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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Insect growth inhibitors from asteraceous plant extracts Salloum, Gregory Stewart


Petrol and ethanolic extracts of six asteraceous weeds were added to artificial diet and screened for inhibition of larval growth on variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia (Hbn.). Petrol and ethanolic extracts of Artemisia tridentata and Chamomilla suaveolens and ethanolic extracts of Chrysothamnus nauseosus and Centaurea diffusa were highly inhibitory at five times the naturally occurring concentrations. The two C. suaveolens extracts and the ethanol extract of A. tridentata were active at the natural concentration (100%) and were further examined at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of this level. Inhibition of larval growth was directly related to concentration for each of the three extracts tested. EC₅₀'S (effective concentration to inhibit growth by 50% relative to controls) for the three extracts were 36-42% of the naturally occurring level in the plants. Nutritional indices were calculated for second instar P. saucia feeding on the active ethanolic A. tridentata extract and the petrol extract from C. suaveolens. The relative growth rate (RGR) of P. saucia larvae fed the ethanolic extract of A. tridentata in artificial diet was significantly lower than that in larvae fed diet with the petrol extract of C. suaveolens and larvae on control diet. Dietary utilization was significantly lower for larvae fed the A. tridentata extract. Results of a field trial indicated that a single treatment of A. tridentata extract at the equivalent of 0.2 g/ml could protect cabbage significantly better than the carrier solvent (30% aq ethanol) or distilled water as measured by a visual damage estimate. An insecticide standard, deltamethrin (17.9 µg/1 with 0.4% Superspred TM ), suppressed pest damage significantly better than the A. tridentata-extract treatment. A residual oviposition deterrency to Pieris rapae was found in the field results. Caged experiments in the laboratory confirmed the contact oviposition deterrency of the A. tridentata extract at 0.2 g/ml. Offspring of field-collected P. saucia larvae grew 2.5-fold heavier than larvae from the laboratory colony. However, diet with the A. tridentata extract inhibited both field-collected and laboratory reared saucia larvae equally when compared to their respective controls fed untreated diet. In summary, these results indicate the potential benefit of using specific unrefined plant extracts for growth inhibitors and oviposition deterrents against insect pests. The contribution of individual phytochemicals in the A. tridentata ethanolic extract to growth inhibition or oviposition deterrency is currently speculative.

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