UBC Theses and Dissertations
Using land resource maps to define habitat for forest birds Scoullar, Kim Arthur
Forest birds located by their calls were related to mapping units of different land resource maps using a new method. The method involved computer programs which use mathematical descriptions of landform, forest canopy heights, and the nature of the bird's call to predict the area censused for each bird species from each listening station. Computer programs were also used to display locations made from each station, and to associate the locations and areas censused with different mapping units. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Parus rufeseens), Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri), Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), and Swainson's Thrush (hylocichla ustulata) were each related to both serai stages and vegetation taxonomic units; while Hairy Woodpecker (Dendrpcopus villosus), Common Flicker (Colaptes cafer), Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis), and Olive-sided Flycatcher (Nuttallornis borealis) were each related only to seral stages. Most species showed a consistent pattern of selection for mapping types with repeated census. Results for the Steller's Jay indicated some change in the use of seral stages between census periods. However, there was no clear trend in use over time, and the observed changes may include effects of flocking which would violate the statistical assumption that locations were independent. Each species had a unique pattern of selection of seral stages and of vegetation types. Species with similar patterns of selection were grouped to form five groups for seral stages and three groups for vegetation types (groups not mutually exclusive). Only Chestnut-backed Chickadee with Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Swainson's Thrush with Winter Wren, and Varied Thrush with Winter Wren were grouped together both for seral stages and for vegetation types. A more definite preference among seral stages than vegetation types was detected for most of the species studied. However, the Steller's Jay preferred only two of the vegetation types, while it used all seral stages somewhat equally. Most of the species studied preferred older seral stages. Common Flicker, Steller's Jay, and Olive-sided Flycatcher also used younger stages; while Swainson's Thrush selected for stages of medium age. Of the species related to vegetation types, only Chestnut-backed Chickadee did not show some preference for taxonomic units associated with high soil moisture. The preference was most pronounced for Steller's Jay, which concentrated its use on the two wettest types. The preference by Yellow-bellied Sapsucker may be explained by the older trees and snags that survived logging and fire in wet areas. All of the species also used many of the drier types. The data support the hypothesis that land resource maps can be used to predict the occurrence of wildlife. The results suggest that habitat for a wildlife species can be predicted over vast areas if the areas have been mapped, and if significant differences in the habitat value of different mapping units have been documented. The results indicate that the prediction can be improved by combining the predictions from two or more maps. The predicted area and spatial distribution of high-quality habitat can be compared with management policy objectives for the wildlife species. The predicted change in available habitat with planned forest management activities can provide criteria for habitat management. The same land resource maps may be used for many wildlife species, thereby facilitating multi-species habitat management.
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