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Freeze-drying rates of apple and potato tissue Davies, Peter Hugh

Abstract

The influence of freezing rate, rate of heat input and drying chamber pressure on freeze-drying rate was studied to determine the thermal and physical properties of MacIntosh apple and Netted Gem potato tissue. The samples were frozen either by immersion in dry ice and ethanol (fast frozen) or by placement in a refrigerated cabinet maintained at a temperature between -10° and +5° F (slow frozen). The samples were suspended in a chamber maintained at a pressure of 550 or 1400 microns of mercury and surrounded by a constant temperature water bath which provided a radiant heat source of 86° or 104°F. The weight, and the surface and centre temperature of the sample were recorded continuously during freeze-drying. Vapor diffusion was the rate limiting factor for fast frozen samples while heat transfer was rate limiting for slow frozen samples. Chamber pressure had little influence on the freeze-drying rate of slow frozen samples. Potato tissue thermal conductivity varied from 0.66x10⁻² BTU/Hr.°F Ft. at a pressure of 550 microns to 0.78x10⁻² at 1400 microns. The thermal conductivity of apple tissue was 1.0 x 10⁻² BTU/Hr.°F Ft. at both pressures. The eutectic temperature of apple and potato tissue was found to be -10°F and -1°0F. respectively.

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