UBC Theses and Dissertations
Study of some techniques for evaluating protein quality Goudie , Carol
The present study consisted of three sections each of which was undertaken to obtain information on some aspect of protein quality evaluation by biological testing. The first study consisted of two experiments in which the free amino acids were determined in the plasma of birds fed cereal diets to determine if this method would indicate the amino acid adequacy of the diets. The second study was an investigation of the use of chicken muscle meal as a reference supplementary protein. The third study consisted of an investigation of the fractionation of intestinal nitrogen as a method for studying protein quality. In the first series of experiments in which plasma free amino acids were determined to investigate protein quality two groups of White Leghorn chicks each were fed a control diet consisting of a high protein wheat diet supplemented with 0.24% lysine and 0.06% methionine and the control diet further supplemented with 0.1% L-arginine and glycine and 0.045% L-leucine and L-threonine. Blood samples were collected from birds on each diet after a 14 hour fast and after 3 hours and 6 hours of ad libitum feeding following the fast. The PFAA patterns obtained at both 3 and 6 hours after commencement of feeding from chicks which had been fed these two diets for three weeks indicated a lysine deficiency. The 6 hour plasma pattern from chicks fed the supplemented diet showed a greater percentage of threonine and less of the other EAA except arginine in comparison with the pattern seen in the plasma from birds fed the control diet. Lysine was shown to be the first limiting amino acid in diets containing 10.7% crude protein (N x 6.25) from wheat and 4% crude protein from rapeseed or soy bean meal by growth test and PFAA patterns. After 3 hours of ad libitum feeding different levels of circulating lysine were observed in the plasma from birds fed the rapeseed diets supplemented with 0.15% lysine. The levels of circulating lysine were not significantly different due to sample variation, but in general the higher levels of plasma lysine were seen in birds with the heavier body weights. A single level of supplementation was inadequate to determine the next limiting amino acid in these diets. In an investigation of the use of chicken muscle meals as a reference supplementary protein various chicken muscle meals were compared to an isolated soy protein and methionine reference supplement. The meals were prepared by freeze drying either cooked or raw tissue. One meal was treated with antioxidant. Diets containing 8% protein from the protein supplement and 10% protein from the wheat basal diet supported as good growth as that obtained with a good quality commercial fishmeal when tested at the same level of supplementation. All the chicken meals and the fishmeal supported better growth than the ISP and methionine reference control. A few small trials to investigate the use of gut nitrogen levels for evaluating protein quality were carried out. Preliminary trials included the determination of the nitrogen recoverable after the administration of different test meals with different protein sources, carbohydrates and fiber. Results obtained after administering single test meals were not considered reliable. A method was used where by the intestinal contents were sampled one-half hour after several meals had been administered and the nitrogen fractionated into TCA soluble and insoluble portions. When the amount of recoverable nitrogen insoluble in TCA was taken as the criterion of quality, differences were demonstrated between a sample of good quality protein supplement and one of extremely poor quality. Less of the nitrogen recovered from birds fed a high percentage of fiber in the test meals was soluble in TCA than when the protein was fed with corn starch or glucose mono-hydrate. The amount of liquid in the slurry was found to affect the amount of nitrogen recoverable if several feedings were administered in a relatively short period of time. Once the biological method was established preliminary determinations of the amounts of recoverable free basic amino acids from the intestinal segments were carried out. Generally a greater number of micromoles of basic amino acid per segment were found in the jejunum than in the ileum. In some cases there was less of these amino acids present in the gut of birds fed protein with glucose monohydrate than from the gut of birds receiving other treatments but this may only have been due to the effect of the liquid in the slurry. It was recommended that pellets would be a more biologically accurate method to administer the test meals.
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