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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Use and functions of optional [To iu] in Japanese clausal noun modification Takahashi, Shino


This thesis focuses on the use and functions of the complementizer [to iu] as it pertains to Japanese clausal noun modification (CNM). [To iu] appears between a modifying clause and its head noun. Depending on the circumstances, [to iu]'s inclusion can be obligatory, optional, or even unacceptable. Following Kiparsky and Kiparsky (1970), Bolinger (1972, 1977), and Tomura (1985), the present study ypothesizes that [to iu], a function word, can have semantic characteristics and that its presence/absence influences the meaning of the sentence. This study also follows Maynard (1992, 1993), who claims that the presence of [to iu] functions to make the information given in the modifying clause foregrounded by one or more of its following three characteristics: (1) new information, (2) dramatic effect, or (3) a direct quote. The main goal of this thesis is to identify and to explain the semantic difference between CNM where the addressor deliberately includes optional [to iu] and CNM where [to iu] is not included. Analysis of the context where the CNM occurs proves indispensable in order to identify which feature(s) permits optional [to iu] to be present. Chapter One reviews previous studies which mainly investigate the structure within CNM. These researches analyze the distributional constraints according to the semantic characteristics of the head noun and the syntactic characteristics of the modifying clause. Presenting a few examples of problematic CNM, however, clarifies that clausal/sentence level analysis cannot thoroughly predict [to iu]'s presence/absence in CNM. When classifying Japanese CNM, this thesis employs Matsumoto's (1988a, b) trichotomy based on a semantic and a pragmatic framework: CH-, NH-, and CNH-type CNM. Following Maynard, I hypothesize in Chapter Two that the presence of [to iu] is optional in all NH-type CNM and shows analysis of the context is indispensable. By analyzing written data, Chapter Three re-examines the following two conditions in NH-/CNH-type CNM: the conditions which require [to iu] obligatorily in NH-type CNM and the conditions which do not accept it in CNH-type CNM. Most examples where NH-/CNH-type CNM require [to iu] obligatorily can be explained by Maynard's third distributional constraint, a direct quote. However, in the cases of CNM when the modality level of the modifying clause is two or below, [to iu]'s absence in NH-type CNM cannot always be explained by clausal/sentence level analysis. This thesis will particularly concentrate on contextual analysis of level one NH-type CNM. In Chapter Four, I will point out NH-type CNM which were formerly considered exceptions to the general rule can be explained by one or more of the three features proposed by Maynard. Chapter Five, the Conclusion, summarizes the issues investigated in this thesis and raises possible topics for further study.

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