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Women and employment in urban Vietnam : a case study of marketplace sellers in Ho Chi Minh City Giovannitti, Jennifer


Vietnam is currently in a volatile transition period. The country has been experiencing rapid economic growth and development since the introduction of its market-oriented renovation policies in 1986. The urban areas in Vietnam, which are absorbing migrants in increasing numbers, are under pressure to provide housing, urban services, and jobs. Combating high rates of unemployment is only one of the challenges facing Vietnam today. This paper is concerned with how Vietnam's economic renovation policies are influencing job opportunities for urban women. In particular, the problem addressed in this document pertains to small-scale business and micro-enterprise opportunities for women. Women working in urban marketplaces in Ho Chi Minh City were interviewed to collect information on their employment histories and personal profiles as self-employed people. Because they are working in the private sector during times of economic transition, women who are self-employed in Vietnam represent a creative and progressive group within the Vietnamese labor force. Furthermore, women marketplace sellers have geared their income generation to jobs outside the wage earning sector, where discrimination in hiring and pay is common. .Women in Vietnam are critical beneficiaries of employment and training programs because they face more difficulties in finding stable forms of employment than men. Conclusions drawn from this study find that small-scale business opportunities offer women a form of income generation that is obtainable to persons of all levels of education, ages, and personal background. Moreover, the income generated by marketplace sellers contributes significantly to urban households and is capable of withstanding turbulent economic. Declining health and education subsidies are affecting women and girls of school ages, which should be closely so that women do not lose ground in the labor force in years to come.

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