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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Modification of the picture titles test Howard, Gail


The main purpose of this study was to modify Dombrose and Slobin's Picture Titles Test so that it could be scored objectively. The test was used for measuring impulse, ego, and superego sex differences and for comparing age group differences of both sexes, on their impulse, ego, and superego responses. The possibility of bias in the subjects’ responses was also investigated. The modification of the Picture Titles Test involved the construction of a multiple-choice answer sheet which required the subjects simply to check off their responses. The test was then administered as a group test to a second year psychology class at the University of British Columbia, of which ninety females and one hundred and thirty-seven males, ranging in age from eighteen to twenty-two, remained for the statistical analysis. Twelve hypotheses were set up concerning sex differences and age group differences, and both the Chi-square and t test were used for testing the hypotheses. The hypotheses had to be supported at the .05 level of confidence in order to be confirmed. The results indicated that the objectively scored Picture Titles Test is a useful instrument for differentiating males and females and between age groups as there were four significant differences found, out of a possible nine, for the male and female comparisons and three, out of a possible six, for the age group comparisons. Only one of the significant differences for the age group comparisons was in the predicted direction, however, so the age difference hypotheses were not considered to be verified. There were three significant differences in the predicted direction for the male and female comparisons, but the results were so inconsistent for the different age groups of males and females compared that the hypotheses concerning the expected sex differences were also not considered to be confirmed. In addition, it was found that subjects within each age and sex group responded to the majority of pictures in the same way, and, consequently, it was concluded that there is bias probably both in the content of the pictures and the blocks of titles. In general, it was felt that the objectively scored Picture Titles Test is an improvement over the original subjectively scored version and that the modified Picture Titles Test has good potential as an instrument for measuring impulse, ego and superego sex and age differences.

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