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Stresses in heavy section electroslag joining Ivo, Paulo Silveira

Abstract

A study of the thermal stresses resulting in the Electroslag Joining Process as applied to heavy gauge forgings has been undertaken, since a survey of published reports on the process indicates that although solidification cracking ought to be a problem, apparently it is not routinely observed. Welding conditions which are known to produce solidification cracks in Electroslag Welding with wire electrodes were reported to make crack-free welds using ESJ plate electrodes. This study reports work on the thermal and stress fields developed during ESJ of 150 mm thick A36 steel plates. Conditions predicted by previous workers to form cracks with wire electrodes were established and found not to form cracks with plate electrodes. Measurements of stress and temperature during welding were made and found to agree well with a simple numerical model of the process. It is concluded that the thermal field of ESJ is sufficiently different to ESW that it can relax the stress field developed, even in a fully-constrained joint, to the point at which solidification cracking is no longer observed.

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