UBC Theses and Dissertations
An analysis of morphological form-classes and form-class matrices in the contemporary Russian verbal system Byers, Robert H.
This thesis is concerned with one aspect of the problem of Russian verbal morphology: the basic patterns of different arrangements of the derivational affixes - prefixes and suffixes - of the stems of the Russian verb and the one or more stems that may be assigned to a particular arrangement. This thesis does not consider the desinential morphology of the verb, which may be neatly distinguished from the derivational. The arrangements of the patterns of the derivational affixes is determined by isolating all verb-stems with the same derivational affixes in the same relative position. To quote our examples in section 4.20, page 14 we have two verbs topta / potopta ņiza / naņiza vtaptivaj / vtopta naņizivaj / naņiza vitaptivaj / vitopta proņizivaj / proņiza with the following pattern of recurring forms (morphemes) -a / po- -a v- -ivaj / v- -a vi- -ivaj / vi- -a -a / na- -a pro- -ivaj / pro- -a na- -ivaj / na- -a and by subsuming the prefixes vi- v- pro- and na- as P- we may produce the following schema -a / P- -a P- -ivaj / P- -a for which the second line represents all prefixed forms that occur with the particular stem-base which has this derivational arrangement or matrix . The above schema has the following form in this thesis. -a / P- p-( / -a) All the stem-bases of a matrix are called the form-class of the stem-bases of that matrix. The form-classes are inserted into the matrix , morphological rules are applied, and the original stems are formed, plus those that may in theory exist according to the matrix and morphological rules. In this way we wish to demonstrate the different basic patterns of derivational morphology, and the differences of these patterns as shown by the different matrices. This second objective of this thesis is done by means of a matrix array. A matrix array is an arrangement of matrices according to certain regularities of structure. Form-Class Matrix 1 to Form-Class Matrix 47 is summarized on page 158. The remainder , Form-Glass Matrix 48 to Form-Class Matrix 52 are the complex matrices of the indeterminate | determinate stems and are found on pages 139 to 150. Besides the numbered matrices there are some special cases considered throughout the text. From an examination of the matrix array we may see that row FCM - 10 to FCM - 34 shows stems with varied aspectival imperfective structure , prefixed perfective or perfective in -nu or both. The lexical perfective is attested, but not the lexical imperfective. Row FCM - 1 to FCM - 37 shows the addition of iterative | non-iterative stems formed by -áj or -váj and the presence of lexical imperfective stems with the same structure as the iterative stems. Row FCM - 5 -to FCM - 36 (plus the unnumbered matrices of the row) show iteratives in -ivaj and lexical imperfectives with the same structure. The lexical perfective stems are identical in structure to the aspectival imperfectives and the stems in -nu also occur as lexical perfectives. Row FCM - 13 to FCM - 38 (and the unnumbered matrices) show iteratives in -ìvàj (and in one case -aj) and lexical imperf ectives in - ìvàj or one of –àj ̴ -vàj ̴ eváj. The Extended Matrices are excluded from the above mentioned for three main reasons. (1) FCM - 6, 7, 8, 14, and 22 have aspectival perfectives without an overt formant. (2) FCM - 27 and 32 have an additional lexical perfective in -i and to included these matrices with their above ones would intrude into the general pattern of the matrix array. (3) FCM - 33 , with formants in -a(j) shows characteristics of two matrices and is entered beneath them. Forms is -a(j) are rathered unsettled in usage in modern Russian, to judge by conflicting remarks in the literature. FCM - 39, 40, and 41 examines stems with the formants -aj / -i and FCM - 42, 43, 44, 45, and 46 are concerned with verbs of dual aspect , both imperfective and perfective, and with verbs formed from -ova- ̴ -uj. The form-class matrices for the indeterminate | determinate defy easy characterization, but their complications are in 'in terms of’ the other matrices. If we excluded certain specialized cases we may say that the derivational morphology of the Russian verb may be considered under five very general classes. (1) Stems with various aspectival imperfective structure, with prefixed perfectives, or perfectives in -nu, or in both. The iterative and lexical aspectival stems are formed by -áj ~ -váj ~ -V-váj or - ìvàj or both - áj ~ -váj ~ -V-váj and – ìvàj. (2) Stems with aspectival perfectives without formant and with prefixed imperfectives in - ìvàj, - áj or váj as stated for the particular case. (3) Stems with lexial perfective forms in -i in addition to -V and -nu or - áj and -nu. (4) Stems with the formant -a(j) , i.e. both -a and -aj appear as stem formants. (5) Stems with the formant pair -a / -i (6) Stems with dual aspect and stems in -ova- ~ -uj- (7) Indeterminate l determinate stems