UBC Theses and Dissertations
The distribution and abundance of the root weevil : Hylobius warreni Wood in relation to Lodgepole pine stand conditions in Alberta Cerezke, Herbert Frederick
The distribution, population ecology, behavior and host interactions of the root weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood were investigated in lodgepole pine forests in Alberta. Highest incidence of the weevil occurs in the Lower Foothills Section of the Boreal Forest Region, between 2,500 and 4,000 feet in elevation. In even-aged forests weevil numbers are distributed according to stand maturity, stand density, tree size and duff depth. Interactions between these variables modify the patterns of abundance in different stands. Attack incidence upon the host varies, being highest in the collar zone and least on lateral roots. As tree size increases the ratio of weevils on roots/weevils on collar tends to increase. During normal stand development initial invasion of weevils occurs at age 6-10 years, and persists with successive attacks throughout the life of the stand. Weevil populations are highly aggregated in mature stands; "k" values of the negative binomial varied from 0.09 to 0.68, while Taylor's power law gave an aggregation index "b" value of 1.92. Estimates of weevil populations indicated that low levels are characteristic of this species and are maintained, mostly within the range 200-1200 weevils per acre. Estimates of absolute numbers indicate similar levels of abundance occur in young and old stands alike, while population intensity values increase with stand maturity. The highest rate of increase of attack density per tree appears to occur during the ages of 30-45 years. The structure of weevil populations was described and mortality factors were identified and measured for larval, pupal and teneral stages. The main mortality factor of these stages appeared to be from excess moisture in the larval gallery and pupal cell. Only the first 3 larval instars are definable by head capsule width measurement. The feeding behavior of larvae varies with its maturity. In the early instars the feeding pattern relates to bark thickness, but damage is insignificant. Damage of late instars may consist of decorticated gallery lengths up to 24 cm. Larval and pupal habitats are described to indicate the special adaptations for survival. Adults live at least 3 years but lay their eggs during the second and third summers of adulthood. Their seasonal peak of activity occurs in June and early July. Dispersion in the forest tends to be random, commencing about 2 hours after sunset and when temperatures exceed 36-40 °F. Host trees are located partly by vision, the pattern of selection being related to host size. Maximum fecundity per female per season may be 36 or more eggs, but in the field the actual number may not exceed 12.0. Most eggs are deposited singly in niches excavated by the female in the root-collar bark, and are subsequently covered over with excreta. The egg requires a moist environment maintained for up to 42 days for successful hatch. During stand development up to 100 percent of trees may sustain larval feeding damage accumulated to various degrees of intensity. Young trees up to 30 years of age show less resistance to girdling damage than older trees, and reasons are given for this. Estimates of mean height losses of 20-25-year old tree stems sustaining 50 percent girdling were 11.5 and 10.9 percent over 2- and 3-year periods respectively. The total impact of the weevil in the stand as a whole appears to hasten successional changes during stand development. A method of regulation of weevil abundance is postulated and takes into account the behavior of the female during oviposition, host selection, larval feeding habits, cumulative damage and host interactions. Overall numerical restraint and stability of numbers are considered to be effected largely through the inherent behavior of adults. Several weevil control measures are suggested through forest management. Clearcutting of mature timber in alternate strips reduced a weevil population by an estimated 67 percent, but some larvae developed to adults in the cut stumps one and two years after tree removal. The effect of cutting resulted in a concentration of weevils on adjacent trees along stand peripheries, 3-5 years after cutting.
Item Citations and Data