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PTSD and associated features as predictors of revictimization and perpetration with samples of adults abused during childhood Dietrich, Anne Marie

Abstract

Two-hundred and twenty-four participants who reported a history of child abuse trauma were recruited from the internet, clinical (community outpatient) and prison settings and completed a battery of assessment measures, including Briere's Child Maltreatment Interview Schedule (CMIS) (slightly modified), Detailed Assessment of Traumatic Stress (DAPS), Cognitive Distortion Scale (CDS), and Inventory of Altered Self Capacities (IASC); van der Kolk's Self Inventory of Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR); Nijenhuis's Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20); and a modification of the CMIS to assess for adult victimization experiences (Adult Victimization Survey or AVS; Dietrich, unpublished instrument). It was hypothesized that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Affect Dysregulation, and Problems with Interpersonal Relatedness would be associated with later revictimization experiences during adulthood with this sample, and that disturbances in ability to regulate self capacities and other complex posttraumatic sequelae would be associated with perpetration of physical or sexual violence during adulthood. Data were analyzed for 207 individuals who reported childhood maltreatment per the CMIS. Results provide partial support for the hypotheses. Women were significantly more likely to report revictimization, and male inmates were significantly more likely to perpetrate against others. Whereas PTSD and Somatoform Dissociation are the strongest dynamic predictors of any sexual or physical revictimization, Impaired Self Capacities are more often associated with revictimization by intimate partners in particular. Trauma-specific dissociation was associated with a decreased risk of revictimization, whereas peritraumatic and trait dissociation did not enter predictive models. Posttraumatic sequelae were not associated with increased risk of physical perpetration with these samples; however, IASC scores were associated with an increased risk of sexual perpetration and victim-based cognitive distortions were associated with decreased odds of sexual violence. These findings provide partial support for the Complex PTSD (Herman, 1992a) construct. Results are discussed in terms of implications for treatment, further study, and classification. Limitations are noted.

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