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Phenology and biometeorology of pine false webworm (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) and its parasitoids in southern Ontario Lyons, Donald Barry


Models of phenology of the pine false webworm (PFW), Acantholyda erythrocephala and one of its parasitoids were developed from relationships between PFW spatial distribution and microweather. Development of subterranean stages of PFW was simulated from rate-summation models developed from nonlinear regression equations describing the relationship between temperature and rate of development of post-diapause prepupae and pupae. Defoliation caused by PFW increased the soil's exposure to solar radiation resulting in higher soil temperatures and a corresponding reduction in development time of subterranean stages. Predictability was enhanced slightly when the distribution of insects and temperature of the soil were incorporated into the model. Increasing the time increment used in the model from 1 to 4 h did not adversely affect its resolution. Mating and oviposition of PFW occur within a few hours of emerging from the soil and the majority of PFW eggs were mature and ready for deposition at female emergence. Potential fecundity of PFW was accurately predicted from adult wet and dry weights. The oviposition pattern of PFW was also described by a model based on temperature-dependent oviposition and ageing rate functions. The effect of larval web construction on the development of arboreal stages was investigated. When exposed to sunlight, the web traps heat and raises the body temperature of its inhabitants. A model was developed and used to examine the significance of the web microclimate for development of larvae. Relationships between web temperatures, canopy temperatures and standard meteorological methods were developed to permit using data from standard weather stations to drive the model. Larval development increased by 1.4 to 2.8 d when estimated web temperatures were incorporated into the model, while development was retarded by 2.6 to 4.0 d when canopy temperatures were used instead of meteorological screen temperatures. Two ichneumonid parasitoids, Sinophorus megalodontis and an undescribed species of Olesicampe were reared from eonymphs of PFW. Morphological methods for distinguishing the immature stages of the parasitoids were developed. A predictive model for subterranean development and adult longevity of Olesicampe sp. was used to describe and to compare phenological observations from emergence traps, Malaise traps and dissections of host larvae. The effectiveness of the parasitoids as natural control agents is discussed in relation to host synchrony, encapsulation, and multi- and superparasitism.

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