UBC Theses and Dissertations
Paleohydrology of the Bella Coola River basin : an assessment of environmental reconstruction Desloges, Joseph R.
Recent geomorphic and hydrologic environments of a mid-latitude alpine basin are investigated under the integrative theme of paleohydrology. The aims of this research are: 1) to characterize the response of selected biological and geophysical elements to recent climatic change; 2) to determine the resolution and length of paleoenvironmental records in the study area; and 3) to ascertain the significance of observed and inferred environmental change over the Little Ice Age interval. Bella Coola River drains 5050 km² of glacierized mountains along the central coast of British Columbia. Biological elements examined on a basin-wide scale included: tree-growth in temperature and moisture-stressed environments, damage to trees in glacial and fluvial settings, pollen variations in a variety of sedimentary deposits and soil development. Geophysical elements include primarily glacio-lacustrine and floodplain sediments, glacier deposits and river channel morphology. A retrospective strategy was adopted by testing initially for the nature of relationships between synoptic climate, basin hydrology and element response during the period of instrument record (1900 AD to present). Inferences about pre-instrument environments were then made using the proxy data. Events of several types are characteristically mixed in a response record. Variations in Douglas and subalpine fir growth, glacio-lacustrine sedimentation rates, glacier fluctuations and shifting of the Bella Coola River reflect a combination of persistent and episodically extreme behavior. Glaciers appear to respond by advancing or retreating after departures in winter precipitation persistent for several years. Extreme events, particularly high-magnitude autumn floods, are not exclusively linked to a particular set of mean climatic departures. This makes inferences from proxy data such as floodplain deposits and flood-damaged vegetation difficult. Periods of increased flood frequency are supposed to relate to an increase in floodplain sedimentation. Except in very favorable circumstances, paleoenvironmental methods do not have the resolution promised. Climatic information recoverable from tree-ring data and glacio-lacustrine sediments is of considerably lower than annual resolution. Statistically based climate models using proxy data as independent variables produce low levels of explained variance. Proxy data sources in the basin were largely restricted to the last 300 to 4OO years or Little Ice Age interval. Most glaciers in the basin reached Little Ice Age maxima in the middle of the 19th century in response to below average temperatures and above average precipitation between approximately 1800 and 1855 AD. Tree-ring data and equilibrium line altitudes on glaciers indicate that precipitation was on average 25 to 30% greater than the 1951-1980 mean. Inferred below average temperatures in the early l8th century probably signaled the beginning of the Little Ice Age along the central coast; however, there was not a major response in glaciers until persistent positive departures in precipitation occurred. Recession of glaciers from Little Ice Age maxima was slowed by cooler and wetter conditions between I885 and 1900 AD. The persistence of warmer and drier conditions in the first half of the 20th century was exceptional in comparison with inferred climate of the last 330 years. Major floods in 1805/06, 1826, 1885 and 1896 correspond to intervals of increased precipitation.