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Heating techniques in domestic food processing : a text for adult education Koerner, Anna Rosborough

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to prepare curriculum materials for an avocational program in adult education on the heating and cooking techniques of domestic food processing. The material was developed as a teaching device (text) to be used in an adult education program or as a self-study program for adults who had never cooked. The text departed from the conventional development of food text materials. It is customary to proceed from the food to the method of preparation. This text began with the method and applied it, wherever possible, to each of six natural foods. These foods were meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruit and eggs. It was felt that this presentation would provide the adult learner with the means of achieving his immediate practical objectives more readily than the conventional presentation. In addition to developing curriculum material for an avocational program on the heating and cooking techniques of domestic food processing the study served to examine the cooking repetoire of Canada and the United States. By means of deduction it became apparent that certain valuable areas of cookery have been neglected in Canadian and American cuisine. This was particularly evident in vegetable cookery. A method of preparing chicken by poaching was also found to have been largely overlooked in Canadian and American cook books. The text was developed from a conceptual classification designed especially for this study. The classification depicts the whole field of food processing starting with food in its natural state and following it through the various processes to the stage at which it is ready for consumption. It begins by showing the six food processing techniques of preparation and preservation. These are; (l) Sub-division and fractionization, (2) combining and mixing, (3) heating and cooking, (4) removal of heat and freezing, (5) use of chemical agents, (6) use of microorganisms. The heating and cooking technique is further classified according to media of heat transfer. These are; (l) water, (2) steam, (3) air, (4) fat, (5) combinations of these media. The media classification is sub-divided into methods of cooking. When water is the medium of heat transfer the cooking methods are boiling, simmering, poaching and stewing; when steam is the medium the methods are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking, when air is the medium the methods are broiling and roasting or baking, when fat is the medium the methods are pan-frying, deep-fat frying, sauteing and pan-broiling; when a combination of media are used the methods are braising and pot-roasting. The methods may also be classified as moist heat methods, dry heat methods and combination methods. The text was divided into five units as chapters, each chapter dealing with one medium of heat transfer. Each chapter gave definitions of each cooking method as well as description of its use with six natural foods. The foods chosen for this study were meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruit and eggs. If the method could be applied to these foods it was described in detail and a basic formula was developed. These basic formulae are step of procedure which is used by experienced cooks to achieve predictable results. At the end of each chapter an appraisal of the method was made. Learning experiences were also suggested which would enable the adult learner to assess his own progress and achievement. Solutions to problems were given. Every effort was made to familiarize the adult learner with the basic principles of food preparation. It was felt that the intelligent performer of a skill is one who understands "why" as well as "how" a procedure is followed. It was also felt that if the adult learner was given an understanding of basic methods, basic formulae and essential skills he would be equipped to use recipes intelligently. This study was conceived as one unit in a broader curriculum which would embrace all six techniques of domestic food processing,

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