owns RelativenessGeneration  of 3D Data3D-Data Generation FunctionFunction of Segmenting Elevated Highway BridgeStructural point of 3D dataLine-Type Determination FunctionLine-Type Correction FunctionFunction of Generation of CAD DrawingsAnalysis of Alignment InformationSYSTEM FLOW Figure 1: System flow This system consists of two parts of functions: Generation of 3D data and analysis of alignment information. Firstly, in the generation of 3D data, we analyzed the point cloud data obtained through MMS to get the point range of plan, cross-section and longitudinal-section of elevated highway bridges, which generated the 3D data. Secondly, we extracted the joint of elevated highway bridge to segment superstructure and generate the 3D data which can keep the information in each span of them. Then in the analysis of alignment information, we used the 3D data obtained through the generation part of 3D data to calculate the alignment information through analyzing the point range of plan, cross-section and longitudinal-section, thereby obtaining the required alignment information. On this basis, we considered the association of geometric information of the front and back of the superstructure to correct the alignment information, thereby improving the precision of geometric information. Finally, we calculated the formula parameters of the alignment information in each span of superstructure, with CAD drawings generated. 2.1 Point-Cloud Analysis Function The high-precision laser scanner carried in MMS can ensure the accuracy of data amount. However, the collected data amount through the laser scanner is too large, making it difficult to analyze via common software. Thus, in this function, we analyzed the feature of point cloud data as shown in Figure 2, to recognize the features of elevated highway bridges, thereby extracting only the useful data for generation of 3D data.  Figure 2: Point-cloud analysis function 2.2 3D-Data Generation Function As such, we extracted the useful point cloud data through the point-cloud analysis function, and automatically generated 3D data which can be processed by common software. We also extracted the center line to use for maintenance based on 3D current status drawings. In this function, we used the point range and feature points of each cross-section obtained through the point-cloud analysis function as 320-2 input data, and output the point range representing the road alignment of the elevated highway bridge and the feature points of the cross-section point range at regular spacing, as shown in Figure 3.  Figure 3: 3D-data generation function 2.3 Function of Segmenting Elevated Highway Bridge In drafting the construction plan, a design proposal is supposed to be made for each span of the superstructure. In this regard, we segment the 3D data from span to span of the elevated highway bridge, in order to fulfil the design requirement of the construction plan. In this function, we extracted out the joint parts between the spans of superstructure by using colour information. Then we segmented the structural points of 3D data based on the joints, as shown in Figure 4.  Figure 4: Function of segmenting elevated highway bridge 2.4 Line-Type Determination Function To extract out the alignment information, it is essential to figure out the line type. In the alignment of road plan, we applied straight lines, arcs and clothoid curves. In addition, we used straight lines and quadratic curves in the vertical alignment. In this function, we chose the joints which were output through the 3D data generation part as the candidate locations of the start and end points of the alignments, and determined the line types of all alignments by performing the method of least squares as shown in Figure 5.  Figure 5: Line-type determination function 2.5 Line-Type Correction Function When the curvature radius of an arc or a clothoid curve is too long or there are too many abnormal feature points, the line type may be misjudged. In this function, we harnessed the feature of a clothoid curve to link a straight line with an arc for improving the extraction precision of alignment information by correcting the possibly misjudged line type, as shown in Figure 6. 320-3  Figure 6: Line-type correction function 2.6 Function of Generation of CAD Drawings In this function, we calculated the CAD alignment parameters based on the formula of various CAD alignments as shown in Figure 7, and generated CAD drawings. However, we used a cubic Bezier curve to represent a quadratic curve.  Figure 7: Function of generation of CAD drawings 3 CONCLUSION In this research, we tried to generate CAD drawings by using the features of 3D data obtained through MMS measurement of elevated highway bridges, as shown in Figure 8. In the future, we will verify the applicability of our method to practical business and aim to improve the precision of alignments so that municipalities in Japan can use CAD drawings generated by applying this method.  Figure 8: Output image References Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). 2010. Implementation policy on business efficiency improvement of clients in civil engineering works. Retrieved from http://www.mlit.go.jp/tec/sekisan/sekou/pdf/220929kouritsuka02.pdf (last accessed on 14 February 2015) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). 2001. Regional Development Bureau Document Management Rules. Retrieved from http://www.mlit.go.jp/page/kanbo01_hy_000166.html (last accessed on 14 February 2015) CAD Data Exchange Standards Subcommittee. 2005. Construction Information Standardization Committee. SXF Ver3.0 specifications. Retrieved from http://www.cals.jacic.or.jp/cad/developer/download/051202_SXFV300Shiyo.pdf (last accessed on 14 February 2015) 320-4  RESEARCH FOR GENERATING 2D-DRAWINGS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE IN HIGHWAY BRIDGE	Graduate School of Informatics, Kansai University  ◎Wenyuan Jiang	Faculty of Informatics, Kansai University            Shigenori Tanaka		Background(1/3)	o  Status of highway bridges in Japan	(【Source】 MLIT.: The current status of bridges in Japan)	High economic growth period	(Year)	(Number)	Number of bridges built over 50 years	Background(2/3)	o  Concerning those highway bridges	n  Various damage	n  Effective and feasible maintenance plans	Corrosion of concrete	(【Source】 Metropolitan Expressway Company Limited :Shuto Expressway)	Gap of bridge joint	(【Source】East Nippon Expressway Company Limited :Sendai Expressway )	Background(3/3)	o  To ensure maintenance plans	n  Current status drawings	Maintenance works of Hanshin Expressway	(【Source】Hanshin Expressway Company Limited:Construction of fresh-up on Ikeda route)	Problems(1/2)	o  Document retention period of construction drawings	n  30 years (About new guidelines of delivery by MLIT.) 	o  Media of drawings of highway bridges	n  Paper media before 1970’s	n  Electronic delivery began in 2001	o  Status of drawings 	n  Disposed	Image of 	disposing drawings	The demands of maintenance plan:	Regeneration detail drawings	Problems(2/2)	o  Concerning regenerating detail drawings	n  Range of maintenance : Over several thousand meter	n  Status of highway bridge : Many vehicles are running on it	o  Result of field surveying : Road closure	Image of road closure	Problem: Huge Costs	1 2 3123Previous Research	o  To reduce the cost of field surveying	n  Mobile Mapping System (MMS)	n  Generate drawings in a low cost	o  Issues of these research	n  Only visual data processing	Problem for maintenance: 	No alignment information	Border lines	Feature points	TIN surfaces	Research Object	o  Regenerate CAD drawings	n  Extract alignment vector information	n  Use point cloud data of MMS	Actual Structure	3D-Data	2D-Drawing	(SXF format)	Lines with 	alignment information	MMS	Auto-regeneration of 2D-Drawings	Final Object : 	Maintain highway bridges	System Flow(1/7)	Point-­‐Cloud	  Analysis	  FunctionFeature	  Point	  of	  Cross-­‐Section	  Point	  RangePoint	  Range	  of	  Road	  Center	  LineCross-­‐Section	  Point	  RangePoint	  Cloud	  DataINPUTStructural	  Point	  in	  Each	  Span	  of	  SuperstructurePoint	  Range	  of	  Cross-­‐Section	  at	  Regular	  SpacingCAD	  Drawing(SXF	  Format)OUTPUT3D	  DataAlignment	  Information	  of	  Longitudinal	  -­‐SectionAlignment	  Information	  of	  Cross-­‐SectionAlignment	  Information	  of	  PlanAlignment	  InformationAlignment	  Information	  Owns	  RelativenessGeneration	  	  of	  3D	  Data3D-­‐Data	  Generation	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Segmenting	   Elevated	  Highway	  BridgeStructural	  point	  of	  3D	  dataLine-­‐Type	  Determination	  FunctionLine-­‐Type	  Correction	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Generation	  of	  CAD	  DrawingsAnalysis	  of	  Alignment	  InformationSYSTEM	  FLOWSystem Flow(2/7)	o  Point-Cloud Analysis Function	Point cloud data(Plan)	Noise Reduction	Feature Points Extraction	Point-­‐Cloud	  Analysis	  FunctionGeneration	  	  of	  3D	  Data3D-­‐Data	  Generation	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Segmenting	   Elevated	  Highway	  BridgeHighway	  Bridge OUTPUTCross-­‐point	  of	  road	  Surface	  and	  Wall	  SurfaceWall	  Surface Road	  SurfacePoint	  Range	  of	  Cross-­‐SectionINPUTHighest	  Point	  of	  WallFeature	  Points	  of	  Cross-­‐SectionNoiseNoiseSystem Flow(3/7)	o  3D-Data Generation Function	Point-­‐Cloud	  Analysis	  FunctionGeneration	  	  of	  3D	  Data3D-­‐Data	  Generation	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Segmenting	   Elevated	  Highway	  BridgeChanging	  Point	  in	  Values	  of	  HeightCenter	  PointCenter	  LinePoint	  Cloud	  Data(Plan)Center	  LinePoint	  Range	  of	  cross-­‐section	  at	  a	  regular	  SpacingPoint	  Cloud	  Data(3D	  View)System Flow(4/7)	o  Function of Segmenting Elevated Highway Bridge	Finger Joint Extraction	Segmentation	Finger joint	Curve graph of average value of RGB	Average value of RGB	Point cloud data	Deep color	Light color	Finger joint	Point-­‐Cloud	  Analysis	  FunctionGeneration	  	  of	  3D	  Data3D-­‐Data	  Generation	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Segmenting	   Elevated	  Highway	  BridgePoint	  range	  of	  Cross-­‐SectionINPUTSegmentOUTPUTJointCenter	  LineFeature	  Point	  RangeSystem Flow(5/7)	o  Line-Type Determination Function	Radius of approximate circle is extremely long	Radius of approximate arc of two parts of curve are different	Not straight line	Not straight line and clothoid curve	Part1	 Part2	Line-­‐Type	  Determination	  FunctionLine-­‐Type	  Correction	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Generation	  of	  CAD	  DrawingsAnalysis	  of	  Alignment	  InformationStraight	  Line ARCClothoid Curve Quadratic	  CurveSystem Flow(6/7)	o  Line-Type Correction Function	Line-­‐Type	  Determination	  FunctionLine-­‐Type	  Correction	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Generation	  of	  CAD	  DrawingsAnalysis	  of	  Alignment	  InformationStraight	  Line	  ―ARC―ARC(Determination	  Result)Straight	  Line	  ―	  Clothoid Curve	  ―ARC(Modification	  Result)Line-­‐Type	  Correction	  FunctionWRONGStraight	  Line	  Linked	  with	  Clothoid CurveClothoid CurveLinked	  with	  ArcClothoid Curve	  Linked	  with	  Clothoid CurveClothoid Curve	  Linked	  with	  Straight	  LineArc	  Linked	  with	  Clothoid CurveStraight	  Line	  Linked	  with	  Straight	  LineArc	  Linked	  with	  ArcClothoid Curve	  Linked	  with	  Clothoid CurveClothoid CurveStraight	  Line ARC8	  Linking	  PatternsFeature	  of	  	  Clothoid CurveRIGHT	   	  	  Road	  AlignmentSystem Flow(7/7)	o  Function of Generation of CAD Drawings	Formulating	  of	  Straight	  LineFormulating	  of	  Arc Formulating	  of	  Clothoid CurveStarting	  PointEnding	  PointFormulating	  of	  Bezier	  CurveControl	  PointRotationDirectionStarting	  AngleEnding	  AngleCenter	  PointBase	  PointRotation	  AngleLengthRotationDirectionRadius	  of	  ArcControl	  PointControl	  Point Control	  PointLine-­‐Type	  Determination	  FunctionLine-­‐Type	  Correction	  FunctionFunction	  of	  Generation	  of	  CAD	  DrawingsAnalysis	  of	  Alignment	  InformationFor plan and long-wise	For plan	 For plan	 For long-wise	Experiment and Result(1/3)	Part of Route 1 Loop Route	(Osaka)	About 1.7km	Experiment and Result(2/3)	3D	  ModelLongitudinal-­‐SectionCross-­‐SectionPlanNumber of evaluation points	 168Points 	Error range less than 10cm	 113Points	Degree of approximation	 67.26%	3D Data	2D CAD Drawing	Experiment Result	Experiment and Result(3/3)	Area both output drawing and actual surveying drawing exist	Area actual surveying drawing exists	Area output 	drawing exists	[パーセンテージ]	[パーセンテージ]	[パーセンテージ]	Recent Result	Accuracy: Over 90%	Conclusions	o  Generate 2D CAD-Drawing by a method of extracting alignment information	o  In the future	n  Improve the precision of alignments	n  Verify the applicability to practical business	o  Final purpose	n  Municipalities in Japan can use output drawings of our system to maintain their highway bridges	Thank you for your attention	Evaluation Points and Error Range	Error Range	Point Cloud Data	Recent Result	

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