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The influence of distinct coaching styles on personality and sportsmanship attitudes of elementary age girls playing competitive basketball Miscisco, Daniel Robert

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different coaching styles on elementary school age girls, who were involved in a competitive basketball program. The study was concerned with effects of athletics and coaching styles upon the emotional, personality, and character development of girls. A comparison of girls who were not involved in competitive athletics with those who were was also undertaken. The sample included thirty-two participants and fourteen non-participants. The groups studied consisted of Grade VII girls attending Catholic elementary schools, in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. The thirty-two participants were divided into three selected groups. Group I girls were exposed to a non-aggressive, "easy-going" coach for a period of approximately 3-1/2 months. Group III girls were exposed to an aggressive and autocratic coach, while Group II girls were exposed to a coach who fell between these two extremes. A control group of non-participants was selected from each school. This study was designed to investigate hypotheses based on the following five problems: I. changes in personality characteristics of participants as elicited by different coaching styles, II. changes in sportsmanship attitudes of participants as elicited by different coaching styles, III. changes in the self-concept of participants as elicited by different coaching styles, I.V. differences in attitude of the players toward their coach as elicited by respective coaching styles, V. differences in sportsmanship and personality between participants and non-participants. A 3 X 2 multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the fourteen personality variables as well as the two attitude variables to test hypotheses I, II, III and IV. Hypothesis V was tested by a 2 X 2 multivariate analysis of variance on the same dependent variables with the exception of attitude toward the coach, to test the differences between the changes elicited in the participants (from all schools) and the non-participants (also from all schools). The empirical findings were not in agreement with the predicted hypotheses. The differences among the three coaching styles, in the changes elicited in personality characteristics including self-concept and sportsmanship attitudes were found to be non-significant, at the .05 level. It was also predicted that there would be differences among the three coaching styles in the attitude of the players toward their coach. The differences in the attitude of the players was found to be non-significant at the .05 level. Finally, the differences between the participants and non-participants in personality and sportsmanship attitudes were once again non-significant at the .05 level.

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