UBC Theses and Dissertations
Quality enhancement of canned late-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Collins, Lindley Simeon
In this study, a number of experiments were undertaken to investigate possible methods for effective improvement of the texture and flavour of canned late-run chum salmon. These included removal of the skin and bones from the fish, processing of the boneless-skinless steaks in retort pouches, brine treatment using two washes with an 8% salt solution for one hour each time, and a precanning treatment in which the boneless-skinless steaks were soaked in a solution of 10% tripolyphosphate and 2% brine for two minutes. Only fish of advanced sexual maturity were used. The canned salmon was steam processed at 120°C for 65 minutes in an FMC laboratory retort. This was based on a known commercial process for 307 x 115 cans. Heat penetration studies were carried out to design the process schedules for the pouched samples. It was found that the pouched product required 48% less thermal processing time than the canned product to achieve similar lethality. Sensory results showed that the removal of the skin and bones did not produce any significant improvement in the flavour and acceptability of the fish. There was no significant difference between the polyphosphate/brine samples and the untreated (control) samples for all attributes tested. The brine treatment also did not improve the texture of the samples. However, there was less detection of late-run flavour in the brine treated samples when compared to the control. Comments offered by panelists described these samples as having a salty/briny flavour. Pouched samples had a firmer, drier and more fibrous texture than the canned product. They also scored better in terms of late-run flavour. Acceptance of the fish however was only moderate. As a consequence, although this study demonstrated an improvement in the texture and flavour of the pouched late-run chum in comparison to the canned product, it was concluded that a more acceptable pouched product could probably be obtained by using late-run salmon of less advanced sexual maturity. Results of linear regression analysis showed that significant relationships were obtained between sensory firmness, fibrousness and chewiness and instrumental hardness, maximum slope and chewiness. However, none of the sensory parameters were well predicted by the instrumental results.
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