UBC Theses and Dissertations
An integrated model of the development of process-induced deformation in autoclave processing of composite structures Johnston, Andrew A.
Manufacture of large composite structures presents a number of challenges, one of the most critical of which is prediction and control of process-induced deformation. Traditional empirical techniques for tooling and process cycle development are particularly unsuitable for large parts, especially when development costs and process variability are key issues. Thus, there is a critical need to supplement current techniques with a science-based manufacturing approach. In the present work, a two-dimensional finite element model for prediction of process-induced deformation has been developed. Integration of this model with analyses for heat transfer and resin cure and resin flow allows analysis of all major identified deformation sources. A 'virtual autoclave' concept is employed in which autoclave control algorithms and autoclave response are simulated to predict structure boundary conditions during processing. Characterization of a carbon fibre/epoxy composite is performed and models developed to describe material behaviour during processing. An examination of autoclave heat transfer is also performed and a model developed for the observed effect of pressure on heat transfer rates. Using these data as inputs, the process model is demonstrated through application to three case studies of varying complexity. In each, model predictions are compared to experimental results and the predicted sensitivity of processing outcomes to process parameter variation is examined. A good match between model predictions and experimental results was obtained in most cases. The developed model is expected to perform two complementary roles. First, the ability to analyse structures of practical size and complexity makes the model a potentially useful process-development tool for the industrial composites processor. Also, the integration of analyses for all major deformation sources allows examination of parameter interaction, potentially driving fundamental research into deformation mechanisms and the development of improved material behavioural models.