UBC Theses and Dissertations
Altered drug responses in diabetic and hypertensive-diabetic cardiomyopathy Yu, Zhen
Diabetes mellitus has been associated with both clinical and experimental cardiac dysfunction. Diabetic cardiomyopathy which is characterized by depressed cardiac contractility is accompanied by a variety of biochemical changes in Ca⁺⁺ metabolism. This cardiomyopathy may occur in the presence of normal coronary arteries and normal blood pressure. However, some studies have shown that hypertension is more prevalent among diabetics and can aggravate the cardiovascular abnormalities associated with diabetes. To understand the mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy and consequences of combined hypertension and diabetes, experiments were designed to measure cardiac tissue responses to various inotropic agents in experimental diabetes. Six weeks following streptozotocin (STZ) administration, Wistar, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibited the 'classical signs' of diabetes which included: hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia (except in WKY), and hypothyroidism. Decreased basal atrial rate and increased basal developed force (BDF) suggest a depressed SA node function and an alteration of Ca⁺⁺ utilization by diabetic ventricles. Decreased post quiescent potentiation (PQP) values (except in WKY) in ventricular tissues suggest a diminished amount of releasable Ca⁺⁺ from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Decreased post stimulation potentiation (PSP) values in SHR papillary muscles (PM) are probably suggestive of a depressed sarcolemmal Na⁺-Ca⁺⁺ exchange function in this tissue. Diabetic rats show subsensitivity to β-adrenergic stimulation in ventricular tissues, supersensitivity and hyperresponsiveness to Ca⁺⁺ and α-adrenergic stimulation (except in WKY) in ventricular tissues and left atria (LA) and supersensitivity to BAY K 8644 in SHR LA and hyperresponsiveness to verapamil in ventricular strips. These alterations may be attributed to a change in receptor number and/or a post receptor alteration. Ryanodine decreased the PQP of Wistar and SHR PM and SHR LA in both controls and diabetics. It especially abolished PQP in SHR diabetic tissues, but had no effect on WKY tissues, which may suggest a difference in the SR function in these tissues. SR with impaired Ca⁺⁺ uptake may contribute to these phenomena in diabetic rats. Ryanodine also diminished (PQP + BDF) of SHR LA and (PQP/BDF) of Wistar and SHR PM, ˙but had no effects on control and other diabetic tissues. It appears that ryanodine has some influence on the Na⁺-Ca⁺⁺ exchange generated by sarcolemma (SL) of certain diabetic tissues. Further experiments are required to clarify this. SHR diabetic rats had greater changes in most of the measurements such as hyperlipidemia, depressed PQP and PSP values, and altered drug responses. This model exhibited very high mortality as compared to Wistar and WKY diabetic rats. As has been shown previously, the combination of hypertension and diabetes exerts a synergistic effect on the cardiac dysfunction in this model, and that altered lipid metabolism, SL and SR function are all involved in the development of cardiomyopathy. WKY diabetic rats, on the other hand, exhibited no significant changes in blood lipids, or in response to phenylephrine or to Ca⁺⁺ (LA) stimulation. Lack of change in these factors may explain the relatively normal cardiac function of this model as measured previously.
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