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The integration of metropolitan transportation planning with a comprehensive development policy : a coordinated approach Brown, Gerald Richardson

Abstract

Metropolitan transportation is the movement of persons and goods within the metropolitan region. The transportation movement results from a demand for interaction amongst specialized activities carried out of the land, and therefore transportation is a function of land utilization. However, the supply of transportation facilities in turn enables a further specialization of urban functions and helps to determine the future use of land. There is therefore a two directional relationship between transportation systems and land use, which must be considered in the metropolitan transportation planning process. Moreover, there is change in the relationship to land use with a change in the transportation mode. For an effective utilization of metropolitan space, and to allow the land to be exploited to its maximum extent, all systems of transportation must be integrated. Therefore, the transportation planning process must effectively integrate all systems. The integration of land use and transportation networks, and the integration and optimization of transportation systems can only be accomplished efficiently if the proposals can be implemented within a comprehensive development policy. Because the transportation network transcends any fragmented political jurisdictions within the metropolitan area, transportation policy must stem from the coordination of all relevant technical agencies and political jurisdictions within the metropolitan area. An examination of the metropolitan transportation process by an analysis of so-called major transportation studies in nine selected metropolitan regions in the United States and Canada shows a historical trend toward an integration of transportation systems and land use by means of a coordinated approach. The first studies considered only the one directional effect of land use on transportation movement, while the later, more sophisticated studies approach a systems analysis of the inter-relationship of transportation and land use, and incorporate provisions for evaluation of the systems by means of alternative land use, transportation plans. A plan of public transportation has been an inherent part of the later studies, but no attempt has been made of inter-systems analyses of all modes. The hypothesis of the thesis is that "transportation systems have an influence on land use and therefore metropolitan transportation planning should constitute an integral component of a comprehensive metropolitan development policy". An examination of the legal and financial framework and the formal organizational structure of the selected major transportation studies shows that the historical trend supports this hypothesis. The United States government has changed from a "highways-only" policy of federal-aid to a policy of aid for transportation planning conditional upon a comprehensive transportation planning process, and provides funds for land use planning and public transportation planning integrated with a comprehensive plan. The Government of Canada has had only a minor influence on metropolitan transportation planning, but at least two provinces show a willingness to support metropolitan transportation planning on an integrated basis. A major transportation study is administered by an investigative agency consisting of a Policy Committee and a Technical Committee. Changes in the administrative structure over time has reflected the legislative comprehensiveness, the need to incorporate the transportation planning process into the governmental process, and the necessity to become continuous. It is concluded that metropolitan transportation planning must be conducted by a special purpose coordinating agency which is politically representative, comprehensive, and continuous. The major administrative alternative, federated metropolitan government, is not feasible because the areal scope of metropolitan transportation planning exceeds the limit which could logically be governed by a single municipal government. A small Executive Committee consisting of Cabinet Ministers and municipal representation, with a Metropolitan Transportation Policy Committee and a Technical Director is suggested to coordinate the fragmented agencies and political jurisdictions in the metropolitan region. Comprehensiveness is obtained by the integration of the regional planning process into the transportation planning hierarchy.

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