UBC Theses and Dissertations
The paleoecology of a raised bog and associated deltaic sediments of the Fraser River Delta Hebda, Richard Joseph
In this study, three cores obtained from Burns Bog just south of the Fraser River in Delta, British Columbia, were analyzed palynologically. The paleoecology of the bog was reconstructed from the results of these analyses, together with data from vegetation studies of the bog, pollen rain and surface pollen spectrum investigations of selected wetland environments, as well as pollen tetrad and pollen productivity studies of bog ericads. The vegetation of Burns Bog was sampled by estimating species cover in selectively placed 100 m² quadrats. These field data were used in combination with an air photographic mosaic to map the eight vegetation types of the area. The palynomorph "fingerprints" of selected wetland environments, determined from pollen rain and surface pollen spectrum studies, were used to recognize analogous phases recorded in cores. Tetrad diameter and pollen productivity data for bog ericads assisted in recognizing ecologically significant ericad species that distinguished wet and dry raised bog phases. The study shows that Burns Bog has developed on Fraser River deltaic deposits which appeared above sea level just after 5,000 years BP. The seemingly synchronous emergence of the three core sites and a locality in adjacent Boundary Bay indicate a possible relative sea level decrease at this time. The silty emergent sediments are characterized by high percentages of Pinus and Picea pollen deposited by river water, and Cyperaceae pollen from local Scirpus and Carex stands. Following this emergence, sedges colonized the area, forming a sedge peat containing abundant Cyperaceae pollen. At the western end of the bog, a salt marsh developed (4,125 ± 110 BP) in response to a marine advance. This was possibly caused by a shut-off of fresh-brackish water from the Fraser River when the delta reached Point Roberts. In the eastern section of the bog, at the foot of Panorama Ridge, the sedge phase was only transient. A Myrica-Spiraea-Lysichitum swamp developed, remaining until very recently. After the sedge phase in the central part of the bog, Myrica and Spiraea thickets appeared; these were subsequently replaced by Sphagnum bog at 2,925 ± 85 years BP. In the western end of the bog, sedges were replaced by heaths, predominantly Ledum. At the foot of Panorama Ridge, Sphagnum arrived very recently. Pines seem to have invaded all sites at the 2.00 m level. The AP pollen spectrum shows that the regional upland vegetation remained unchanged throughout the history of Burns Bog until settlers cleared the forests. On the delta, however, fluctuations in alder pollen were probably associated with alder colonization of levees and swamps near the channels. Fire has played an important role in bog ecology. Natural Sphagnum accumulation processes are modified because fire destroys the vegetation of slightly higher, dry sites. Unburned wet depressions then become centers of peat accumulation. These sites eventually rise above the surrounding burned areas, which are converted to depressions. A model for raised bog development is proposed for the Fraser Lowland. The prograding delta-front is colonized by emergent aquatics growing on silts. This phase is followed by the advent of a sedge swamp perhaps containing some wetland grasses. Eventually, shrubs such as Myrica and Spiraea begin to appear, accompanied in the later stages by Ledum groenlandicum. Increased acidity of the substrate due to peat accumulation promotes Sphagnum, which eventually takes over and results in the establishment of raised bog conditions. This study, the first detailed outline of raised bog development in western North America, provides a framework for further investigations of bogs in the area.
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