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Photoperiod and temperature effects on the growth and development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Azmi, Abdul Razzaque


The objective of this study was to determine how the rice plant responds to combinations of temperature and photoperiod. Both temperature and photoperiod are important for normal completion of the life cycle, but there has been little study of their combined effects in rice. Controlled temperature and photoperiod experiments were conducted in growth cabinets using 4 temperatures; 35/18, 35/26.5, 35/35 and 40.5/18°C day/night. There were 4 photoperiods of 8, 10, 12 and 14 hours. Light was provided by cool white fluorescent tubes. The day temperature periods corresponded to the photoperiods. Four varieties were selected: Kangni-27 and Dokribasmati from Dokri, Pakistan; Caloro from California, U.S.A.; and Bluebonnet-50 from Texas, U.S.A. Growth characteristics, net photosynthesis rates, and flowering were measured and chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, carbohydrate and ash concentrations were determined. The effect of photoperiod on flowering was most pronounced at 35/26.5. The delays in flowering at 14 hours for this temperature were 30, 30, 21 and 63 days in Kangni, Caloro, Dokri and Bluebonnet compared to the optimum, photoperiod which varied among varieties. The delays observed at 35/18 were 23, 14, 6 and 2 days. At 35/26.5 all varieties showed a significant photoperiodic effect on flowering, but at 35/18, Dokri and Bluebonnet did not show a significant photoperiodic effect. 35/35 was most unsatisfactory for flowering. A similar but less serious effect was found at 40.5/18. Final dry matter production was high at 35/35 and 40.5/18; an increase of 3 to 8 g per pot was noted at these temperatures compared with 35/26.5 and 35/18. There was an increase of about 5 g per pot at maturity for each increase of 2 hours in photoperiod. Panicle characteristics were generally unaffected by temperature, but there were some photoperiod effects. At the 12-hour photoperiod panicles of all varieties were 2 to 4 cm longer than at other photoperiods and at 10-and 12-hour photoperiods there were 10 to 32 more spikelets per panicle than at 8 and 14 hours. Sterility was very high at 35/35 (95%) and 40.5/18 (69%). Average sterility at 35/18 and 35/26.5 was about 36%. There was 8 to 24% less sterility at 10- and 12-hour photoperiod compared with 8 or 14 hours. Hundred-grain weight was unaffected by photoperiod or temperature. High numbers of tillers were consistently observed at 40.5/18 and 35/18 and low numbers at 35/35. The differences varied with the stage of growth. Plants at 14-hour photoperiod had consistently more tillers than those at other photoperiods. Kangni and Dokri had higher numbers of tillers than Caloro and Bluebonnet. Leaf development was fastest at 40.5/18 and the 12-hour photoperiod. This was especially so at 6 and 8 weeks. Kangni and Dokri had faster development than Caloro and Bluebonnet. Plant height was 2 to 5 cm greater at 2 weeks at 35/26.5 and 35/35 but at 4, 6 and 8 weeks, plant height was greater at 35/18. The shortest plants were observed at 40.5/18. The rate of net photosynthesis on a leaf blade weight basis was highest at 2 weeks in all varieties at all photoperiods and temperatures. The rate generally declined with the aging of plants. The greatest decline at 8 weeks, compared to 2 weeks, was 71% in Dokri and least was 65% in Bluebonnet. Except at 2 weeks, the highest rate of photosynthesis was at 40.5/18 but at 6 and 8 weeks there were also high rates at 35/35. The rate was consistently higher in plants growing in the 8-hour photoperiod. The rate was higher in the 8-hour photoperiod compared to the 14-hour by 28 and 25% at 6 and 8 weeks respectively. Both Caloro and Bluebonnet had higher net photosynthetic rates than Kangni and Dokri. In all varieties chlorophyll and carotenoid content declined with age. Both chlorophyll and carotenoid were high at 40.5/18 at all stages. Chlorophyll concentration was also high at 35/18 at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. A definite correlation between chlorophyll content and photosynthesis was not shown, but there was a significant correlation between chlorophyll and fresh weight at all temperatures and photoperiods except at 2 weeks. Total water soluble carbohydrate and total ash content did not show definite trends according to stages of growth. No relationship could be shown between floral initiation and combined carbohydrate and ash content.

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