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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the effect of stress incontinence and bladder retraining on older women's perceived self-esteem Pierson, Wanda Jane


The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the existence of a relationship between perceptions of global self-esteem and stress incontinence episodes in a group of older women participating in a bladder retraining protocol. A convenience sample of fifteen older women was obtained. The participants constituted a group of well older women who ranged in age from 63 years to 82 years. All participants were living in the community and experiencing urinary incontinence. The University of British Columbia Model for Nursing was the conceptual framework which guided the focus of the study. The model views the individual as a behavioural system composed of nine interrelated and interdependent subsystems. This study focused on the interrelationship of the excretory and ego-valuative subsystems. The theory of self-efficacy, as outlined by Bandura provided the method by which this study was operationalized. Self-efficacy is the product of personal efficacy—an individual's judgement of the effectiveness of an executed course of action in achieving a desired outcome. The enactive, persuasive, and emotive modes of influence were utilized to provide efficacy information. Data were collected on three occasions using four instruments. The first instrument involved collection of selected demographic variables and was completed during the initial interview. A continence assessment and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale were completed during the initial and final interviews. An interview guide was used during a telephone contact. The telephone contact occurred four days following the first interview; the final interview occurred fourteen days after the first. The data were summarized, compared and described using measures of central tendency and frequency distributions. Paired t-tests were performed on selected variables to determine if there was a difference between pre and post intervention interview score. These tests demonstrated no significant differences in scores. Study findings indicated that at the end of the two week trial 53% of the women were able to identify a change in their voiding habits. Four of the participants (26.7%) stated that they were completely continent at the completion of the two week trial and four other participants (26.7%) indicated that $ some type of positive change had occurred. Three women (20%) identified a negative change in their continence status. Global self-esteem scores, as measured by the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, remained relatively stable during the two week trial period. Scores appeared to be unaffected by a change in continence status. This may be due to the many successful normalizing strategies subjects had developed to hide the evidence of the symptom of urinary incontinence.

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