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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the measurement of mental well-being and its relationship with health status using data from the National Population Health Survey of Canada Richardson, Christopher Galliford

Abstract

This dissertation is centred on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the measurement of mental well-being (MWB) and its relationship with health status using longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The first manuscript contains the results of a study (n = 1782) examining the factor structure of a 6-item version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) included in the NPHS. Nested confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the items are best modeled as two correlated dimensions interpreted as a measure of self-competence and a measure of selfliking. The second manuscript contains the results of a study testing the age-based measurement invariance, temporal stability and moderating ability of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) using longitudinal data from the NPHS. Results of multi-group longitudinal factor analysis support the measurement invariance across age and stability over time, of the SOC for the following age groups: 19 to 25 years (n = 1257); 30 to 55 years (n = 5326); and 60 plus years (n = 2213). A series of regression models were employed to test the ability of sense of coherence (SOC) to moderate (i.e., buffer) the health impacts associated with the experience of a recent stressful life event using data from the 1998-1999 and 2000- 2001 NPHS. A significant moderating effect in the expected direction was found when predicting self-reported health (SRH). However, the moderating effect of SOC was not significant when predicting number of self-reported visits to a physician during the previous year. The last manuscript contains the results of an investigation (n — 4842) examining the extent to which socioeconomic status (income adequacy) predicts current SRH and future change in SRH in addition to tests of the hypothesis that MWB (i.e., self-esteem and SOC) mediates the relationship between current SES and SRH. The results of a latent growth model indicate that SES is positively related to SRH assessed at the same time, but not to the linear change in SRH over the subsequent 6 years. Both SOC and self-esteem appear to partially mediate the impact of SES on SRH.

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