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Effects of temperature on the growth and development of Pisum sativum L. cultivar Dark Skin Perfection Stanfield, Barrie

Abstract

Effects of day/night temperature regimes ranging from 45/40 to 90/75°F on growth and development of Dark Skin Perfection peas were studied in controlled-environment cabinets. Light intensity was about 1500 foot-candles and the photoperiod was 16 hours. Rate of plant development, in terms of nodes produced per day, increased steadily as the average temperature increased. Rate of stem elongation, however, was most rapid at 70/55°F; and plant height was greatest at 60/50°F. On a dry matter accumulation per day basis, vine growth decreased above and below a temperature optimum which shifted from 70/60 to 60/50°F in the course of plant development. Tillering was most prolific at the lower temperatures and was absent at 90°F. Pea yield decreased as temperature increased above 60/50°F, due mainly to a reduction in the number of pods per plant. The number of peas per pod was decreased by high day/high night-temperature treatments and by high day temperature treatments imposed prior to full bloom. The combination of high day and high night temperatures caused an increase in the number of nodes to the first flower, whereas number of nodes to the first flower was decreased at the very low temperatures. Percent dry matter of plants was markedly increased at 45/40°F.

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