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Superconducting qubits : survey and theoretical investigations for solid state quantum computing Gupta, Santosh Kumar

Abstract

Superconducting qubits have in recent years become a promising candidate for the implementation of a quantum computer due to their design flexibility, good protection from decohering elementary excitations, and availability of well developed fabrication and measurement techniques. Superconducting flux qubits, for which the effect of offset charge noise is reduced due to the fact that the Josephson energy dominates over the charging energy, correspond to one of the proposed means of designing a superconducting qubit. A nonlinear dispersive readout scheme of flux qubits involving a DC SQUID magnetometer that avoids the effects of on-chip dissipation can be readily implemented, yielding high contrast output for single qubit readout. Coupling schemes via nonlinear Josephson elements have also been realized. On the other hand, while the means of isolating superconducting qubits from external noise sources has been found, the mechanisms by which they undergo relaxation and decoherence due to intrinsic noise sources in the junctions themselves are not very well understood, and the question of how to deal with these noise sources remains unanswered in the general case. Other questions deal with the problem of experimentally observing entanglement in an array of coupled superconducting qubits, and finding the means by which the existence of entanglement in a typical laboratory setup may to some extent be verified by measurements on a global scale. Following a brief introductory review, we will first investigate the influence of a Two-Level Fluctuator on a DC SQUID driven by a finite current bias. Then we introduce a directly measurable signature of multiqubit entanglement for a large system of qubits and show that it is compatible to a recently introduced measure of global entanglement.

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