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Physical mechanisms of intercalation batteries McKinnon, W. Ross

Abstract

This thesis identifies and discusses physical mechanisms in intercalation batteries. The effects of interactions and ordering of intercalated atoms on the voltage behaviour of intercalation cells is described, largely in terms of the lattice gas model of intercalation. Particular emphasis is given to the mean field solutions of the lattice gas model, which are compared to more exact solutions for several cases. Two types of interaction between intercalated atoms are discussed, namely electronic and elastic interactions; it is found that both can be important in intercalation compounds. The kinetics of intercalation batteries is also discussed, with emphasis on overpotentials due to diffusion of the intercalated atoms in the host lattice. Experimental studies of the voltage behaviour of three types of lithium intercalation cells, Li[sub=x]TiS₂, Li[sub=x]MoO₂, and Li[sub=x]MoS₂, are presented, which illustrate the variety of voltage behaviour found in intercalation cells.

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