UBC Theses and Dissertations
The implementation of spatial planning policies in Indonesia : a case study of Puncak, West Java Djoekardi, Arie Djunardi
This thesis examines institutional arrangements and government administration in the implementation of spatial planning policies in Indonesia. A case study approach is taken in examining the government initiatives to deal with environmental problems in the Puncak region. The natural landscape of the Puncak area attracts urban inhabitants to visit the area for recreation and to develop holiday homes and recreation-related facilities. The function of this area as a water source for Metropolitan Jakarta in turn is threatened by an increase in the amount of hard surface resulting from the development of man-made structures. These environmental problems became the focus of the national administration's attention directed by Presidential Regulation Number 13 of 1963, Presidential Decree Number 48 of 1983, and Presidential Decree Number 79 of 1985. In Indonesia, there are three levels of government: national, provincial, and district and municipal. As a consequence of being a unitary state, the supreme authority is held by the national government. The relationship between the national government and the regional government (e.g. province, district, municipality) is in accordance with the principles of deconcentration and decentralization. These principles affect the preparation and implementation of both development schemes and spatial plans. The National Development Planning Board prepares the Five-Year Development Plans while the Directorate of City and Regional Planning of the Department of Public Works prepares spatial plans. In order to execute sectoral and regional programs and projects indicated in a development plan, it is elaborated in annual operational plans. As with the operational plans, spatial plans use the development plan as their main reference. The involvement of the national and regional government agencies in tackling environmental problems in Puncak resulted in three coordination teams: Consultation Forum and Working Team at the national level and Technical Assistance Team at the regional level. Although the initiative of spatial planning is exercised by the central coordination teams, the implementation of spatial plans is placed under the authority of the provincial and regional governments. There are two approaches to regulating the use of land. One of spatial planning is held by the Directorate of City and Regional Planning and the other one of land administration is held by the Agrarian Affairs agencies. The national administration adopted the concept of spatial planning as the basis of government policies for the management of Puncak. The conceptual framework within which an analysis of the institutional arrangements for implementation is undertaken consists of five aspects: (1) the involvement of the executing agencies in the process of planning and implementation, (2) follow-up administration, (3) pronouncements by a higher authority, (4) coordination of planning and implementation, and (5) an institutional mechanism for implementation. The thesis finds that spatial planning must take into account administrative realities in order to achieve implementation which rests outside the planning agency. The activities of the executing agencies in turn are determined by a number of institutional factors: their organizational mandates and objectives derived from statutes and regulations, directives from superior officials and perception of subordinate officials in carrying out organizational tasks, existing routines and procedures, and administrative resources and organizational capabilities. From the analysis of the institutional arrangements and activities for implementing spatial planning policies for the Puncak region, this thesis concludes that presidential decrees are the driving force that activates government agencies to carry out their activities. A lesson obtained from the case of Puncak is that implementation is likely to happen if spatial planning takes into account not only a technical concept but also the administration of implementation. In this regard, this thesis recommends the need to include an "administrative strategy" in a spatial plan and to provide technical assistance from the central agencies to their regional counterparts. The purpose of this strategy is to consider the organizational capability of the executing agencies. The function of both this strategy and technical assistance is to enhance the preparation of an implementation-oriented regional spatial plan.
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