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Studies on the host ranges of some facultative parasites Sivak, Bela

Abstract

Inoculation experiments were carried out to determine the relation between bark moisture level of certain host species and their susceptibility to facultative parasites. In these experiments, cuttings of 1-to 3-year old host material and the mycelial mat of the pathogens contained in an agar cylinder were used. In the first instance, fungi that were known or found in association with bark lesions were considered: these were Cryptodiaporthe salicella (Fr.) Petrak on Salix scouleriana Barratt (Scouler willow), Dactylosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. on Acer macrophyllum Pursh. (broadleaf maple, Libertella sp. on Cornus stolonifera (Michx.) var. occidentalis (T. and G.) C. L. Hitchc. (western dogwood), Melanconis sp. on Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder). The results demonstrated that fungi normally associated with lesions of living host material proved to be pathogenic when the relative turgidity of the host bark was lowered from the field level of above 80 per cent to the range of 69 to 77 per cent. Secondly, an attempt was made to determine if correlation existed between bark moisture level and canker development by fungi not known, and not found to occur in association with lesions of some hosts. The following fungi and hosts were considered: C. salicella on red alder (Alnus rubra Bong), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata Dougl.), black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torrey and Gray), western dogwood (Cornus stolonifera var. occidentalis), and on broadleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh.); Fusarium sp. on red alder, bitter cherry, western dogwood, and on Scouler willow; Libertella sp. on red alder, bitter cherry, broadleaf maple, and on Scouler willow; Melanconis sp. on bitter cherry, western dogwood, broadleaf maple and on Scouler willow. It was shown that all of these parasites extended their host ranges, to varying extent when the bark moisture level was reduced to levels within the range of 69 to 77 per cent, or in some instances to the range of 41 to 67 per cent of saturation. Cuttings with as low bark moisture levels as 41 per cent appeared to be viable as indicated by the production of roots and (or) shoots.

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