UBC Theses and Dissertations
Early growth and development of Douglas-fir in relation to interspecific competition Brand, David George
An interlocking group of studies was carried out to address the concept of the free-to-grow seedling. This term is an attempt to define plantation establishment in a manner cognizant of early hazards from brush competition and other stresses. The studies were carried out on one- to five-year old Douglas-fir plantations on moist, rich sites in coastal British Columbia. Data were generated from field measurements and harvest sampling of the planted trees and their associated competing vegetation. On these productive sites, tree growth appears sensitive to interference from neighbouring brush species. An index implying competitive shading was derived and proved a useful measure of stress on the planted trees, particularly when measured as a relative production rate. Growth losses varied with the light environment at specific crown positions. Therefore, height growth was not affected by competition until the terminal leader was shaded. This allows height growth to remain independent of competition level until the tree is overtopped on these sites. The trees studied showed great ability to acclimate and survive relatively heavy shading by competing vegetation. After competition release treatment, trees were generally able to re-acclimate the current seasons growth to the increased light intensity. Growth following competition release was significantly improved by a chemical brush control treatment, while mechanical brushing resulted in little net change in competition levels after one year. The growth on these trees in the year following release from competition was also best measured as a relative production rate. The vegetation on untreated areas followed a strong successional trend during the period studied. The trend was a function of differences in height growth patterns between species modified by leaf area index. In general, woody species tend to succeed geophytes and microphanerophytes on these sites. A proposed free-to-grow definition in biological terms states that a tree must be free from competitive shading on the terminal leader and increasing in height relative to the competing vegetation. The free-to-grow status can be assessed by on a threshold value of the competition index and a predictive model for the comparative height increment of the tree and its competitors.