UBC Theses and Dissertations
Different modes of vasopressor actions of angiotensin and non-selective or selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists Tabrizchi, Reza
Vasoconstriction can be initiated via the interaction of a number of chemicals with specific "receptive sites" known as the receptors. This thesis examines two distinctly different modes by which drugs initiate a contractile response, namely, (i) the interaction of angiotensin analogues with a heterogeneous population of angiotensin receptors in vascular smooth muscles, and (ii) the conditions whereby B-adrenoceptor antagonists interact with a-adrenoceptor antagonists thereby causing a pressor response. Conscious, unrestrained, instrumented-rats were used for the study. It has been suggested that angiotensin receptors in vascular and non-vascular tissues may not be of a homogeneous population. The first study examined whether a heterogeneous population of angiotensin receptors was responsible for increasing vascular tone. Dose-response curves were constructed for angiotensin II (ANG II) and des Asp¹ angiotensin II (ANG III) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP), an index of total body venous tone, in the presence or absence of [Sar¹, Ile⁸]ANG II. The i.v. infusion of ANG II or ANG III caused dose-dependent increases in MAP and MCFP. In the presence of [Sar¹, Ile⁸]ANG II, the MAP and MCFP curves for ANG II were displaced to the right with pA₂ values of 9.2 and 8.4 for the arterioles and veins, respectively. However, the antagonist displaced dose-MCFP but not the dose-MAP response curve of ANG III. This suggests that ANG II and ANG III act on the same receptor in veins but not arterioles. This concept was further investigated by obtaining dose-MAP and dose-MCFP response curves for ANG II in the presence of ANG II or ANG III. Dose-MAP response curve to ANG II was displaced to the right in the presence of ANG II but not ANG III. Dose-MCFP response curve for ANG II was displaced to the right in the presence of ANG III but not ANG II. These results again suggest that ANG III acts on the same receptors as ANG II in the veins but not arterioles. In the last series of experiments two analogues of angiotensin III were compared as antagonists of the pressor response to ANG II and ANG III. In the presence of [Ile⁷]ANG III, the dose-MAP response curves for ANG II and ANG III were displaced to the right while in the presence of [Sar¹, Ile⁷]ANG III, the dose-MAP response curve for ANG III but not ANG II was displaced. This suggests that [Sar¹, Ile⁷]ANG III is a selective antagonist of ANG III in the arterioles. In summary, the results indicate that ANG III acts on a different sub-class of angiotensin receptors than ANG II in the arterioles but it may act as a partial agonist on the same type of receptors as ANG II in the venous bed. Thus, ANG II receptors in the arterioles appear to be different from those in veins. The administration of a non-selective β-antagonist propranolol into animals subjected to non-selective α-blockade has been observed to cause a paradoxical pressor response. This second study examines whether the paradoxical pressor response to β-antagonists was due to: (i) an interaction of a β-antagonist with an α-antagonist, (ii) blockade of vasodilator β₂-adrenoceptors or (iii) an increase in the release of catecholamines. Cumulative dose-response curves for propranolol, atenolol (β₁-antagonist) and ICI 118,551 (β₂-antagonist) were obtained in rats subjected to a continuous i.v. infusion of phentolamine, a non-selective α-antagonist. The administration of each of the β-antagonists caused a dose-dependent increase in MAP suggesting that the pressor response was not due to the blockade of vasodilator β₂-adrenoceptors. Another four groups of phentolamine-treated rats were given a single i.v. bolus injection of saline, propranolol, atenolol or ICI 118,551, and sampling of arterial blood for the determination of adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) concentration by HPLC/ec. Phentolamine caused a decrease in MAP and an increase in the plasma levels of A and NA. Subsequent injection of propranolol, atenolol and ICI 118,551 but not saline increased MAP. Neither saline nor any of the β-antagonists increased plasma NA or A levels suggesting that the pressor response was not associated with an acute increase in the release of catecholamines. It was also shown that prior injection of a β-antagonist partially antagonized the hypotensive effect of phentolamine suggesting that the pressor response was related to an interaction between α- and β-antagonists. It was further shown that a continuous infusion of either prazosin or rauwolseine caused a small but not significant decrease in MAP which was reversed by propranolol. Concurrent infusions of prazosin and rauwolscine caused a large decrease in MAP. Subsequent injection of propranolol caused a large pressor response. On the contrary, sodium nitroprusside or metha-choline each decreased MAP but the hypotension was not antagonized by propranolol. These results were consistent with the existence of a specific interaction between α- and β-antagonists. These experiments demonstrated that although the mechanisms involved in the initiation of a change in vascular tone did not share a common pathway, the final outcome shared a common denomination.
Item Citations and Data