UBC Theses and Dissertations
Matrix methods in queueing and dynamic programming Lamond, Bernard Fernand
We investigate some modern matrix methods for the solution of finite state stochastic models with an infinite time horizon. Markov and semi-Markov decision processes and finite queues in tandem with exponential service times are considered. The methods are based on the Drazin generalized inverse and use matrix decomposition. Unlike the related Jordan canonical form, the decompositions considered are numerically tractable and use real arithmetic when the original matrix has real entries. The spectral structure of the transition matrix of a Markov chain, deduced from non-negative matrix theory, provides a decomposition from which the limiting and deviation matrices are directly obtained. The matrix decomposition approach to the solution of Markov reward processes provides a new, simple derivation of the Laurent expansion of the resolvent. Many other basic results of dynamic programming are easily derived in a similar fashion and the extension to semi-Markov decision processes is straightforward. Further, numerical algorithms for matrix decomposition can be used efficiently in the policy iteration method, for evaluating the terms of the Laurent series. The problem of finding the stationary distribution of a system with two finite queues in tandem, when the service times have an exponential distribution, can also be expressed in matrix form. Two numerical methods, one iterative and one using matrix decomposition, are reviewed for computing the stationary probabilities. Job-local-balance is used to derive some bounds on the call congestion. A numerical investigation of the bounds is included. It suggests that the bounds are insensitive to the distribution of the service times.
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