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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Chemical composition and color attributes of Foch and deChaunac wines at various ages Scaman, Christine H.


Phenolic and color parameters of Marechal Foch and deChaunac wines of 1980 through 1983 vintages were analysed to determine variety and aging effects. Centroid Mapping Optimization together with the Simultaneous Factor Shift algorithm were used to determine the HPLC operating conditions which resolved the maximum number of phenolic components of whole red wine. A ternary gradient system using 1 % acetic acid : methanol : acetonitrile was changed from 100:0:0 to 4.8:82.8:12.4 in 130.6 minutes. A flow rate of 1.1 mL/min and a temperature of 32.9 °C were used. The HPLC system was used to separate at least 50 components from each injection of wine and of an ethyl acetate extract of wine. Foch wines were found to have more catechin and epicatechin than deChaunac wines. Peak areas for the ethyl acetate extracts common to all wines, and areas of peaks in the chromatograms of the whole wine, not present in the neutral extract, were used to form a data set for multivariate analyses. Strong linear correlations were found between tristimulus and spectrophotometry measurements for each wine. The color of Foch wines was more stable and contained more brown and yellow hues than deChaunac wines, as determined by tristimulus measurements. Total pigment levels of each wine and various fractions of the total, including ionized, un-ionized, polymeric and sulfur dioxide-bound anthocyanins, were determined spectro-photometrically. Total anthocyanin levels (un-ionized and ionized) in deChaunac wines decreased significantly with increasing age but remained constant in Foch wines. Tannin levels as determined by absorbance readings at 280 nm and by the Folin-Coicalteu reagent method were highly correlated. Foch had more flavonoid and less nonflavonoids than deChaunac wines. The different color parameters, pigment and tannin fractions, as well as titratable acidity, pH and individual organic acids were used as a second data set of analytical parameters for multivariate analyses. A third data set composed of the combination of the analytical data and the HPLC peak areas was also used. Differences between the four vintages of wines, the two varieties, and between old and young wines within varieties were found using stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA). Discrimination of variety differences was more successful (100% correct classification by the jackknife procedure) and required fewer variables than classification by age. Cluster analyses, performed with variables chosen by SDA, gave similar results to the SDA.

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