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Mixed infections with cucumber necrosis virus and tobacco necrosis virus Pekkala, David H.

Abstract

Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) interfered with cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) replication in mixed infections. TNV inhibited both the initiation of CNV infections and subsequent CNV multiplication. Evidence of interference was found in qualitative evaluations of symptoms on a wide host range and by quantitative evaluations (lesion counts and incidence of systemic symptoms) on cucumber, cowpea, and bean. Fresh weight measurements similarly indicated antagonism in mixed infections. Some evidence of CNV interfering with TNV replication was found, in the form of a reduction in the occurrence of systemic symptoms. Photometric scanning of sucrose density gradient columns after centrifugation revealed that in mixed infections CNV reached only half the concentration attained in single infections while TNV was unaffected or even very slightly increased in concentration. This interference continued even when high temperatures greatly limited TNV replication. Only at 3° C, where its replication was barely detectable, did TNV have no effect on the CNV concentration attained. CNV did not significantly aid TNV replication at any temperature. In serial passage of mixed infections TNV quickly gained in concentration relative to CNV. Although CNV and TNV symptoms could not readily be distinguished from one another on most hosts, Phaseolus vulgaris var. Topcrop kept at 23 C and Chenopodium capitaturn kept at 18 C were established as reliable indicators of CNV and TNV respectively. One preparation from doubly infected tissue showed evidence of possible phenotypic mixing based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and on reactions with antisera, although this could not be confirmed by infectivity tests. Through use of the antigen-antibody neutralization test, another virus preparation from doubly infected tissue gave evidence of possible genomic masking of TNV RNA in CNV coat protein. No evidence of possible genomic masking in the opposite direction was found.

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